Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9719

Search results for: boundary control

9719 A Study of Evolutional Control Systems

Authors: Ti-Jun Xiao, Zhe Xu


Controllability is one of the fundamental issues in control systems. In this paper, we study the controllability of second order evolutional control systems in Hilbert spaces with memory and boundary controls, which model dynamic behaviors of some viscoelastic materials. Transferring the control problem into a moment problem and showing the Riesz property of a family of functions related to Cauchy problems for some integrodifferential equations, we obtain a general boundary controllability theorem for these second order evolutional control systems. This controllability theorem is applicable to various concrete 1D viscoelastic systems and recovers some previous related results. It is worth noting that Riesz sequences can be used for numerical computations of the control functions and the identification of new Riesz sequence is of independent interest for the basis-function theory. Moreover, using the Riesz sequences, we obtain the existence and uniqueness of (weak) solutions to these second order evolutional control systems in Hilbert spaces. Finally, we derive the exact boundary controllability of a viscoelastic beam equation, as an application of our abstract theorem.

Keywords: evolutional control system, controllability, boundary control, existence and uniqueness

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9718 An Approximation Method for Exact Boundary Controllability of Euler-Bernoulli

Authors: A. Khernane, N. Khelil, L. Djerou


The aim of this work is to study the numerical implementation of the Hilbert uniqueness method for the exact boundary controllability of Euler-Bernoulli beam equation. This study may be difficult. This will depend on the problem under consideration (geometry, control, and dimension) and the numerical method used. Knowledge of the asymptotic behaviour of the control governing the system at time T may be useful for its calculation. This idea will be developed in this study. We have characterized as a first step the solution by a minimization principle and proposed secondly a method for its resolution to approximate the control steering the considered system to rest at time T.

Keywords: boundary control, exact controllability, finite difference methods, functional optimization

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9717 A Boundary Backstepping Control Design for 2-D, 3-D and N-D Heat Equation

Authors: Aziz Sezgin


We consider the problem of stabilization of an unstable heat equation in a 2-D, 3-D and generally n-D domain by deriving a generalized backstepping boundary control design methodology. To stabilize the systems, we design boundary backstepping controllers inspired by the 1-D unstable heat equation stabilization procedure. We assume that one side of the boundary is hinged and the other side is controlled for each direction of the domain. Thus, controllers act on two boundaries for 2-D domain, three boundaries for 3-D domain and ”n” boundaries for n-D domain. The main idea of the design is to derive ”n” controllers for each of the dimensions by using ”n” kernel functions. Thus, we obtain ”n” controllers for the ”n” dimensional case. We use a transformation to change the system into an exponentially stable ”n” dimensional heat equation. The transformation used in this paper is a generalized Volterra/Fredholm type with ”n” kernel functions for n-D domain instead of the one kernel function of 1-D design.

Keywords: backstepping, boundary control, 2-D, 3-D, n-D heat equation, distributed parameter systems

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9716 Fourier Galerkin Approach to Wave Equation with Absorbing Boundary Conditions

Authors: Alexandra Leukauf, Alexander Schirrer, Emir Talic


Numerical computation of wave propagation in a large domain usually requires significant computational effort. Hence, the considered domain must be truncated to a smaller domain of interest. In addition, special boundary conditions, which absorb the outward travelling waves, need to be implemented in order to describe the system domains correctly. In this work, the linear one dimensional wave equation is approximated by utilizing the Fourier Galerkin approach. Furthermore, the artificial boundaries are realized with absorbing boundary conditions. Within this work, a systematic work flow for setting up the wave problem, including the absorbing boundary conditions, is proposed. As a result, a convenient modal system description with an effective absorbing boundary formulation is established. Moreover, the truncated model shows high accuracy compared to the global domain.

Keywords: absorbing boundary conditions, boundary control, Fourier Galerkin approach, modal approach, wave equation

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9715 Control Flow around NACA 4415 Airfoil Using Slot and Injection

Authors: Imine Zakaria, Meftah Sidi Mohamed El Amine


One of the most vital aerodynamic organs of a flying machine is the wing, which allows it to fly in the air efficiently. The flow around the wing is very sensitive to changes in the angle of attack. Beyond a value, there is a phenomenon of the boundary layer separation on the upper surface, which causes instability and total degradation of aerodynamic performance called a stall. However, controlling flow around an airfoil has become a researcher concern in the aeronautics field. There are two techniques for controlling flow around a wing to improve its aerodynamic performance: passive and active controls. Blowing and suction are among the active techniques that control the boundary layer separation around an airfoil. Their objective is to give energy to the air particles in the boundary layer separation zones and to create vortex structures that will homogenize the velocity near the wall and allow control. Blowing and suction have long been used as flow control actuators around obstacles. In 1904 Prandtl applied a permanent blowing to a cylinder to delay the boundary layer separation. In the present study, several numerical investigations have been developed to predict a turbulent flow around an aerodynamic profile. CFD code was used for several angles of attack in order to validate the present work with that of the literature in the case of a clean profile. The variation of the lift coefficient CL with the momentum coefficient

Keywords: CFD, control flow, lift, slot

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9714 A Continuous Boundary Value Method of Order 8 for Solving the General Second Order Multipoint Boundary Value Problems

Authors: T. A. Biala


This paper deals with the numerical integration of the general second order multipoint boundary value problems. This has been achieved by the development of a continuous linear multistep method (LMM). The continuous LMM is used to construct a main discrete method to be used with some initial and final methods (also obtained from the continuous LMM) so that they form a discrete analogue of the continuous second order boundary value problems. These methods are used as boundary value methods and adapted to cope with the integration of the general second order multipoint boundary value problems. The convergence, the use and the region of absolute stability of the methods are discussed. Several numerical examples are implemented to elucidate our solution process.

Keywords: linear multistep methods, boundary value methods, second order multipoint boundary value problems, convergence

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9713 Triggering Supersonic Boundary-Layer Instability by Small-Scale Vortex Shedding

Authors: Guohua Tu, Zhi Fu, Zhiwei Hu, Neil D Sandham, Jianqiang Chen


Tripping of boundary-layers from laminar to turbulent flow, which may be necessary in specific practical applications, requires high amplitude disturbances to be introduced into the boundary layers without large drag penalties. As a possible improvement on fixed trip devices, a technique based on vortex shedding for enhancing supersonic flow transition is demonstrated in the present paper for a Mach 1.5 boundary layer. The compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved directly using a high-order (fifth-order in space and third-order in time) finite difference method for small-scale cylinders suspended transversely near the wall. For cylinders with proper diameter and mount location, asymmetry vortices shed within the boundary layer are capable of tripping laminar-turbulent transition. Full three-dimensional simulations showed that transition was enhanced. A parametric study of the size and mounting location of the cylinder is carried out to identify the most effective setup. It is also found that the vortex shedding can be suppressed by some factors such as wall effect.

Keywords: boundary layer instability, boundary layer transition, vortex shedding, supersonic flows, flow control

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9712 The Musical Imagination: Re-Imagining a Sound Education through Musical Boundary Play

Authors: Michael J. Cutler


This paper presents what musical boundary play can look like when beginning music learners work with professional musicians with an emphasis on composition. Music education can be re-imagined through the lenses of boundary objects and boundary play by engaging non-professional musicians in collaborative sound creation, improvisation and composition along with professional musicians. To the author’s best knowledge, no similar study exists on boundary objects and boundary play in music education. The literature reviewed for this paper explores the epistemological perspectives connected to music education and situates musical boundary play as an alternative approach to the more prevalent paradigms of music education in K-12 settings. A qualitative multiple-case study design was chosen to seek an in-depth understanding of the role of boundary objects and musical boundary play. The constant comparative method was utilized in analyzing and interpreting the data resulting in the development of effective, transferable theory. The study gathered relevant data using audio and video recordings of musical boundary play, artifacts, interviews, and observations. Findings from this study offer insight into the development of a more inclusive music education and yield a pedagogical framework for music education based on musical boundary play. Through the facilitation of musical boundary play, it is possible for music learners to experience musical sound creation, improvisation and composition in the same way an instrumentalist or vocalist would without the acquisition of complex component operations required to play a traditional instrument or sing in a proficient manner.

Keywords: boundary play, boundary objects, music education, music pedagogy, musical boundary play

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9711 The Quantitative Analysis of the Traditional Rural Settlement Plane Boundary

Authors: Yifan Dong, Xincheng Pu


Rural settlements originate from the accumulation of residential building elements, and their agglomeration forms the settlement pattern and defines the relationship between the settlement and the inside and outside. The settlement boundary is an important part of the settlement pattern. Compared with the simplification of the urban settlement boundary, the settlement of the country is more complex, fuzzy and uncertain, and then presents a rich and diverse boundary morphological phenomenon. In this paper, China traditional rural settlements plane boundary as the research object, using fractal theory and fractal dimension method, quantitative analysis of planar shape boundary settlement, and expounds the research for the architectural design, ancient architecture protection and renewal and development and the significance of the protection of settlements.

Keywords: rural settlement, border, fractal, quantification

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9710 Magnetohydrodynamic 3D Maxwell Fluid Flow Towards a Horizontal Stretched Surface with Convective Boundary Conditions

Authors: M. Y. Malika, Farzana, Abdul Rehman


The study deals with the steady, 3D MHD boundary layer flow of a non-Newtonian Maxwell fluid flow due to a horizontal surface stretched exponentially in two lateral directions. The temperature at the boundary is assumed to be distributed exponentially and possesses convective boundary conditions. The governing nonlinear system of partial differential equations along with associated boundary conditions is simplified using a suitable transformation and the obtained set of ordinary differential equations is solved through numerical techniques. The effects of important involved parameters associated with fluid flow and heat flux are shown through graphs.

Keywords: boundary layer flow, exponentially stretched surface, Maxwell fluid, numerical solution

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9709 Noise Reduction by Energising the Boundary Layer

Authors: Kiran P. Kumar, H. M. Nayana, R. Rakshitha, S. Sushmitha


Aircraft noise is a highly concerned problem in the field of the aviation industry. It is necessary to reduce the noise in order to be environment-friendly. Air-frame noise is caused because of the quick separation of the boundary layer over an aircraft body. So, we have to delay the boundary layer separation of an air-frame and engine nacelle. By following a certain procedure boundary layer separation can be reduced by converting laminar into turbulent and hence early separation can be prevented that leads to the noise reduction. This method has a tendency to reduce the noise of the aircraft hence it can prove efficient and environment-friendly than the present Aircraft.

Keywords: airframe, boundary layer, noise, reduction

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9708 Collocation Method for Coupled System of Boundary Value Problems with Cubic B-Splines

Authors: K. N. S. Kasi Viswanadham


Coupled system of second order linear and nonlinear boundary value problems occur in various fields of Science and Engineering. In the formulation of the problem, any one of 81 possible types of boundary conditions may occur. These 81 possible boundary conditions are written as a combination of four boundary conditions. To solve a coupled system of boundary value problem with these converted boundary conditions, a collocation method with cubic B-splines as basis functions has been developed. In the collocation method, the mesh points of the space variable domain have been selected as the collocation points. The basis functions have been redefined into a new set of basis functions which in number match with the number of mesh points in the space variable domain. The solution of a non-linear boundary value problem has been obtained as the limit of a sequence of solutions of linear boundary value problems generated by quasilinearization technique. Several linear and nonlinear boundary value problems are presented to test the efficiency of the proposed method and found that numerical results obtained by the present method are in good agreement with the exact solutions available in the literature.

Keywords: collocation method, coupled system, cubic b-splines, mesh points

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9707 Exact and Approximate Controllability of Nuclear Dynamics Using Bilinear Controls

Authors: Ramdas Sonawane, Mahaveer Gadiya


The control problem associated with nuclear dynamics is represented by nonlinear integro-differential equation with additive controls. To control chain reaction, certain amount of neutrons is added into (or withdrawn out of) chamber as and when required. It is not realistic. So, we can think of controlling the reactor dynamics by bilinear control, which enters the system as coefficient of state. In this paper, we study the approximate and exact controllability of parabolic integro-differential equation controlled by bilinear control with non-homogeneous boundary conditions in bounded domain. We prove the existence of control and propose an explicit control strategy.

Keywords: approximate control, exact control, bilinear control, nuclear dynamics, integro-differential equations

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9706 Surface Roughness Prediction Using Numerical Scheme and Adaptive Control

Authors: Michael K.O. Ayomoh, Khaled A. Abou-El-Hossein., Sameh F.M. Ghobashy


This paper proposes a numerical modelling scheme for surface roughness prediction. The approach is premised on the use of 3D difference analysis method enhanced with the use of feedback control loop where a set of adaptive weights are generated. The surface roughness values utilized in this paper were adapted from [1]. Their experiments were carried out using S55C high carbon steel. A comparison was further carried out between the proposed technique and those utilized in [1]. The experimental design has three cutting parameters namely: depth of cut, feed rate and cutting speed with twenty-seven experimental sample-space. The simulation trials conducted using Matlab software is of two sub-classes namely: prediction of the surface roughness readings for the non-boundary cutting combinations (NBCC) with the aid of the known surface roughness readings of the boundary cutting combinations (BCC). The following simulation involved the use of the predicted outputs from the NBCC to recover the surface roughness readings for the boundary cutting combinations (BCC). The simulation trial for the NBCC attained a state of total stability in the 7th iteration i.e. a point where the actual and desired roughness readings are equal such that error is minimized to zero by using a set of dynamic weights generated in every following simulation trial. A comparative study among the three methods showed that the proposed difference analysis technique with adaptive weight from feedback control, produced a much accurate output as against the abductive and regression analysis techniques presented in this.

Keywords: Difference Analysis, Surface Roughness; Mesh- Analysis, Feedback control, Adaptive weight, Boundary Element

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9705 Computational Aerodynamic Shape Optimisation Using a Concept of Control Nodes and Modified Cuckoo Search

Authors: D. S. Naumann, B. J. Evans, O. Hassan


This paper outlines the development of an automated aerodynamic optimisation algorithm using a novel method of parameterising a computational mesh by employing user–defined control nodes. The shape boundary movement is coupled to the movement of the novel concept of the control nodes via a quasi-1D-linear deformation. Additionally, a second order smoothing step has been integrated to act on the boundary during the mesh movement based on the change in its second derivative. This allows for both linear and non-linear shape transformations dependent on the preference of the user. The domain mesh movement is then coupled to the shape boundary movement via a Delaunay graph mapping. A Modified Cuckoo Search (MCS) algorithm is used for optimisation within the prescribed design space defined by the allowed range of control node displacement. A finite volume compressible NavierStokes solver is used for aerodynamic modelling to predict aerodynamic design fitness. The resulting coupled algorithm is applied to a range of test cases in two dimensions including the design of a subsonic, transonic and supersonic intake and the optimisation approach is compared with more conventional optimisation strategies. Ultimately, the algorithm is tested on a three dimensional wing optimisation case.

Keywords: mesh movement, aerodynamic shape optimization, cuckoo search, shape parameterisation

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9704 Effect of Boundary Retaining Walls Properties on the Raft Foundations Behaviour

Authors: Mohamed Hussein


This paper studies the effect of boundary retaining walls properties on the behavior of the raft foundation. Commercial software program Sap2000 was used in this study. The soil was presented as continuous media (follows the Winkler assumption). Shell elements were employed to model the raft plate. A parametric study has been carried out to examine the effect of boundary retaining walls properties on the behavior of raft plate. These parameters namely, height of the boundary retaining walls, thickness of the boundary retaining walls, flexural rigidity of raft plate, bearing capacity of supporting soil and the earth pressure of boundary soil. The main results which were obtained from this study are positive, negative bending moment, shear stress and deflection in raft plate, where these parameters are considered the main parameters used in design of raft foundation. It was concluded that the boundary retaining walls have a significant effect on the straining actions in raft plate.

Keywords: Sap2000, boundary retaining walls, raft foundations, Winkler model, flexural rigidity

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9703 Effect of Boundary Condition on Granular Pressure of Gas-Solid Flow in a Rotating Drum

Authors: Rezwana Rahman


Various simulations have been conducted to understand the particle's macroscopic behavior in the solid-gas multiphase flow in rotating drums in the past. In these studies, the particle-wall no-slip boundary condition was usually adopted. However, the non-slip boundary condition is rarely encountered in real systems. A little effort has been made to investigate the particle behavior at slip boundary conditions. The paper represents a study of the gas-solid flow in a horizontal rotating drum at a slip boundary wall condition. Two different sizes of particles with the same density have been considered. The Eulerian–Eulerian multiphase model with the kinetic theory of granular flow was used in the simulations. The granular pressure at the rolling flow regime with specularity coefficient 1 was examined and compared with that obtained based on the no-slip boundary condition. The results reveal that the profiles of granular pressure distribution on the transverse plane of the drum are similar for both boundary conditions. But, overall, compared with those for the no-slip boundary condition, the values of granular pressure for specularity coefficient 1 are larger for the larger particle and smaller for the smaller particle.

Keywords: boundary condition, eulerian–eulerian, multiphase, specularity coefficient, transverse plane

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9702 Grain Boundary Detection Based on Superpixel Merges

Authors: Gaokai Liu


The distribution of material grain sizes reflects the strength, fracture, corrosion and other properties, and the grain size can be acquired via the grain boundary. In recent years, the automatic grain boundary detection is widely required instead of complex experimental operations. In this paper, an effective solution is applied to acquire the grain boundary of material images. First, the initial superpixel segmentation result is obtained via a superpixel approach. Then, a region merging method is employed to merge adjacent regions based on certain similarity criterions, the experimental results show that the merging strategy improves the superpixel segmentation result on material datasets.

Keywords: grain boundary detection, image segmentation, material images, region merging

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9701 Boundary Motion by Curvature: Accessible Modeling of Oil Spill Evaporation/Dissipation

Authors: Gary Miller, Andriy Didenko, David Allison


The boundary of a region in the plane shrinks according to its curvature. A simple algorithm based upon this motion by curvature performed by a spreadsheet simulates the evaporation/dissipation behavior of oil spill boundaries.

Keywords: mathematical modeling, oil, evaporation, dissipation, boundary

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9700 Experimental Simulation of Soil Boundary Condition for Dynamic Studies

Authors: Omar S. Qaftan, T. T. Sabbagh


This paper studies the free-field response by adopting a flexible membrane container as soil boundary for experimental shaking table tests. The influence of the soil container boundary on the soil behaviour and the dynamic soil properties under seismic effect were examined. A flexible container with 1/50 scale factor was adopted in the experimental tests, including construction, instrumentation, and determination of the results of dynamic tests on a shaking table. Horizontal face displacements and accelerations were analysed to determine the influence of the container boundary on the performance of the soil. The outputs results show that the flexible boundary container allows more displacement and larger accelerations. The soil in a rigid wall container cannot deform as similar as the soil in the real field does. Therefore, the response of flexible container tested is believed to be more reliable for soil boundary than that in the rigid container.

Keywords: soil, seismic, earthquake, interaction

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9699 Grain and Grain Boundary Behavior of Sm Substituted Barium Titanate Based Ceramics

Authors: Parveen Kumar, J. K. Juneja, Chandra Prakash, K. K. Raina


A series of polycrystalline ferroelectric ceramics with compositional formula Ba0.80-xSmxPb0.20Ti0.90Zr0.10O3 with x varying from 0 to 0.01 in the steps of 0.0025 has been prepared by solid state reaction method. The dielectric constant and tangent loss was measured as a function of frequency from 100Hz to 1MHz at different temperatures (200-500oC). The electrical behavior was then investigated using complex impedance spectroscopy (CIS) technique. From the CIS study, it has been found that there is a contribution of both grain and grain boundary in the electrical behavior of such ceramics. Grain and grain boundary resistivity and capacitance were calculated at different temperature using CIS technique. The present paper is about the discussion of grain and grain boundary contribution towards the electrical properties of Sm modified BaTiO3 based ceramics at high temperature.

Keywords: grain, grain boundary, impedance, dielectric

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9698 Numerical Computation of Sturm-Liouville Problem with Robin Boundary Condition

Authors: Theddeus T. Akano, Omotayo A. Fakinlede


The modelling of physical phenomena, such as the earth’s free oscillations, the vibration of strings, the interaction of atomic particles, or the steady state flow in a bar give rise to Sturm-Liouville (SL) eigenvalue problems. The boundary applications of some systems like the convection-diffusion equation, electromagnetic and heat transfer problems requires the combination of Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. Hence, the incorporation of Robin boundary condition in the analyses of Sturm-Liouville problem. This paper deals with the computation of the eigenvalues and eigenfunction of generalized Sturm-Liouville problems with Robin boundary condition using the finite element method. Numerical solutions of classical Sturm–Liouville problems are presented. The results show an agreement with the exact solution. High results precision is achieved with higher number of elements.

Keywords: Sturm-Liouville problem, Robin boundary condition, finite element method, eigenvalue problems

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9697 1D Klein-Gordon Equation in an Infinite Square Well with PT Symmetry Boundary Conditions

Authors: Suleiman Bashir Adamu, Lawan Sani Taura


We study the role of boundary conditions via -symmetric quantum mechanics, where denotes parity operator and denotes time reversal operator. Using the one-dimensional Schrödinger Hamiltonian for a free particle in an infinite square well, we introduce symmetric boundary conditions. We find solutions of the 1D Klein-Gordon equation for a free particle in an infinite square well with Hermitian boundary and symmetry boundary conditions, where in both cases the energy eigenvalues and eigenfunction, respectively, are obtained.

Keywords: Eigenvalues, Eigenfunction, Hamiltonian, Klein- Gordon equation, PT-symmetric quantum mechanics

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9696 Wave Transmitting Boundary in Dynamic Analysis for an Elastoplastic Medium Using the Material Point Method

Authors: Chinh Phuong Do


Dynamic analysis of slope under seismic condition requires the elimination of spurious reflection at the bounded domain. This paper studies the performances of wave transmitting boundaries, including the standard viscous boundary and the viscoelastic boundary to the material point method (MPM) framework. First, analytical derivations of these non-reflecting conditions particularly to the implicit MPM are presented. Then, a number of benchmark and geotechnical examples will be shown. Overall, the results agree well with analytical solutions, indicating the ability to accurately simulate the radiation at the bounded domain.

Keywords: dynamic analysis, implicit, MPM, non-reflecting boundary

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9695 A Numerical Study of Force-Based Boundary Conditions in Multiparticle Collision Dynamics

Authors: Arturo Ayala-Hernandez, Humberto Hijar


We propose a new alternative method for imposing fluid-solid boundary conditions in simulations of Multiparticle Collision Dynamics. Our method is based on the introduction of an explicit potential force acting between the fluid particles and a surface representing a solid boundary. We show that our method can be used in simulations of plane Poiseuille flows. Important quantities characterizing the flow and the fluid-solid interaction like the slip coefficient at the solid boundary and the effective viscosity of the fluid, are measured in terms of the set of independent parameters defining the numerical implementation. We find that our method can be used to simulate the correct hydrodynamic flow within a wide range of values of these parameters.

Keywords: Multiparticle Collision Dynamics, fluid-solid, boundary conditions, molecular dynamics

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9694 Combined Effect of Moving and Open Boundary Conditions in the Simulation of Inland Inundation Due to Far Field Tsunami

Authors: M. Ashaque Meah, Md. Fazlul Karim, M. Shah Noor, Nazmun Nahar Papri, M. Khalid Hossen, M. Ismoen


Tsunami and inundation modelling due to far field tsunami propagation in a limited area is a very challenging numerical task because it involves many aspects such as the formation of various types of waves and the irregularities of coastal boundaries. To compute the effect of far field tsunami and extent of inland inundation due to far field tsunami along the coastal belts of west coast of Malaysia and Southern Thailand, a formulated boundary condition and a moving boundary condition are simultaneously used. In this study, a boundary fitted curvilinear grid system is used in order to incorporate the coastal and island boundaries accurately as the boundaries of the model domain are curvilinear in nature and the bending is high. The tsunami response of the event 26 December 2004 along the west open boundary of the model domain is computed to simulate the effect of far field tsunami. Based on the data of the tsunami source at the west open boundary of the model domain, a boundary condition is formulated and applied to simulate the tsunami response along the coastal and island boundaries. During the simulation process, a moving boundary condition is initiated instead of fixed vertical seaside wall. The extent of inland inundation and tsunami propagation pattern are computed. Some comparisons are carried out to test the validation of the simultaneous use of the two boundary conditions. All simulations show excellent agreement with the data of observation.

Keywords: open boundary condition, moving boundary condition, boundary-fitted curvilinear grids, far-field tsunami, shallow water equations, tsunami source, Indonesian tsunami of 2004

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9693 Existence of Positive Solutions to a Dirichlet Second Order Boundary Value Problem

Authors: Muhammad Sufian Jusoh, Mesliza Mohamed


In this paper, we investigate the existence of positive solutions for a Dirichlet second order boundary value problem by applying the Krasnosel'skii fixed point theorem on compression and expansion of cones.

Keywords: Krasnosel'skii fixed point theorem, positive solutions, Dirichlet boundary value problem, Dirichlet second order boundary problem

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9692 Educational Practices and Brain Based Language Learning

Authors: Dur-E- Shahwar


Much attention has been given to ‘bridging the gap’ between neuroscience and educational practice. In order to gain a better understanding of the nature of this gap and of possibilities to enable the linking process, we have taken a boundary perspective on these two fields and the brain-based learning approach, focusing on boundary-spanning actors, boundary objects, and boundary work. In 26 semi-structured interviews, neuroscientists and education professionals were asked about their perceptions in regard to the gap between science and practice and the role they play in creating, managing, and disrupting this boundary. Neuroscientists and education professionals often hold conflicting views and expectations of both brain-based learning and of each other. This leads us to argue that there are increased prospects for a neuro-scientifically informed learning practice if science and practice work together as equal stakeholders in developing and implementing neuroscience research.

Keywords: language learning, explore, educational practices, mentalist, practice

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9691 Urban Boundary Layer and Its Effects on Haze Episode in Thailand

Authors: S. Bualert, K. Duangmal


Atmospheric boundary layer shows effects of land cover on atmospheric characteristic in term of temperature gradient and wind profile. They are key factors to control atmospheric process such as atmospheric dilution and mixing via thermal and mechanical turbulent. Bangkok, ChiangMai, and Hatyai are major cities of central, southern and northern of Thailand, respectively. The different of them are location, geography and size of the city, Bangkok is the most urbanized city and classified as mega city compared to ChiangMai and HatYai, respectively. They have been suffering from air pollution episode such as transboundary haze. The worst period of the northern part of Thailand was occurred at the end of February through April of each year. The particulate matter less than 10 micrometer (PM10) concentrations were higher than Thai’s ambient air quality standard (120 micrograms per cubic meter) more than two times. Radiosonde technique and air pollutant (CO, PM10, TSP, O3, NOx) measurements were used to identify characteristics of urban boundary layer and air pollutions problems in the cities. Furthermore, air pollutant profiles showed good relationship to characteristic’s urban boundary layer especially on daytime temperature inversion on 29 February 2009 caused two times higher than normal concentrations of CO and particulate matter.

Keywords: haze episode, micrometeorology, temperature inversion, urban boundary layer

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9690 3D Microbubble Dynamics in a Weakly Viscous Fluid Near a Rigid Boundary Subject to Ultrasound

Authors: K. Manmi, Q. X. Wang


This paper investigates microbubble dynamics subject to ultrasound in a weakly viscous fluid near a rigid boundary. The phenomenon is simulated using a boundary integral method. The weak viscous effects are incorporated into the model through the normal stress balance across the bubble surface. The model agrees well with the Rayleigh-Plesset equation for a spherical bubble for several cycles. The effects of the fluid viscosity in the bubble dynamics are analyzed, including jet development, centroid movement and bubble volume.

Keywords: microbubble dynamics, bubble jetting, viscous effect, boundary integral method

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