Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18510

Search results for: digital dynamic pulse-frequency control systems

18510 Application of Statistical Linearized Models for Investigations of Digital Dynamic Pulse-Frequency Control Systems

Authors: B. H. Aitchanov, Sh. K. Aitchanova, O. A. Baimuratov


This paper is focused on dynamic pulse-frequency modulation (DPFM) control systems. Currently, the control law based on DPFM control signals is widely used in direct digital control subsystems introduced in the automated control systems of technological processes. Statistical analysis of automatic control systems is reduced to its construction of functional relationships between the statistical characteristics of the errors processes and input processes. Structural and dynamic Volterra models of digital pulse-frequency control systems can be used to develop methods for generating the dependencies, differing accuracy, requiring the amount of information about the statistical characteristics of input processes and computing labor intensity of their use.

Keywords: digital dynamic pulse-frequency control systems, dynamic pulse-frequency modulation, control object, discrete filter, impulse device, microcontroller

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18509 Rhetoric and Renarrative Structure of Digital Images in Trans-Media

Authors: Yang Geng, Anqi Zhao


The misreading theory of Harold Bloom provides a new diachronic perspective as an approach to the consistency between rhetoric of digital technology, dynamic movement of digital images and uncertain meaning of text. Reinterpreting the diachroneity of 'intertextuality' in the context of misreading theory extended the range of the 'intermediality' of transmedia to the intense tension between digital images and symbolic images throughout history of images. With the analogy between six categories of revisionary ratios and six steps of digital transformation, digital rhetoric might be illustrated as a linear process reflecting dynamic, intensive relations between digital moving images and original static images. Finally, it was concluded that two-way framework of the rhetoric of transformation of digital images and reversed served as a renarrative structure to revive static images by reconnecting them with digital moving images.

Keywords: rhetoric, digital art, intermediality, misreading theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
18508 Study and Simulation of a Dynamic System Using Digital Twin

Authors: J.P. Henriques, E. R. Neto, G. Almeida, G. Ribeiro, J.V. Coutinho, A.B. Lugli


Industry 4.0, or the Fourth Industrial Revolution, is transforming the relationship between people and machines. In this scenario, some technologies such as Cloud Computing, Internet of Things, Augmented Reality, Artificial Intelligence, Additive Manufacturing, among others, are making industries and devices increasingly intelligent. One of the most powerful technologies of this new revolution is the Digital Twin, which allows the virtualization of a real system or process. In this context, the present paper addresses the linear and nonlinear dynamic study of a didactic level plant using Digital Twin. In the first part of the work, the level plant is identified at a fixed point of operation, BY using the existing method of least squares means. The linearized model is embedded in a Digital Twin using Automation Studio® from Famous Technologies. Finally, in order to validate the usage of the Digital Twin in the linearized study of the plant, the dynamic response of the real system is compared to the Digital Twin. Furthermore, in order to develop the nonlinear model on a Digital Twin, the didactic level plant is identified by using the method proposed by Hammerstein. Different steps are applied to the plant, and from the Hammerstein algorithm, the nonlinear model is obtained for all operating ranges of the plant. As for the linear approach, the nonlinear model is embedded in the Digital Twin, and the dynamic response is compared to the real system in different points of operation. Finally, yet importantly, from the practical results obtained, one can conclude that the usage of Digital Twin to study the dynamic systems is extremely useful in the industrial environment, taking into account that it is possible to develop and tune controllers BY using the virtual model of the real systems.

Keywords: industry 4.0, digital twin, system identification, linear and nonlinear models

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18507 Analysis of Cascade Control Structure in Train Dynamic Braking System

Authors: B. Moaveni, S. Morovati


In recent years, increasing the usage of railway transportations especially in developing countries caused more attention to control systems railway vehicles. Consequently, designing and implementing the modern control systems to improve the operating performance of trains and locomotives become one of the main concerns of researches. Dynamic braking systems is an important safety system which controls the amount of braking torque generated by traction motors, to keep the adhesion coefficient between the wheel-sets and rail road in optimum bound. Adhesion force has an important role to control the braking distance and prevent the wheels from slipping during the braking process. Cascade control structure is one of the best control methods for the wide range of industrial plants in the presence of disturbances and errors. This paper presents cascade control structure based on two forward simple controllers with two feedback loops to control the slip ratio and braking torque. In this structure, the inner loop controls the angular velocity and the outer loop control the longitudinal velocity of the locomotive that its dynamic is slower than the dynamic of angular velocity. This control structure by controlling the torque of DC traction motors, tries to track the desired velocity profile to access the predefined braking distance and to control the slip ratio. Simulation results are employed to show the effectiveness of the introduced methodology in dynamic braking system.

Keywords: cascade control, dynamic braking system, DC traction motors, slip control

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18506 Implementation of a Paraconsistent-Fuzzy Digital PID Controller in a Level Control Process

Authors: H. M. Côrtes, J. I. Da Silva Filho, M. F. Blos, B. S. Zanon


In a modern society the factor corresponding to the increase in the level of quality in industrial production demand new techniques of control and machinery automation. In this context, this work presents the implementation of a Paraconsistent-Fuzzy Digital PID controller. The controller is based on the treatment of inconsistencies both in the Paraconsistent Logic and in the Fuzzy Logic. Paraconsistent analysis is performed on the signals applied to the system inputs using concepts from the Paraconsistent Annotated Logic with annotation of two values (PAL2v). The signals resulting from the paraconsistent analysis are two values defined as Dc - Degree of Certainty and Dct - Degree of Contradiction, which receive a treatment according to the Fuzzy Logic theory, and the resulting output of the logic actions is a single value called the crisp value, which is used to control dynamic system. Through an example, it was demonstrated the application of the proposed model. Initially, the Paraconsistent-Fuzzy Digital PID controller was built and tested in an isolated MATLAB environment and then compared to the equivalent Digital PID function of this software for standard step excitation. After this step, a level control plant was modeled to execute the controller function on a physical model, making the tests closer to the actual. For this, the control parameters (proportional, integral and derivative) were determined for the configuration of the conventional Digital PID controller and of the Paraconsistent-Fuzzy Digital PID, and the control meshes in MATLAB were assembled with the respective transfer function of the plant. Finally, the results of the comparison of the level control process between the Paraconsistent-Fuzzy Digital PID controller and the conventional Digital PID controller were presented.

Keywords: fuzzy logic, paraconsistent annotated logic, level control, digital PID

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18505 Continuous-Time Analysis And Performance Assessment For Digital Control Of High-Frequency Switching Synchronous Dc-Dc Converter

Authors: Rihab Hamdi, Amel Hadri Hamida, Ouafae Bennis, Sakina Zerouali


This paper features a performance analysis and robustness assessment of a digitally controlled DC-DC three-cell buck converter associated in parallel, operating in continuous conduction mode (CCM), facing feeding parameters variation and loads disturbance. The control strategy relies on the continuous-time with an averaged modeling technique for high-frequency switching converter. The methodology is to modulate the complete design procedure, in regard to the existence of an instantaneous current operating point for designing the digital closed-loop, to the same continuous-time domain. Moreover, the adopted approach is to include a digital voltage control (DVC) technique, taking an account for digital control delays and sampling effects, which aims at improving efficiency and dynamic response and preventing generally undesired phenomena. The results obtained under load change, input change, and reference change clearly demonstrates an excellent dynamic response of the proposed technique, also as provide stability in any operating conditions, the effectiveness is fast with a smooth tracking of the specified output voltage. Simulations studies in MATLAB/Simulink environment are performed to verify the concept.

Keywords: continuous conduction mode, digital control, parallel multi-cells converter, performance analysis, power electronics

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18504 Digital Sustainable Human Resource Management Model Innovation Based on Dynamic Capabilities

Authors: Mohammad Kargar Shouraki, Naji Yazdi, Mohsen Emami


The environmental and social challenges have caused the organizations to put further attention and emphasis on sustainable growth and developing strategies for sustainability. Since human is both the target of development and the agent of development at the same time, one of the most important factors in the development of the sustainability strategy in organizations is the human factor. In addition, organizations have been facing the new challenge of digital transformation which impacts the human factor, meanwhile, undeniably, the human factor contributes to such transformation. Therefore, organizations are facing the challenge of digital human resource management (HRM). Thus, the present study aims to investigate how an HRM model should be so that it not only can help the consideration and of the business sustainability requirements but also can make the highest and the most appropriate positive, not destructive, utilization of the digital transformations. Furthermore, the success of the HRM regarding the two sustainability and digital transformation challenges requires dynamic human competencies, which are addressed as digital/sustainable human dynamic capabilities in this paper. The present study is conducted using a hybrid methodology consisting of the qualitative methods of meta-synthesis and content analysis and the quantitative method of interpretive-structural model (ISM). Finally, a rotatory model, including 3 approaches, 3 perspectives, and 9 dimensions, is presented.

Keywords: sustainable human resource management, digital human resource management, digital/sustainable human dynamic capabilities, talent management

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18503 Investigation into the Role of Leadership in the Management of Digital Transformation for Small and Medium Enterprises

Authors: Francesco Coraci, Abdul-Hadi G. Abulrub


Digital technology is transforming the landscape of the industrial sector at a precedential level by connecting people, processes, and machines in real-time. It represents the means for a new pathway to achieve innovative, dynamic competitive advantages, deliver unique customers’ values, and sustain critical relationships. Thus, success in a constantly changing environment is governed by the ability of an organization to revolutionize their business models, deliver innovative solutions, and capture values from big data analytics and insights. Businesses need to re-strategize operations and develop extra capabilities to cope with the necessity for additional flexibility and agility. The traditional “command and control” leadership style is structurally and operationally incompatible with the digital era. In this paper, the authors discuss how transformational leaders can act as a glue in the social, organizational context, which is crucial to enable the workforce and develop a psychological attachment to the digital vision.

Keywords: internet of things, strategy, change leadership, dynamic competitive advantage, digital transformation

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18502 An 8-Bit, 100-MSPS Fully Dynamic SAR ADC for Ultra-High Speed Image Sensor

Authors: F. Rarbi, D. Dzahini, W. Uhring


In this paper, a dynamic and power efficient 8-bit and 100-MSPS Successive Approximation Register (SAR) Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) is presented. The circuit uses a non-differential capacitive Digital-to-Analog (DAC) architecture segmented by 2. The prototype is produced in a commercial 65-nm 1P7M CMOS technology with 1.2-V supply voltage. The size of the core ADC is 208.6 x 103.6 µm2. The post-layout noise simulation results feature a SNR of 46.9 dB at Nyquist frequency, which means an effective number of bit (ENOB) of 7.5-b. The total power consumption of this SAR ADC is only 1.55 mW at 100-MSPS. It achieves then a figure of merit of 85.6 fJ/step.

Keywords: CMOS analog to digital converter, dynamic comparator, image sensor application, successive approximation register

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18501 Adaptive Optimal Controller for Uncertain Inverted Pendulum System: A Dynamic Programming Approach for Continuous Time System

Authors: Dao Phuong Nam, Tran Van Tuyen, Do Trong Tan, Bui Minh Dinh, Nguyen Van Huong


In this paper, we investigate the adaptive optimal control law for continuous-time systems with input disturbances and unknown parameters. This paper extends previous works to obtain the robust control law of uncertain systems. Through theoretical analysis, an adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) based optimal control is proposed to stabilize the closed-loop system and ensure the convergence properties of proposed iterative algorithm. Moreover, the global asymptotic stability (GAS) for closed system is also analyzed. The theoretical analysis for continuous-time systems and simulation results demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm for an inverted pendulum system.

Keywords: approximate/adaptive dynamic programming, ADP, adaptive optimal control law, input state stability, ISS, inverted pendulum

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18500 Robust Control of a Parallel 3-RRR Robotic Manipulator via μ-Synthesis Method

Authors: A. Abbasi Moshaii, M. Soltan Rezaee, M. Mohammadi Moghaddam


Control of some mechanisms is hard because of their complex dynamic equations. If part of the complexity is resulting from uncertainties, an efficient way for solving that is robust control. By this way, the control procedure could be simple and fast and finally, a simple controller can be designed. One kind of these mechanisms is 3-RRR which is a parallel mechanism and has three revolute joints. This paper aims to robust control a 3-RRR planner mechanism and it presents that this could be used for other mechanisms. So, a significant problem in mechanisms control could be solved. The relevant diagrams are drawn and they show the correctness of control process.

Keywords: 3-RRR, dynamic equations, mechanisms control, structural uncertainty

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18499 Real-time Rate and Rhythms Feedback Control System in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation

Authors: Mohammad A. Obeidat, Ayman M. Mansour


Capturing the dynamic behavior of the heart to improve control performance, enhance robustness, and support diagnosis is very important in establishing real time models for the heart. Control Techniques and strategies have been utilized to improve system costs, reliability, and estimation accuracy for different types of systems such as biomedical, industrial, and other systems that required tuning input/output relation and/or monitoring. Simulations are performed to illustrate potential applications of the technology. In this research, a new control technology scheme is used to enhance the performance of the Af system and meet the design specifications.

Keywords: atrial fibrillation, dynamic behavior, closed loop, signal, filter

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18498 Solutions for Comfort and Safety on Vibrations Resulting from the Action of the Wind on the Building in the Form of Portico with Four Floors

Authors: G. B. M. Carvalho, V. A. C. Vale, E. T. L. Cöuras Ford


With the aim of increasing the levels of comfort and security structures, the study of dynamic loads on buildings has been one of the focuses in the area of control engineering, civil engineering and architecture. Thus, this work presents a study based on simulation of the dynamics of buildings in the form of portico subjected to wind action, besides presenting an action of passive control, using for this the dynamics of the structure, consequently representing a system appropriated on environmental issues. These control systems are named the dynamic vibration absorbers.

Keywords: dynamic vibration absorber, structure, comfort, safety, wind behavior, structure

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18497 Implementing Digital Control System in Robotics

Authors: Safiullah Abdullahi


This paper describes the design of a digital control system which controls the speed and direction of a robot. The robot is expected to follow a black thick line with the highest possible speed and lowest error around the line. The control system of the robot will correct for the angle error that is made between the frame axis of the robot and the line. The cause for error is the difference in speed of the two driving wheels of the robot which are driven by two separate DC motors, whereas the speed difference in wheels is due to the un-modeled fraction that is available in the wheels with different magnitudes in each. The control scheme is that a number of photo sensors are mounted in the front of the robot and report their position in reference to the black line to the digital controller. The controller then, evaluates the position error and generates the needed duty cycle for the related wheel motor to drive it faster or slower.

Keywords: digital control, robot, controller, control system

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18496 Digital Control Techniques for Power Electronic Devices

Authors: Rakesh Krishna, Abhishek Poddar


The paper discusses the work carried out on the implementation of control techniques like Digital Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) and Digital Pulse Fired control(PFC). These techniques are often used in devices like inverters, battery chargers, DC-to-DC converters can also be implemented on household devices like heaters. The advantage being the control and improved life span of device. In case of batteries using these techniques are known to increase the life span of battery in mobiles and other hand-held devices. 8051 microcontroller is used to implement these methods.Thyristors are used for switching operations.

Keywords: PWM, SVM, PFC, bidirectional inverters, snubber

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18495 A Sliding Model Control for a Hybrid Hyperbolic Dynamic System

Authors: Xuezhang Hou


In the present paper, a hybrid hyperbolic dynamic system formulated by partial differential equations with initial and boundary conditions is considered. First, the system is transformed to an abstract evolution system in an appropriate Hilbert space, and spectral analysis and semigroup generation of the system operator is discussed. Subsequently, a sliding model control problem is proposed and investigated, and an equivalent control method is introduced and applied to the system. Finally, a significant result that the state of the system can be approximated by an ideal sliding mode under control in any accuracy is derived and examined.

Keywords: hyperbolic dynamic system, sliding model control, semigroup of linear operators, partial differential equations

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18494 Modeling and Control of an Acrobot Using MATLAB and Simulink

Authors: Dong Sang Yoo


The problem of finding control laws for underactuated systems has attracted growing attention since these systems are characterized by the fact that they have fewer actuators than the degrees of freedom to be controlled. The acrobot, which is a planar two-link robotic arm in the vertical plane with an actuator at the elbow but no actuator at the shoulder, is a representative of underactuated systems. In this paper, the dynamic model of the acrobot is implemented using Mathworks’ Simscape. And the sliding mode control is constructed using MATLAB and Simulink.

Keywords: acrobot, MATLAB and simulink, sliding mode control, underactuated system

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18493 Component Lifecycle and Concurrency Model in Usage Control (UCON) System

Authors: P. Ghann, J. Shiguang, C. Zhou


Access control is one of the most challenging issues facing information security. Access control is defined as, the ability to permit or deny access to a particular computational resource or digital information by an unauthorized user or subject. The concept of usage control (UCON) has been introduced as a unified approach to capture a number of extensions for access control models and systems. In UCON, an access decision is determined by three factors: Authorizations, obligations and conditions. Attribute mutability and decision continuity are two distinct characteristics introduced by UCON for the first time. An observation of UCON components indicates that, the components are predefined and static. In this paper, we propose a new and flexible model of usage control for the creation and elimination of some of these components; for example new objects, subjects, attributes and integrate these with the original UCON model. We also propose a model for concurrent usage scenarios in UCON.

Keywords: access control, concurrency, digital container, usage control

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18492 Necessary Condition to Utilize Adaptive Control in Wind Turbine Systems to Improve Power System Stability

Authors: Javad Taherahmadi, Mohammad Jafarian, Mohammad Naser Asefi


The global capacity of wind power has dramatically increased in recent years. Therefore, improving the technology of wind turbines to take different advantages of this enormous potential in the power grid, could be interesting subject for scientists. The doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbine is a popular system due to its many advantages such as the improved power quality, high energy efficiency and controllability, etc. With an increase in wind power penetration in the network and with regard to the flexible control of wind turbines, the use of wind turbine systems to improve the dynamic stability of power systems has been of significance importance for researchers. Subsynchronous oscillations are one of the important issues in the stability of power systems. Damping subsynchronous oscillations by using wind turbines has been studied in various research efforts, mainly by adding an auxiliary control loop to the control structure of the wind turbine. In most of the studies, this control loop is composed of linear blocks. In this paper, simple adaptive control is used for this purpose. In order to use an adaptive controller, the convergence of the controller should be verified. Since adaptive control parameters tend to optimum values in order to obtain optimum control performance, using this controller will help the wind turbines to have positive contribution in damping the network subsynchronous oscillations at different wind speeds and system operating points. In this paper, the application of simple adaptive control in DFIG wind turbine systems to improve the dynamic stability of power systems is studied and the essential condition for using this controller is considered. It is also shown that this controller has an insignificant effect on the dynamic stability of the wind turbine, itself.

Keywords: almost strictly positive real (ASPR), doubly-fed induction generator (DIFG), simple adaptive control (SAC), subsynchronous oscillations, wind turbine

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18491 A Study of Evolutional Control Systems

Authors: Ti-Jun Xiao, Zhe Xu


Controllability is one of the fundamental issues in control systems. In this paper, we study the controllability of second order evolutional control systems in Hilbert spaces with memory and boundary controls, which model dynamic behaviors of some viscoelastic materials. Transferring the control problem into a moment problem and showing the Riesz property of a family of functions related to Cauchy problems for some integrodifferential equations, we obtain a general boundary controllability theorem for these second order evolutional control systems. This controllability theorem is applicable to various concrete 1D viscoelastic systems and recovers some previous related results. It is worth noting that Riesz sequences can be used for numerical computations of the control functions and the identification of new Riesz sequence is of independent interest for the basis-function theory. Moreover, using the Riesz sequences, we obtain the existence and uniqueness of (weak) solutions to these second order evolutional control systems in Hilbert spaces. Finally, we derive the exact boundary controllability of a viscoelastic beam equation, as an application of our abstract theorem.

Keywords: evolutional control system, controllability, boundary control, existence and uniqueness

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18490 Dynamic Modeling of Wind Farms in the Jeju Power System

Authors: Dae-Hee Son, Sang-Hee Kang, Soon-Ryul Nam


In this paper, we develop a dynamic modeling of wind farms in the Jeju power system. The dynamic model of wind farms is developed to study their dynamic effects on the Jeju power system. PSS/E is used to develop the dynamic model of a wind farm composed of 1.5-MW doubly fed induction generators. The output of a wind farm is regulated based on pitch angle control, in which the two controllable parameters are speed and power references. The simulation results confirm that the pitch angle is successfully controlled, regardless of the variation in wind speed and output regulation.

Keywords: dynamic model, Jeju power system, online limitation, pitch angle control, wind farm

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18489 Inverse Matrix in the Theory of Dynamical Systems

Authors: Renata Masarova, Bohuslava Juhasova, Martin Juhas, Zuzana Sutova


In dynamic system theory a mathematical model is often used to describe their properties. In order to find a transfer matrix of a dynamic system we need to calculate an inverse matrix. The paper contains the fusion of the classical theory and the procedures used in the theory of automated control for calculating the inverse matrix. The final part of the paper models the given problem by the Matlab.

Keywords: dynamic system, transfer matrix, inverse matrix, modeling

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18488 Sampled-Data Control for Fuel Cell Systems

Authors: H. Y. Jung, Ju H. Park, S. M. Lee


A sampled-data controller is presented for solid oxide fuel cell systems which is expressed by a sector bounded nonlinear model. The sector bounded nonlinear systems, which have a feedback connection with a linear dynamical system and nonlinearity satisfying certain sector type constraints. Also, the sampled-data control scheme is very useful since it is possible to handle digital controller and increasing research efforts have been devoted to sampled-data control systems with the development of modern high-speed computers. The proposed control law is obtained by solving a convex problem satisfying several linear matrix inequalities. Simulation results are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed design method.

Keywords: sampled-data control, fuel cell, linear matrix inequalities, nonlinear control

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18487 Create a Dynamic Model in Project Control and Management

Authors: Hamed Saremi, Shahla Saremi


In this study, control and management of construction projects is evaluated through developing a dynamic model in which some means are used in order to evaluating planning assumptions and reviewing the effectiveness of some project control policies based on previous researches about time, cost, project schedule pressure management, source management, project control, adding elements and sub-systems from cost management such as estimating consumption budget from budget due to costs, budget shortage effects and etc. using sensitivity analysis, researcher has evaluated introduced model that during model simulation by VENSIM software and assuming optimistic times and adding information about doing job and changes rate and project is forecasted with 373 days (2 days sooner than forecasted) and final profit $ 1,960,670 (23% amount of contract) assuming 15% inflation rate in year and costs rate accordance with planned amounts and other input information and final profit.

Keywords: dynamic planning, cost, time, performance, project management

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18486 Stabilization Control of the Nonlinear AIDS Model Based on the Theory of Polynomial Fuzzy Control Systems

Authors: Shahrokh Barati


In this paper, we introduced AIDS disease at first, then proposed dynamic model illustrate its progress, after expression of a short history of nonlinear modeling by polynomial phasing systems, we considered the stability conditions of the systems, which contained a huge amount of researches in order to modeling and control of AIDS in dynamic nonlinear form, in this approach using a frame work of control any polynomial phasing modeling system which have been generalized by part of phasing model of T-S, in order to control the system in better way, the stability conditions were achieved based on polynomial functions, then we focused to design the appropriate controller, firstly we considered the equilibrium points of system and their conditions and in order to examine changes in the parameters, we presented polynomial phase model that was the generalized approach rather than previous Takagi Sugeno models, then with using case we evaluated the equations in both open loop and close loop and with helping the controlling feedback, the close loop equations of system were calculated, to simulate nonlinear model of AIDS disease, we used polynomial phasing controller output that was capable to make the parameters of a nonlinear system to follow a sustainable reference model properly.

Keywords: polynomial fuzzy, AIDS, nonlinear AIDS model, fuzzy control systems

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18485 Control of Sensors in Metering System of Fluid

Authors: A. Harrouz, O. Harrouz, A. Benatiallah


This paper is to review the essential definitions, roles, and characteristics of communication of metering system. We discuss measurement, data acquisition, and metrological control of a signal sensor from dynamic metering system. After that, we present control of instruments of metering system of fluid with more detailed discussions to the reference standards.

Keywords: data acquisition, dynamic metering system, reference standards, metrological control

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18484 Comparison of Fundamental Frequency Model and PWM Based Model for UPFC

Authors: S. A. Al-Qallaf, S. A. Al-Mawsawi, A. Haider


Among all FACTS devices, the unified power flow controller (UPFC) is considered to be the most versatile device. This is due to its capability to control all the transmission system parameters (impedance, voltage magnitude, and phase angle). With the growing interest in UPFC, the attention to develop a mathematical model has increased. Several models were introduced for UPFC in literature for different type of studies in power systems. In this paper a novel comparison study between two dynamic models of UPFC with their proposed control strategies.

Keywords: FACTS, UPFC, dynamic modeling, PWM, fundamental frequency

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18483 Dynamic Analysis of Differential Systems with Infinite Memory and Damping

Authors: Kun-Peng Jin, Jin Liang, Ti-Jun Xiao


In this work, we are concerned with the dynamic behaviors of solutions to some coupled systems with infinite memory, which consist of two partial differential equations where only one partial differential equation has damping. Such coupled systems are good mathematical models to describe the deformation and stress characteristics of some viscoelastic materials affected by temperature change, external forces, and other factors. By using the theory of operator semigroups, we give wellposedness results for the Cauchy problem for these coupled systems. Then, with the help of some auxiliary functions and lemmas, which are specially designed for overcoming difficulties in the proof, we show that the solutions of the coupled systems decay to zero in a strong way under a few basic conditions. The results in this dynamic analysis of coupled systems are generalizations of many existing results.

Keywords: dynamic analysis, coupled system, infinite memory, damping.

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18482 Digital Preservation: Requirement of 21st Century

Authors: Gaurav Kumar, Shilpa


Digital libraries have been established all over the world to create, maintain and to preserve the digital materials. This paper focuses on operational digital preservation systems specifically in educational organizations in India. It considers the broad range of digital objects including e-journals, technical reports, e-records, project documents, scientific data, etc. This paper describes the main objectives, process and technological issues involved in preservation of digital materials. Digital preservation refers to the various methods of keeping digital materials alive for the future. It includes everything from electronic publications on CD-ROM to Online database and collections of experimental data in digital format maintains the ability to display, retrieve and use digital collections in the face of rapidly changing technological and organizational infrastructures elements. This paper exhibits the importance and objectives of digital preservation. The necessities of preservation are hardware and software technology to interpret the digital documents and discuss various aspects of digital preservation.

Keywords: preservation, digital preservation, digital dark age, conservation, archive, repository, document, information technology, hardware, software, organization, machine readable format

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18481 Effect of Delay on Supply Side on Market Behavior: A System Dynamic Approach

Authors: M. Khoshab, M. J. Sedigh


Dynamic systems, which in mathematical point of view are those governed by differential equations, are much more difficult to study and to predict their behavior in comparison with static systems which are governed by algebraic equations. Economical systems such as market are among complicated dynamic systems. This paper tries to adopt a very simple mathematical model for market and to study effect of supply and demand function on behavior of the market while the supply side experiences a lag due to production restrictions.

Keywords: dynamic system, lag on supply demand, market stability, supply demand model

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