Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 711

Search results for: dates nodes

711 Valorization of Dates Nodes as a Carbon Source Using Biological Denitrification

Authors: Ouerdia Benbelkacem Belouanas

Abstract:

Heterotrophic denitrification has been proven to be one of the most feasible processes for removing nitrate from waste water and drinking water. In this process, heterotrophic bacteria use organic carbon for both growth and as an electron source. Underground water pollution by nitrates become alarming in Algeria. A survey carried out revealed that the nitrate concentration is in continual increase. Studies in some region revealed contamination exceeding the recommended permissible dose which is 50 mg/L. Worrying values in the regions of Mascara, Ouled saber, El Eulma, Bouira and Algiers are respectively 72 mg/L, 75 mg/L, 97 mg/L, 102 mg/L, and 158 mg/L. High concentration of nitrate in drinking water is associated with serious health risks. Research on nitrate removal technologies from municipal water supplies is increasing because of nitrate contamination. Biological denitrification enables transformation of oxidized nitrogen compounds by a wide spectrum of heterotrophic bacteria into harmless nitrogen gas with accompanying carbon removal. Globally, denitrification is commonly employed in biological nitrogen removal processes to enhance water quality. The study investigated the valorization of a vegetable residue as a carbon source (dates nodes) in water treatment using the denitrification process. Throughout the study, the effect of inoculums addition, pH, and initial concentration of nitrates was also investigated. In this research, a natural organic substance: dates nodes were investigated as a carbon source in the biological denitrification of drinking water. This material acts as a solid substrate and bio-film carrier. The experiments were carried out in batch processes. Complete denitrification was achieved varied between 80 and 100% according to the type of process used. It was found that the nitrate removal rate based on our results, we concluded that the removal of organic matter and nitrogen compounds depended mainly on initial concentration of nitrate. The effluent pH was mainly affected by the C/N ratio, where a decrease increases pH.

Keywords: biofilm, carbon source, dates nodes, heterotrophic denitrification, nitrate, nitrite

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
710 Evaluating the Green Marketing Performance, an Empirical Study for Dates Factories in Al-Kharj Province, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Saleh Abdullah Dabil

Abstract:

The research aims to survey the dates factories in Al-Kharj Province, and then identify the nature of a series of different production processes and the using of raw materials, as well as their finished products, and the extent of their impact on the environment or consumers satisfaction. Twenty dates factories were selected according to their willingness to participate. The participants of dates factories consist of approximately 40 % of all dates factories in Al-Kharj province. All of the dates factories which were visited were observed. The research team also administered number of questionnaires to the public to know their satisfaction levels of the dates products as well as their suggestions. It is accounted to 237 participants who gave their opinion about the dates products and their suggestions. This study is one of rare studies about green marketing in dates factories. What is new about this study is that it depends upon both of the managers and consumers as well as the researchers to look into the factories’ production line and to observe the level of satisfaction. The study resulted in a very good ending because that the green marketing of dates is in its highest level. This indicates that the factories in general using natural materials and no bad materials or subsides used in the production, the levels of satisfaction by consumers are very good, preferring mostly lose product of dates. The preference of lose dates means the tendency to use the dates in their natural product. The recommendations of this study suggest solving marketing problems in transforming raw dates into manufacturing products. This includes biscuits and other types of sweet products.

Keywords: green marketing, dates factories, environment impact, consumer satisfaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
709 Study of Biological Denitrification using Heterotrophic Bacteria and Natural Source of Carbon

Authors: Benbelkacem Ouerdia

Abstract:

Heterotrophic denitrification has been proven to be one of the most feasible processes for removing nitrate from wastewater and drinking water. In this process, heterotrophic bacteria use organic carbon for both growth and as an electron source. Underground water pollution by nitrates become alarming in Algeria. A survey carried out revealed that the nitrate concentration is in continual increase. Studies in some region revealed contamination exceeding the recommended permissible dose which is 50 mg/L. Worrying values in the regions of Mascara, Ouled saber, El Eulma, Bouira and Algiers are respectively 72 mg/L, 75 mg/L, 97 mg/L, 102 mg/L, and 158 mg/L. High concentration of nitrate in drinking water is associated with serious health risks. Research on nitrate removal technologies from municipal water supplies is increasing because of nitrate contamination. Biological denitrification enables the transformation of oxidized nitrogen compounds by a wide spectrum of heterotrophic bacteria into harmless nitrogen gas with accompanying carbon removal. Globally, denitrification is commonly employed in biological nitrogen removal processes to enhance water quality The study investigated the valorization of a vegetable residue as a carbon source (dates nodes) in water treatment using the denitrification process. Throughout the study, the effect of inoculums addition, pH, and initial concentration of nitrates was also investigated. In this research, a natural organic substance: dates nodes were investigated as a carbon source in the biological denitrification of drinking water. This material acts as a solid substrate and bio-film carrier. The experiments were carried out in batch processes. Complete denitrification was achieved varied between 80 and 100% according to the type of process used. It was found that the nitrate removal rate based on our results, we concluded that the removal of organic matter and nitrogen compounds depended mainly on the initial concentration of nitrate. The effluent pH was mainly affected by the C/N ratio, where a decrease increases pH.

Keywords: biofilm, carbon source, dates nodes, heterotrophic denitrification, nitrate, nitrite

Procedia PDF Downloads 410
708 Improving Utilization of Sugarcane by Replacing Ordinary Propagation Material with Small Chips of Sugarcane Planted in Paper Pots

Authors: C. Garcia, C. Andreasen

Abstract:

Sugarcane is an important resource for bioenergy. Fields are usually established by using 15-20 cm pieces of sugarcane stalks as propagation material. An alternative method is to use small chips with nodes from sugarcane stalks. Plants from nodes are often established in plastic pots, but plastic pots could be replaced with biodegradable paper pots. This would be a more sustainable solution, reducing labor costs and avoiding pollution with plastic. We compared the establishment of plants from nodes taken from three different part of the sugarcane plant. The nodes were planted in plastic and paper pots. There was no significant difference between plants established in the two pot types. Nodes from different part of the stalk had different sprouting capacity. Nodes from the top parts sprouted significantly better than nodes taken from the middle or nodes taken closed to the ground in two experiments. Nodes with a length of 3 cm performed better than nodes with a length of 2 cm.

Keywords: nodes, paper pots, propagation material, sugarcane

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
707 Misleading Node Detection and Response Mechanism in Mobile Ad-Hoc Network

Authors: Earleen Jane Fuentes, Regeene Melarese Lim, Franklin Benjamin Tapia, Alexis Pantola

Abstract:

Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is an infrastructure-less network of mobile devices, also known as nodes. These nodes heavily rely on each other’s resources such as memory, computing power, and energy. Thus, some nodes may become selective in forwarding packets so as to conserve their resources. These nodes are called misleading nodes. Several reputation-based techniques (e.g. CORE, CONFIDANT, LARS, SORI, OCEAN) and acknowledgment-based techniques (e.g. TWOACK, S-TWOACK, EAACK) have been proposed to detect such nodes. These techniques do not appropriately punish misleading nodes. Hence, this paper addresses the limitations of these techniques using a system called MINDRA.

Keywords: acknowledgment-based techniques, mobile ad-hoc network, selfish nodes, reputation-based techniques

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
706 Physico-Chemical Parameters and Economic Evaluation of Bio-Ethanol Produced from Waste of Starting Dates in South Algeria

Authors: Insaf Mehani, Bachir Bouchekima

Abstract:

The fight against climate change and the replacement of fossil energies nearing exhaustion gradually emerge as major societal and economic challenges. It is possible to develop common dates of low commercial value, and put on the local and international market a new generation of products with high added values such as bio ethanol. Besides its use in chemical synthesis, bio ethanol can be blended with gasoline to produce a clean fuel while improving the octane.

Keywords: bio-energy, waste dates, bio ethanol, Algeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
705 A Techno-Economic Evaluation of Bio Fuel Production from Waste of Starting Dates in South Algeria

Authors: Insaf Mehani, Bachir Bouchekima

Abstract:

The necessary reduction and progressive consumption of fossil fuels, whose scarcity is inevitable, involves mobilizing a set of alternatives.Renewable energy, including bio energy are an alternative to fossil fuel depletion and a way to fight against the harmful effects of climate change. It is possible to develop common dates of low commercial value, and put on the local and international market a new generation of products with high added values such as bio ethanol. Besides its use in chemical synthesis, bio ethanol can be blended with gasoline to produce a clean fuel while improving the octane.

Keywords: bioenergy, dates, bioethanol, renewable energy, south Algeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 408
704 Data Clustering in Wireless Sensor Network Implemented on Self-Organization Feature Map (SOFM) Neural Network

Authors: Krishan Kumar, Mohit Mittal, Pramod Kumar

Abstract:

Wireless sensor network is one of the most promising communication networks for monitoring remote environmental areas. In this network, all the sensor nodes are communicated with each other via radio signals. The sensor nodes have capability of sensing, data storage and processing. The sensor nodes collect the information through neighboring nodes to particular node. The data collection and processing is done by data aggregation techniques. For the data aggregation in sensor network, clustering technique is implemented in the sensor network by implementing self-organizing feature map (SOFM) neural network. Some of the sensor nodes are selected as cluster head nodes. The information aggregated to cluster head nodes from non-cluster head nodes and then this information is transferred to base station (or sink nodes). The aim of this paper is to manage the huge amount of data with the help of SOM neural network. Clustered data is selected to transfer to base station instead of whole information aggregated at cluster head nodes. This reduces the battery consumption over the huge data management. The network lifetime is enhanced at a greater extent.

Keywords: artificial neural network, data clustering, self organization feature map, wireless sensor network

Procedia PDF Downloads 416
703 Scheduling Nodes Activity and Data Communication for Target Tracking in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: AmirHossein Mohajerzadeh, Mohammad Alishahi, Saeed Aslishahi, Mohsen Zabihi

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider sensor nodes with the capability of measuring the bearings (relative angle to the target). We use geometric methods to select a set of observer nodes which are responsible for collecting data from the target. Considering the characteristics of target tracking applications, it is clear that significant numbers of sensor nodes are usually inactive. Therefore, in order to minimize the total network energy consumption, a set of sensor nodes, called sentinel, is periodically selected for monitoring, controlling the environment and transmitting data through the network. The other nodes are inactive. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm provides a joint scheduling and routing algorithm to transmit data between network nodes and the fusion center (FC) in which not only provides an efficient way to estimate the target position but also provides an efficient target tracking. Performance evaluation confirms the superiority of the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: coverage, routing, scheduling, target tracking, wireless sensor networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
702 Node Optimization in Wireless Sensor Network: An Energy Approach

Authors: Y. B. Kirankumar, J. D. Mallapur

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is an emerging technology, which has great invention for various low cost applications both for mass public as well as for defence. The wireless sensor communication technology allows random participation of sensor nodes with particular applications to take part in the network, which results in most of the uncovered simulation area, where fewer nodes are located at far distances. The drawback of such network would be that the additional energy is spent by the nodes located in a pattern of dense location, using more number of nodes for a smaller distance of communication adversely in a region with less number of nodes and additional energy is again spent by the source node in order to transmit a packet to neighbours, thereby transmitting the packet to reach the destination. The proposed work is intended to develop Energy Efficient Node Placement Algorithm (EENPA) in order to place the sensor node efficiently in simulated area, where all the nodes are equally located on a radial path to cover maximum area at equidistance. The total energy consumed by each node compared to random placement of nodes is less by having equal burden on fewer nodes of far location, having distributed the nodes in whole of the simulation area. Calculating the network lifetime also proves to be efficient as compared to random placement of nodes, hence increasing the network lifetime, too. Simulation is been carried out in a qualnet simulator, results are obtained on par with random placement of nodes with EENP algorithm.

Keywords: energy, WSN, wireless sensor network, energy approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
701 Scheduling Jobs with Stochastic Processing Times or Due Dates on a Server to Minimize the Number of Tardy Jobs

Authors: H. M. Soroush

Abstract:

The problem of scheduling products and services for on-time deliveries is of paramount importance in today’s competitive environments. It arises in many manufacturing and service organizations where it is desirable to complete jobs (products or services) with different weights (penalties) on or before their due dates. In such environments, schedules should frequently decide whether to schedule a job based on its processing time, due-date, and the penalty for tardy delivery to improve the system performance. For example, it is common to measure the weighted number of late jobs or the percentage of on-time shipments to evaluate the performance of a semiconductor production facility or an automobile assembly line. In this paper, we address the problem of scheduling a set of jobs on a server where processing times or due-dates of jobs are random variables and fixed weights (penalties) are imposed on the jobs’ late deliveries. The goal is to find the schedule that minimizes the expected weighted number of tardy jobs. The problem is NP-hard to solve; however, we explore three scenarios of the problem wherein: (i) both processing times and due-dates are stochastic; (ii) processing times are stochastic and due-dates are deterministic; and (iii) processing times are deterministic and due-dates are stochastic. We prove that special cases of these scenarios are solvable optimally in polynomial time, and introduce efficient heuristic methods for the general cases. Our computational results show that the heuristics perform well in yielding either optimal or near optimal sequences. The results also demonstrate that the stochasticity of processing times or due-dates can affect scheduling decisions. Moreover, the proposed problem is general in the sense that its special cases reduce to some new and some classical stochastic single machine models.

Keywords: number of late jobs, scheduling, single server, stochastic

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
700 Research on Dynamic Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance Consensus Algorithm

Authors: Cao Xiaopeng, Shi Linkai

Abstract:

The practical Byzantine fault-tolerant algorithm does not add nodes dynamically. It is limited in practical application. In order to add nodes dynamically, Dynamic Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance Algorithm (DPBFT) was proposed. Firstly, a new node sends request information to other nodes in the network. The nodes in the network decide their identities and requests. Then the nodes in the network reverse connect to the new node and send block information of the current network. The new node updates information. Finally, the new node participates in the next round of consensus, changes the view and selects the master node. This paper abstracts the decision of nodes into the undirected connected graph. The final consistency of the graph is used to prove that the proposed algorithm can adapt to the network dynamically. Compared with the PBFT algorithm, DPBFT has better fault tolerance and lower network bandwidth.

Keywords: practical byzantine, fault tolerance, blockchain, consensus algorithm, consistency analysis

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699 A New Heuristic Algorithm for Maximization Total Demands of Nodes and Number of Covered Nodes Simultaneously

Authors: Ehsan Saghehei, Mahdi Eghbali

Abstract:

The maximal covering location problem (MCLP) was originally developed to determine a set of facility locations which would maximize the total customers' demand serviced by the facilities within a predetermined critical service criterion. However, on some problems that differences between the demand nodes are covered or the number of nodes each node is large, the method of solving MCLP may ignore these differences. In this paper, Heuristic solution based on the ranking of demands in each node and the number of nodes covered by each node according to a predetermined critical value is proposed. The output of this method is to maximize total demands of nodes and number of covered nodes, simultaneously. Furthermore, by providing an example, the solution algorithm is described and its results are compared with Greedy and Lagrange algorithms. Also, the results of the algorithm to solve the larger problem sizes that compared with other methods are provided. A summary and future works conclude the paper.

Keywords: heuristic solution, maximal covering location problem, ranking, set covering

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698 Use of High Hydrostatic Pressure as an Alternative Preservation Method for Fresh Dates, Rutab

Authors: Salah Mohammed Al-Eid, Siddig Hussein Hamad, Fahad Mohammed Aljassas

Abstract:

The effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatments on microbial contamination, chemical and physical properties of fresh dates (Rutab stage) were studied. Khalas, Barhi and Hilali cultivars were treated at 200, 250, 300 and 350 MPa using HHP research apparatus. The objective of such treatments was to preserve fresh dates without adversely affecting its properties. Treating fresh dates at 300 MPa for 5 minutes at 40°C reduced microbial contamination in about 2.5 log cycles. Applying 250 MPa was enough to control Rutab contamination with molds, yeasts, and coliforms. Both treatments were enough to reduce Rutab microbial contamination to acceptable levels. HHP caused no significant effect on Rutab chemical properties (moisture, sugars, protein, pectin and acidity). However, a slight decrease in moisture contents due to HHP was observed. Rutab lightness (L*) significantly decreased due to the application of HHP. Only Rutab treated at 300 MPs gave lower redness (a*) values compared with an untreated sample. The effect of 300 MPa on increasing yellowness (b*) was observed for Barhi and Hilali but decreasing for Khalas. The hardness of all Rutab cultivars significantly decreased as a result of HHP application. In fact, the pressure applied at 300 MPa had an adverse effect on texture, which may limit its suitability for use in Rutab preservation.

Keywords: high hydrostatic pressure, fresh dates (Rutab), microbial contamination, color, texture

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
697 A Wireless Sensor Network Protocol for a Car Parking Space Monitoring System

Authors: Jung-Ho Moon, Myung-Gon Yoon, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

This paper presents a wireless sensor network protocol for a car parking monitoring system. A wireless sensor network for the purpose is composed of multiple sensor nodes, a sink node, a gateway, and a server. Each of the sensor nodes is equipped with a 3-axis AMR sensor and deployed in the center of a parking space. The sensor node reads its sensor values periodically and transmits the data to the sink node if the current and immediate past sensor values show a difference exceeding a threshold value. The operations of the sink and sensor nodes are described in detail along with flow diagrams. The protocol allows a low-duty cycle operation of the sensor nodes and a flexible adjustment of the threshold value used by the sensor nodes.

Keywords: car parking monitoring, sensor node, wireless sensor network, network protocol

Procedia PDF Downloads 400
696 Orphan Node Inclusion Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Sandeep Singh Waraich

Abstract:

Wireless sensor network (WSN ) consists of a large number of sensor nodes. The disparity in their energy consumption usually lead to the loss of equilibrium in wireless sensor network which may further results in an energy hole problem in wireless network. In this paper, we have considered the inclusion of orphan nodes which usually remain unutilized as intermediate nodes in multi-hop routing. The Orphan Node Inclusion (ONI) Protocol lets the cluster member to bring the orphan nodes into their clusters, thereby saving important resources and increasing network lifetime in critical applications of WSN.

Keywords: wireless sensor network, orphan node, clustering, ONI protocol

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
695 O-LEACH: The Problem of Orphan Nodes in the LEACH of Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Wassim Jerbi, Abderrahmen Guermazi, Hafedh Trabelsi

Abstract:

The optimum use of coverage in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is very important. LEACH protocol called Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy, presents a hierarchical clustering algorithm for wireless sensor networks. LEACH is a protocol that allows the formation of distributed cluster. In each cluster, LEACH randomly selects some sensor nodes called cluster heads (CHs). The selection of CHs is made with a probabilistic calculation. It is supposed that each non-CH node joins a cluster and becomes a cluster member. Nevertheless, some CHs can be concentrated in a specific part of the network. Thus, several sensor nodes cannot reach any CH. to solve this problem. We created an O-LEACH Orphan nodes protocol, its role is to reduce the sensor nodes which do not belong the cluster. The cluster member called Gateway receives messages from neighboring orphan nodes. The gateway informs CH having the neighboring nodes that not belong to any group. However, Gateway called (CH') attaches the orphaned nodes to the cluster and then collected the data. O-Leach enables the formation of a new method of cluster, leads to a long life and minimal energy consumption. Orphan nodes possess enough energy and seeks to be covered by the network. The principal novel contribution of the proposed work is O-LEACH protocol which provides coverage of the whole network with a minimum number of orphaned nodes and has a very high connectivity rates.As a result, the WSN application receives data from the entire network including orphan nodes. The proper functioning of the Application requires, therefore, management of intelligent resources present within each the network sensor. The simulation results show that O-LEACH performs better than LEACH in terms of coverage, connectivity rate, energy and scalability.

Keywords: WSNs; routing; LEACH; O-LEACH; Orphan nodes; sub-cluster; gateway; CH’

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
694 Quoting Jobshops Due Dates Subject to Exogenous Factors in Developing Nations

Authors: Idris M. Olatunde, Kareem B.

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In manufacturing systems, especially job shops, service performance is a key factor that determines customer satisfaction. Service performance depends not only on the quality of the output but on the delivery lead times as well. Besides product quality enhancement, delivery lead time must be minimized for optimal patronage. Quoting accurate due dates is sine quo non for job shop operational survival in a global competitive environment. Quoting accurate due dates in job shops has been a herculean task that nearly defiled solutions from many methods employed due to complex jobs routing nature of the system. This class of NP-hard problems possessed no rigid algorithms that can give an optimal solution. Jobshop operational problem is more complex in developing nations due to some peculiar factors. Operational complexity in job shops emanated from political instability, poor economy, technological know-how, and the non-promising socio-political environment. The mentioned exogenous factors were hardly considered in the previous studies on scheduling problem related to due date determination in job shops. This study has filled the gap created in the past studies by developing a dynamic model that incorporated the exogenous factors for accurate determination of due dates for varying jobs complexity. Real data from six job shops selected from the different part of Nigeria, were used to test the efficacy of the model, and the outcomes were analyzed statistically. The results of the analyzes showed that the model is more promising in determining accurate due dates than the traditional models deployed by many job shops in terms of patronage and lead times minimization.

Keywords: due dates prediction, improved performance, customer satisfaction, dynamic model, exogenous factors, job shops

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
693 Power-Aware Adaptive Coverage Control with Consensus Protocol

Authors: Mert Turanli, Hakan Temeltas

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a new approach to coverage control problem by using adaptive coordination and power aware control laws. Nonholonomic mobile nodes position themselves suboptimally according to a time-varying density function using Centroidal Voronoi Tesellations. The Lyapunov stability analysis of the adaptive and decentralized approach is given. A linear consensus protocol is used to establish synchronization among the mobile nodes. Also, repulsive forces prevent nodes from collision. Simulation results show that by using power aware control laws, energy consumption of the nodes can be reduced.

Keywords: power aware, coverage control, adaptive, consensus, nonholonomic, coordination

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
692 Truck Scheduling Problem in a Cross-Dock Centre with Fixed Due Dates

Authors: Mohsen S. Sajadieha, Danyar Molavia

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In this paper, a truck scheduling problem is investigated at a two-touch cross-docking center with due dates for outbound trucks as a hard constraint. The objective is to minimize the total cost comprising penalty and delivery cost of delayed shipments. The sequence of unloading shipments is considered and is assumed that shipments are sent to shipping dock doors immediately after unloading and a First-In-First-Out (FIFO) policy is considered for loading the shipments. A mixed integer programming model is developed for the proposed model. Two meta-heuristic algorithms including genetic algorithm (GA) and variable neighborhood search (VNS) are developed to solve the problem in medium and large sized scales. The numerical results show that increase in due dates for outbound trucks has a crucial impact on the reduction of penalty costs of delayed shipments. In addition, by increase the due dates, the improvement in the objective function arises on average in comparison with the situation that the cross-dock is multi-touch and shipments are sent to shipping dock doors only after unloading the whole inbound truck.

Keywords: cross-docking, truck scheduling, fixed due date, door assignment

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
691 Effects of Different Sowing Dates on Oil Yield of Castor (Ricinus communis L.)

Authors: Özden Öztürk, Gözde Pınar Gerem, Ayça Yenici, Burcu Haspolat

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Castor (Ricinus communis L.) is one of the important non-edible oilseed crops having immense industrial and medicinal value. Oil yield per unit area is the ultimate target in growing oilseed plants and sowing date is one of the important factors which have a clear role in the production of active substances particularly in oilseeds. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of sowing date on the seed and oil yield of castor in Central Anatolia in Turkey in 2011. The field experiment was set up in a completely randomized block design with three replication. Black Diamond-2 castor cultivar was used as plant material. The treatment was four sowing dates of May 10, May 25, June 10, June 25. In this research; seed yield, oil content and oil yield were investigated. Results showed that the effect of different sowing dates was significant on all of the characteristics. In general; delayed sowing dates, resulted in decreased seed yield, oil content and oil yield. The highest value of seed yield, oil content and oil yield (respectively, 2523.7 kg ha-1, 51.18% and 1292.2 kg ha-1) were obtained from the first sowing date (May 10) while the lowest seed yield, oil content and oil yield (respectively, 1550 kg ha-1, 43.67%, 677.3 kg ha-1) were recorded from the latest sowing date (June 25). Therefore, it can be concluded that early May could be recommended as an appropriate sowing date in the studied location and similar climates for achieved high oil yield of castor.

Keywords: castor bean, Ricinus communis L., sowing date, seed yield, oil content

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690 Avoiding Packet Drop for Improved through Put in the Multi-Hop Wireless N/W

Authors: Manish Kumar Rajak, Sanjay Gupta

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Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are infrastructure less and intercommunicate using single-hop and multi-hop paths. Network based congestion avoidance which involves managing the queues in the network devices is an integral part of any network. QoS: A set of service requirements that are met by the network while transferring a packet stream from a source to a destination. Especially in MANETs, packet loss results in increased overheads. This paper presents a new algorithm to avoid congestion using one or more queue on nodes and corresponding flow rate decided in advance for each node. When any node attains an initial value of queue then it sends this status to its downstream nodes which in turn uses the pre-decided flow rate of packet transfer to its upstream nodes. The flow rate on each node is adjusted according to the status received from its upstream nodes. This proposed algorithm uses the existing infrastructure to inform to other nodes about its current queue status.

Keywords: mesh networks, MANET, packet count, threshold, throughput

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689 Care: A Cluster Based Approach for Reliable and Efficient Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: K. Prasanth, S. Hafeezullah Khan, B. Haribalakrishnan, D. Arun, S. Jayapriya, S. Dhivya, N. Vijayarangan

Abstract:

The main goal of our approach is to find the optimum positions for the sensor nodes, reinforcing the communications in points where certain lack of connectivity is found. Routing is the major problem in sensor network’s data transfer between nodes. We are going to provide an efficient routing technique to make data signal transfer to reach the base station soon without any interruption. Clustering and routing are the two important key factors to be considered in case of WSN. To carry out the communication from the nodes to their cluster head, we propose a parameterizable protocol so that the developer can indicate if the routing has to be sensitive to either the link quality of the nodes or the their battery levels.

Keywords: clusters, routing, wireless sensor networks, three phases, sensor networks

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688 Power Aware Modified I-LEACH Protocol Using Fuzzy IF Then Rules

Authors: Gagandeep Singh, Navdeep Singh

Abstract:

Due to limited battery of sensor nodes, so energy efficiency found to be main constraint in WSN. Therefore the main focus of the present work is to find the ways to minimize the energy consumption problem and will results; enhancement in the network stability period and life time. Many researchers have proposed different kind of the protocols to enhance the network lifetime further. This paper has evaluated the issues which have been neglected in the field of the WSNs. WSNs are composed of multiple unattended ultra-small, limited-power sensor nodes. Sensor nodes are deployed randomly in the area of interest. Sensor nodes have limited processing, wireless communication and power resource capabilities Sensor nodes send sensed data to sink or Base Station (BS). I-LEACH gives adaptive clustering mechanism which very efficiently deals with energy conservations. This paper ends up with the shortcomings of various adaptive clustering based WSNs protocols.

Keywords: WSN, I-Leach, MATLAB, sensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
687 Integrating Process Planning, WMS Dispatching, and WPPW Weighted Due Date Assignment Using a Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Halil Ibrahim Demir, Tarık Cakar, Ibrahim Cil, Muharrem Dugenci, Caner Erden

Abstract:

Conventionally, process planning, scheduling, and due-date assignment functions are performed separately and sequentially. The interdependence of these functions requires integration. Although integrated process planning and scheduling, and scheduling with due date assignment problems are popular research topics, only a few works address the integration of these three functions. This work focuses on the integration of process planning, WMS scheduling, and WPPW due date assignment. Another novelty of this work is the use of a weighted due date assignment. In the literature, due dates are generally assigned without considering the importance of customers. However, in this study, more important customers get closer due dates. Typically, only tardiness is punished, but the JIT philosophy punishes both earliness and tardiness. In this study, all weighted earliness, tardiness, and due date related costs are penalized. As no customer desires distant due dates, such distant due dates should be penalized. In this study, various levels of integration of these three functions are tested and genetic search and random search are compared both with each other and with ordinary solutions. Higher integration levels are superior, while search is always useful. Genetic searches outperformed random searches.

Keywords: process planning, weighted scheduling, weighted due-date assignment, genetic algorithm, random search

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
686 Agent Based Location Management Protocol for Mobile Adhoc Networks

Authors: Mallikarjun B. Channappagoudar, Pallapa Venkataram

Abstract:

The dynamic nature of Mobile adhoc network (MANET) due to mobility and disconnection of mobile nodes, leads to various problems in predicting the movement of nodes and their location information updation, for efficient interaction among the application specific nodes. Location management is one of the main challenges to be considered for an efficient service provision to the applications of a MANET. In this paper, we propose a location management protocol, for locating the nodes of a MANET and to maintain uninterrupted high-quality service for distributed applications by intelligently anticipating the change of location of its nodes. The protocol predicts the node movement and application resource scarcity, does the replacement with the chosen nodes nearby which have less mobility and rich in resources, with the help of both static and mobile agents, and maintains the application continuity by providing required network resources. The protocol has been simulated using Java Agent Development Environment (JADE) Framework for agent generation, migration and communication. It consumes much less time (response time), gives better location accuracy, utilize less network resources, and reduce location management overhead.

Keywords: mobile agent, location management, distributed applications, mobile adhoc network

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
685 Proposing an Algorithm to Cluster Ad Hoc Networks, Modulating Two Levels of Learning Automaton and Nodes Additive Weighting

Authors: Mohammad Rostami, Mohammad Reza Forghani, Elahe Neshat, Fatemeh Yaghoobi

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An Ad Hoc network consists of wireless mobile equipment which connects to each other without any infrastructure, using connection equipment. The best way to form a hierarchical structure is clustering. Various methods of clustering can form more stable clusters according to nodes' mobility. In this research we propose an algorithm, which allocates some weight to nodes based on factors, i.e. link stability and power reduction rate. According to the allocated weight in the previous phase, the cellular learning automaton picks out in the second phase nodes which are candidates for being cluster head. In the third phase, learning automaton selects cluster head nodes, member nodes and forms the cluster. Thus, this automaton does the learning from the setting and can form optimized clusters in terms of power consumption and link stability. To simulate the proposed algorithm we have used omnet++4.2.2. Simulation results indicate that newly formed clusters have a longer lifetime than previous algorithms and decrease strongly network overload by reducing update rate.

Keywords: mobile Ad Hoc networks, clustering, learning automaton, cellular automaton, battery power

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
684 Understanding Retail Benefits Trade-offs of Dynamic Expiration Dates (DED) Associated with Food Waste

Authors: Junzhang Wu, Yifeng Zou, Alessandro Manzardo, Antonio Scipioni

Abstract:

Dynamic expiration dates (DEDs) play an essential role in reducing food waste in the context of the sustainable cold chain and food system. However, it is unknown for the trades-off in retail benefits when setting an expiration date on fresh food products. This study aims to develop a multi-dimensional decision-making model that integrates DEDs with food waste based on wireless sensor network technology. The model considers the initial quality of fresh food and the change rate of food quality with the storage temperature as cross-independent variables to identify the potential impacts of food waste in retail by applying s DEDs system. The results show that retail benefits from the DEDs system depend on each scenario despite its advanced technology. In the DEDs, the storage temperature of the retail shelf leads to the food waste rate, followed by the change rate of food quality and the initial quality of food products. We found that the DEDs system could reduce food waste when food products are stored at lower temperature areas. Besides, the potential of food savings in an extended replenishment cycle is significantly more advantageous than the fixed expiration dates (FEDs). On the other hand, the information-sharing approach of the DEDs system is relatively limited in improving sustainable assessment performance of food waste in retail and even misleads consumers’ choices. The research provides a comprehensive understanding to support the techno-economic choice of the DEDs associated with food waste in retail.

Keywords: dynamic expiry dates (DEDs), food waste, retail benefits, fixed expiration dates (FEDs)

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683 Influence of Partially-Replaced Coarse Aggregates with Date Palm Seeds on the Concrete Properties

Authors: Fahed Alrshoudi

Abstract:

Saudi Arabia is ranked the third of the largest suppliers of Dates worldwide (about 28.5 million palm trees), producing more than 2 million tons of dates yearly. These trees produce large quantity of dates palm seeds (DPS) which can be considered literally as a waste. The date seeds are stiff, therefore, it is possible to utilize DPS as coarse aggregates in lightweight concrete for certain structural applications and to participate at reusing the waste. The use of DPS as coarse aggregate in concrete can be an alternative choice as a partial replacement of the stone aggregates (SA). This paper reports the influence of partially replaced stone aggregates with DPS on the hardened properties of concrete performance. Based on the experimental results, the DPS has the potential use as an acceptable alternative aggregates in producing structural lightweight concrete members, instead of stone aggregates.

Keywords: compressive strength, tensile Strength, date palm seeds, aggregate

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
682 Development of Algorithms for the Study of the Image in Digital Form for Satellite Applications: Extraction of a Road Network and Its Nodes

Authors: Zineb Nougrara

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a novel methodology for extracting a road network and its nodes from satellite images of Algeria country. This developed technique is a progress of our previous research works. It is founded on the information theory and the mathematical morphology; the information theory and the mathematical morphology are combined together to extract and link the road segments to form a road network and its nodes. We, therefore, have to define objects as sets of pixels and to study the shape of these objects and the relations that exist between them. In this approach, geometric and radiometric features of roads are integrated by a cost function and a set of selected points of a crossing road. Its performances were tested on satellite images of Algeria country.

Keywords: satellite image, road network, nodes, image analysis and processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 201