Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 134

Search results for: Arabian Mares

134 Some Studies on Endometritis in Pure Arabian Mares

Authors: Khairi El Battawy, Monika Skalicki

Abstract:

The present investigation has been done on pure Egyptian Arabian mares that reared in private horse studs. Fifty non-pregnant mares were selected and examined to classify them as either being reproductively healthy or subfertile mares including clinical endometritis, early embryonic death, granulosa cell tumor, repeat breeder (post-breeding endometritis), and anoestrus mares. The purpose of the study was to assess oxidative/antioxidant biochemical metabolites, lipogram, trace elements and reproductive hormones throughout reproductive conditions in mares during regular estrous, anestrum, early pregnancy, granulose cell tumor, ovulation failure, and endometritis. Results showed intensification of the free radical-dependent process in the blood of infertile mare, especially mares with endometritis. Ultrasonography as a diagnostic tool diagnosis of endometritis in mares was an important step as it revealed much information concerning infertility problem.

Keywords: endometritis, ovulation, oxidative, mare

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133 Serum MicroRNA and Inflammatory Mediators: Diagnostic Biomarkers for Endometritis in Arabian Mares

Authors: Sally Ibrahim, Mohamed Hedia, Mohamed Taqi, Mohamed Derbala, Karima Mahmoud, Youssef Ahmed, Sayed Ismail, Mohamed El-Belely

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The identification and quantification of serum microRNA (miRNA) from mares with endometritis might serve as useful and implementable clinical biomarkers for the early diagnosis of endometiritis. Aims of the current study were (I) to study the expression pattern of eca-miR-155, eca-miR-223, eca-miR-17, eca-miR-200a, and eca-miR-205, and (II) to determine the levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), prostaglandins (PGF₂α and PGE₂), in the serum of Arabian mares with healthy and abnormal uterine status (endometritis). This study was conducted on 80 Arabian mares (4-14 years old). Mares were divided into 48 sub-fertile mares suspected of endometritis and 32 fertile at stud farms. The criteria for mares to be enrolled in the endometritis group were that they had been bred three or more times unsuccessfully in the breeding season or had a history of more than one year of reproductive failure. In addition, two or more of the following criteria on a checklist were present: abnormal clinical findings, transrectal ultrasonographic uterine examination showed abnormal fluid in the uterus (echogenic or ≥2 cm in diameter), positive endometrial cytology; and bacterial and/or fungal growth. Serum samples were collected for measuring IL-6, PGF₂α, and PGE₂ concentrations, as well as serum miRNA isolation and quantitative real-time PCR. Serum concentrations of IL-6, PGE₂, and PGF₂α were higher (P ≤ 0.001) in mares with endometritis compared to the control healthy ones. The expression profile of eca-miR-155, eca-miR-223, eca-miR-17, eca-miR-200a, and eca-miR-205 increased (P≤0.001) in mares with endometritis compared to the control ones. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that revealed that serum miRNA and serum inflammatory mediators (IL-6, PGE₂, and PGF₂α) could be used as non-invasive gold standard biomarkers, and therefore might be served as an important additional diagnostic tool for endometritis in Arabian mares. Moreover, estimation of the serum concentrations of serum miRNA, IL-6, PGE₂, and PGF₂α is a promising recommended tool during the breeding soundness examination in mares.

Keywords: Arabian Mares, endometritis, inflammatory mediators, serum miRNA

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132 Comparison of hCG and GnRH in Enhancing Pregnancy Rate of Non-Lactating Cycling Brood Mares

Authors: Sanan Raza, Muhammad Younus, Ahmad Yar Qamar, Tariq Abbas, Hamayun Khan, Amanullah Khan

Abstract:

Mares are considered to be seasonally polyestrous animals. The breeding season of mare ranges from March to May in Pakistan. However, fertility problems of mares have been trifling the horse breeders and stud owners since long, and it comes out that the fertility status of mares in Pakistan is relatively lower than the world average. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of hCG and GnRH in improving pregnancy rate of mares in a transition period of month March and April. A total of n=66 mares showing normal estrus cycles with age ranging 5-12 y, weighing between 400-600 kg, BCS 6 ± 0.5 (1-9) and lactation varied from first to 5th were included in the experiment. These mares were administered PGF2α (75 μg; Dalmazine®, Fatro, Italy; 1 ml; i.m.) and divided into 3 groups. Mares of group 1 (n=22) were administered GnRH (100 μg; Dalmarelin®, Fatro, Italy; 4ml; im) while group 2 (n=22) mares were given hCG (5000 IU; IVF-C, LG Pharma; 1ml; iv). Likewise, mares of group 3 (n=22) were injected normal saline. Each treatment was given, when follicle attained the size of 35mm, keeping in view, the maturity of ovulating follicle at 35mm size and response to each treatment after routine ultrasound examination. All the mares of three groups were bred at 12 and 36 hours of treatment when the follicle reached the size of 35mm measured by ultrasound examination. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography on day 18th and 42nd mating. On day 18th, pregnancy rate was 81.8% for hCG followed by 54.5% for GnRH and 45.5% for control. On day 42nd, pregnancy rate was (47.4%) for hCG which is significantly high (p<0.05) followed by GnRH (31.6%) and control (21.1%). Additionally the pregnancy loss was (25%, 20% respectively) in control and GnRH treated groups; whereas, hCG treated group showed no pregnancy loss (0.00%). Since no embryonic loss has been observed with hCG treatment during current study. Also hCG treated mares were 7.87 times more likely to conceive than controls. There were two times more chances of pregnancy in hCG treated mares than GnRH treated mares Therefore, it is concluded that the use of hCG in breeding season can improve pregnancy rate at a significant level when compared with GnRH hormone.

Keywords: mares, ovulation, hCG, pregnancy rate

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131 Markers for Predicting Overweight or Obesity of Riding Egyptian Broodmares Mares

Authors: Amal Abo El-Maaty, Amira Mohamed, Nashwa Abu-Aita, Hisham Morgan

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For estimating markers of overweight or obesity of brood mares used for riding and training, 17 mares of different body conditions were subjected to blood sampling and ultrasound examination to measure rump fat thickness and monitor ovulation for six consecutive weeks. Also length (L), heart girth (G) and withers height (H) were measured to estimate body weight (BW), body fat %, body fat mass (BFM) and body mass index (BMI). Mares were classified into three groups according to both body condition score (BCS) and rump back fat (BF). Overweight mares (O) were having BCS > 7 and BF thickness >7mm, moderate body condition (M) mares were having BCS >3and ≤7and BF <3and <7mm, and emaciated mares (E) were having BCS ≤3 and BF ≤3mm. glucose, triglycerides, nitric oxide, ovarian, thyroid, insulin, insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-1), and leptin hormones were measured. Results revealed that BCS, G, L, L*G*H, BW, BF, fat %, BFM were significantly (P<0.0001) decreasing linearly from O to E. T4 concentrations of E were significantly high (P=0.04) compared to M and O but T3 concentrations tended to decrease in E (P>0.05). Insulin and IGF-1 concentrations tended to be high in O (P>0.05) and decrease with the decrease of body condition. M had (P=0.007) the highest leptin, but E mares had the lowest P4 concentrations (P=0.01). Concentrations of glucose and NO decreased with the decrease of BCS and BF but triglycerides of O were insignificantly high. In conclusion, exercise could prevent the development of metabolic syndrome in horses and back fat and morphometric measurements were the easiest and simple assessment of overweight and deviation to obesity.

Keywords: body condition score, insulin, leptin, mares, rump fat

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130 Gender Representation Perceived from Arabian Sirah: A Focus on Narrations of “Sīrat al-Amīrah Dhāt al-Himmah ” in Egypt

Authors: Hebatalla Omar

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Arabian epics provide vivid depictions of medieval Arab customs and events. Moreover, unlike artistic literary works, with a dominant intellectual flow and logic, Arabian epics are more like a reflection of society, naturally portraying conflicts, such as gender discrimination and racism. Nevertheless, there are few studies on Arabian epics but with limited gender-oriented research. We deem these epics as social and cultural phenomena. Furthermore, the position of women in those Arabian epics was examined. Next, the gender reality of the society is appraised with an inherent focus on “Sīrat al-Amīrah Dhāt al-Himmah,” which made it possible for women to be in a leading role. Notably, women were found to have an active role in Arabian epics. However, this role has faded in the view of modern narration.

Keywords: Arabian epic, Arabian nights, Antarah, Al-Sirah al-Hilaliyyah, Banu Kilab, Banu Sulaym

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129 Genomic Diversity and Relationship among Arabian Peninsula Dromedary Camels Using Full Genome Sequencing Approach

Authors: H. Bahbahani, H. Musa, F. Al Mathen

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The dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) are single-humped even-toed ungulates populating the African Sahara, Arabian Peninsula, and Southwest Asia. The genome of this desert-adapted species has been minimally investigated using autosomal microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA markers. In this study, the genomes of 33 dromedary camel samples from different parts of the Arabian Peninsula were sequenced using Illumina Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) platform. These data were combined with Genotyping-by-Sequencing (GBS) data from African (Sudanese) dromedaries to investigate the genomic relationship between African and Arabian Peninsula dromedary camels. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and average genome-wide admixture analysis were be conducted on these data to tackle the objectives of these studies. Both of the two analyses conducted revealed phylogeographic distinction between these two camel populations. However, no breed-wise genetic classification has been revealed among the African (Sudanese) camel breeds. The Arabian Peninsula camel populations also show higher heterozygosity than the Sudanese camels. The results of this study explain the evolutionary history and migration of African dromedary camels from their center of domestication in the southern Arabian Peninsula. These outputs help scientists to further understand the evolutionary history of dromedary camels, which might impact in conserving the favorable genetic of this species.

Keywords: dromedary, genotyping-by-sequencing, Arabian Peninsula, Sudan

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128 Inter-Annual Variations of Sea Surface Temperature in the Arabian Sea

Authors: K. S. Sreejith, C. Shaji

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Though both Arabian Sea and its counterpart Bay of Bengal is forced primarily by the semi-annually reversing monsoons, the spatio-temporal variations of surface waters is very strong in the Arabian Sea as compared to the Bay of Bengal. This study focuses on the inter-annual variability of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) in the Arabian Sea by analysing ERSST dataset which covers 152 years of SST (January 1854 to December 2002) based on the ICOADS in situ observations. To capture the dominant SST oscillations and to understand the inter-annual SST variations at various local regions of the Arabian Sea, wavelet analysis was performed on this long time-series SST dataset. This tool is advantageous over other signal analysing tools like Fourier analysis, based on the fact that it unfolds a time-series data (signal) both in frequency and time domain. This technique makes it easier to determine dominant modes of variability and explain how those modes vary in time. The analysis revealed that pentadal SST oscillations predominate at most of the analysed local regions in the Arabian Sea. From the time information of wavelet analysis, it was interpreted that these cold and warm events of large amplitude occurred during the periods 1870-1890, 1890-1910, 1930-1950, 1980-1990 and 1990-2005. SST oscillations with peaks having period of ~ 2-4 years was found to be significant in the central and eastern regions of Arabian Sea. This indicates that the inter-annual SST variation in the Indian Ocean is affected by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) events.

Keywords: Arabian Sea, ICOADS, inter-annual variation, pentadal oscillation, SST, wavelet analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
127 Saudi Arabian Science and Mathematics Teachers’ Attitudes toward Integrating STEM in Teaching before and after Participating in a Professional Development Workshop

Authors: Abdulwali H. Aldahmash, Naem M. Alamri

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The purpose of this study was to analyze Saudi Arabian science and mathematics teachers’ attitudes toward integrating STEM in teaching before and after they participated in a professional development workshop focused on STEM integration in a specific middle school science and mathematics unit. The participants were 48 Saudi Arabian science and mathematics teachers who participated in a three-day workshop held in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The research method was a pretest-posttest group design. The primary data source was the instrument for teachers' attitudes toward teaching integrated STEM. The results indicate that Saudi Arabian science and mathematics teachers’ perceptions of difficulties decreased due to their participation in the professional development workshop on integrated STEM. Meanwhile, the teachers' self-efficacy improved following their participation in the STEM professional development (PD) workshop. However, no perceived effect was found for the teachers' perceptions of the relevance of or their anxiety about or enjoyment of integrated STEM teaching due to their participation in the three-day PD workshop.

Keywords: STEM integration, attitude toward STEM, STEM workshop, professional development

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126 Comparison of Phynotypic Traits of Three Arabian Horse Strains

Authors: Saria Almarzook, Monika Reissmann, Gudrun Brockmann

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Due to its history, occurrence in different ecosystems and diverse using, the modern horse (Equus caballus) shows large variability in size, appearance, behavior and habits. At all times, breeders try to create groups (breeds, strains) representing high homology but showing clear differences in comparison to other groups. A great interest of analyzing phenotypic and genetic traits looking for real diversity and genetic uniqueness existents for Arabian horses in Syria. 90 Arabian horses from governmental research center of Arabian horses in Damascus were included. The horses represent three strains (Kahlawi, Saklawi, Hamdani) originated from different geographical zones. They were raised on the same farm, under stable conditions. Twelve phenotypic traits were measured: wither height (WH), croup width (CW), croup height (CH), neck girth (NG), thorax girth (TG), chest girth (ChG), chest depth (ChD), chest width (ChW), back line length (BLL), body length (BL), fore cannon length (FCL) and hind cannon length (HCL). The horses were divided into groups according to age (less than 2 years, 2-4 years, 4-9 years, over 9 years) and to sex (male, female). The statistical analyzes show that age has significant influence of WH while the strain has only a very limited effect. On CW, NG, BLL, FCL and HCL, there is only a significant influence of sex. Age has significant effect on CH and BL. All sources of classes have a significant effect on TG, ChG, ChD and ChW. Strain has a significant effect on the BL. These results provide first information for real biodiversity in and between the strains and can be used to develop the breeding work in the Arabian horse breed.

Keywords: Arabian horse, phenotypic traits, strains, Syria

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125 Ants of the Genus Trichomyrmex Mayr, 1865 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Arabian Peninsula, with Description of Two New Species

Authors: Mostafa R. Sharaf, Shehzad Salman, Hathal M. Al Dhafer, Shahid A. Akbar, Abdulrahman S. Aldawood

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The ant genus Trichomyrmex Mayr is revised for the Arabian Peninsula based on the worker caste. Nine species are recognized and descriptions of two new species, T. almosayari sp. n. and T. shakeri sp. n. from Riyadh Province, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) are given. A key to species and diagnostic characters of the treated species are presented. New country records are presented, T. abyssinicus (Forel) for the KSA and T. destructor (Jerdon) and T. mayri (Forel) for the State of Qatar. New distribution records for T. destructor (Jerdon) and T. mayri (Forel) in the KSA are provided. Regional and world distributions, and distribution maps for the treated species are included. Ecological and biological data are given where known.

Keywords: ants, Trichomyrmex, Arabian Peninsula, T. almosayari, T. shakeri

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
124 Organochlorine Residues in Cuttlefish from the Arabian Gulf

Authors: A. El-Gendy, S. Al-Farraj, S. Al Kahtani, M. El-Hedeny

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Contaminations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as, dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and chlordane (CHLs) were examined in the edible mantle tissues of the commercial cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis Ehrenberg 1831, collected from the marine water of the Arabian Gulf. The mean concentrations of DDT, CHLs and HCH were in the ranges of 29.4 - 56 ng/g, 47.4 - 100 ng/g and 1 - 4 ng/g, respectively. Among the POPs analyzed, HCH showed the lowest concentrations ranging between 1 to 5 ng/g lipid wt. However, concentrations of DDT, CHLs and HCH, detected in this study, were generally comparable or lower than those found in studies of similar cephalopod species from other areas subject to a high anthropogenic impact. Relationships between total body lengths and/or dorsal mantle lengths of the organisms and the concentration values of the studied POPs were also considered. Compared with recommendations of the international organizations, there are no potential risks associated with consuming the studied cuttlefish species.

Keywords: cuttlefish, Sepia pharaonis, organochlorine, DDT, CHLs, HCH, Arabian Gulf

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
123 Groundwater Recharge Pattern in East and West Coast of India: Evidence of Dissimilar Moisture Sources

Authors: Ajit Kumar Behera, Saranya P., Sudhir Kumar, Krishnakumar A

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The stable isotope (δ¹⁸ O and δ²H) composition of groundwater of the coastal areas of Periyar and Mahanadi basins falling along East and West coast of India during North-East (NE) monsoon season have been studied. The east and west coast regions are surrounded by the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea respectively, which are considered to be the primary sources for precipitation over India. The major difference between the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea is that a number of large rivers feed the Bay of Bengal, whereas the Arabian Sea is fed by very few small rivers, resulting in enriched stable isotopic composition of the Arabian Sea than the Bay of Bengal. Previous studies have reported depleted ratios of stable isotopes during Northeast monsoon along East and West coasts due to the influence of the Bay of Bengal moisture source. The isotopic composition of groundwater of the Mahanadi delta in the east coast region varies from -6.87 ‰ to -3.40 ‰ for δ¹⁸ O and -45.42 ‰ to -22.43‰ for δ²H. However, the groundwater of the Periyar basin in the west coast has enriched stable isotope value varying from -4.3‰ to -2.5 ‰ for δ¹⁸ O and for δ²H from -23.7 to -6.4 ‰ which is a characteristic of South-West monsoon season. This suggests the groundwater system of the Mahanadi delta and the Periyar basins are influenced by dissimilar moisture sources. The δ¹⁸ O and δ² H relationship (δ²H= 6.513 δ¹⁸ O - 1.39) and d-excess value (< 10) in the east coast region indicates the influence of NE monsoon implying the quick groundwater recharge after precipitation with significant amount of evaporation. In contrast, the δ¹⁸ O and δ²H regression line (δ²H= 8.408 δ¹⁸ O + 11.71) with high d-excess value (>10) in the west coast region implies delayed recharge due to SW monsoon. The observed isotopic enrichment in west coast suggests that NE winter monsoon rainfall does not replenish groundwater quick enough to produce isotopic depletion during the season.

Keywords: Arabian sea, bay of Bengal, groundwater, monsoon, stable isotope

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122 Energy Potential of Salinity Gradient Mixing: Case Study of Mixing Energies of Rivers of Goa with the Arabian Sea

Authors: Arijit Chakraborty, Anirban Roy

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The Indian peninsula is strategically located in the Asian subcontinent with the Himalayas to the North and Oceans surrounding the other three directions with annual monsoons which takes care of water supply to the rivers. The total river water discharge into the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea is 628 km³/year and 274 km³/year, respectively. Thus huge volumes of fresh water meet saline water, and this mixing of two streams of dissimilar salinity gives rise to tremendous mixing energies which can be harvested for various purposes like energy generation using pressure retarded osmosis or reverse electrodialysis. The present paper concentrates on analyzing the energy of mixing for the rivers in Goa. Goa has 10 rivers of various sizes all which meet the Arabian Sea. In the present work, the 8 rivers and their salinity (NaCl concentrations) have been analyzed along with their seasonal fluctuations. Next, a Gibbs free energy formulation has been implemented to analyze the energy of mixing of the selected rivers. The highest and lowest energies according to the seasonal fluctuations have been evaluated, and this provides two important insights into (i) amount of energy that can be harvested and (ii) decision on the location of such systems.

Keywords: Gibbs energy, mixing energy, salinity gradient energy, thermodynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
121 Life Cycle Assesment (LCA) Study of Shrimp Fishery in the South East Coast of Arabian Sea

Authors: Leela Edwin, Rithin Joseph, P. H. Dhiju Das, K. A. Sayana, P. S. Muhammed Sherief

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The shrimp trawl fishery is considered one of the more valuable fisheries from the South east Coast of Arabian Sea. Inventory data for the shrimp were collected over 1 year period and used to carry out a life cycle assessment (LCA). LCA was performed to assess and compare the environmental impacts associated with the fishing operations related to shrimp fishery. This analysis included the operation of the vessels, together with major inputs related to the production of diesel, trawl nets, or anti-fouling paints. Data regarding vessel operation was obtained from the detailed questionnaires filled out by 180 trawlers. The analysis on environmental impacts linked to shrimp extraction on a temporal scale, showed that varying landings enhanced the environmental burdens mainly associated with activities related to diesel production, transport and consumption of the fishing vessels. Discard rates for trawlers were also identified as a major environmental impact in this fishery.

Keywords: shrimp trawling, life cycle assesment (LCA), Arabian sea, environmental impacts

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120 A Review and Classification of Maritime Disasters: The Case of Saudi Arabia's Coastline

Authors: Arif Almutairi, Monjur Mourshed

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Due to varying geographical and tectonic factors, the region of Saudi Arabia has been subjected to numerous natural and man-made maritime disasters during the last two decades. Natural maritime disasters, such as cyclones and tsunamis, have been recorded in coastal areas of the Indian Ocean (including the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Aden). Therefore, the Indian Ocean is widely recognised as the potential source of future destructive natural disasters that could affect Saudi Arabia’s coastline. Meanwhile, man-made maritime disasters, such as those arising from piracy and oil pollution, are located in the Red Sea and the Arabian Gulf, which are key locations for oil export and transportation between Asia and Europe. This paper provides a brief overview of maritime disasters surrounding Saudi Arabia’s coastline in order to classify them by frequency of occurrence and location, and discuss their future impact the region. Results show that the Arabian Gulf will be more vulnerable to natural maritime disasters because of its location, whereas the Red Sea is more vulnerable to man-made maritime disasters, as it is the key location for transportation between Asia and Europe. The results also show that with the aid of proper classification, effective disaster management can reduce the consequences of maritime disasters.

Keywords: disaster classification, maritime disaster, natural disasters, man-made disasters

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119 Levels of Toxic Metals in Different Tissues of Lethrinus miniatus Fish from Arabian Gulf

Authors: Muhammad Waqar Ashraf, Atiq A. Mian

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In the present study, accumulation of eight heavy metals, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr)was determined in kidney, heart, liver and muscle tissues of Lethrinus miniatus fish caught from Arabian Gulf. Metal concentrations in all the samples were measured using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Analytical validation of data was carried out by applying the same digestion procedure to standard reference material (NIST-SRM 1577b bovine liver). Levels of lead (Pb) in the liver tissue (0.60µg/g) exceeded the limit set by European Commission (2005) at 0.30 µg/g. Zinc concentration in all tissue samples were below the maximum permissible limit (50 µg/g) as set by FAO. Maximum mean cadmium concentration was found 0.15 µg/g in the kidney tissues. Highest content of Mn in the studied tissues was seen in the kidney tissue (2.13 µg/g), whereas minimum was found in muscle tissue (0.87 µg/g). The present study led to the conclusion that muscle tissue is the least contaminated tissue in Lethrinus miniatus and consumption of organs should be avoided as much as possible.

Keywords: lethrinus miniatus, arabian gulf, heavy metals, atomic absorption spectroscopy

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118 Levels of Heavy Metals in Different Tissues of Lethrinus Miniatus Fish from Arabian Gulf

Authors: Muhammad Waqar Ashraf

Abstract:

In the present study, accumulation of eight heavy metals, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr)was determined in kidney, heart, liver and muscle tissues of Lethrinus Miniatus fish caught from Arabian Gulf. Metal concentrations in all the samples were measured using Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (GF-AAS). Analytical validation of data was carried out by applying the same digestion procedure to standard reference material (NIST-SRM 1577b bovine liver). Levels of lead (Pb) in the liver tissue (0.60µg/g) exceeded the limit set by European Commission (2005) at 0.30 µg/g. Zinc concentration in all tissue samples were below the maximum permissible limit (50 µg/g) as set by FAO. Maximum mean cadmium concentration was found to be 0.15 µg/g in the kidney tissues. Highest content of Mn in the studied tissues was seen in the kidney tissue (2.13 µg/g), whereas minimum was found in muscle tissue (0.87 µg/g). The present study led to the conclusion that muscle tissue is the least contaminated tissue in Lethrinus Miniatus and consumption of organs should be avoided as much as possible.

Keywords: Arabian gulf, Lethrinus miniatus, heavy metals, atomic absorption spectroscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
117 Sea Surface Trend over the Arabian Sea and Its Influence on the South West Monsoon Rainfall Variability over Sri Lanka

Authors: Sherly Shelton, Zhaohui Lin

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In recent decades, the inter-annual variability of summer precipitation over the India and Sri Lanka has intensified significantly with an increased frequency of both abnormally dry and wet summers. Therefore prediction of the inter-annual variability of summer precipitation is crucial and urgent for water management and local agriculture scheduling. However, none of the hypotheses put forward so far could understand the relationship to monsoon variability and related factors that affect to the South West Monsoon (SWM) variability in Sri Lanka. This study focused to identify the spatial and temporal variability of SWM rainfall events from June to September (JJAS) over Sri Lanka and associated trend. The monthly rainfall records covering 1980-2013 over the Sri Lanka are used for 19 stations to investigate long-term trends in SWM rainfall over Sri Lanka. The linear trends of atmospheric variables are calculated to understand the drivers behind the changers described based on the observed precipitation, sea surface temperature and atmospheric reanalysis products data for 34 years (1980–2013). Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis was applied to understand the spatial and temporal behaviour of seasonal SWM rainfall variability and also investigate whether the trend pattern is the dominant mode that explains SWM rainfall variability. The spatial and stations based precipitation over the country showed statistically insignificant decreasing trends except few stations. The first two EOFs of seasonal (JJAS) mean of rainfall explained 52% and 23 % of the total variance and first PC showed positive loadings of the SWM rainfall for the whole landmass while strongest positive lording can be seen in western/ southwestern part of the Sri Lanka. There is a negative correlation (r ≤ -0.3) between SMRI and SST in the Arabian Sea and Central Indian Ocean which indicate that lower temperature in the Arabian Sea and Central Indian Ocean are associated with greater rainfall over the country. This study also shows that consistently warming throughout the Indian Ocean. The result shows that the perceptible water over the county is decreasing with the time which the influence to the reduction of precipitation over the area by weakening drawn draft. In addition, evaporation is getting weaker over the Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal and Sri Lankan landmass which leads to reduction of moisture availability required for the SWM rainfall over Sri Lanka. At the same time, weakening of the SST gradients between Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal can deteriorate the monsoon circulation, untimely which diminish SWM over Sri Lanka. The decreasing trends of moisture, moisture transport, zonal wind, moisture divergence with weakening evaporation over Arabian Sea, during the past decade having an aggravating influence on decreasing trends of monsoon rainfall over the Sri Lanka.

Keywords: Arabian Sea, moisture flux convergence, South West Monsoon, Sri Lanka, sea surface temperature

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116 Dynamics of Follicle Vascular Perfusion, Dimensions, Antrum Growth, Circulating Angiogenic Mediators from Deviation to Ovulation

Authors: Elshymaa A. Abdelnaby, Amal M. Abo El-Maaty

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This study aimed to investigate dynamics of dominant and subordinate follicles change in dimensions, vascularity and angiogenic hormones after completing deviation till ovulation. Five cyclic mares were subjected to daily blood sampling and rectal Doppler ultrasonographic examination along two estrous cycles. Using electronic calipers, three diameters were recorded for each follicle to estimate area and volume. Leptin, Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1), nitric oxide (NO) and estradiol (E2) were measured. Area of color- and power- Doppler modes with area and circumference of the first (preovulatory) and subordinate follicles were measured in pixels. Follicles were classified into F1O (preovulatory), F2O (subordinate), F3O (third ovulatory) on the dominant ovary and F1C (first contra) and F2C (second contra) on the contralateral ovary. Days before ovulation significantly (P < 0.0001) affected diameter, circumference, area, volume, area/pixel and antrum area of the preovulatory follicle. With the increase of diameter, area, volume area/pixel, antrum area/pixel and circumference of F1O, those of all subordinates were decreasing. The blue blood flow area, power and power minus red blood flow area of F1O increased from day -6 till day of ovulation (day 0), but red blood flow area significantly decreased. F1O had the lowest percent of colored pixels and percent of the colored pixels without antrum. Estradiol and leptin increased from day -6 till day 0 but IGF-1 decreased till day -1 but NO achieved a peak on day -3 then decreased till day 0. In conclusion, antrum growth, blood flow and angiogenic hormones play a role in maturation and ovulation of the dominant follicle in mares.

Keywords: angiogenic hormones, blood flow, mare, preovulatory follicle

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115 Evaluation of JCI Accreditation for Medical Technology in Saudi Arabian Hospitals: A Study Case of PSMMC

Authors: Hamad Albadr

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Joint Commission International (JCI) accreditation process intent to improve the safety and quality of care in the international community through the provision of education, publications, consultation, and evaluation services. These standards apply to the entire organization as well as to each department, unit, or service within the organization. Medical Technology that contains both medical equipment and devices, is an essential part of health care. Appropriate management of equipment maintenance for ensuring medical technology safe, the equipment life is maximized, and the total costs are minimized. JCI medical technology evaluation and accreditation use standards, intents, and measurable elements. The paper focuses on evaluation of JCI standards for medical technology in Saudi Arabian hospitals: a Study Case of PSMMC that define the performance expectation, structures, or functions that must be in place for a hospital to be accredited by JCI through measurable elements that indicate a score during the survey process that identify the requirements for full compliance with the standard specially through Facility Management and Safety (FMS) section that require the hospital establishes and implements a program for inspecting, testing, and maintaining medical technology and documenting the results, to ensure that medical technology is available for use and functioning properly, the hospital performs and documents; an inventory of medical technology; regular inspections of medical technology; testing of medical technology according to its use and manufacturers’ requirements; and performance of preventive maintenance.

Keywords: joint commission international (JCI) accreditation, medical technology, Saudi Arabia, Saudi Arabian hospitals

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114 Isolation and Molecular Identification of Two Fungal Strains Capable of Degrading hydrocarbon Contaminants on Saudi Arabian Environment

Authors: Amr A. EL Hanafy, Yasir Anwar, Saleh A. Mohamed, Saleh Mohamed Saleh Al-Garni, Jamal S. M. Sabir , Osama A. H. Abu Zinadah, Mohamed Morsi Ahmed

Abstract:

In the vicinity of the red sea about 15 fungi species were isolated from oil contaminated sites. On the basis of aptitude to degrade the crude oil and DCPIP assay, two fungal isolates were selected amongst 15 oil degrading strains. Analysis of ITS-1, ITS-2 and amplicon pyrosequencing studies of fungal diversity revealed that these strains belong to Penicillium and Aspergillus species. Two strains that proved to be the most efficient in degrading crude oil was Aspergillus niger (54 %) and Penicillium commune (48 %) Subsequent to two weeks of cultivation in BHS medium the degradation rate were recorded by using spectrophotometer and GC-MS. Hence, it is cleared that these fungal strains has the capability of degradation and can be utilized for cleaning the Saudi Arabian environment.

Keywords: fungal strains, hydrocarbon contaminants, molecular identification, biodegradation, GC-MS

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113 Relationship between Leadership and Emotional Intelligence in Educational Supervision in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Jawaher Bakheet Almudarra

Abstract:

The Saudi Arabian educational system shared the philosophical principles, in its foundation, which concentrated on the achievement of goals, thereby taking up authoritative styles of leadership. However, organisations are beginning to be more liberal in today’s environment than in the 1940s and 1950s, and appealing to emotional intelligence as a tool and skill are needed for effective leadership. In the Saudi Arabian case, such developments are characterised by changes such as that of the educational supervisor having the role redefined to that of a director. This review tracks several parts: the first section helps western reader to understand the subtleties, complexities, and intricacies of the Saudi Arabia education system and its approach to leadership system of education, history, culture and political contribution. This can lead to the larger extent understand if emotional intelligence is a provocation for better leadership of Saudi Arabian education sector or not. The second part is the growth of educational supervision in Saudi Arabia, focusing on the education system, and evaluates the impact of emotional intelligence as a necessary skill in leadership. The third section looks at emotions and emotional intelligence, gender roles, and contributions by emotional intelligence in the education system. The education system of Saudi Arabia has undergone significant transformation. To fully understand the current climate of Saudi Arabia, it is essential to review this process of transformation in terms of the historical, cultural, political and social positions and transformations. Over the years, the education system in Saudi Arabia has undergone significant metamorphosis. The Saudi government has instituted a wide range of reforms in an attempt to improve education standards and outcomes, facilitate improvements and ensure that high standards of education standards are upheld to keep pace with the global environment and knowledge economy. Leadership itself has become an increasingly prominent aspect of educational reform worldwide. Emotional intelligence is often considered a significant aspect of leadership, but it is in its early stages in Saudi Arabia. Its recognition and adoption may improve leadership practices, particularly among educational supervisors and contribute to national and international understandings of leadership in Saudi Arabia. Studying leadership in the Saudi Arabian context is imperative as the new generation of leaders need to cultivate pertinent skills that will allow them to become fundamentally and positively involved in the regions’ decision making processes in order to impact the progression of the Saudi Arabian education system. Understanding leadership in the education context will allow for suitable inculcation of leadership skills. These skills include goal-setting, sound decision-making as well as problem-solving within the education system of Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: educational supervision, educational administration, emotional intelligence, educational leadership

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112 Observationally Constrained Estimates of Aerosol Indirect Radiative Forcing over Indian Ocean

Authors: Sofiya Rao, Sagnik Dey

Abstract:

Aerosol-cloud-precipitation interaction continues to be one of the largest sources of uncertainty in quantifying the aerosol climate forcing. The uncertainty is increasing from global to regional scale. This problem remains unresolved due to the large discrepancy in the representation of cloud processes in the climate models. Most of the studies on aerosol-cloud-climate interaction and aerosol-cloud-precipitation over Indian Ocean (like INDOEX, CAIPEEX campaign etc.) are restricted to either particular to one season or particular to one region. Here we developed a theoretical framework to quantify aerosol indirect radiative forcing using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aerosol and cloud products of 15 years (2000-2015) period over the Indian Ocean. This framework relies on the observationally constrained estimate of the aerosol-induced change in cloud albedo. We partitioned the change in cloud albedo into the change in Liquid Water Path (LWP) and Effective Radius of Clouds (Reff) in response to an aerosol optical depth (AOD). Cloud albedo response to an increase in AOD is most sensitive in the range of LWP between 120-300 gm/m² for a range of Reff varying from 8-24 micrometer, which means aerosols are most sensitive to this range of LWP and Reff. Using this framework, aerosol forcing during a transition from indirect to semi-direct effect is also calculated. The outcome of this analysis shows best results over the Arabian Sea in comparison with the Bay of Bengal and the South Indian Ocean because of heterogeneity in aerosol spices over the Arabian Sea. Over the Arabian Sea during Winter Season the more absorbing aerosols are dominating, during Pre-monsoon dust (coarse mode aerosol particles) are more dominating. In winter and pre-monsoon majorly the aerosol forcing is more dominating while during monsoon and post-monsoon season meteorological forcing is more dominating. Over the South Indian Ocean, more or less same types of aerosol (Sea salt) are present. Over the Arabian Sea the Aerosol Indirect Radiative forcing are varying from -5 ± 4.5 W/m² for winter season while in other seasons it is reducing. The results provide observationally constrained estimates of aerosol indirect forcing in the Indian Ocean which can be helpful in evaluating the climate model performance in the context of such complex interactions.

Keywords: aerosol-cloud-precipitation interaction, aerosol-cloud-climate interaction, indirect radiative forcing, climate model

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111 Red-Tide Detection and Prediction Using MODIS Data in the Arabian Gulf of Qatar

Authors: Yasir E. Mohieldeen

Abstract:

Qatar is one of the most water scarce countries in the World. In 2014, the average per capita rainfall was less than 29 m3/y/ca, while the global average is 6,000 m3/y/ca. However, the per capita water consumption in Qatar is among the highest in the World: more than 500 liters per person per day, whereas the global average is 160 liters per person per day. Since the early 2000s, Qatar has been relying heavily on desalinated water from the Arabian Gulf as the main source of fresh water. In 2009, about 99.9% of the total potable water produced was desalinated. Reliance on desalinated water makes Qatar very vulnerable to water related natural disasters, such as the red-tide phenomenon. Qatar’s strategic water reserve lasts for only 7 days. In case of red-tide outbreak, the country would not be able to desalinate water for days, let alone the months that this disaster would bring about (as it clogs the desalination equipment). The 2008-09 red-tide outbreak, for instance, lasted for more than eight months and forced the closure of desalination plants in the region for weeks. This study aims at identifying favorite conditions for red-tide outbreaks, using satellite data along with in-situ measurements. This identification would allow the prediction of these outbreaks and their hotspots. Prediction and monitoring of outbreaks are crucial to water security in the country, as different measures could be put in place in advance to prevent an outbreak and mitigate its impact if it happened. Red-tide outbreaks are detected using different algorithms for chlorophyll concentration in the Gulf waters. Vegetation indices, such as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) were used along with Surface Algae Bloom Index (SABI) to detect known outbreaks. MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) bands are used to calculate these indices. A red-tide outbreaks atlas in the Arabian Gulf is being produced. Prediction of red-tide outbreaks ahead of their occurrences would give critical information on possible water-shortage in the country. Detecting known outbreaks in the past few decades and related parameters (e.g. water salinity, water surface temperature, nutrition, sandstorms, … etc) enables the identification of favorite conditions of red-tide outbreak that are key to the prediction of these outbreaks.

Keywords: Arabian Gulf, MODIS, red-tide detection, strategic water reserve, water desalination

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110 The Arabian Financial Framework in the Pre-Islamic Times: Do We Need a New Paradigm

Authors: Fahad Ahmed Qureshi

Abstract:

There were abundant renowned financial markets in Pre-Islamic Arabs. Most of those were patterned and settled during pre-particularized sunshine. Those markets were classified either as vernacular markets helping the neighboring clans, or habitual markets that people sojourned to from all articulations of the Arabian Peninsula, such as Okaz near Mecca. Some of those markets had leading significance due to their geographical positions, such as Prime market of Eden, because of their entanglement in international trade i.e. with the markets of Sub-Continent, Abyssinia, Persia and China. Other markets such as Market of Yamamah annex its gist from being situated on the caravan crossroads. Islamic worldview and Islamic epistemology base of Financial Market’s realistic theory, pragmatic model and operative approach is moderately constrained in terms of its growth. The existent situation only parasol the form of accommodative-modification and splendid-methodologies, which due to depleted and decorous endeavor in explaining Islamic financial market theoretically. This is the demand of time that particular studies should be conduct to magnify the devours in developing theoretical framework for Islamic Financial Market.

Keywords: Islam, financial market, history, research, product development

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109 The Effect of Culture on User Interface Design of Social Media- A Case Study on Preferences of Saudi Arabian on the Arabic User Interface of Facebook

Authors: Hana Almakky, Reza Sahandi, Jacqui Taylor

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Social media continue to grow, and user interfaces may become more appealing if cultural characteristics are incorporated into their design. Facebook was designed in the west, and the original language was English. Subsequently, the words in the user interface were translated to other languages, including Arabic. Arabic words are written from right to left, and English is written from left to right. The translated version may misrepresent the original design and users preferences may influence their culture, which should be considered in the user interface design. Previous research indicates that users are more comfortable when interacting with a user interface, which relates to their own culture. Therefore, this paper, using a survey investigates the preferences of Saudi Arabian on the Arabic version of user interface of Facebook.

Keywords: culture, social media, user interface design, Facebook, Saudi Arabia

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108 Report of the Sea Cucumber Stichopus hermanni from Umm Al-Maradim and Qaruh Islands in Kuwait

Authors: M. Al-Roumi, A. Al-Yaqout, A. Al-Baz

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Recently, sea cucumbers have shown to be significant to global trade and incomes due to their high commercial value for the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industry. This rising demand for sea cucumber products has created increasing harvest stress on the natural populations and led to the depletion of sea cucumbers stocks worldwide and accordingly there is a big concern on the marine environment's health worldwide. Few species have been reported and identified via morophlogical features only. Several sea cucumber species were collected from the North West side reefs at Qaruh Island, and the north side of Umm Al-Maradem Island in Kuwait waters, in the north-western Arabian Gulf, in order to identify the sea cucumber species available in the Kuwaiti waters. The identified species were Holothuria atra, Holothuria arenicola, Holothuria hilla and Holothuria impatiens. Species identification was made using morphological keys and review of their ossicles. This paper reports the species Stichopus hermanni from Kuwait.

Keywords: Stichopus hermanni, Kuwait waters, Arabian Gulf, ossicles

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107 Seasonal Variations, Environmental Parameters, and Standing Crop Assessment of Benthic Foraminifera in Western Bahrain, Arabian Gulf

Authors: Muhammad Arslan, Michael A. Kaminski, Bassam S. Tawabini, Fabrizio Frontalini

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We conducted a survey of living benthic foraminifera in a relatively unpolluted site of Bahrain in the Arabian Gulf, with the aim of determining the seasonal variability in their populations, as well as various environmental parameters that affect their distribution. The maximum standing crop was observed during winter, with highest population of rotaliids, followed by a peak in miliolids. The highest population is attributed to an increasing number juveniles observed along the depth transect. A strong correlation between sediment grain size and the foraminiferal population indicates that juveniles were most abundant on coarser sandy substrate and less abundant on fine substrate. In spring, the total living population decreased, and lowest values are observed in the summer. The population started to increase again in the autumn with highest juveniles/adult ratios. Moreover, results of relative abundance and species consistency show that Ammonia is found to be consistent from the shallowest to the deepest station, whereas miliolids start appearing in the deeper stations. The average numbers of Peneroplis and Elphidium also increases along the depth transect. Environmental characterization reveals that although the site is subjected to eutrophication caused by nitrates and sulfates, pollution caused by hydrocarbons and heavy metals is not significant. The assessment of 63 heavy metals showed that none of the metals had concentrations that exceed internationally accepted norms [the devised level of Effect Range-Low], with the exception of strontium. The lack of a significant environmental effect of heavy metals is confirmed by a Foraminiferal Deformities Index value of less than 2%. Likewise, no hydrocarbon contamination was detected in the water or sediment samples. Lastly, observations of cytoplasmic streaming and pseudopodial activity in Petri dishes suggest that the foraminiferal population is not stressed. We conclude that the site in Bahrain is not yet adversely affected by human development, and therefore can provide baseline information for future comparison and assessment of foraminiferal assemblages in contaminated zones of the Arabian Gulf.

Keywords: Arabian Gulf, benthic foraminifera, standing crop, Western Bahrain

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106 Banking Control Law 1966 in Saudi Arabia, Shortcomings and Development: A Comparative Study in Banking Supervision between the Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency and the Bank of England

Authors: Khalid Huwaydi Alshammari

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The paper examined the extent to which it was necessary for the Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency (SAMA), as a central bank, to update the Banking Control Law 1966 (BCL) in order to gain full independence, while ensuring that SAMA would have enough flexibility to develop the banking industry yet make sound decisions with regard to the issuance of new regulations related to banking supervision.Using a comparative study approach, the paper looked to find the best practices around these issues. The Bank of England, which was recently granted full independence, presented a good opportunity for a case study. The perspectives of the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and commercial banks in Saudi Arabia are examined, including an analysis of their recommendations regarding SAMA regulations on banking supervision. This paper found several issues are important for SAMA as the central bank in a country which is a member of the G20, and which has recently faced unstable oil prices. The paper also discusses conflicts of interest which arose when the Saudi government became a shareholder in commercial banks while simultaneously regulating SAMA through the Ministry of Finance, resulting in a monopoly which disabled free competition in the banking market. The paper recommends further steps for SAMA to develop the banking industry, which is an important arm of Saudi’s economy, and examines the challenges SAMA faces in updating regulations such as the BCL under Sharia law. The author also suggests practical solutions to the difficulties. The paper found these difficulties could be avoiding them if SAMA focuses on Islamic banking product, and fixed the lacks of regulations of the related laws.

Keywords: Saudi Arabian monetary agency, comparative study, banking control law 1966, the bank of England

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105 Modern Nahwu's View about the Theory of Amil

Authors: Kisno Umbar

Abstract:

Arabic grammar (nahwu) is one of the most important disciplines to learn about the Islamic literature (kitab al-turats). In the last century, learning Arabic grammar was difficult for both the Arabian or non-Arabian native. Most of the traditional nahwu scholars viewed that the theory of amil is a major problem. The views had influenced large number of modern nahwu scholars, and some of them refuse the theory of amil to simplify Arabic grammar to make it easier. The aim of the study is to compare many views of the modern nahwu scholars about the theory of amil including their reasons. In addition, the study is to reveal whether they follow classic scholars or give a view. The author uses literature study approach to get data of modern nahwu scholars from their books as a primary resource. As a secondary resource, the author uses the updated relevant researches from journals about the theory of amil. Besides, the author put on several resources from the traditional nahwu scholars to compare the views. The analysis showed the contrasting views about the theory of amil. Most of the scholars refuse the amil because it isn’t originally derived from Arabic tradition, but it is influenced by Aristotelian philosophy. The others persistently use the amil inasmuch as it is one of the characteristics that differ Arabic language and other languages.

Keywords: Arabic grammar, Amil, Arabic tradition, Aristotelian philosophy

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