Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 201

Search results for: multimodal indexing

201 Lecture Video Indexing and Retrieval Using Topic Keywords

Authors: B. J. Sandesh, Saurabha Jirgi, S. Vidya, Prakash Eljer, Gowri Srinivasa

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a framework to help users to search and retrieve the portions in the lecture video of their interest. This is achieved by temporally segmenting and indexing the lecture video using the topic keywords. We use transcribed text from the video and documents relevant to the video topic extracted from the web for this purpose. The keywords for indexing are found by applying the non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) topic modeling techniques on the web documents. Our proposed technique first creates indices on the transcribed documents using the topic keywords, and these are mapped to the video to find the start and end time of the portions of the video for a particular topic. This time information is stored in the index table along with the topic keyword which is used to retrieve the specific portions of the video for the query provided by the users.

Keywords: video indexing and retrieval, lecture videos, content based video search, multimodal indexing

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
200 How to Perform Proper Indexing?

Authors: Watheq Mansour, Waleed Bin Owais, Mohammad Basheer Kotit, Khaled Khan

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Efficient query processing is one of the utmost requisites in any business environment to satisfy consumer needs. This paper investigates the various types of indexing models, viz. primary, secondary, and multi-level. The investigation is done under the ambit of various types of queries to which each indexing model performs with efficacy. This study also discusses the inherent advantages and disadvantages of each indexing model and how indexing models can be chosen based on a particular environment. This paper also draws parallels between various indexing models and provides recommendations that would help a Database administrator to zero-in on a particular indexing model attributed to the needs and requirements of the production environment. In addition, to satisfy industry and consumer needs attributed to the colossal data generation nowadays, this study has proposed two novel indexing techniques that can be used to index highly unstructured and structured Big Data with efficacy. The study also briefly discusses some best practices that the industry should follow in order to choose an indexing model that is apposite to their prerequisites and requirements.

Keywords: indexing, hashing, latent semantic indexing, B-tree

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
199 Enhancement of Indexing Model for Heterogeneous Multimedia Documents: User Profile Based Approach

Authors: Aicha Aggoune, Abdelkrim Bouramoul, Mohamed Khiereddine Kholladi

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Recent research shows that user profile as important element can improve heterogeneous information retrieval with its content. In this context, we present our indexing model for heterogeneous multimedia documents. This model is based on the combination of user profile to the indexing process. The general idea of our proposal is to operate the common concepts between the representation of a document and the definition of a user through his profile. These two elements will be added as additional indexing entities to enrich the heterogeneous corpus documents indexes. We have developed IRONTO domain ontology allowing annotation of documents. We will present also the developed tool validating the proposed model.

Keywords: indexing model, user profile, multimedia document, heterogeneous of sources, ontology

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198 A Comparative Study on Multimodal Metaphors in Public Service Advertising of China and Germany

Authors: Xing Lyu

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Multimodal metaphor promotes the further development and refinement of multimodal discourse study. Cultural aspects matter a lot not only in creating but also in comprehending multimodal metaphor. By analyzing the target domain and the source domain in 10 public service advertisements of China and Germany about environmental protection, this paper compares the source when the target is alike in each multimodal metaphor in order to seek similarities and differences across cultures. The findings are as follows: first, the multimodal metaphors center around three major topics: the earth crisis, consequences of environmental damage, and appeal for environmental protection; second, the multimodal metaphors mainly grounded in three universal conceptual metaphors which focused on high level is up; earth is mother and all lives are precious. However, there are five Chinese culture-specific multimodal metaphors which are not discovered in Germany ads: east is high leve; a purposeful life is a journey; a nation is a person; good is clean, and water is mother. Since metaphors are excellent instruments on studying ideology, this study can be helpful on intercultural/cross-cultural communication.

Keywords: multimodal metaphor, cultural aspects, public service advertising, cross-cultural communication

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
197 The Optimization of Decision Rules in Multimodal Decision-Level Fusion Scheme

Authors: Andrey V. Timofeev, Dmitry V. Egorov

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This paper introduces an original method of parametric optimization of the structure for multimodal decision-level fusion scheme which combines the results of the partial solution of the classification task obtained from assembly of the mono-modal classifiers. As a result, a multimodal fusion classifier which has the minimum value of the total error rate has been obtained.

Keywords: classification accuracy, fusion solution, total error rate, multimodal fusion classifier

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
196 OPEN-EmoRec-II-A Multimodal Corpus of Human-Computer Interaction

Authors: Stefanie Rukavina, Sascha Gruss, Steffen Walter, Holger Hoffmann, Harald C. Traue

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OPEN-EmoRecII is an open multimodal corpus with experimentally induced emotions. In the first half of the experiment, emotions were induced with standardized picture material and in the second half during a human-computer interaction (HCI), realized with a wizard-of-oz design. The induced emotions are based on the dimensional theory of emotions (valence, arousal and dominance). These emotional sequences - recorded with multimodal data (mimic reactions, speech, audio and physiological reactions) during a naturalistic-like HCI-environment one can improve classification methods on a multimodal level. This database is the result of an HCI-experiment, for which 30 subjects in total agreed to a publication of their data including the video material for research purposes. The now available open corpus contains sensory signal of: video, audio, physiology (SCL, respiration, BVP, EMG Corrugator supercilii, EMG Zygomaticus Major) and mimic annotations.

Keywords: open multimodal emotion corpus, annotated labels, intelligent interaction

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195 New Approach for Constructing a Secure Biometric Database

Authors: A. Kebbeb, M. Mostefai, F. Benmerzoug, Y. Chahir

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The multimodal biometric identification is the combination of several biometric systems. The challenge of this combination is to reduce some limitations of systems based on a single modality while significantly improving performance. In this paper, we propose a new approach to the construction and the protection of a multimodal biometric database dedicated to an identification system. We use a topological watermarking to hide the relation between face image and the registered descriptors extracted from other modalities of the same person for more secure user identification.

Keywords: biometric databases, multimodal biometrics, security authentication, digital watermarking

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
194 Semantic Indexing Improvement for Textual Documents: Contribution of Classification by Fuzzy Association Rules

Authors: Mohsen Maraoui

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In the aim of natural language processing applications improvement, such as information retrieval, machine translation, lexical disambiguation, we focus on statistical approach to semantic indexing for multilingual text documents based on conceptual network formalism. We propose to use this formalism as an indexing language to represent the descriptive concepts and their weighting. These concepts represent the content of the document. Our contribution is based on two steps. In the first step, we propose the extraction of index terms using the multilingual lexical resource Euro WordNet (EWN). In the second step, we pass from the representation of index terms to the representation of index concepts through conceptual network formalism. This network is generated using the EWN resource and pass by a classification step based on association rules model (in attempt to discover the non-taxonomic relations or contextual relations between the concepts of a document). These relations are latent relations buried in the text and carried by the semantic context of the co-occurrence of concepts in the document. Our proposed indexing approach can be applied to text documents in various languages because it is based on a linguistic method adapted to the language through a multilingual thesaurus. Next, we apply the same statistical process regardless of the language in order to extract the significant concepts and their associated weights. We prove that the proposed indexing approach provides encouraging results.

Keywords: concept extraction, conceptual network formalism, fuzzy association rules, multilingual thesaurus, semantic indexing

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193 Multimodal Content: Fostering Students’ Language and Communication Competences

Authors: Victoria L. Malakhova

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The research is devoted to multimodal content and its effectiveness in developing students’ linguistic and intercultural communicative competences as an indefeasible constituent of their future professional activity. Description of multimodal content both as a linguistic and didactic phenomenon makes the study relevant. The objective of the article is the analysis of creolized texts and the effect they have on fostering higher education students’ skills and their productivity. The main methods used are linguistic text analysis, qualitative and quantitative methods, deduction, generalization. The author studies texts with full and partial creolization, their features and role in composing multimodal textual space. The main verbal and non-verbal markers and paralinguistic means that enhance the linguo-pragmatic potential of creolized texts are covered. To reveal the efficiency of multimodal content application in English teaching, the author conducts an experiment among both undergraduate students and teachers. This allows specifying main functions of creolized texts in the process of language learning, detecting ways of enhancing students’ competences, and increasing their motivation. The described stages of using creolized texts can serve as an algorithm for work with multimodal content in teaching English as a foreign language. The findings contribute to improving the efficiency of the academic process.

Keywords: creolized text, English language learning, higher education, language and communication competences, multimodal content

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192 Compressed Suffix Arrays to Self-Indexes Based on Partitioned Elias-Fano

Authors: Guo Wenyu, Qu Youli

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A practical and simple self-indexing data structure, Partitioned Elias-Fano (PEF) - Compressed Suffix Arrays (CSA), is built in linear time for the CSA based on PEF indexes. Moreover, the PEF-CSA is compared with two classical compressed indexing methods, Ferragina and Manzini implementation (FMI) and Sad-CSA on different type and size files in Pizza & Chili. The PEF-CSA performs better on the existing data in terms of the compression ratio, count, and locates time except for the evenly distributed data such as proteins data. The observations of the experiments are that the distribution of the φ is more important than the alphabet size on the compression ratio. Unevenly distributed data φ makes better compression effect, and the larger the size of the hit counts, the longer the count and locate time.

Keywords: compressed suffix array, self-indexing, partitioned Elias-Fano, PEF-CSA

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
191 Graph Codes - 2D Projections of Multimedia Feature Graphs for Fast and Effective Retrieval

Authors: Stefan Wagenpfeil, Felix Engel, Paul McKevitt, Matthias Hemmje

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Multimedia Indexing and Retrieval is generally designed and implemented by employing feature graphs. These graphs typically contain a significant number of nodes and edges to reflect the level of detail in feature detection. A higher level of detail increases the effectiveness of the results but also leads to more complex graph structures. However, graph-traversal-based algorithms for similarity are quite inefficient and computation intensive, especially for large data structures. To deliver fast and effective retrieval, an efficient similarity algorithm, particularly for large graphs, is mandatory. Hence, in this paper, we define a graph-projection into a 2D space (Graph Code) as well as the corresponding algorithms for indexing and retrieval. We show that calculations in this space can be performed more efficiently than graph-traversals due to a simpler processing model and a high level of parallelization. In consequence, we prove that the effectiveness of retrieval also increases substantially, as Graph Codes facilitate more levels of detail in feature fusion. Thus, Graph Codes provide a significant increase in efficiency and effectiveness (especially for Multimedia indexing and retrieval) and can be applied to images, videos, audio, and text information.

Keywords: indexing, retrieval, multimedia, graph algorithm, graph code

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190 Design and Implementation of Partial Denoising Boundary Image Matching Using Indexing Techniques

Authors: Bum-Soo Kim, Jin-Uk Kim

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In this paper, we design and implement a partial denoising boundary image matching system using indexing techniques. Converting boundary images to time-series makes it feasible to perform fast search using indexes even on a very large image database. Thus, using this converting method we develop a client-server system based on the previous partial denoising research in the GUI (graphical user interface) environment. The client first converts a query image given by a user to a time-series and sends denoising parameters and the tolerance with this time-series to the server. The server identifies similar images from the index by evaluating a range query, which is constructed using inputs given from the client, and sends the resulting images to the client. Experimental results show that our system provides much intuitive and accurate matching result.

Keywords: boundary image matching, indexing, partial denoising, time-series matching

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189 Multimodal Sentiment Analysis With Web Based Application

Authors: Shreyansh Singh, Afroz Ahmed

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Sentiment Analysis intends to naturally reveal the hidden mentality that we hold towards an entity. The total of this assumption over a populace addresses sentiment surveying and has various applications. Current text-based sentiment analysis depends on the development of word embeddings and Machine Learning models that take in conclusion from enormous text corpora. Sentiment Analysis from text is presently generally utilized for consumer loyalty appraisal and brand insight investigation. With the expansion of online media, multimodal assessment investigation is set to carry new freedoms with the appearance of integral information streams for improving and going past text-based feeling examination using the new transforms methods. Since supposition can be distinguished through compelling follows it leaves, like facial and vocal presentations, multimodal opinion investigation offers good roads for examining facial and vocal articulations notwithstanding the record or printed content. These methodologies use the Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) with the LSTM modes to increase their performance. In this study, we characterize feeling and the issue of multimodal assessment investigation and audit ongoing advancements in multimodal notion examination in various spaces, including spoken surveys, pictures, video websites, human-machine, and human-human connections. Difficulties and chances of this arising field are additionally examined, promoting our theory that multimodal feeling investigation holds critical undiscovered potential.

Keywords: sentiment analysis, RNN, LSTM, word embeddings

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188 Topic Modelling Using Latent Dirichlet Allocation and Latent Semantic Indexing on SA Telco Twitter Data

Authors: Phumelele Kubheka, Pius Owolawi, Gbolahan Aiyetoro

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Twitter is one of the most popular social media platforms where users can share their opinions on different subjects. As of 2010, The Twitter platform generates more than 12 Terabytes of data daily, ~ 4.3 petabytes in a single year. For this reason, Twitter is a great source for big mining data. Many industries such as Telecommunication companies can leverage the availability of Twitter data to better understand their markets and make an appropriate business decision. This study performs topic modeling on Twitter data using Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA). The obtained results are benchmarked with another topic modeling technique, Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI). The study aims to retrieve topics on a Twitter dataset containing user tweets on South African Telcos. Results from this study show that LSI is much faster than LDA. However, LDA yields better results with higher topic coherence by 8% for the best-performing model represented in Table 1. A higher topic coherence score indicates better performance of the model.

Keywords: big data, latent Dirichlet allocation, latent semantic indexing, telco, topic modeling, twitter

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187 3D Objects Indexing Using Spherical Harmonic for Optimum Measurement Similarity

Authors: S. Hellam, Y. Oulahrir, F. El Mounchid, A. Sadiq, S. Mbarki

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In this paper, we propose a method for three-dimensional (3-D)-model indexing based on defining a new descriptor, which we call new descriptor using spherical harmonics. The purpose of the method is to minimize, the processing time on the database of objects models and the searching time of similar objects to request object. Firstly we start by defining the new descriptor using a new division of 3-D object in a sphere. Then we define a new distance which will be used in the search for similar objects in the database.

Keywords: 3D indexation, spherical harmonic, similarity of 3D objects, measurement similarity

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186 Integrating Critical Stylistics and Visual Grammar: A Multimodal Stylistic Approach to the Analysis of Non-Literary Texts

Authors: Shatha Khuzaee

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The study develops multimodal stylistic approach to analyse a number of BBC online news articles reporting some key events from the so called ‘Arab Uprisings’. Critical stylistics (CS) and visual grammar (VG) provide insightful arguments to the ways ideology is projected through different verbal and visual modes, yet they are mode specific because they examine how each mode projects its meaning separately and do not attempt to clarify what happens intersemiotically when the two modes co-occur. Therefore, it is the task undertaken in this research to propose multimodal stylistic approach that addresses the issue of ideology construction when the two modes co-occur. Informed by functional grammar and social semiotics, the analysis attempts to integrate three linguistic models developed in critical stylistics, namely, transitivity choices, prioritizing and hypothesizing along with their visual equivalents adopted from visual grammar to investigate the way ideology is constructed, in multimodal text, when text/image participate and interrelate in the process of meaning making on the textual level of analysis. The analysis provides comprehensive theoretical and analytical elaborations on the different points of integration between CS linguistic models and VG equivalents which operate on the textual level of analysis to better account for ideology construction in news as non-literary multimodal texts. It is argued that the analysis well thought out a plan that would remark the first step towards the integration between the well-established linguistic models of critical stylistics and that of visual analysis to analyse multimodal texts on the textual level. Both approaches are compatible to produce multimodal stylistic approach because they intend to analyse text and image depending on whatever textual evidence is available. This supports the analysis maintain the rigor and replicability needed for a stylistic analysis like the one undertaken in this study.

Keywords: multimodality, stylistics, visual grammar, social semiotics, functional grammar

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185 Extraction of Text Subtitles in Multimedia Systems

Authors: Amarjit Singh

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In this paper, a method for extraction of text subtitles in large video is proposed. The video data needs to be annotated for many multimedia applications. Text is incorporated in digital video for the motive of providing useful information about that video. So need arises to detect text present in video to understanding and video indexing. This is achieved in two steps. First step is text localization and the second step is text verification. The method of text detection can be extended to text recognition which finds applications in automatic video indexing; video annotation and content based video retrieval. The method has been tested on various types of videos.

Keywords: video, subtitles, extraction, annotation, frames

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184 Two Weeks of Multi-Modal Inpatient Treatment: Patients Suffering from Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain for over 12 Months

Authors: D. Schafer, H. Booke, R. Nordmeier

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Patients suffering from chronic musculoskeletal pain ( > 12 months) are a challenging clientele for pain specialists. A multimodal approach, characterized by a two weeks inpatient treatment, often is the ultimate therapeutic attempt. The lasting effects of such a multimodal approach were analyzed, especially since two weeks of inpatient therapy, although very intense, often seem too short to make a difference in patients suffering from chronic pain for years. The study includes 32 consecutive patients suffering from chronic pain over years who underwent a two weeks multimodal inpatient treatment of pain. Twelve months after discharge, each patient was interviewed to objectify any lasting effects. Pain was measured on admission and 12 months after discharge using the numeric rating scale (NRS). For statistics, a paired students' t-test was used. Significance was defined as p < 0.05. The average intensity of pain on admission was 8,6 on the NRS. Twelve months after discharge, the intensity of pain was still reduced by an average of 48% (average NRS 4,4), p < 0.05. Despite this significant improvement in pain severity, two thirds (66%) of the patients still judge their treatment as not sufficient. In conclusion, inpatient treatment of chronic pain has a long-lasting effect on the intensity of pain in patients suffering from chronic musculoskeletal pain for more than 12 months.

Keywords: chronic pain, inpatient treatment, multimodal pain treatment, musculoskeletal pain

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183 Navigating the Case-Based Learning Multimodal Learning Environment: A Qualitative Study Across the First-Year Medical Students

Authors: Bhavani Veasuvalingam

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Case-based learning (CBL) is a popular instructional method aimed to bridge theory to clinical practice. This study aims to explore CBL mixed modality curriculum in influencing students’ learning styles and strategies that support learning. An explanatory sequential mixed method study was employed with initial phase, 44-itemed Felderman’s Index of Learning Style (ILS) questionnaire employed across year one medical students (n=142) using convenience sampling to describe the preferred learning styles. The qualitative phase utilised three focus group discussions (FGD) to explore in depth on the multimodal learning style exhibited by the students. Most students preferred combination of learning stylesthat is reflective, sensing, visual and sequential i.e.: RSVISeq style (24.64%) from the ILS analysis. The frequency of learning preference from processing to understanding were well balanced, with sequential-global domain (66.2%); sensing-intuitive (59.86%), active- reflective (57%), and visual-verbal (51.41%). The qualitative data reported three major themes, namely Theme 1: CBL mixed modalities navigates learners’ learning style; Theme 2: Multimodal learners active learning strategies supports learning. Theme 3: CBL modalities facilitating theory into clinical knowledge. Both quantitative and qualitative study strongly reports the multimodal learning style of the year one medical students. Medical students utilise multimodal learning styles to attain the clinical knowledge when learning with CBL mixed modalities. Educators’ awareness of the multimodal learning style is crucial in delivering the CBL mixed modalities effectively, considering strategic pedagogical support students to engage and learn CBL in bridging the theoretical knowledge into clinical practice.

Keywords: case-based learning, learnign style, medical students, learning

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182 Dual Biometrics Fusion Based Recognition System

Authors: Prakash, Vikash Kumar, Vinay Bansal, L. N. Das

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Dual biometrics is a subpart of multimodal biometrics, which refers to the use of a variety of modalities to identify and authenticate persons rather than just one. We limit the risks of mistakes by mixing several modals, and hackers have a tiny possibility of collecting information. Our goal is to collect the precise characteristics of iris and palmprint, produce a fusion of both methodologies, and ensure that authentication is only successful when the biometrics match a particular user. After combining different modalities, we created an effective strategy with a mean DI and EER of 2.41 and 5.21, respectively. A biometric system has been proposed.

Keywords: multimodal, fusion, palmprint, Iris, EER, DI

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181 A Multimodal Approach to Improve the Performance of Biometric System

Authors: Chander Kant, Arun Kumar

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Biometric systems automatically recognize an individual based on his/her physiological and behavioral characteristics. There are also some traits like weight, age, height etc. that may not provide reliable user recognition because of there common and temporary nature. These traits are called soft bio metric traits. Although soft bio metric traits are lack of permanence to uniquely and reliably identify an individual, yet they provide some beneficial evidence about the user identity and may improve the system performance. Here in this paper, we have proposed an approach for integrating the soft bio metrics with fingerprint and face to improve the performance of personal authentication system. In our approach we have proposed a combined architecture of three different sensors to elevate the system performance. The approach includes, soft bio metrics, fingerprint and face traits. We have also proven the efficiency of proposed system regarding FAR (False Acceptance Ratio) and total response time, with the help of MUBI (Multimodal Bio metrics Integration) software.

Keywords: FAR, minutiae point, multimodal bio metrics, primary bio metric, soft bio metric

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180 Filmic and Verbal Metafphors

Authors: Manana Rusieshvili, Rusudan Dolidze

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This paper aims at 1) investigating the ways in which a traditional, monomodal written verbal metaphor can be transposed as a monomodal non-verbal (visual) or multimodal (aural and -visual) filmic metaphor ; 2) exploring similarities and differences in the process of encoding and decoding of monomodal and multimodal metaphors. The empiric data, on which the research is based, embrace three sources: the novel by Harry Gray ‘The Hoods’, the script of the film ‘Once Upon a Time in America’ (English version by David Mills) and the resultant film by Sergio Leone. In order to achieve the above mentioned goals, the research focuses on the following issues: 1) identification of verbal and non-verbal monomodal and multimodal metaphors in the above-mentioned sources and 2) investigation of the ways and modes the specific written monomodal metaphors appearing in the novel and the script are enacted in the film and become visual, aural or visual-aural filmic metaphors ; 3) study of the factors which play an important role in contributing to the encoding and decoding of the filmic metaphor. The collection and analysis of the data were carried out in two stages: firstly, the relevant data, i.e. the monomodal metaphors from the novel, the script and the film were identified and collected. In the second, final stage the metaphors taken from all of the three sources were analysed, compared and two types of phenomena were selected for discussion: (1) the monomodal written metaphors found in the novel and/or in the script which become monomodal visual/aural metaphors in the film; (2) the monomodal written metaphors found in the novel and/or in the script which become multimodal, filmic (visual-aural) metaphors in the film.

Keywords: encoding, decoding, filmic metaphor, multimodality

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179 Efficient Layout-Aware Pretraining for Multimodal Form Understanding

Authors: Armineh Nourbakhsh, Sameena Shah, Carolyn Rose

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Layout-aware language models have been used to create multimodal representations for documents that are in image form, achieving relatively high accuracy in document understanding tasks. However, the large number of parameters in the resulting models makes building and using them prohibitive without access to high-performing processing units with large memory capacity. We propose an alternative approach that can create efficient representations without the need for a neural visual backbone. This leads to an 80% reduction in the number of parameters compared to the smallest SOTA model, widely expanding applicability. In addition, our layout embeddings are pre-trained on spatial and visual cues alone and only fused with text embeddings in downstream tasks, which can facilitate applicability to low-resource of multi-lingual domains. Despite using 2.5% of training data, we show competitive performance on two form understanding tasks: semantic labeling and link prediction.

Keywords: layout understanding, form understanding, multimodal document understanding, bias-augmented attention

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178 A Multimodal Approach towards Intersemiotic Translations of 'The Great Gatsby'

Authors: Neda Razavi Kaleibar, Bahloul Salmani

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The present study dealt with the multimodal analysis of two cinematic adaptations of The Great Gatsby as intersemiotic translation. The assessment in this study went beyond the faithfulness based on repetition, addition, deletion, and creation which limit the analysis from other aspects. In fact, this research aimed to pinpoint the role of multimodality in examining the intersemiotic translations of the novel into film by means of analyzing different applied modes. Through a qualitative type of research, the analysis was conducted based on the theory proposed by Burn as Kineikonic mode theory derived from the concept of multimodality. The results of the study revealed that due to the applied modes, each adaptation represents a sense and meaning different from the other one. Analyzing the results and discussions, it was concluded that not only the modes have an undeniable role in film adaptations, but rather multimodal analysis including different nonverbal modes can be a useful and functional choice for analyzing the intersemiotic translations.

Keywords: cinematic adaptation, intersemiotic translation, kineikonic mode, multimodality

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177 Analyzing Political Cartoons in Arabic-Language Media after Trump's Jerusalem Move: A Multimodal Discourse Perspective

Authors: Inas Hussein

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Communication in the modern world is increasingly becoming multimodal due to globalization and the digital space we live in which have remarkably affected how people communicate. Accordingly, Multimodal Discourse Analysis (MDA) is an emerging paradigm in discourse studies with the underlying assumption that other semiotic resources such as images, colours, scientific symbolism, gestures, actions, music and sound, etc. combine with language in order to  communicate meaning. One of the effective multimodal media that combines both verbal and non-verbal elements to create meaning is political cartoons. Furthermore, since political and social issues are mirrored in political cartoons, these are regarded as potential objects of discourse analysis since they not only reflect the thoughts of the public but they also have the power to influence them. The aim of this paper is to analyze some selected cartoons on the recognition of Jerusalem as Israel's capital by the American President, Donald Trump, adopting a multimodal approach. More specifically, the present research examines how the various semiotic tools and resources utilized by the cartoonists function in projecting the intended meaning. Ten political cartoons, among a surge of editorial cartoons highlighted by the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) - an international Jewish non-governmental organization based in the United States - as publications in different Arabic-language newspapers in Egypt, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Oman, Iran and UK, were purposively selected for semiotic analysis. These editorial cartoons, all published during 6th–18th December 2017, invariably suggest one theme: Jewish and Israeli domination of the United States. The data were analyzed using the framework of Visual Social Semiotics. In accordance with this methodological framework, the selected visual compositions were analyzed in terms of three aspects of meaning: representational, interactive and compositional. In analyzing the selected cartoons, an interpretative approach is being adopted. This approach prioritizes depth to breadth and enables insightful analyses of the chosen cartoons. The findings of the study reveal that semiotic resources are key elements of political cartoons due to the inherent political communication they convey. It is proved that adequate interpretation of the three aspects of meaning is a prerequisite for understanding the intended meaning of political cartoons. It is recommended that further research should be conducted to provide more insightful analyses of political cartoons from a multimodal perspective.

Keywords: Multimodal Discourse Analysis (MDA), multimodal text, political cartoons, visual modality

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176 Modeling of Building a Conceptual Scheme for Multimodal Freight Transportation Information System

Authors: Gia Surguladze, Nino Topuria, Lily Petriashvili, Giorgi Surguladze

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Modeling of building processes of a multimodal freight transportation support information system is discussed based on modern CASE technologies. Functional efficiencies of ports in the eastern part of the Black Sea are analyzed taking into account their ecological, seasonal, resource usage parameters. By resources, we mean capacities of berths, cranes, automotive transport, as well as work crews and neighbouring airports. For the purpose of designing database of computer support system for Managerial (Logistics) function, using Object-Role Modeling (ORM) tool (NORMA – Natural ORM Architecture) is proposed, after which Entity Relationship Model (ERM) is generated in automated process. The software is developed based on Process-Oriented and Service-Oriented architecture, in Visual Studio.NET environment.

Keywords: seaport resources, business-processes, multimodal transportation, CASE technology, object-role model, entity relationship model, SOA

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175 Multimodal Discourse, Logic of the Analysis of Transmedia Strategies

Authors: Bianca Suárez Puerta

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Multimodal discourse refers to a method of study the media continuum between reality, screens as a device, audience, author, and media as a production from the audience. For this study we used semantic differential, a method proposed in the sixties by Osgood, Suci and Tannenbaum, starts from the assumption that under each particular way of perceiving the world, in each singular idea, there is a common cultural meaning that organizes experiences. In relation to these shared symbolic dimension, this method has had significant results, as it focuses on breaking down the meaning of certain significant acts into series of statements that place the subjects in front of some concepts. In Colombia, in 2016, a tool was designed to measure the meaning of a multimodal production, specially the acts of sense of transmedia productions that managed to receive funds from the Ministry of ICT of Colombia, and also, to analyze predictable patterns that can be found in calls and funds aimed at the production of culture in Colombia, in the context of the peace agreement, as a request for expressions from a hegemonic place, seeking to impose a worldview.

Keywords: semantic differential, semiotics, transmedia, critical analysis of discourse

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174 Comics Scanlation and Publishing Houses Translation

Authors: Sharifa Alshahrani

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Comics is a multimodal text wherein meaning is created by taking in all modes of expression at once. It uses two different semiotic modes, the verbal and the visual modes, together to make meaning and these different semiotic modes can be socially and culturally shaped to give meaning. Therefore, comics translation cannot treat comics as a monomodal text by translating only the verbal mode inside or outside the speech balloons as the cultural differences are encoded in the visual mode as well. Due to the development of the internet and editing software, comics translation is not anymore confined to the publishing houses and official translation as scanlation, or the fan translation took the initiative in translating comics for being emotionally attracted to the culture and genre. Scanlation is carried out by volunteering fans who translate out of passion. However, quality is one of the debatable issues relating to scanlation and fan translation. This study will investigate how the dynamic multimodal relationship in comics is exploited and interpreted in the translation by exploring the translation strategies and procedures adopted by the publishing houses and scanlation in interpreting comics into Arabic using three analytical frameworks; cultural references model, multimodal relation model and translation strategies and procedures models.

Keywords: comics, multimodality, translation, scanlation

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173 Multimodal Discourse Analysis of Egyptian Political Movies: A Case Study of 'People at the Top Ahl Al Kemma' Movie

Authors: Mariam Waheed Mekheimar

Abstract:

Nascent research is conducted to the advancement of discourse analysis to include different modes as images, sound, and text. The focus of this study will be to elucidate how images are embedded with texts in an audio-visual medium as cinema to send political messages; it also seeks to broaden our understanding of politics beyond a relatively narrow conceptualization of the 'political' through studying non-traditional discourses as the cinematic discourse. The aim herein is to develop a systematic approach to film analysis to capture political meanings in films. The method adopted in this research is Multimodal Discourse Analysis (MDA) focusing on embedding visuals with texts. As today's era is the era of images and that necessitates analyzing images. Drawing on the writings of O'Halloran, Kress and Van Leuween, John Bateman and Janina Wildfeuer, different modalities will be studied to understand how those modes interact in the cinematic discourse. 'People at the top movie' is selected as an example to unravel the political meanings throughout film tackling the cinematic representation of the notion of social justice.

Keywords: Egyptian cinema, multimodal discourse analysis, people at the top, social justice

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172 Multimodal Convolutional Neural Network for Musical Instrument Recognition

Authors: Yagya Raj Pandeya, Joonwhoan Lee

Abstract:

The dynamic behavior of music and video makes it difficult to evaluate musical instrument playing in a video by computer system. Any television or film video clip with music information are rich sources for analyzing musical instruments using modern machine learning technologies. In this research, we integrate the audio and video information sources using convolutional neural network (CNN) and pass network learned features through recurrent neural network (RNN) to preserve the dynamic behaviors of audio and video. We use different pre-trained CNN for music and video feature extraction and then fine tune each model. The music network use 2D convolutional network and video network use 3D convolution (C3D). Finally, we concatenate each music and video feature by preserving the time varying features. The long short term memory (LSTM) network is used for long-term dynamic feature characterization and then use late fusion with generalized mean. The proposed network performs better performance to recognize the musical instrument using audio-video multimodal neural network.

Keywords: multimodal, 3D convolution, music-video feature extraction, generalized mean

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