Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1259

Search results for: apex angle

1259 A New Aggregation Operator for Trapezoidal Fuzzy Numbers Based On the Geometric Means of the Left and Right Line Slopes

Authors: Manju Pandey, Nilay Khare, S. C. Shrivastava

Abstract:

This paper is the final in a series, which has defined two new classes of aggregation operators for triangular and trapezoidal fuzzy numbers based on the geometrical characteristics of their fuzzy membership functions. In the present paper, a new aggregation operator for trapezoidal fuzzy numbers has been defined. The new operator is based on the geometric mean of the membership lines to the left and right of the maximum possibility interval. The operator is defined and the analytical relationships have been derived. Computation of the aggregate is demonstrated with a numerical example. Corresponding arithmetic and geometric aggregates as well as results from the recent work of the authors on TrFN aggregates have also been computed.

Keywords: LR fuzzy number, interval fuzzy number, triangular fuzzy number, trapezoidal fuzzy number, apex angle, left apex angle, right apex angle, aggregation operator, arithmetic and geometric mean

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
1258 A Mathematical Model of Pulsatile Blood Flow through a Bifurcated Artery

Authors: D. Srinivasacharya, G. Madhava Rao

Abstract:

In this article, the pulsatile flow of blood flow in bifurcated artery with mild stenosis is investigated. Blood is treated to be a micropolar fluid with constant density. The arteries forming bifurcation are assumed to be symmetric about its axes and straight cylinders of restricted length. As the geometry of the stenosed bifurcated artery is irregular, it is changed to regular geometry utilizing the appropriate transformations. The numerical solutions, using the finite difference method, are computed for the flow rate, the shear stress, and the impedance. The influence of time, coupling number, half of the bifurcated angle and Womersley number on shear stress, flow rate and impedance (resistance to the flow) on both sides of the flow divider is shown graphically. It has been observed that the shear stress and flow rate are increasing with increase in the values of Womersley number and bifurcation angle on both sides of the apex. The shear stress is increasing along the inner wall and decreasing along the outer wall of the daughter artery with an increase in the value of coupling number. Further, it has been noticed that the shear stress, flow rate, and impedance are perturbed largely near to the apex in the parent artery due to the presence of backflow near the apex.

Keywords: micropolar fluid, bifurcated artery, stenosis, back flow, secondary flow, pulsatile flow, Womersley number

Procedia PDF Downloads 108
1257 Experimental Investigation of Boundary Layer Instability and Transition on a Rotating Parabola in Axial Flow

Authors: Ali Kargar, Kamyar Mansour

Abstract:

In this paper the boundary layer instability and transition on a rotating parabola which is sheathed shape on a rotating 30 degrees total apex angle cone have been study by smoke visualization. The rotating cone especially 30 degrees total apex angle is a well-established subject in some previous novel works and also in our previous works. But in this paper a stabilizing effect is detected by the bluntness of nose and also surface curvature. A parabola model which is satisfying those conditions (sheathed parabola of the 30 degrees cone) has been built and studied in the wind tunnel. The results are shown that the boundary layer transition occurs at higher rotational Reynolds number in comparison by the cone. The results are shown in the visualization pictures and also are compared graphically.

Keywords: transitional Reynolds number, wind tunnel, smoke visualization, rotating parabola

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
1256 An Experimental Investigation on the Amount of Drag Force of Sand on a Cone Moving at Low Uniform Speed

Authors: M. Jahanandish, Gh. Sadeghian, M. H. Daneshvar, M. H. Jahanandish

Abstract:

The amount of resistance of a particular medium like soil to the moving objects is the interest of many areas in science. These include soil mechanics, geotechnical engineering, powder mechanics etc. Knowledge of drag force is also used for estimating the amount of momentum of fired objects like bullets. This paper focuses on measurement of drag force of sand on a cone when it moves at a low constant speed. A 30-degree apex angle cone has been used for this purpose. The study consisted of both loose and dense conditions of the soil. The applied speed has been in the range of 0.1 to 10 mm/min. The results indicate that the required force is basically independent of the cone speed; but, it is very dependent on the material densification and confining stress.

Keywords: drag force, sand, moving speed, friction angle, densification, confining stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
1255 Computational Modeling of Perpendicular to Grain Stress in a Non-Standard Glulam Beam

Authors: Wojciech Gilewski, Anna Al Sabouni-Zawadzka, Jan Pelczynski

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the analysis of tensile stresses perpendicular to the grain in simply supported beams with different geometry made of glued laminated timber. Two types of beams are considered: standard double-tapered beams described in Eurocode 5 and non-standard glulam beams with a flattened apex. The beams are analyzed using two methodology approaches: a code design verification method and a finite element method (FEM) in terms of the linear theory of elasticity with plane stress assumption. The performed analyses proved that both methodologies lead to consistent results in case of standard glulam beams and therefore, the FEM can be used in case of non-standard structures, which are not included in Eurocode 5. Moreover, the FE analysis of the glulam beam with a flattened apex showed that it can be treated as a structure with two apex zones.

Keywords: double-tapered beams, finite element analysis, glued laminated timber, perpendicular to grain stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
1254 Performance Improvement of Photovoltaic Module at Different Tilt Angle in Kuwait

Authors: Hussain Bunyan, Wesam Ali

Abstract:

In this paper we will study the performance of a Silicon Photovoltaic (PV) system with different tilt angle arrangement in Kuwait (latitude 30˚ N). In this study the PV system is installed facing south, collecting maximum solar radiation at noon, and their angles are from 00 to 900 respectively, during full year at the Solstice and Equinox periods and aiming for a higher angle than 300 with competitive output power. The results show that the performance and the output power of the PV system with 50˚ tilt angle, is equivalent to the latitude tilt angle (30˚) during a full year.

Keywords: photovoltaic model, tilt angle, solar collector, PV system performance, State of Kuwait

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
1253 Aerodynamic Investigation of Rear Vehicle by Geometry Variations on the Backlight Angle

Authors: Saud Hassan

Abstract:

This paper shows simulation for the prediction of the flow around the backlight angle of the passenger vehicle. The CFD simulations are carried out on different car models. The Ahmed model “bluff body” used as the stander model to study aerodynamics of the backlight angle. This paper described the airflow over the different car models with different backlight angles and also on the Ahmed model to determine the trailing vortices with the varying backlight angle of a passenger vehicle body. The CFD simulation is carried out with the Ahmed body which has simplified car model mainly used in automotive industry to investigate the flow over the car body surface. The main goal of the simulation is to study the behavior of trailing vortices of these models. In this paper the air flow over the slant angle of 0,5o, 12.5o, 20o, 30o, 40o are considered. As investigating on the rear backlight angle two dimensional flows occurred at the rear slant, on the other hand when the slant angle is 30o the flow become three dimensional. Above this angle sudden drop occurred in drag.

Keywords: aerodynamics, Ahemd vehicle , backlight angle, finite element method

Procedia PDF Downloads 563
1252 Definition of Service Angle of Android’S Robot Hand by Method of Small Movements of Gripper’S Axis Synthesis by Speed Vector

Authors: Valeriy Nebritov

Abstract:

The paper presents a generalized method for determining the service solid angle based on the assigned gripper axis orientation with a stationary grip center. Motion synthesis in this work is carried out in the vector of velocities. As an example, a solid angle of the android robot arm is determined, this angle being formed by the longitudinal axis of a gripper. The nature of the method is based on the study of sets of configuration positions, defining the end point positions of the unit radius sphere sweep, which specifies the service solid angle. From this the spherical curve specifying the shape of the desired solid angle was determined. The results of the research can be used in the development of control systems of autonomous android robots.

Keywords: android robot, control systems, motion synthesis, service angle

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
1251 Performance of Photovoltaic Module at Different Tilt Angles

Authors: Hussain Bunyan, Wesam Ali

Abstract:

In this paper we will study the performance of a Silicon Photovoltaic (PV) system with different tilt angle arrangement in Kuwait (latitude 30˚ N). In the study the PV system is installed facing South, collecting maximum solar radiation at noon, and their angles are from 00 to 900 respectively, during full year at the Solstice and Equinox periods, aiming for a higher angle than 300 with competitive output power. The results show that the performance and the output power of the PV system with 50˚ tilt angle, is equivalent to the latitude tilt angle (30˚) during a full year.

Keywords: photovoltaic model, tilt angle, solar collector, PV system performance, State of Kuwait

Procedia PDF Downloads 407
1250 Optimization of Tilt Angle for Solar Collectors: A Case Study for Bursa, Turkey

Authors: N. Arslanoglu

Abstract:

This paper deals with the optimum tilt angle for the solar collector in order to collect the maximum solar radiation. The optimum angle for tilted surfaces varying from 0 to 90 in steps of 1was computed. In present study, a theoretical model is used to predict the global solar radiation on a tilted surface and to obtain the optimum tilt angle for a solar collector in Bursa, Turkey. Global solar energy radiation on the solar collector surface with an optimum tilt angle is calculated for specific periods. It is determined that the optimum slope angle varies between 0 (June) and 59 (December) throughout the year. In winter (December, January, and February) the tilt should be 55, in spring (March, April, and May) 19.6, in summer (June, July, and August) 5.6, and in autumn (September, October, and November) 44.3. The yearly average of this value was obtained to be 31.1 and this would be the optimum fixed slope throughout the year.

Keywords: Bursa, global solar radiation, optimum tilt angle, tilted surface

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
1249 Investigation of Flow Structure over X-45 Type Non-Slender Delta Wing Planform

Authors: B. Yanıktepe, C. Özalp, B. Şahin

Abstract:

Delta wing planform is an essential aerodynamic configuration, which could be effectively used at relatively high angles of attack than conventional wings in subsonic flow conditions. The flow over delta wings can be characterized by a pair of leading edge vortices emanating from wing apex. Boundary layer separation causes these vortical structures formed by rolling up of viscous flow sheet. This flow separation mechanism is occurred due to angle of attack and sharp leading edges of the delta wing. Therefore, complexity and variety in planform designs rise to catch the best under abnormal flow conditions. The present experimental study investigates the near surface flow structure and aerodynamic flow characteristics of X-45 type non-slender delta wing planform using dye visualization, Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (stereo-PIV). The instantaneous images are acquired on the plan-view plane within 5o≤α≤20o to calculate the time-averaged flow data. It can be concluded that vortical flow with a pair of well-defined LEVs over X-45 develop at very low angles of attack, secondary vortex are also evident and form close to the wing surface similar to delta and lambda planforms. The stall occurs at an angle of attack α=32o.

Keywords: aerodynamic, delta wing, PIV, vortex breakdown

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
1248 Measurement of the Quadriceps Angle with Respect to Various Body Parameters in Arab Countries

Authors: Ramada R. Khasawneh, Mohammed Z. Allouh, Ejlal Abu-El Rub

Abstract:

The quadriceps angle (Q angle), formed between the quadriceps muscles and the patella tendon, is considered clinically as a very important parameter which displays the biomechanical effect of the quadriceps muscle on the knee, and it is also regarded as a crucial factor for the proper posture and movement of the knee patella. This study had been conducted to measure the normal Q angle values range in the Arab nationalities and determine the correlation between Q angle values and several body parameters, including gender, height, weight, dominant side, and the condylar distance of the femur. The study includes 500 healthy Arab students from Yarmouk University and Jordan University of Science and Technology. The Q angle of those volunteers was measured using a universal manual Goniometer with the subjects in the upright weight-bearing position. It was found that the Q angle was greater in women than in men. The analysis of the data revealed an insignificant increase in the dominant side of the Q angle. In addition, the Q was significantly higher in the taller people of both sexes. However, the Q angle did not present any considerable correlation with weight in the study population; conversely, it was observed that there was a link with the condylar distance of the femur in both sexes. It was also noticed that the Q angle increased remarkably when there was an increase in the condylar distance. Consequently, it turned out that the gender, height, and the condylar distance were momentous factors that had an impact on the Q angle in our study samples. However, weight and dominance factors did not show to have any influence on the values in our study.

Keywords: Q angle, Jordanian, anatomy, condylar distance

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
1247 Hybrid GA-PSO Based Pitch Controller Design for Aircraft Control System

Authors: Vaibhav Singh Rajput, Ravi Kumar Jatoth, Nagu Bhookya, Bhasker Boda

Abstract:

In this paper proportional, integral, derivative (PID) controller is used to control the pitch angle of the aircraft when the elevation angle is changed or modified. The pitch angle is dependent on elevation angle; a change in one corresponds to a change in the other. The PID controller helps in restricted change of pitch rate in response to the elevation angle. The PID controller is dependent on different parameters like Kp, Ki, Kd which change the pitch rate as they change. Various methodologies are used for changing those parameters for getting a perfect time response pitch angle, as desired or wished by a concerned person. While reckoning the values of those parameters, trial and guessing may prove to be futile in order to provide comfort to passengers. So, using some metaheuristic techniques can be useful in handling these errors. Hybrid GA-PSO is one such powerful algorithm which can improve transient and steady state response and can give us more reliable results for PID gain scheduling problem.

Keywords: pitch rate, elevation angle, PID controller, genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization, phugoid

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
1246 The System for Root Canal Length Measurement Based on Multifrequency Impedance Method

Authors: Zheng Zhang, Xin Chen, Guoqing Ding

Abstract:

Electronic apex locators (EAL) has been widely used clinically for measuring root canal working length with high accuracy, which is crucial for successful endodontic treatment. In order to maintain high accuracy in different measurement environments, this study presented a system for root canal length measurement based on multifrequency impedance method. This measuring system can generate a sweep current with frequencies from 100 Hz to 1 MHz through a direct digital synthesizer. Multiple impedance ratios with different combinations of frequencies were obtained and transmitted by an analog-to-digital converter and several of them with representatives will be selected after data process. The system analyzed the functional relationship between these impedance ratios and the distance between the file and the apex with statistics by measuring plenty of teeth. The position of the apical foramen can be determined by the statistical model using these impedance ratios. The experimental results revealed that the accuracy of the system based on multifrequency impedance ratios method to determine the position of the apical foramen was higher than the dual-frequency impedance ratio method. Besides that, for more complex measurement environments, the performance of the system was more stable.

Keywords: root canal length, apex locator, multifrequency impedance, sweep frequency

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
1245 Electrochemical APEX for Genotyping MYH7 Gene: A Low Cost Strategy for Minisequencing of Disease Causing Mutations

Authors: Ahmed M. Debela, Mayreli Ortiz , Ciara K. O´Sullivan

Abstract:

The completion of the human genome Project (HGP) has paved the way for mapping the diversity in the overall genome sequence which helps to understand the genetic causes of inherited diseases and susceptibility to drugs or environmental toxins. Arrayed primer extension (APEX) is a microarray based minisequencing strategy for screening disease causing mutations. It is derived from Sanger DNA sequencing and uses fluorescently dideoxynucleotides (ddNTPs) for termination of a growing DNA strand from a primer with its 3´- end designed immediately upstream of a site where single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) occurs. The use of DNA polymerase offers a very high accuracy and specificity to APEX which in turn happens to be a method of choice for multiplex SNP detection. Coupling the high specificity of this method with the high sensitivity, low cost and compatibility for miniaturization of electrochemical techniques would offer an excellent platform for detection of mutation as well as sequencing of DNA templates. We are developing an electrochemical APEX for the analysis of SNPs found in the MYH7 gene for group of cardiomyopathy patients. ddNTPs were labeled with four different redox active compounds with four distinct potentials. Thiolated oligonucleotide probes were immobilised on gold and glassy carbon substrates which are followed by hybridisation with complementary target DNA just adjacent to the base to be extended by polymerase. Electrochemical interrogation was performed after the incorporation of the redox labelled dedioxynucleotide. The work involved the synthesis and characterisation of the redox labelled ddNTPs, optimisation and characterisation of surface functionalisation strategies and the nucleotide incorporation assays.

Keywords: array based primer extension, labelled ddNTPs, electrochemical, mutations

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
1244 Pythagorean-Platonic Lattice Method for Finding all Co-Prime Right Angle Triangles

Authors: Anthony Overmars, Sitalakshmi Venkatraman

Abstract:

This paper presents a method for determining all of the co-prime right angle triangles in the Euclidean field by looking at the intersection of the Pythagorean and Platonic right angle triangles and the corresponding lattice that this produces. The co-prime properties of each lattice point representing a unique right angle triangle are then considered. This paper proposes a conjunction between these two ancient disparaging theorists. This work has wide applications in information security where cryptography involves improved ways of finding tuples of prime numbers for secure communication systems. In particular, this paper has direct impact in enhancing the encryption and decryption algorithms in cryptography.

Keywords: Pythagorean triples, platonic triples, right angle triangles, co-prime numbers, cryptography

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
1243 Relationship Between Dynamic Balance, Jumping Performance and Q-angle in Soccer Players

Authors: Tarik Ozmen

Abstract:

The soccer players need good dynamic balance and jumping performance for dribbling, crossing rival, and to be effective in high balls during soccer game. The quadriceps angle (Q-angle) is used to assess biomechanics of the patellofemoral joint in the musculoskeletal medicine. The Q angle is formed by the intersection of two lines drawing from the anterior superior iliac spine to the centre of the patella and to the midline of the tibia tuberosity. Studies have shown that the Q angle is inversely associated with quadriceps femoris strength. The purpose of this study was to investigate relationship between dynamic balance, jumping performance and Q-angle in soccer players. Thirty male soccer players (mean ± SD: age, 15.23 ± 0.56 years, height, 170 ± 8.37 cm, weight, 61.36 ± 6.04 kg) participated as volunteer in this study. Dynamic balance of the participants were evaluated at directions of anterior (A), posteromedial (PM) and posterolateral (PL) with Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT). Each participant was instructed to reach as far as with the non-dominant leg in each of the 3 directions while maintaining dominant leg stance. Leg length was used to normalize excursion distances by dividing the distance reached by leg length and then multiplying the result by 100. The jumping performance was evaluated by squat jump using a contact mat. A universal (standard) goniometer was used to measure the Q angle in standing position. The Q angle was not correlated with directions of SEBT (A: p = 0.32, PM: p = 0.06, PL: p = 0.37). The squat jump height was not correlated with Q-angle (p = 0.21). The findings of this study suggest that there are no significant relationships between dynamic balance, jumping performance and Q-angle in soccer players. Further studies should investigate relationship between balance ability, athletic performance and Q-angle with larger sample size in soccer players.

Keywords: balance, jump height, Q angle, soccer

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
1242 The Influence of Winding Angle on Functional Failure of FRP Pipes

Authors: Roham Rafiee, Hadi Hesamsadat

Abstract:

In this study, a parametric finite element modeling is developed to analyze failure modes of FRP pipes subjected to internal pressure. First-ply failure pressure and functional failure pressure was determined by a progressive damage modeling and then it is validated using experimental observations. The influence of both winding angle and fiber volume fraction is studied on the functional failure of FRP pipes and it corresponding pressure. It is observed that despite the fact that increasing fiber volume fraction will enhance the mechanical properties, it will be resulted in lower values for functional failure pressure. This shortcoming can be compensated by modifying the winding angle in angle plies of pipe wall structure.

Keywords: composite pipe, functional failure, progressive modeling, winding angle

Procedia PDF Downloads 431
1241 Tensile Properties of 3D Printed PLA under Unidirectional and Bidirectional Raster Angle: A Comparative Study

Authors: Shilpesh R. Rajpurohit, Harshit K. Dave

Abstract:

Fused deposition modeling (FDM) gains popularity in recent times, due to its capability to create prototype as well as functional end use product directly from CAD file. Parts fabricated using FDM process have mechanical properties comparable with those of injection-molded parts. However, performance of the FDM part is severally affected by the poor mechanical properties of the part due to nature of layered structure of printed part. Mechanical properties of the part can be improved by proper selection of process variables. In the present study, a comparative study between unidirectional and bidirectional raster angle has been carried out at a combination of different layer height and raster width. Unidirectional raster angle varied at five different levels, and bidirectional raster angle has been varied at three different levels. Fabrication of tensile specimen and tensile testing of specimen has been conducted according to ASTM D638 standard. From the results, it can be observed that higher tensile strength has been obtained at 0° raster angle followed by 45°/45° raster angle, while lower tensile strength has been obtained at 90° raster angle. Analysis of fractured surface revealed that failure takes place along with raster deposition direction for unidirectional and zigzag failure can be observed for bidirectional raster angle.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, fused deposition modeling, unidirectional, bidirectional, raster angle, tensile strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
1240 Extracting the Failure Criterion to Evaluate the Strength of Cracked Drills under Torque Caused by Drilling

Authors: A. Falsafi, M. Dadkhah, S. Shahidi

Abstract:

The destruction and defeat of drill pipes and drill rigs in oil wells often combined with a combination of shear modulus II and III. In such a situation, the strength and load bearing capacity of the drill are evaluated based on the principles of fracture mechanics and crack growth criteria. In this paper, using the three-dimensional stress equations around the Turkish frontier, the relations of the tense-tense criterion (MTS) are extracted for the loading of the combined II and III modulus. It is shown that in crisp deflection under loading of combination II and III, the level of fracture is characterized by two different angles: the longitudinal angle of deflection θ and the angle of the deflection of the alpha. Based on the relationships obtained from the MTS criterion, the failure criteria, the longitudinal angle of the theta failure and the lateral angle of the failure of the alpha are presented. Also, the role of Poisson's coefficient on these parameters is investigated in these graphs.

Keywords: most tangential tension criterion, longitudinal angle of failure, side angle of fracture, drills crack

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
1239 Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of an RC Airplane Wing Using a NACA 2412 Profile at Different Angle of Attacks

Authors: Huseyin Gokberk, Shian Gao

Abstract:

CFD analysis of the relationship between the coefficients of lift and drag with respect to the angle of attack on a NACA 2412 wing section of an RC plane is conducted. Both the 2D and 3D models are investigated with the turbulence model. The 2D analysis has a free stream velocity of 10m/s at different AoA of 0°, 2°, 5°, 10°, 12°, and 15°. The induced drag and drag coefficient increased throughout the changes in angles even after the critical angle had been exceeded, whereas the lift force and coefficient of lift increased but had a limit at the critical stall angle, which results in values to reduce sharply. Turbulence flow characteristics are analysed around the aerofoil with the additions caused due to a finite 3D model. 3D results highlight how wing tip vortexes develop and alter the flow around the wing with the effects of the tapered configuration.

Keywords: CFD, turbulence modelling, aerofoil, angle of attack

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
1238 Required SNR for PPM in Downlink Gamma-Gamma Turbulence Channel

Authors: Selami Şahin

Abstract:

In this paper, in order to achieve sufficient bit error rate (BER) according to zenith angle of the satellite to ground station, SNR requirement is investigated utilizing pulse position modulation (PPM). To realize explicit results, all parameters such as link distance, Rytov variance, scintillation index, wavelength, aperture diameter of the receiver, Fried's parameter and zenith angle have been taken into account. Results indicate that after some parameters are determined since the constraints of the system, to achieve desired BER, required SNR values are in wide range while zenith angle changes from small to large values. Therefore, in order not to utilize high link margin, either SNR should adjust according to zenith angle or link should establish with predetermined intervals of the zenith angle.

Keywords: Free-space optical communication, optical downlink channel, atmospheric turbulence, wireless optical communication

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
1237 Determination of Optimum Fin Wave Angle and Its Effect on the Performance of an Intercooler

Authors: Mahdi Hamzehei, Seyyed Amin Hakim, Nahid Taherian

Abstract:

Fins play an important role in increasing the efficiency of compact shell and tube heat exchangers by increasing heat transfer. The objective of this paper is to determine the optimum fin wave angle, as one of the geometric parameters affecting the efficiency of the heat exchangers. To this end, finite volume method is used to model and simulate the flow in heat exchanger. In this study, computational fluid dynamics simulations of wave channel are done. The results show that the wave angle affects the temperature output of the heat exchanger.

Keywords: fin wave angle, tube, intercooler, optimum, performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
1236 Effect of Rolling Parameters on Thin Strip Profile in Cold Rolling

Authors: H. B. Tibar, Z. Y. Jiang

Abstract:

In this study, the influence of rolling process parameters such as the work roll cross angle and work roll shifting value on the strip shape and profile of aluminum have been investigated under dry conditions at a speed ratio of 1.3 using Hille 100 experimental mill. The strip profile was found to improve significantly with increase in work roll cross angle from 0o to 1o, with an associated decrease in rolling force. The effect of roll shifting (from 0 to 8mm) was not as significant as the roll cross angle. However, an increase in work roll shifting value achieved a similar decrease in rolling force as that of work roll cross angle. The effect of work roll shifting was also found to be maximum at an optimum roll speed of 0.0986 m/s for the desired thickness. Of all these parameters, the most significant effect of the strip shape profile was observed with variation of work roll cross angle. However, the rolling force can be a significantly reduced by either increasing the the work roll cross angle or work roll shifting.

Keywords: rolling speed ratio, strip shape, work roll cross angle, work roll shifting

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
1235 Clinical and Radiological Features of Radicular Cysts: Case Series

Authors: Recep Duzsoz, Elif Bilgir, Derya Yildirim, Ozlem Gormez

Abstract:

Radicular cysts develop in the root apex of tooth that is devitalized. Cysts are pathologic lesions with an epithelial lining encapsulated by connective tissue. Radicular cysts originate from epithelial remnants of the periodontal ligament in the root apex as a result of inflammation. They are most commonly observed in the maxillary anterior region, among men and in the third decade of life. Radiographically, they are seen as ovoid radiolucent lesions surrounded by a thin radioopaque margin. In this case, series was carried out in 15 radicular cysts of the jaws diagnosed in individuals. The cysts were evaluated age, sex, and localization. 12 of the cysts were localized in the maxillae, 3 of them were localised in the mandible. The female/male ratio of the lesions was 1/2. In conclusion, we evaluated age, localization and sex distribution of radicular cysts in this study. The knowledge of the features of the jaw cysts is a basic aspect to achieve diagnosis, complications and proper treatment.

Keywords: radicular cyst, jaws, CBCT, treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
1234 128-Multidetector CT for Assessment of Optimal Depth of Electrode Array Insertion in Cochlear Implant Operations

Authors: Amina Sultan, Mohamed Ghonim, Eman Oweida, Aya Abdelaziz

Abstract:

Objective: To assess the diagnostic reliability of multi-detector CT in pre and post-operative evaluation of cochlear implant candidates. Material and Methods: The study includes 40 patients (18 males and 22 females); mean age 5.6 years. They were classified into two groups: Group A (20 patients): cochlear implant device was Nucleus-22 and Group B (20 patients): the device was MED-EL. Cochlear length (CL) and cochlear height (CH) were measured pre-operatively by 128-multidetector CT. Electrode length (EL) and insertion depth angle (α) were measured post-operatively by MDCT. Results: For Group A mean CL was 9.1 mm ± 0.4 SD; mean CH was 4.1 ± 0.3 SD; mean EL was 18 ± 2.7 SD; mean α angle was 299.05 ± 37 SD. Significant statistical correlation (P < 0.05) was found between preoperative CL and post-operative EL (r²=0.6); as well as EL and α angle (r²=0.7). Group B's mean CL was 9.1 mm ± 0.3 SD; mean CH was 4.1 ± 0.4 SD; mean EL was 27 ± 2.1 SD; mean α angle was 287.6 ± 41.7 SD. Significant statistical correlation was found between CL and EL (r²= 0.6) and α angle (r²=0.5). Also, a strong correlation was found between EL and α angle (r²=0.8). Significant statistical difference was detected between the two devices as regards to the electrode length. Conclusion: Multidetector CT is a reliable tool for preoperative planning and post-operative evaluation of the outcomes of cochlear implant operations. Cochlear length is a valuable prognostic parameter for prediction of the depth of electrode array insertion which can influence criteria of device selection.

Keywords: angle of insertion (α angle), cochlear implant (CI), cochlear length (CL), Multidetector Computed Tomography (MDCT)

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
1233 Modelling the Effect of Head and Bucket Splitter Angle on the Power Output of a Pelton Turbine

Authors: J. A. Ujam, J. L. Chukwuneke, C. H. Achebe, G. O. R. Ikwu

Abstract:

This work investigates the effect of head and bucket splitter angle on the power output of a pelton turbine (water turbine), so as to boost the efficiency of Hydro-electric power generation systems. A simulation program was developed using MatLab to depict the force generated by the bucket as the water jet strikes the existing splitter angle (100 to 150) and predicted (10 to 250) splitter angles. Result shows that in addition to the existing splitter angle, six more angles have been investigated for the two operating conditions to give maximum power. The angles are 250, 60 and 190 for high head and low flow with increased pressure while low head and high flow with decreased pressure are 230, 210 and 30 in order of the maximum generating power. The Turbine power output for simulation was more than that of the experiment. This was as a result of their head conditions and the bucket splitter angle.

Keywords: bucket splitter angle, force, head, modelling, pelton turbine, power output, shaft output

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
1232 Relationship between Left Ventricle Position and Hemodynamic Parameters during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in a Pig Model

Authors: Hyun Chang Kim, Yong Hun Jung, Kyung Woon Jeung

Abstract:

Background: From the viewpoint of cardiac pump theory, the area of the left ventricle (LV) subjected to compression increases as the LV lies closer to the sternum, possibly resulting in higher blood flow in patients with LV closer to the sternum. However, no study has evaluated LV position during cardiac arrest or its relationship with hemodynamic parameters during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The objectives of this study were to determine whether the position of the LV relative to the anterior-posterior axis representing the direction of chest compression shifts during cardiac arrest and to examine the relationship between LV position and hemodynamic parameters during CPR. Methods: Subcostal view echocardiograms were obtained from 15 pigs with the transducer parallel to the long axis of the sternum before inducing ventricular fibrillation (VF) and during cardiac arrest. Computed tomography was performed in three pigs to objectively observe LV position during cardiac arrest. LV position parameters including the shortest distance between the anterior-posterior axis and the mid-point of the LV chamber (DAP-MidLV), the shortest distance between the anterior-posterior axis and the LV apex (DAP-Apex), and the area fraction of the LV located on the right side of the anterior-posterior axis (LVARight/LVATotal) were measured. Results: DAP-MidLV, DAP-Apex, and LVARight/LVATotal decreased progressively during untreated VF and basic life support (BLS), and then increased during advanced cardiovascular life support (ACLS). A repeated measures analysis of variance revealed significant time effects for these parameters. During BLS, the end-tidal carbon dioxide and systolic right atrial pressure were significantly correlated with the LV position parameters. During ACLS, systolic arterial pressure and systolic right atrial pressure were significantly correlated with DAP-MidLV and DAP-Apex. Conclusions: LV position changed significantly during cardiac arrest compared to the pre-arrest baseline. LV position during CPR had significant correlations with hemodynamic parameters.

Keywords: heart arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, heart ventricle, hemodynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
1231 The Effect of the Hexagonal Ring Interior Angle on Energy Absorption Capability

Authors: Shada Bennbaia, Elsadig Mahdi

Abstract:

In this paper, the effect of changing the interior angle of a hexagonal passive energy absorber is investigated. Aluminum hexagonal structures have been tested under in-plane quasi-static compression tests. These hexagonal structures are designed to have varying interior angle values to study their crushing behavior and the relationship between the angle and the energy absorption capability. It was found that the structures with angles 40° and 45° showed an almost perfectly stable crushing mechanism with low initial peak force. Thus, hexagonal structures with these angels can be used in the vehicle's crumple zones to absorb energy during collisions. The larger angles required high initial peak force to start crushing, which indicates that these structures are best suited in applications where high load carrying capacity is needed.

Keywords: energy absorption, crushing force efficiency, crushing mechanism, hexagonal angle, peak force

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
1230 Effect of Injector Installation Angle on the Thermal Behaviors of UWS in a Diesel SCR Catalytic Muffler Systems

Authors: Man Young Kim

Abstract:

To reduce the NOx emission in a Diesel vehicle, such various after treatment systems as SCR, LNC, and LNT are frequently visited as promising systems. Among others, urea-based SCR systems are known to be stable, effective technologies that can reduce NOx emissions most efficiently from diesel exhaust systems. In this study, therefore, effect of urea injector installation angle on the evaporation and mixing characteristics is investigated to find optimum operation conditions. It can be found that the injection angle significantly affects the thermal behavior of the urea-water solution in the diesel exhaust gases.

Keywords: selective catalytic reduction (SCR), evaporation, thermolysis, urea-water solution (UWS), injector installation angle

Procedia PDF Downloads 253