Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Search results for: Nilay Khare

24 A New Aggregation Operator for Trapezoidal Fuzzy Numbers Based On the Geometric Means of the Left and Right Line Slopes

Authors: Manju Pandey, Nilay Khare, S. C. Shrivastava

Abstract:

This paper is the final in a series, which has defined two new classes of aggregation operators for triangular and trapezoidal fuzzy numbers based on the geometrical characteristics of their fuzzy membership functions. In the present paper, a new aggregation operator for trapezoidal fuzzy numbers has been defined. The new operator is based on the geometric mean of the membership lines to the left and right of the maximum possibility interval. The operator is defined and the analytical relationships have been derived. Computation of the aggregate is demonstrated with a numerical example. Corresponding arithmetic and geometric aggregates as well as results from the recent work of the authors on TrFN aggregates have also been computed.

Keywords: LR fuzzy number, interval fuzzy number, triangular fuzzy number, trapezoidal fuzzy number, apex angle, left apex angle, right apex angle, aggregation operator, arithmetic and geometric mean

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23 Magnetic Nanoparticles for Protein C Purification

Authors: Duygu Çimen, Nilay Bereli, Adil Denizli

Abstract:

In this study is to synthesis magnetic nanoparticles for purify protein C. For this aim, N-Methacryloyl-(L)-histidine methyl ester (MAH) containing 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) based magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized by using micro-emulsion polymerization technique for templating protein C via metal chelation. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), zeta-size analysis and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. After that, they were used for protein C purification from aqueous solution to evaluate/optimize the adsorption condition. Hereby, the effecting factors such as concentration, pH, ionic strength, temperature, and reusability were evaluated. As the last step, protein C was determined with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

Keywords: immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC), magnetic nanoparticle, protein C, hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)

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22 Social Capital and Human Capital: An OECD Countries' Analysis

Authors: Shivani Khare

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It is of paramount concern for economists to uncover the factors that determine human capital development, considered now to be one of the major factors behind economic growth and development. However, no human action is isolated but rather works within the set-up of the society. In recent years, a new field of investigation has come up that analyses the relationships that exist between social and human capital. Along these lines, this paper explores the effect of social capital on the indicators of human capital development – life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling, and per capita income. The applied part of the analysis is performed using a panel data model for OECD countries and by using a series of chronological periods that within the 2005–2020 time frame.

Keywords: social capital, human capital development, trust, social networks, socioeconomics

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21 Rheological Properties of Polysulfone-Sepiolite Nanocomposites

Authors: Nilay Tanrıver, Birgül Benli, Nilgün Kızılcan

Abstract:

Polysulfone (PSU) is a specialty engineering polymer having various industrial applications. PSU is especially used in waste water treatment membranes due to its good mechanical properties, structural and chemical stability. But it is a hydrophobic material and therefore its surface aim to pollute easily. In order to resolve this problem and extend the properties of membrane, PSU surface is rendered hydrophilic by addition of the sepiolite nanofibers. Sepiolite is one of the natural clays, which is a hydrate magnesium silicate fiber, also one of the well known layered clays of the montmorillonites where has several unique channels and pores within. It has also moisture durability, strength and low price. Sepiolite channels give great capacity of absorption and good surface properties. In this study, nanocomposites of commercial PSU and Sepiolite were prepared by solvent mixing method. Different organic solvents and their mixtures were used. Rheological characteristics of PSU-Sepiolite solvent mixtures were analyzed, the solubility of nanocomposite content in those mixtures were studied.

Keywords: nanocomposite, polysulfone, rheology, sepiolite, solution mixing

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20 Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory of an Oscillating Electron Density around a Nanoparticle

Authors: Nilay K. Doshi

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A theoretical probe describing the excited energy states of the electron density surrounding a nanoparticle (NP) is presented. An electromagnetic (EM) wave interacts with a NP much smaller than the incident wavelength. The plasmon that oscillates locally around the NP comprises of excited conduction electrons. The system is based on the Jellium model of a cluster of metal atoms. Hohenberg-Kohn (HK) equations and the variational Kohn-Sham (SK) scheme have been used to obtain the NP electron density in the ground state. Furthermore, a time-dependent density functional (TDDFT) theory is used to treat the excited states in a density functional theory (DFT) framework. The non-interacting fermionic kinetic energy is shown to be a functional of the electron density. The time dependent potential is written as the sum of the nucleic potential and the incoming EM field. This view of the quantum oscillation of the electron density is a part of the localized surface plasmon resonance.

Keywords: electron density, energy, electromagnetic, DFT, TDDFT, plasmon, resonance

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19 Dielectric Properties of Ternary Composite Based on Complex Perovskite Oxides Synthesized by Semi-Wet Route

Authors: K. D. Mandal, Anil Kumar Mourya, Ankur Khare

Abstract:

Ceramics of 0.6 CaCu3TiO12 – 0.2 Bi2/3Cu3TiO12 – 0.2 Y2/3Cu3TiO12 (i.e. 0.6CCTO-0.2BCTO-0.2 YCTO) were prepared via semi - wet route. The phase structure of the sample was identified by X-Ray diffraction. The micro structure of the sample was observed by SEM, which displays grains of different shapes having diameter in range of 2 µm–4 µm. We have studied the frequency and temperature dependence of permittivity and impedance of the compound with LCR Meter in the range of 100 Hz–1 MHz and 300–500 K. The material shows its highest dielectric constant (428000) at 100 Hz and 368 K. The material shows Debye–like relaxation and their dielectric constant are independent of frequency and temperature over a wide range. The sample shows two electrical responses in impedance formalism, indicating that there are two distinct contributions. We attribute them to grain and grain boundaries in the ceramic sample and explain the dielectric behaviors by Maxwell–Wagner relaxation arising at the interfaces between grain and their boundaries.

Keywords: complex perovskite, ceramics composite, impedance study, SEM

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18 A Multimodal Dialogue Management System for Achieving Natural Interaction with Embodied Conversational Agents

Authors: Ozge Nilay Yalcin

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Dialogue has been proposed to be the natural basis for the human-computer interaction, which is behaviorally rich and includes different modalities such as gestures, posture changes, gaze, para-linguistic parameters and linguistic context. However, equipping the system with these capabilities might have consequences on the usability of the system. One issue is to be able to find a good balance between rich behavior and fluent behavior, as planning and generating these behaviors is computationally expensive. In this work, we propose a multi-modal dialogue management system that automates the conversational flow from text-based dialogue examples and uses synchronized verbal and non-verbal conversational cues to achieve a fluent interaction. Our system is integrated with Smartbody behavior realizer to provide real-time interaction with embodied agent. The nonverbal behaviors are used according to turn-taking behavior, emotions, and personality of the user and linguistic analysis of the dialogue. The verbal behaviors are responsive to the emotional value of the utterance and the feedback from the user. Our system is aimed for online planning of these affective multi-modal components, in order to achieve enhanced user experience with richer and more natural interaction.

Keywords: affect, embodied conversational agents, human-agent interaction, multimodal interaction, natural interfaces

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17 Universal Design Building Standard for India: A Critical Inquiry

Authors: Sushil Kumar Solanki, Rachna Khare

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Universal Design is a concept of built environment creation, where all people are facilitated to the maximum extent possible without using any type of specialized design. However, accessible design is a design process in which the needs of people with disabilities are specifically considered. Building standards on accessibility contains scoping and technical requirements for accessibility to sites, facilities, building and elements by individual with disability. India is also following its prescriptive types of various building standards for the creation of physical environment for people with disabilities. These building standards are based on western models instead of research based standards to serve Indian needs. These standards lack contextual connect when reflects in its application in the urban and rural environment. This study focuses on critical and comparative study of various international building standards and codes, with existing Indian accessibility standards to understand problems and prospects of concept of Universal Design building standards for India. The result of this study is an analysis of existing state of Indian building standard pertaining to accessibility and future need of performance based Universal Design concept.

Keywords: accessibility, building standard, built-environment, universal design

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16 Analysis and Optimization of Fault-Tolerant Behaviour of Motors in Electric Vehicular Systems

Authors: Shivani Jitendra Khare, Shubham Singh, Siddharth Roy, Yogesh B. Mandake, Deepak S. Bankar

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The advent of electrification in vehicular drives has proven to be challenging over time. An increase in electronics in drive systems has demonstrated escalation in performance efficiency but has, in turn, escorted extensive concerns regarding internal electric faults and safety. Failure of the drive caused by the abnormal conditions will ultimately cause the failure of the entire electric vehicle system. Thus, the fault tolerance capability of a motor drive is of utmost importance for enhancing motor speed limit range and safety. Several methods of fault detection have already been worked upon. The scope of this research includes analyses of torque ripple values, State of Charge (SOC) decline rate and minimum-maximum torque acquired by Switch Reluctance Motor (SRM) and Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) drives under varied fault conditions. Furthermore, a solution to increase the fault tolerance capability of the PMSM motor drive will be discussed.

Keywords: PMSM, SRM, electric vehicle system, EV drives, fault-tolerance, state of charge, efficiency, torque

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15 Bearing Capacity of Sulphuric Acid Content Soil

Authors: R. N. Khare, J. P. Sahu, Rajesh Kumar Tamrakar

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Tests were conducted to determine the property of soil with variation of H2SO4 content for soils under different stage. The soils had varying amounts of plasticity’s ranging from low to high plasticity. The unsaturated soil behavior was investigated for different conditions, covering a range of compactive efforts and water contents. The soil characteristic curves were more sensitive to changes in compaction effort than changes in compaction water content. In this research paper two types of water (Ground water Ph =7.9, Turbidity= 13 ppm; Cl =2.1mg/l and surface water Ph =8.65; Turbidity=18.5; Cl=1mg/l) were selected of Bhilai Nagar, State-Chhattisgarh, India which is mixed with a certain type of soil. Results shows that by the presence of ground water day by day the particles are becoming coarser in 7 days thereafter its size reduces; on the other hand by the presence of surface water the courser particles are disintegrating, finer particles are accumulating and also the dry density is reduces. Plasticity soils retained the smallest water content and the highest plasticity soils retained the highest water content at a specified suction. In addition, soil characteristic for soils to be compacted in the laboratory and in the field are still under process for analyzing the bearing capacity. The bearing capacity was reduced 2 to 3 times in the presence of H2SO4.

Keywords: soil compaction, H2SO4, soil water, water conditions

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14 Electrically Tuned Photoelectrochemical Properties of Ferroelectric PVDF/Cu/PVDF-NaNbO₃ Photoanode

Authors: Simrjit Singh, Neeraj Khare

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In recent years, photo-electrochemical (PEC) water splitting with an aim to generate hydrogen (H₂) as a clean and renewable fuel has been the subject of intense research interests. Ferroelectric semiconductors have been demonstrated to exhibit enhanced PEC properties as these can be polarized with the application of an external electric field resulting in a built-in potential which helps in separating out the photogenerated charge carriers. In addition to this, by changing the polarization direction, the energy band alignment at the electrode/electrolyte interface can be modulated in a way that it can help in the easy transfer of the charge carriers from the electrode to the electrolyte. In this paper, we investigated the photoelectrochemical properties of ferroelectric PVDF/Cu/PVDF-NaNbO₃ PEC cell and demonstrated that PEC properties can be tuned with ferroelectric polarization and piezophototronic effect. Photocurrent density is enhanced from ~0.71 mA/cm² to 1.97 mA/cm² by changing the polarization direction. Furthermore, due to flexibility and piezoelectric properties of PVDF/Cu/PVDF-NaNbO₃ PEC cell, a further ~26% enhancement in the photocurrent is obtained using the piezophototronic effect. A model depicting the modulation of band alignment between PVDF and NaNbO₃ with the electric field is proposed to explain the observed tuning of the PEC properties. Electrochemical Impedance spectroscopy measurements support the validity of the proposed model.

Keywords: electrical tuning, H₂ generation, photoelectrochemical, NaNbO₃

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13 Performance Evaluation of Pilot Rotating Biological Contactor for Decentralised Management of Domestic Sewage in Delhi

Authors: T. R. Sreekrishnan, Mukesh Khare, Dinesh Upadhyay

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In a Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC), the biological film responsible for removal of pollutants is formed on the surface of discs. Evaluation studies of a pilot RBC designed to treat sewage of 150 persons with BOD Loading Rate: 8.2–26.7 g/m2/d, Discharge: 57.6 – 115.2 m3/day, HRT 1.25 – 2.5 hrs, at STP Yamuna Vihar Delhi. Removal of organic materials through use of fixed film reactors such as RBC is accomplished by means of a biological film on the fixed media. May and June in Delhi are dry summer months where the ambient temperature is in the range of 35oC to 45oC. July is a wet monsoon month that receives occasional precipitation, cloud cover, high humidity, with ambient temperature in the range of 30oC to 35oC. The organic and inorganic loads to the RBC employed in this study are actual city sewage conditions. Average in fluent BOD concentrations have been 330 mg/l, 245 mg/l and 160 mg/l and the average COD concentrations have been 670 mg/l, 500 mg/l, and 275 mg/l. The city sewage also has high concentration of ammonia, phosphorous, total suspended solids (TSS). pH of the city sewage is near neutral. Overall, the substrate conditions of city sewage are conducive for biological treatment though aerobic process. The presentation is a part of the ongoing collaborative research initiative between IIT Delhi and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany which is going on for last 15 years or so in the treatment of sewage waste of Delhi using semi-decentralized treatment system based on Rotating Biological Contactor.

Keywords: Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC), COD, BOD, HRT, STP

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12 Assessment of Wastewater Reuse Potential for an Enamel Coating Industry

Authors: Guclu Insel, Efe Gumuslu, Gulten Yuksek, Nilay Sayi Ucar, Emine Ubay Cokgor, Tugba Olmez Hanci, Didem Okutman Tas, Fatos Germirli Babuna, Derya Firat Ertem, Okmen Yildirim, Ozge Erturan, Betul Kirci

Abstract:

In order to eliminate water scarcity problems, effective precautions must be taken. Growing competition for water is increasingly forcing facilities to tackle their own water scarcity problems. At this point, application of wastewater reclamation and reuse results in considerable economic advantageous. In this study, an enamel coating facility, which is one of the high water consumed facilities, is evaluated in terms of its wastewater reuse potential. Wastewater reclamation and reuse can be defined as one of the best available techniques for this sector. Hence, process and pollution profiles together with detailed characterization of segregated wastewater sources are appraised in a way to find out the recoverable effluent streams arising from enamel coating operations. Daily, 170 m3 of process water is required and 160 m3 of wastewater is generated. The segregated streams generated by two enamel coating processes are characterized in terms of conventional parameters. Relatively clean segregated wastewater streams (reusable wastewaters) are separately collected and experimental treatability studies are conducted on it. The results reflected that the reusable wastewater fraction has an approximate amount of 110 m3/day that accounts for 68% of the total wastewaters. The need for treatment applicable on reusable wastewaters is determined by considering water quality requirements of various operations and characterization of reusable wastewater streams. Ultra-filtration (UF), Nano-filtration (NF) and Reverse Osmosis (RO) membranes are subsequently applied on reusable effluent fraction. Adequate organic matter removal is not obtained with the mentioned treatment sequence.

Keywords: enamel coating, membrane, reuse, wastewater reclamation

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11 Irrigation Potential Assessment for Eastern Ganga Canal, India Using Geographic Information System

Authors: Deepak Khare, Radha Krishan, Bhaskar Nikam

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The present study deals with the results of the Ortho-rectified Cartosat-1 PAN (2.5 m resolution) satellite data analysis for the extraction of canal networks under the Eastern Ganga Canal (EGC) command. Based on the information derived through the remote sensing data, in terms of the number of canals, their physical status and hydraulic connectivity from the source, irrigation potential (IP) created in the command was assessed by comparing with planned/design canal-wise irrigation potentials. All the geospatial information generated in the study is organized in a geodatabase. The EGC project irrigates the command through one main canal, five branch canals, 36 distributaries and 186 minors. The study was conducted with the main objectives of inventory and mapping of irrigation infrastructure using geographic information system (GIS), remote sensing and field data. Likewise, the assessment of irrigation potential created using the mapped infrastructure was performed as on March 2017. Results revealed that the canals were not only pending but were also having gap/s, and hydraulically disconnected in each branch canal and also in minors of EGC. A total of 16622.3 ha of commands were left untouched with canal water just due to the presence of gaps in the EGC project. The sum of all the gaps present in minor canals was 11.92 km, while in distributary, it was 2.63 km. This is a very good scenario that balances IP can be achieved by working on the gaps present in minor canals. Filling the gaps in minor canals can bring most of the area under irrigation, especially the tail reaches command.

Keywords: canal command, GIS, hydraulic connectivity, irrigation potential

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10 Stereoselective Glycosylation and Functionalization of Unbiased Site of Sweet System via Dual-Catalytic Transition Metal Systems/Wittig Reaction

Authors: Mukul R. Gupta, Rajkumar Gandhi, Rajitha Sachan, Naveen K. Khare

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The field of glycoscience has burgeoned in the last several decades, leading to the identification of many glycosides which could serve critical roles in a wide range of biological processes. This has prompted a resurgence in synthetic interest, with a particular focus on new approaches to construct the selective glycosidic bond. Despite the numerous elegant strategies and methods developed for the formation of glycosidic bonds, stereoselective construction of glycosides remains challenging. Here, we have recently developed the novel Hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) catalyzed stereoselective glycosylation methods by using KDN imidate glycosyl donor and a variety of alcohols in excellent yield. This method is broadly applicable to a wide range of substrates and with excellent selectivity of glycoside. Also, herein we are reporting the functionalization of the unbiased side of newly formed glycosides by dual-catalytic transition metal systems (Ru- or Fe-). We are using the innovative Reverse & Catalyst strategy, i.e., a reversible activation reaction by one catalyst with a functionalization reaction by another catalyst, together with enabling functionalization of substrates at their inherently unreactive sites. As well, we are targeting the diSia derivative synthesis by Wittig reaction. This synthetic method is applicable in mild conditions, functional group tolerance of the dual-catalytic systems and also highlights the potential of the multicatalytic approach to address challenging transformations to avoid multistep procedures in carbohydrate synthesis.

Keywords: KDN, stereoselective glycosylation, dual-catalytic functionalization, Wittig reaction

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9 Integrating Road Safety into Mainstreaming Education and Other Initiatives with Holistic Approach in the State: A Case Study of Madhya Pradesh, India

Authors: Yogesh Mahor, Subhash Nigam, Abhai Khare

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Road safety education is a composite subject which should be viewed holistically if taken into accoubehavior change communication, safe road infrastructure and low enforcement. Specific and customized road safety education is crucial for each type of road user and learners in the formal and informal teaching and various kind of training programs directly sponsored by state and center government, as they are active contributors to shaping a community and responsible citizens. The aim of this discussion article is to explore a strategy to integrate road safety education into the formal curriculum of schools, higher education institutions, driving schools, skill development centers, various government funded urban and rural development training institutions and their work plans as standing agenda. By applying the desktop research method, the article conceptualizes what the possible focus of road safety education and training should be. The article then explores international common practices in road safety education and training, and considers the necessary synergy between education, road engineering and low enforcement. The article uses secondary data collected from documents which are then analysed in a sectoral way. A well-designed road safety strategy for mainstreaming education and government-sponsored training is urgently needed, facilitating partnerships in various sectors to implement such education in the students and learners in multidisciplinary ways.

Keywords: road safety education, curriculum-based road safety education, behavior change communication, low enforcement, road engineering, safe system approach, infrastructure development consultants

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8 Impact of Climate Shift on Rainfall and Temperature Trend in Eastern Ganga Canal Command

Authors: Radha Krishan, Deepak Khare, Bhaskar R. Nikam, Ayush Chandrakar

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Every irrigation project is planned considering long-term historical climatic conditions; however, the prompt climatic shift and change has come out with such circumstances which were inconceivable in the past. Considering this fact, scrutiny of rainfall and temperature trend has been carried out over the command area of Eastern Ganga Canal project for pre-climate shift period and post-climate shift periods in the present study. Non-parametric Mann-Kendall and Sen’s methods have been applied to study the trends in annual rainfall, seasonal rainfall, annual rainy day, monsoonal rainy days, average annual temperature and seasonal temperature. The results showed decreasing trend of 48.11 to 42.17 mm/decade in annual rainfall and 79.78 tSo 49.67 mm/decade in monsoon rainfall in pre-climate to post-climate shift periods, respectively. The decreasing trend of 1 to 4 days/decade has been observed in annual rainy days from pre-climate to post-climate shift period. Trends in temperature revealed that there were significant decreasing trends in annual (-0.03 ºC/yr), Kharif (-0.02 ºC/yr), Rabi (-0.04 ºC/yr) and summer (-0.02 ºC/yr) season temperature during pre-climate shift period, whereas the significant increasing trend (0.02 ºC/yr) has been observed in all the four parameters during post climate shift period. These results will help project managers in understanding the climate shift and lead them to develop alternative water management strategies.

Keywords: climate shift, rainfall trend, temperature trend, Mann-Kendall test, sen slope estimator, eastern Ganga canal command

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7 Investigation of Aerodynamic and Design Features of Twisting Tall Buildings

Authors: Sinan Bilgen, Bekir Ozer Ay, Nilay Sezer Uzol

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After decades of conventional shapes, irregular forms with complex geometries are getting more popular for form generation of tall buildings all over the world. This trend has recently brought out diverse building forms such as twisting tall buildings. This study investigates both the aerodynamic and design features of twisting tall buildings through comparative analyses. Since twisting a tall building give rise to additional complexities related with the form and structural system, lateral load effects become of greater importance on these buildings. The aim of this study is to analyze the inherent characteristics of these iconic forms by comparing the wind loads on twisting tall buildings with those on their prismatic twins. Through a case study research, aerodynamic analyses of an existing twisting tall building and its prismatic counterpart were performed and the results have been compared. The prismatic twin of the original building were generated by removing the progressive rotation of its floors with the same plan area and story height. Performance-based measures under investigation have been evaluated in conjunction with the architectural design. Aerodynamic effects have been analyzed by both wind tunnel tests and computational methods. High frequency base balance tests and pressure measurements on 3D models were performed to evaluate wind load effects on a global and local scale. Comparisons of flat and real surface models were conducted to further evaluate the effects of the twisting form without façade texture contribution. Comparisons highlighted that, the twisting form under investigation shows better aerodynamic behavior both for along wind but particularly for across wind direction. Compared to the prismatic counterpart; twisting model is superior on reducing vortex-shedding dynamic response by disorganizing the wind vortices. Consequently, despite the difficulties arisen from inherent complexity of twisted forms, they could still be feasible and viable with their attractive images in the realm of tall buildings.

Keywords: aerodynamic tests, motivation for twisting, tall buildings, twisted forms, wind excitation

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6 Justice and the Juvenile: Changing Trends and Developments

Authors: Shikhar Shrivastava, Varun Khare

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Background: We are confronted by a society that is becoming more complex, more mobile, and more dysfunctional. Teen pregnancy, suicide, elopement, and the perusal of dangerous drugs have become commonplace. In addition, children do not settle their disputes as they once did. Guns and knives are quotidian. Therefore, it has been an exigent to have a "Juvenile Code" that would provide specific substantive and procedural rules for juveniles in the justice system. However, until the twentieth century, there was little difference between how the justice system treated adults and children. Age was considered only in terms of appropriate punishment and juveniles were eligible for the same punishment as adults. Findings: The increased prevalence and legislative support for specialized courts, Juvenile Justice Boards, including juvenile drug, mental health and truancy court programs, as well as diversion programs and evidence-based approaches into the fabric of juvenile justice are just a few examples of recent advances. In India, various measures were taken to prosecute young offenders who committed violent crimes as adults. But it was argued that equating juveniles with adult criminals was neither scientifically correct nor normatively defensible. It would defeat the very purpose of the justice system. Methodology and Conclusion: This paper attempts to bring forth the results of analytical and descriptive research that examined changing trends in juvenile justice legislation. It covers the investigative and inspective practices of police, the various administrative agencies who have roles in implementing the legislation, the courts, and the detention centers. In this paper we shall discuss about how the juvenile justice system is the dumping ground for many of a youths’ problem. The changing notions of justice, from retributive to restorative and rehabilitative shall be discussed. A comparative study of the Juvenile act in India and that of the U.S has been discussed. Specific social institutions and forces that explain juvenile delinquency are identified. In addition, various influences on juvenile delinquency are noted, such as families, schools, peer groups and communities. The text concludes by addressing socialization, deterrence, imprisonments, alternatives, restitution and preventions.

Keywords: juvenile, justice system, retributive, rehabilitative, delinquency

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5 Assessment of Water Reuse Potential in a Metal Finishing Factory

Authors: Efe Gumuslu, Guclu Insel, Gülten Yuksek, Nilay Sayi Ucar, Emine Ubay Cokgor, Tuğba Olmez Hanci, Didem Okutman Tas, Fatoş Germirli Babuna, Derya Firat Ertem, Ökmen Yildirim, Özge Erturan, Betül Kirci

Abstract:

Although water reclamation and reuse are inseparable parts of sustainable production concept all around the world, current levels of reuse constitute only a small fraction of the total volume of industrial effluents. Nowadays, within the perspective of serious climate change, wastewater reclamation and reuse practices should be considered as a requirement. Industrial sector is one of the largest users of water sources. The OECD Environmental Outlook to 2050 predicts that global water demand for manufacturing will increase by 400% from 2000 to 2050 which is much larger than any other sector. Metal finishing industry is one of the industries that requires high amount of water during the manufacturing. Therefore, actions regarding the improvement of wastewater treatment and reuse should be undertaken on both economic and environmental sustainability grounds. Process wastewater can be reused for more purposes if the appropriate treatment systems are installed to treat the wastewater to the required quality level. Recent studies showed that membrane separation techniques may help in solving the problem of attaining a suitable quality of water that allows being recycled back to the process. The metal finishing factory where this study is conducted is one of the biggest white-goods manufacturers in Turkey. The sheet metal parts used in the cookers production have to be exposed to surface pre-treatment processes composed of degreasing, rinsing, nanoceramics coating and deionization rinsing processes, consecutively. The wastewater generating processes in the factory are enamel coating, painting and styrofoam processes. In the factory, the main source of water is the well water. While some part of the well water is directly used in the processes after passing through resin treatment, some portion of it is directed to the reverse osmosis treatment to obtain required water quality for enamel coating and painting processes. In addition to these processes another important source of water that can be considered as a potential water source is rainwater (3660 tons/year). In this study, process profiles as well as pollution profiles were assessed by a detailed quantitative and qualitative characterization of the wastewater sources generated in the factory. Based on the preliminary results the main water sources that can be considered for reuse in the processes were determined as painting and styrofoam processes.

Keywords: enamel coating, painting, reuse, wastewater

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4 Social Enterprises in India: Conceptualization and Challenges

Authors: Prajakta Khare

Abstract:

There is a huge number of social enterprises operating in India, across all enterprise sizes and forms addressing diverse social issues. Some cases such as such as Aravind eye care, Narayana Hridalaya, SEWA have been studied extensively in management literature and are known cases in social entrepreneurship. But there are several smaller social enterprises in India that are not called so per se due to the lack of understanding of the concept. There is a lack of academic research on social entrepreneurship in India and the term ‘social entrepreneurship’ is not yet widely known in the country, even by people working in this field as was found by this study. The present study aims to identify the most prominent form of social enterprises in India, the profile of the entrepreneurs, challenges faced, the lessons (theory and practices) emerging from their functioning and finally the factors contributing to the enterprises’ success. This is a preliminary exploratory study using primary data from 30 social enterprises in India. The study used snow ball sampling and a qualitative analysis. Data was collected from founders of social enterprises through written structured questionnaires, open-ended interviews and field visits to enterprises. The sample covered enterprises across sectors such as environment, affordable education, children’s rights, rain water harvesting, women empowerment etc. The interview questions focused on founder’s background and motivation, qualifications, funding, challenges, founder’s understanding and perspectives on social entrepreneurship, government support, linkages with other organizations etc. apart from several others. The interviews were conducted across 3 languages - Hindi, Marathi, English and were then translated and transcribed. 50% of founders were women and 65% of the total founders were highly qualified with a MBA, PhD or MBBS. The most important challenge faced by these entrepreneurs is recruiting skilled people. When asked about their understanding of the term, founders had diverse perspectives. Also, their understandings about the term social enterprise and social entrepreneur were extremely varied. Some founders identified the terms with doing something good for the society, some thought that every business can be called a social enterprise. 35% of the founders were not aware of the term social entrepreneur/ social entrepreneurship. They said that they could identify themselves as social entrepreneurs after discussions with the researcher. The general perception in India is that ‘NGOs are corrupt’- fighting against this perception to secure funds is also another problem as pointed out by some founders. There are unique challenges that social entrepreneurs in India face, as the political, social, economic environment around them is rapidly changing; and getting adequate support from the government is a problem. The research in its subsequent stages aims to clarify existing, missing and new definitions of the term to provide deeper insights in the terminology and issues relating to Social Entrepreneurship in India.

Keywords: challenges, India, social entrepreneurship, social entrepreneurs

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3 Enhanced Field Emission from Plasma Treated Graphene and 2D Layered Hybrids

Authors: R. Khare, R. V. Gelamo, M. A. More, D. J. Late, Chandra Sekhar Rout

Abstract:

Graphene emerges out as a promising material for various applications ranging from complementary integrated circuits to optically transparent electrode for displays and sensors. The excellent conductivity and atomic sharp edges of unique two-dimensional structure makes graphene a propitious field emitter. Graphene analogues of other 2D layered materials have emerged in material science and nanotechnology due to the enriched physics and novel enhanced properties they present. There are several advantages of using 2D nanomaterials in field emission based devices, including a thickness of only a few atomic layers, high aspect ratio (the ratio of lateral size to sheet thickness), excellent electrical properties, extraordinary mechanical strength and ease of synthesis. Furthermore, the presence of edges can enhance the tunneling probability for the electrons in layered nanomaterials similar to that seen in nanotubes. Here we report electron emission properties of multilayer graphene and effect of plasma (CO2, O2, Ar and N2) treatment. The plasma treated multilayer graphene shows an enhanced field emission behavior with a low turn on field of 0.18 V/μm and high emission current density of 1.89 mA/cm2 at an applied field of 0.35 V/μm. Further, we report the field emission studies of layered WS2/RGO and SnS2/RGO composites. The turn on field required to draw a field emission current density of 1μA/cm2 is found to be 3.5, 2.3 and 2 V/μm for WS2, RGO and the WS2/RGO composite respectively. The enhanced field emission behavior observed for the WS2/RGO nanocomposite is attributed to a high field enhancement factor of 2978, which is associated with the surface protrusions of the single-to-few layer thick sheets of the nanocomposite. The highest current density of ~800 µA/cm2 is drawn at an applied field of 4.1 V/μm from a few layers of the WS2/RGO nanocomposite. Furthermore, first-principles density functional calculations suggest that the enhanced field emission may also be due to an overlap of the electronic structures of WS2 and RGO, where graphene-like states are dumped in the region of the WS2 fundamental gap. Similarly, the turn on field required to draw an emission current density of 1µA/cm2 is significantly low (almost half the value) for the SnS2/RGO nanocomposite (2.65 V/µm) compared to pristine SnS2 (4.8 V/µm) nanosheets. The field enhancement factor β (~3200 for SnS2 and ~3700 for SnS2/RGO composite) was calculated from Fowler-Nordheim (FN) plots and indicates emission from the nanometric geometry of the emitter. The field emission current versus time plot shows overall good emission stability for the SnS2/RGO emitter. The DFT calculations reveal that the enhanced field emission properties of SnS2/RGO composites are because of a substantial lowering of work function of SnS2 when supported by graphene, which is in response to p-type doping of the graphene substrate. Graphene and 2D analogue materials emerge as a potential candidate for future field emission applications.

Keywords: graphene, layered material, field emission, plasma, doping

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2 Runoff Estimates of Rapidly Urbanizing Indian Cities: An Integrated Modeling Approach

Authors: Rupesh S. Gundewar, Kanchan C. Khare

Abstract:

Runoff contribution from urban areas is generally from manmade structures and few natural contributors. The manmade structures are buildings; roads and other paved areas whereas natural contributors are groundwater and overland flows etc. Runoff alleviation is done by manmade as well as natural storages. Manmade storages are storage tanks or other storage structures such as soakways or soak pits which are more common in western and European countries. Natural storages are catchment slope, infiltration, catchment length, channel rerouting, drainage density, depression storage etc. A literature survey on the manmade and natural storages/inflow has presented percentage contribution of each individually. Sanders et.al. in their research have reported that a vegetation canopy reduces runoff by 7% to 12%. Nassif et el in their research have reported that catchment slope has an impact of 16% on bare standard soil and 24% on grassed soil on rainfall runoff. Infiltration being a pervious/impervious ratio dependent parameter is catchment specific. But a literature survey has presented a range of 15% to 30% loss of rainfall runoff in various catchment study areas. Catchment length and channel rerouting too play a considerable role in reduction of rainfall runoff. Ground infiltration inflow adds to the runoff where the groundwater table is very shallow and soil saturates even in a lower intensity storm. An approximate percent contribution through this inflow and surface inflow contributes to about 2% of total runoff volume. Considering the various contributing factors in runoff it has been observed during a literature survey that integrated modelling approach needs to be considered. The traditional storm water network models are able to predict to a fair/acceptable degree of accuracy provided no interaction with receiving water (river, sea, canal etc), ground infiltration, treatment works etc. are assumed. When such interactions are significant then it becomes difficult to reproduce the actual flood extent using the traditional discrete modelling approach. As a result the correct flooding situation is very rarely addressed accurately. Since the development of spatially distributed hydrologic model the predictions have become more accurate at the cost of requiring more accurate spatial information.The integrated approach provides a greater understanding of performance of the entire catchment. It enables to identify the source of flow in the system, understand how it is conveyed and also its impact on the receiving body. It also confirms important pain points, hydraulic controls and the source of flooding which could not be easily understood with discrete modelling approach. This also enables the decision makers to identify solutions which can be spread throughout the catchment rather than being concentrated at single point where the problem exists. Thus it can be concluded from the literature survey that the representation of urban details can be a key differentiator to the successful understanding of flooding issue. The intent of this study is to accurately predict the runoff from impermeable areas from urban area in India. A representative area has been selected for which data was available and predictions have been made which are corroborated with the actual measured data.

Keywords: runoff, urbanization, impermeable response, flooding

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1 Empirical Modeling and Spatial Analysis of Heat-Related Morbidity in Maricopa County, Arizona

Authors: Chuyuan Wang, Nayan Khare, Lily Villa, Patricia Solis, Elizabeth A. Wentz

Abstract:

Maricopa County, Arizona, has a semi-arid hot desert climate that is one of the hottest regions in the United States. The exacerbated urban heat island (UHI) effect caused by rapid urbanization has made the urban area even hotter than the rural surroundings. The Phoenix metropolitan area experiences extremely high temperatures in the summer from June to September that can reach the daily highest of 120 °F (48.9 °C). Morbidity and mortality due to the environmental heat is, therefore, a significant public health issue in Maricopa County, especially because it is largely preventable. Public records from the Maricopa County Department of Public Health (MCDPH) revealed that between 2012 and 2016, there were 10,825 incidents of heat-related morbidity incidents, 267 outdoor environmental heat deaths, and 173 indoor heat-related deaths. A lot of research has examined heat-related death and its contributing factors around the world, but little has been done regarding heat-related morbidity issues, especially for regions that are naturally hot in the summer. The objective of this study is to examine the demographic, socio-economic, housing, and environmental factors that contribute to heat-related morbidity in Maricopa County. We obtained heat-related morbidity data between 2012 and 2016 at census tract level from MCDPH. Demographic, socio-economic, and housing variables were derived using 2012-2016 American Community Survey 5-year estimate from the U.S. Census. Remotely sensed Landsat 7 ETM+ and Landsat 8 OLI satellite images and Level-1 products were acquired for all the summer months (June to September) from 2012 and 2016. The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2016 percent tree canopy and percent developed imperviousness data were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). We used ordinary least squares (OLS) regression analysis to examine the empirical relationship between all the independent variables and heat-related morbidity rate. Results showed that higher morbidity rates are found in census tracts with higher values in population aged 65 and older, population under poverty, disability, no vehicle ownership, white non-Hispanic, population with less than high school degree, land surface temperature, and surface reflectance, but lower values in normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and housing occupancy. The regression model can be used to explain up to 59.4% of total variation of heat-related morbidity in Maricopa County. The multiscale geographically weighted regression (MGWR) technique was then used to examine the spatially varying relationships between heat-related morbidity rate and all the significant independent variables. The R-squared value of the MGWR model increased to 0.691, that shows a significant improvement in goodness-of-fit than the global OLS model, which means that spatial heterogeneity of some independent variables is another important factor that influences the relationship with heat-related morbidity in Maricopa County. Among these variables, population aged 65 and older, the Hispanic population, disability, vehicle ownership, and housing occupancy have much stronger local effects than other variables.

Keywords: census, empirical modeling, heat-related morbidity, spatial analysis

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