Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Search results for: S. Vidya

21 Lecture Video Indexing and Retrieval Using Topic Keywords

Authors: B. J. Sandesh, Saurabha Jirgi, S. Vidya, Prakash Eljer, Gowri Srinivasa

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a framework to help users to search and retrieve the portions in the lecture video of their interest. This is achieved by temporally segmenting and indexing the lecture video using the topic keywords. We use transcribed text from the video and documents relevant to the video topic extracted from the web for this purpose. The keywords for indexing are found by applying the non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) topic modeling techniques on the web documents. Our proposed technique first creates indices on the transcribed documents using the topic keywords, and these are mapped to the video to find the start and end time of the portions of the video for a particular topic. This time information is stored in the index table along with the topic keyword which is used to retrieve the specific portions of the video for the query provided by the users.

Keywords: video indexing and retrieval, lecture videos, content based video search, multimodal indexing

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20 Optical and Mechanical Characterization of Severe Plastically Deformed Copper Alloy Processed by Constrained Groove Pressing

Authors: Jaya Prasad Vanam, Vinay Anurag P, Vidya Sravya N S, Kishore Babu Nagamothu

Abstract:

Constrained Groove Pressing (CGP) is one of the severe plastic deformation technique (SPD) by which we can process Ultra Fine Grained (UFG)/plane metallic materials. This paper discusses the effects of CGP on Cu-Zn alloy specimen at room temperature. A comprehensive study is made on the structural and mechanical properties of Brass specimen before and after Constrained grooves Pressing. Entire process is simulated in AFDEX CAE Software. It is found that most of the properties are superior with respect to brass samples such as yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, hardness, strain rate, etc., and they are found to be better for the CGP processed specimen. The results are discussed with respective graphs.

Keywords: constrained groove pressing, AFDEX, ultra fine grained materials, severe plastic deformation technique

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19 Formulation and Evaluation of Colon-Specific Drug Delivery System of Zaltoprofen

Authors: Surajj Sarode, G. P. Vadnere, G. Vidya Sagar

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Compression coating is one of the strategies for delivering drug to the colon based on Gastrointestinal PH and transit time concept. The main aim of these formulations to develop rapidly disintegrating Zaltoprofen core tablets compression-coated with a mixture of time-dependent hydrophilic swellable polymer HPMC K 15 and PH responsive soluble polymer Chitosan and Guar gum in different ratios. The effect of the proportion of HPMC, Chitosan and Guar gum in the coat on premature drug release in upper part (Stomach and small intestine) of GIT and the amount of drug release in colon target area was studied. The formulations are carried out by using Direct Compression method. Sodium starch Glycolate used for rapid disintegration. FTIR used for Drug-Polymer Interaction studies. The prepared tablets were evaluated for hardness, thickness, friability, in-vitro disintegration, in-Vitro dissolution and in-vitro kinetic study.

Keywords: zaltoprofen, chitosan, formulation, drug delivery

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18 Design and Development of Sustained Release Floating Tablet of Stavudine

Authors: Surajj Sarode, G. Vidya Sagar, G. P. Vadnere

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The purpose of the present study was to prolong the gastric residence time of Stavudine by developing gastric floating drug delivery system (GFDDS). Moreover, to study influence of different polymers on its release rate using gas-forming agents, like sodium bicarbonate, citric acid. Floating tablets were prepared by wet granulation method using PVP K-30 as a binder and the other polymers include Pullulan Gum, HPMC K100M, six different formulations with the varying concentrations of polymers were prepared and the tablets were evaluated in terms of their pre-compression parameters like bulk density, tapped density, Haunsner ratio, angle of repose, compressibility index, post compression physical characteristics, in vitro release, buoyancy, floating lag time (FLT), total floating time (TFT) and swelling index. All the formulations showed good floating lag time i.e. less than 3 mins. The batch containing combination of Pullulan Gum and HPMC 100M (i.e. F-6) showed total floating lag time more than 12 h., the highest swelling index among all the prepared batches. The drug release was found to follow zero order kinetics.

Keywords: Suavudine, floating, total floating time (TFT), gastric residence

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17 A Self-Coexistence Strategy for Spectrum Allocation Using Selfish and Unselfish Game Models in Cognitive Radio Networks

Authors: Noel Jeygar Robert, V. K.Vidya

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Cognitive radio is a software-defined radio technology that allows cognitive users to operate on the vacant bands of spectrum allocated to licensed users. Cognitive radio plays a vital role in the efficient utilization of wireless radio spectrum available between cognitive users and licensed users without making any interference to licensed users. The spectrum allocation followed by spectrum sharing is done in a fashion where a cognitive user has to wait until spectrum holes are identified and allocated when the licensed user moves out of his own allocated spectrum. In this paper, we propose a self –coexistence strategy using bargaining and Cournot game model for achieving spectrum allocation in cognitive radio networks. The game-theoretic model analyses the behaviour of cognitive users in both cooperative and non-cooperative scenarios and provides an equilibrium level of spectrum allocation. Game-theoretic models such as bargaining game model and Cournot game model produce a balanced distribution of spectrum resources and energy consumption. Simulation results show that both game theories achieve better performance compared to other popular techniques

Keywords: cognitive radio, game theory, bargaining game, Cournot game

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16 Avifaunal Diversity in the Mallathahalli Lake of Bangalore Urban District, Karnataka, India

Authors: Vidya Padmakumar, N. C. Tharavathy

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The study was conducted from July 2015 to July 2017 to determine and understand the occurrence, frequency and diversity of avifauna in the Mallathahalli Lake of Bangalore Urban district. During the study period, 46 species of both terrestrial, as well as, aquatic birds belonging to 30 families were identified out of which 9 families were aquatic birds and 21 families were terrestrial birds. There were 4 species of migratory birds out of 46, showing diurnal migration. There was a significant reduce in the number of bird species both terrestrial and aquatic during the summer season and also varied greatly during winters and monsoon. Of the total 24 species of aquatic birds, Fulica atra and Tachybaptus ruficolis were the most common with 100% frequency and the least frequent species with 3.02% frequency was identified as Threskiornis melanocephalus. Among the 22 species of terrestrial birds, Acridotheres tristis had a frequency of 89% and the least frequent was Pycnonotus cafer (4.45%). The most commonly encountered bird species were from the families- Anatidae, Podicipedidae, Ardeidae, Phalacrocoracidae, Rallidae, Accipitridae, Scolopacidae, Charadridae, Laridae, Meropidae, Hirudinidae. All the birds surviving around the area are dependent on the wetland and crop vegetation surrounding the lake, which are deteriorating due to anthropogenic interventions and urbanization which are rising to its peak gradually causing the decline in the avifaunal diversity.

Keywords: Avifaunal diversity, Mallathahalli lake, seasonal migration, urbanization

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15 An Audit on Optimum Utilisation of Preoperative Clinic

Authors: Vidya Iyer, Suresh Babu Loganathan, Yuan Hwa Lee, Kwong Fah Koh

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Introduction: It has been recommended that every patient undergoes careful preoperative evaluation in a preoperative clinic to improve theatre utilization, reduce bed occupancy and avoid unnecessary cancellation due to inadequate optimisation, communication and administrative errors. It also gives an opportunity to counsel patients regarding different aspects of anaesthesia. Methodology: A retrospective audit of all the patients seen in preoperative assessment clinic, referral letters of all the patients postponed / referred to other sub specialities in the perioperative period from June 2012 - June 2013 was done. In our clinic, we retrieved patient records who were awaiting surgery pending clearance by other sub specialities. Those patients, who could continue with their scheduled date of surgery after having been referred, were not included in the file. We also studied details of same day cancellations from the data base, during the same study period. The reasons for cancellation were examined and defined as avoidable and unavoidable. Results: Less than 0.5% was postponed from the scheduled day of surgery. Less than 0.5% was cancelled on the day of surgery. Conclusions: Patients who undergo pre anaesthetic evaluation in a well-established clinic results in adequate preoperative patient optimisation, avoids unnecessary preoperative admission, efficient theatre utilisation and greater patient satisfaction. The benefits are the result of guidelines and timely update of them which are used by the junior doctors and trainees who run the clinic and a dedicated specialist to supervise them.

Keywords: preoperative assessment, clinic, referrals, cancellation

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14 Influence of Shift Work on Fasting Blood Sugar in Hospital Workers

Authors: Sheila R. Pai, N. K. Subbalakshmi, C. Vidya

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Background: Accumulating evidence from prospective studies suggests an increased risk of type 2 diabetes associated with sleep deprivation and sleep disorders. Shift work by disrupting the circadian rhythm, could possibly cause metabolic disturbances. Objective: To investigate the influence of shift work on fasting blood glucose in hospital workers population. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study including 90 night shift workers (study group) and 90 day workers (controls) drawn from paramedical personnel. Night shift work was on a forward rotation basis, with an average of one night shift every 4 weeks. Each night shift rotation was for a period of 7 days, with a total of 8 hours of shift work per night. In the entire subjects body mass index (BMI) and fasting blood sugar (FBS) was measured. Statistical analysis included unpaired t test, Mann-Whitney ‘U’ test and Chi-square test. P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Result: The study and control groups were comparable with regard to age, sex distribution and duration of employment. FBS was higher in study group compared to controls (p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in BMI between control and study group. Conclusion: Shift work may adversely influence glucose metabolism.

Keywords: shift work, fasting blood sugar, sleep disturbances, diabetes

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13 Identification of High-Rise Buildings Using Object Based Classification and Shadow Extraction Techniques

Authors: Subham Kharel, Sudha Ravindranath, A. Vidya, B. Chandrasekaran, K. Ganesha Raj, T. Shesadri

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Digitization of urban features is a tedious and time-consuming process when done manually. In addition to this problem, Indian cities have complex habitat patterns and convoluted clustering patterns, which make it even more difficult to map features. This paper makes an attempt to classify urban objects in the satellite image using object-oriented classification techniques in which various classes such as vegetation, water bodies, buildings, and shadows adjacent to the buildings were mapped semi-automatically. Building layer obtained as a result of object-oriented classification along with already available building layers was used. The main focus, however, lay in the extraction of high-rise buildings using spatial technology, digital image processing, and modeling, which would otherwise be a very difficult task to carry out manually. Results indicated a considerable rise in the total number of buildings in the city. High-rise buildings were successfully mapped using satellite imagery, spatial technology along with logical reasoning and mathematical considerations. The results clearly depict the ability of Remote Sensing and GIS to solve complex problems in urban scenarios like studying urban sprawl and identification of more complex features in an urban area like high-rise buildings and multi-dwelling units. Object-Oriented Technique has been proven to be effective and has yielded an overall efficiency of 80 percent in the classification of high-rise buildings.

Keywords: object oriented classification, shadow extraction, high-rise buildings, satellite imagery, spatial technology

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12 Segregation of Domestic Solid Waste: An Evidence of Households’ Knowledge, Attitude, Behavior, and Challenges from Manipal, India

Authors: Vidya Pratap, Seena Biju, A. Keshavdev

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The ever-increasing quantity and variety of domestic solid waste pose a major challenge to both households as well as to municipal authorities. In keeping with the Indian Prime Minister’s mission of Swachh Bharat (Clean India), the local municipal administration distributed 2 buckets to each household in a residential colony in Manipal (an educational town in southern India). Households were instructed to segregate their waste into wet and dry waste and keep these buckets at their gate for daily collection. This paper captures the knowledge, attitude, and behavior of 145 households along with the challenges they face in segregating their wastes. Survey representatives self-administered a questionnaire based on 107 variables that gathered demographic details, attitude and behavior constructs, knowledge about waste segregation and method of disposal for organic, recyclable and hazardous wastes. The study used descriptive tools to explore the data. While 95% of the respondents preferred good segregation practices, only 86% of them exhibited such behavior. 88% of the families observed had members who were either graduates or post-graduates whereas only 37% of the families had women who were working. In both attitude and behavior, 63% of the households did not have working women. Also, among those who practiced segregation, 7% were observed to not practice segregation in spite of the lady member being at home (The authors of this study in no way intend to name women as responsible for waste segregation at home; this thought is based on the fact that while in conversation with households, all respondents opined that women lead this activity). The findings of the study are intended to add value to the existing perceptions of the municipality regarding citizen behavior towards policy implementation/improvement. India as a country faces roadblocks at many levels of policy implementation. The findings of this study are meant to contribute/clarify about the Clean India drive.

Keywords: attitude, behavior, knowledge, segregation of domestic waste

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11 Age Estimation from Teeth among North Indian Population: Comparison and Reliability of Qualitative and Quantitative Methods

Authors: Jasbir Arora, Indu Talwar, Daisy Sahni, Vidya Rattan

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Introduction: Age estimation is a crucial step to build the identity of a person, both in case of deceased and alive. In adults, age can be estimated on the basis of six regressive (Attrition, Secondary dentine, Dentine transparency, Root resorption, Cementum apposition and Periodontal Disease) changes in teeth qualitatively using scoring system and quantitatively by micrometric method. The present research was designed to establish the reliability of qualitative (method 1) and quantitative (method 2) of age estimation among North Indians and to compare the efficacy of these two methods. Method: 250 single-rooted extracted teeth (18-75 yrs.) were collected from Department of Oral Health Sciences, PGIMER, Chandigarh. Before extraction, periodontal score of each tooth was noted. Labiolingual sections were prepared and examined under light microscope for regressive changes. Each parameter was scored using Gustafson’s 0-3 point score system (qualitative), and total score was calculated. For quantitative method, each regressive change was measured quantitatively in form of 18 micrometric parameters under microscope with the help of measuring eyepiece. Age was estimated using linear and multiple regression analysis in Gustafson’s method and Kedici’s method respectively. Estimated age was compared with actual age on the basis of absolute mean error. Results: In pooled data, by Gustafson’s method, significant correlation (r= 0.8) was observed between total score and actual age. Total score generated an absolute mean error of ±7.8 years. Whereas, for Kedici’s method, a value of correlation coefficient of r=0.5 (p<0.01) was observed between all the eighteen micrometric parameters and known age. Using multiple regression equation, age was estimated, and an absolute mean error of age was found to be ±12.18 years. Conclusion: Gustafson’s (qualitative) method was found to be a better predictor for age estimation among North Indians.

Keywords: forensic odontology, age estimation, North India, teeth

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10 Passive Seismic in Hydrogeological Prospecting: The Case Study from Hard Rock and Alluvium Plain

Authors: Prarabdh Tiwari, M. Vidya Sagar, K. Bhima Raju, Joy Choudhury, Subash Chandra, E. Nagaiah, Shakeel Ahmed

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Passive seismic, a wavefield interferometric imaging, low cost and rapid tool for subsurface investigation is used for various geotechnical purposes such as hydrocarbon exploration, seismic microzonation, etc. With the recent advancement, its application has also been extended to groundwater exploration by means of finding the bedrock depth. Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR)-National Geophysical Research Institute (NGRI) has experimented passive seismic studies along with electrical resistivity tomography for groundwater in hard rock (Choutuppal, Hyderabad). Passive Seismic with Electrical Resistivity (ERT) can give more clear 2-D subsurface image for Groundwater Exploration in Hard Rock area. Passive seismic data were collected using a Tromino, a three-component broadband seismometer, to measure background ambient noise and processed using GRILLA software. The passive seismic results are found corroborating with ERT (Electrical Resistivity Tomography) results. For data acquisition purpose, Tromino was kept over 30 locations consist recording of 20 minutes at each station. These location shows strong resonance frequency peak, suggesting good impedance contrast between different subsurface layers (ex. Mica rich Laminated layer, Weathered layer, granite, etc.) This paper presents signature of passive seismic for hard rock terrain. It has been found that passive seismic has potential application for formation characterization and can be used as an alternative tool for delineating litho-stratification in an urban condition where electrical and electromagnetic tools cannot be applied due to high cultural noise. In addition to its general application in combination with electrical and electromagnetic methods can improve the interpreted subsurface model.

Keywords: passive seismic, resonant frequency, Tromino, GRILLA

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9 Tale of Massive Distressed Migration from Rural to Urban Areas: A Study of Mumbai City

Authors: Vidya Yadav

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Migration is the demographic process that links rural to urban areas, generating or spurring the growth of cities. Evidence shows the role of the city as a production processes. It looks the city as a power of centre, and a centre of change. It has been observed that not only the professionals want to settle down in an urban area but rural labourers are also coming to cities for employment. These are the people who are compelled to migrate to metropolises because of lack of employment opportunities in their place of residence. However, the cities also fail to provide adequate employment because of limited job opportunity creation and capital-intensive industrialization. So these masses of incoming migrants are force to take up whatever employment absorption is available to them particularly in urban informal activities. Ultimately with this informal job they are compelled to stay in the slum areas, which is another form of deprived housing colonies. The paper seeks to examine the evidences of poverty induced migration from rural to urban areas (particularly in urban agglomeration). The present paper utilizes an abundant rich source of census migration data (D-Series) of 1991-2001. Result shows that Mumbai remain as the most attractive place to migrate. The migrants are mainly from the major states like Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Jharkhand, Odisha, and Rajasthan. Male dominated migration is related mostly for employment and females due to marriages. The picture of occupational absorption of migrants who moved for employment, cross classified with educational status. Result shows that illiterate males are primarily engaged in low grade production processing work. Illiterate’s females engaged in service sectors; but these are actually very low grade services in urban informal sectors in India like maid servants, domestic help, hawkers, vendors or vegetables sellers. Among the higher educational level, a small percentage of males and females got absorbed in professional or clerical work but the percentage has been increased in the period 1991-2001.

Keywords: informal, job, migration, urban

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8 Data Analysis for Taxonomy Prediction and Annotation of 16S rRNA Gene Sequences from Metagenome Data

Authors: Suchithra V., Shreedhanya, Kavya Menon, Vidya Niranjan

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Skin metagenomics has a wide range of applications with direct relevance to the health of the organism. It gives us insight to the diverse community of microorganisms (the microbiome) harbored on the skin. In the recent years, it has become increasingly apparent that the interaction between skin microbiome and the human body plays a prominent role in immune system development, cancer development, disease pathology, and many other biological implications. Next Generation Sequencing has led to faster and better understanding of environmental organisms and their mutual interactions. This project is studying the human skin microbiome of different individuals having varied skin conditions. Bacterial 16S rRNA data of skin microbiome is downloaded from SRA toolkit provided by NCBI to perform metagenomics analysis. Twelve samples are selected with two controls, and 3 different categories, i.e., sex (male/female), skin type (moist/intermittently moist/sebaceous) and occlusion (occluded/intermittently occluded/exposed). Quality of the data is increased using Cutadapt, and its analysis is done using FastQC. USearch, a tool used to analyze an NGS data, provides a suitable platform to obtain taxonomy classification and abundance of bacteria from the metagenome data. The statistical tool used for analyzing the USearch result is METAGENassist. The results revealed that the top three abundant organisms found were: Prevotella, Corynebacterium, and Anaerococcus. Prevotella is known to be an infectious bacterium found on wound, tooth cavity, etc. Corynebacterium and Anaerococcus are opportunist bacteria responsible for skin odor. This result infers that Prevotella thrives easily in sebaceous skin conditions. Therefore it is better to undergo intermittently occluded treatment such as applying ointments, creams, etc. to treat wound for sebaceous skin type. Exposing the wound should be avoided as it leads to an increase in Prevotella abundance. Moist skin type individuals can opt for occluded or intermittently occluded treatment as they have shown to decrease the abundance of bacteria during treatment.

Keywords: bacterial 16S rRNA , next generation sequencing, skin metagenomics, skin microbiome, taxonomy

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7 Youth and Employment: An Outlook on Challenges of Demographic Dividend

Authors: Vidya Yadav

Abstract:

India’s youth bulge is now sharpest at the critical 15-24 age group, even as its youngest, and oldest age groups begin to narrow. As the ‘single year, age data’ for the 2011 Census releases the data on the number of people at each year of age in the population. The data shows that India’s working age population (15-64 years) is now 63.4 percent of the total, as against just short of 60 percent in 2001. The numbers also show that the ‘dependency ratio’ the ratio of children (0-14) and the elderly (65 above) to those in the working age has shrunk further to 0.55. “Even as the western world is in ageing situation, these new numbers show that India’s population is still very young”. As the fertility falls faster in urban areas, rural India is younger than urban India; while 51.73 percent of rural Indians are under the age of 24 and 45.9 percent of urban Indians are under 24. The percentage of the population under the age of 24 has dropped, but many demographers say that it should not be interpreted as a sign of the youth bulge is shrinking. Rather it is because of “declining fertility, the number of infants and children reduces first, and this is what we see with the number of under age 24. Indeed the figure shows that the proportion of children in the 0-4 and 5-9 age groups has fallen in 2011 compared to 2001. For the first time, the percentage of children in the 10-14 age group has also fallen, as the effect of families reducing the number of children they have begins to be felt. The present paper key issue is to examine that “whether this growing youth bulge has the right skills for the workforce or not”. The study seeks to examine the youth population structure and employment distribution among them in India during 2001-2011 in different industrial category. It also tries to analyze the workforce participation rate as main and marginal workers both for male and female workers in rural and urban India by utilizing an abundant source of census data from 2001-2011. Result shows that an unconscionable number of adolescents are working when they should study. In rural areas, large numbers of youths are working as an agricultural labourer. Study shows that most of the youths working are in the 15-19 age groups. In fact, this is the age of entry into higher education, but due to economic compulsion forces them to take up jobs, killing their dreams of higher skills or education. Youths are primarily engaged in low paying irregular jobs which are clearly revealed by census data on marginal workers. That is those who get work for less than six months in a year. Large proportions of youths are involved in the cultivation and household industries works.

Keywords: main, marginal, youth, work

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6 Intellectual Capital as Resource Based Business Strategy

Authors: Vidya Nimkar Tayade

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Introduction: Intellectual capital of an organization is a key factor to success. Many companies invest a huge amount in their Research and development activities. Any innovation is helpful not only to that particular company but also to many other companies, industry and mankind as a whole. Companies undertake innovative changes for increasing their capital profitability and indirectly increase in pay packages of their employees. The quality of human capital can also improve due to such positive changes. Employees become more skilled and experienced due to such innovations and inventions. For increasing intangible capital, the author has referred to a couple of books and referred case studies to come to a conclusion. Different charts and tables are also referred to by the author. Case studies are more important because they are proven and established techniques. They enable students to apply theoretical concepts in real-world situations. It gives solutions to an open-ended problem with multiple potential solutions. There are three different strategies for undertaking intellectual capital increase. They are: Research push strategy/ Technology pushed approach, Market pull strategy/ approach and Open innovation strategy/approach. Research push strategy, In this strategy, research is undertaken and innovation is achieved on its own. After invention inventor company protects such invention and finds buyers for such invention. In this way, the invention is pushed into the market. In this method, research and development are undertaken first and the outcome of this research is commercialized. Market pull strategy, In this strategy, commercial opportunities are identified first and our research is concentrated in that particular area. For solving a particular problem, research is undertaken. It becomes easier to commercialize this type of invention. Because what is the problem is identified first and in that direction, research and development activities are carried on. Open invention strategy, In this type of research, more than one company enters into an agreement of research. The benefits of the outcome of this research will be shared by both companies. Internal and external ideas and technologies are involved. These ideas are coordinated and then they are commercialized. Due to globalization, people from the outside company are also invited to undertake research and development activities. Remuneration of employees of both the companies can increase and the benefit of commercialization of such invention is also shared by both the companies. Conclusion: In modern days, not only can tangible assets be commercialized, but also intangible assets can also be commercialized. The benefits of such an invention can be shared by more than one company. Competition can become more meaningful. Pay packages of employees can improve. It Is a need for time to adopt such strategies to benefit employees, competitors, stakeholders.

Keywords: innovation, protection, management, commercialization

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5 Practice of Social Innovation in School Education: A Study of Third Sector Organisations in India

Authors: Prakash Chittoor

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In the recent past, it is realised especially in third sector that employing social innovation is crucial for achieving viable and long lasting social transformation. In this context, education is one among many sectors that have opened up itself for such move where employing social innovation emerges as key for reaching out to the excluded sections who are often failed to get support from either policy or market interventions. In fact, education is being as a crucial factor for social development is well understood at both academic and policy level. In order to move forward to achieve better results, interventions from multiple sectors may be required as its reach cultivates capabilities and skill of the deprived in order to ensure both market and social participation in the long run. Despite state’s intervention, it is found that still millions of children are out of school due to lack of political will, lapses in policy implementation and neoliberal intervention of marketization. As a result, universalisation of elementary education became as an elusive goal to poor and marginalised sections where state obtain constant pressure by corporate sector to withdraw from education sector that led convince in providing quality education. At this juncture, the role of third sector organizations plays is quite remarkable. Especially, it has evolved as a key player in education sector to reach out to the poor and marginalised in the far-flung areas. These organisations work in resources constrain environment, yet, in order to achieve larger social impact they adopt various social innovations from time to time to reach out to the unreached. Their attempts not only limited to just approaching the unreached children but to retain them for long-time in the schooling system in order to ripe the results for their families and communities. There is a need to highlight various innovative ways adopted and practiced by the third sector organisations in India to achieve the elusive goal of universal access of primary education with quality. With this background, the paper primarily attempts to present an in-depth understanding about innovative practices employed by third sectors organisations like Isha Vidya through government schools adoption programme in India where it engages itself with government and build capabilities among the government teachers to promote state run schooling with quality and better infrastructure. Further, this paper assess whether such innovative attempts succeeded in to achieving universal quality education in the areas where it operates and draws implications for State policy.

Keywords: school education, third sector organisations, social innovation, market domination

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4 Challenging Clinical Scenario of Blood Stream Candida Infections – An Indian Experience

Authors: P. Uma Devi, S. Sujith, K. Rahul, T. S. Dipu, V. Anil Kumar , Vidya Menon

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Introduction: Candida is an important cause of bloodstream infections (BSIs), causing significant mortality and morbidity. The epidemiology of Candida infection is also changing, mainly in relation to the number of episodes caused by species Candida non-albicans. However, in India, the true burden of candidemia is not clear. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the clinical characteristics, species distribution, antifungal susceptibility and outcome of candidemia at our hospital. Methodology: Between January 2012 and April 2014, adult patients with at least one positive blood culture for Candida species were identified through the microbiology laboratory database (for each patient only the first episode of candidemia was recorded). Patient data was collected by retrospective chart review of clinical characteristics including demographic data, risk factors; species distribution, resistance to antifungals and survival. Results: A total of 165 episodes of Candida BSI were identified, with 115 episodes occurring in adult patients. Most of the episodes occurred in males (69.6%). Nearly 82.6% patients were between 41 to 80 years and majority of the patients were in the intensive care unit (65.2%) at the time of diagnosis. On admission, 26.1% and 18.3% patients had pneumonia and urinary tract infection, respectively. Majority of the candidemia episodes were found in the general medicine department (23.5%) followed by gastrointestinal surgery (13.9%) and medical oncology & haematology (13%). Risk factors identified were prior hospitalization within one year (83.5%), antibiotic therapy within the last one month (64.3%), indwelling urinary catheter (63.5%), central venous catheter use (59.1%), diabetes mellitus (53%), severe sepsis (45.2%), mechanical ventilation (43.5%) and surgery (36.5%). C. tropicalis (30.4%) was the leading cause of infection followed by C. parapsilosis (28.7%) and C. albicans (13%). Other non-albicans species isolated included C. haemulonii (7.8%), C. glabrata (7%), C. famata (4.3%) and C. krusei (1.7%). Antifungal susceptibility to fluconazole was 87.9% (C. parapsilosis), 100% (C. tropicalis) and 93.3% (C. albicans). Mortality was noted in 51 patients (44.3%). Early mortality (within 7 days) was noted in 32 patients while late mortality (between 7 and 30 days) was noted in 19 patients. Conclusion: In recent years, candidemia has been flourishing in critically ill patients. Comparison of data from our own hospital from 2005 shows a doubling of the incidence. Rapid changes in the rate of infection, potential risk factors, and emergence of non-albicans Candida demand continued surveillance of this serious BSI. High index of suspicion and sensitive diagnostics are essential to improve outcomes in resource limited settings with emergence of non-albicans Candida.

Keywords: antifungal susceptibility, candida albicans, candidemia, non-albicans candida

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3 Gap between Knowledge and Behaviour in Recycling Domestic Solid Waste: Evidence from Manipal, India

Authors: Vidya Pratap, Seena Biju, Keshavdev A.

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In the educational town of Manipal (located in southern India) households dispose their wastes without segregation. Mixed wastes (organic, inorganic and hazardous items) are collected either by private collectors or by the local municipal body in trucks and taken to dump yards. These collectors select certain recyclables from the collected trash and sell them to scrap merchants to earn some extra money. Rag pickers play a major role in picking up card board boxes, glass bottles and milk sachets from dump yards and public areas and scrap iron from construction sites for recycling. In keeping with the Indian Prime Minister’s mission of Swachh Bharat (A Clean India), the local municipal administration is taking efforts to ensure segregation of domestic waste at source. With this in mind, each household in a residential area in Manipal was given two buckets – for wet and dry wastes (wet waste referred to organic waste while dry waste included recyclable and hazardous items). A study was conducted in this locality covering a cluster of 145 households to assess the residents’ knowledge of recyclable, organic and hazardous items commonly disposed by households. Another objective of this research was to evaluate the extent to which the residents actually dispose their wastes appropriately. Questionnaires were self-administered to a member of each household with the assistance of individuals speaking the local language whenever needed. Respondents’ knowledge of whether an item was organic, inorganic or hazardous was captured through a questionnaire containing a list of 50 common items. Their behaviour was captured by asking how they disposed these items. Results show that more than 70% of respondents are aware that banana and orange peels, potato skin, egg shells and dried leaves are organic; similarly, more than 70% of them consider newspapers, notebook and printed paper are recyclable. Less than 65% of respondents are aware that plastic bags and covers and plastic bottles are recyclable. However, the results of the respondents’ recycling behaviour is less impressive. Fewer than 35% of respondents recycle card board boxes, milk sachets and glass bottles. Unfortunately, since plastic items like plastic bags and covers and plastic bottles are not accepted by scrap merchants, they are not recycled. This study shows that the local municipal authorities must find ways to recycle plastic into products, alternate fuel etc.

Keywords: behaviour, knowledge, plastic waste management, recyclables

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2 Looking at Women’s Status in India through Different Lenses: Evidence from Second Wave of IHDS Data

Authors: Vidya Yadav

Abstract:

In every society, males and females are expected to behave in certain ways, and in every culture, those expectation, values and norms are different and vary accordingly. Many of the inequalities between men and women are rooted in institutional structure such as in educational field, labour market, wages, decision-making power, access to services as well as in accessing the health and well-being care also. The marriage and kinship pattern shape both men’s and women’s lives. Earlier many studies have highlighted the gender disparities which vary tremendously between regions, social classes, and communities. This study will try to explore the prominent indicators to show the status of women and well-being condition in Indian society. Primarily this paper concern with firstly identification of indicators related to gender in each area like education, work status, mobility, women participation in public and private decision making, autonomy and domestic violence etc. And once the indicators are identified next task is to define them. The indicators which are selected here are for a comparison of women’s status across Indian states. Recent Indian Human Development Survey, 2011-12 has been procured to show the current situation of women. Result shows that in spite of rising levels of education and images of growing westernization in India, love marriages remain in rarity even among urban elite. In India marriage is universal, and most of the men and women marry at relatively young age. Even though the legal age of marriage is 18, but more than 60 percent are married before the legal age. Not surprisingly, but Bihar and Rajasthan are the states with earliest age at marriage. Most of them reported that they have very limited contact with their husband before marriages. Around 69 percent of women met their husbands on the day of the wedding or shortly before. In spite of decline in fertility, still childbearing remains essential to women’s lives. Mostly women aged 25 and older had at least one child. Women’s control over household resources, physical space and mobility is also limited. Indian women’s, mostly rely on men to purchase day to day necessities, as well as medicines, as well as other necessary items. This ultimately reduces the likelihood that women have cash in hand for such purchases. The story is quite different when it comes to have control over decision over purchasing household assets such as TVs or refrigerator, names on the bank account, and home ownership papers. However, the likelihood of ownership rises among urbanite educated women’s. Women’s still have to the cultural norms and the practice of purdah or ghunghat, familial control over women’s physical movement. Wife beating and domestic violence still remain pervasive, and beaten for minor transgression like going out without permission. Development of India cannot be realized without the very significant component of gender. Therefore detailed examinations of different indicators are required to understand, strategize, plan and formulate programmes.

Keywords: autonomy, empowerment, gender, violence

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1 Multimodal Biometric Cryptography Based Authentication in Cloud Environment to Enhance Information Security

Authors: D. Pugazhenthi, B. Sree Vidya

Abstract:

Cloud computing is one of the emerging technologies that enables end users to use the services of cloud on ‘pay per usage’ strategy. This technology grows in a fast pace and so is its security threat. One among the various services provided by cloud is storage. In this service, security plays a vital factor for both authenticating legitimate users and protection of information. This paper brings in efficient ways of authenticating users as well as securing information on the cloud. Initial phase proposed in this paper deals with an authentication technique using multi-factor and multi-dimensional authentication system with multi-level security. Unique identification and slow intrusive formulates an advanced reliability on user-behaviour based biometrics than conventional means of password authentication. By biometric systems, the accounts are accessed only by a legitimate user and not by a nonentity. The biometric templates employed here do not include single trait but multiple, viz., iris and finger prints. The coordinating stage of the authentication system functions on Ensemble Support Vector Machine (SVM) and optimization by assembling weights of base SVMs for SVM ensemble after individual SVM of ensemble is trained by the Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm (AFSA). Thus it helps in generating a user-specific secure cryptographic key of the multimodal biometric template by fusion process. Data security problem is averted and enhanced security architecture is proposed using encryption and decryption system with double key cryptography based on Fuzzy Neural Network (FNN) for data storing and retrieval in cloud computing . The proposing scheme aims to protect the records from hackers by arresting the breaking of cipher text to original text. This improves the authentication performance that the proposed double cryptographic key scheme is capable of providing better user authentication and better security which distinguish between the genuine and fake users. Thus, there are three important modules in this proposed work such as 1) Feature extraction, 2) Multimodal biometric template generation and 3) Cryptographic key generation. The extraction of the feature and texture properties from the respective fingerprint and iris images has been done initially. Finally, with the help of fuzzy neural network and symmetric cryptography algorithm, the technique of double key encryption technique has been developed. As the proposed approach is based on neural networks, it has the advantage of not being decrypted by the hacker even though the data were hacked already. The results prove that authentication process is optimal and stored information is secured.

Keywords: artificial fish swarm algorithm (AFSA), biometric authentication, decryption, encryption, fingerprint, fusion, fuzzy neural network (FNN), iris, multi-modal, support vector machine classification

Procedia PDF Downloads 161