Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 831

Search results for: serum miRNA

831 Serum MicroRNA and Inflammatory Mediators: Diagnostic Biomarkers for Endometritis in Arabian Mares

Authors: Sally Ibrahim, Mohamed Hedia, Mohamed Taqi, Mohamed Derbala, Karima Mahmoud, Youssef Ahmed, Sayed Ismail, Mohamed El-Belely

Abstract:

The identification and quantification of serum microRNA (miRNA) from mares with endometritis might serve as useful and implementable clinical biomarkers for the early diagnosis of endometiritis. Aims of the current study were (I) to study the expression pattern of eca-miR-155, eca-miR-223, eca-miR-17, eca-miR-200a, and eca-miR-205, and (II) to determine the levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), prostaglandins (PGF₂α and PGE₂), in the serum of Arabian mares with healthy and abnormal uterine status (endometritis). This study was conducted on 80 Arabian mares (4-14 years old). Mares were divided into 48 sub-fertile mares suspected of endometritis and 32 fertile at stud farms. The criteria for mares to be enrolled in the endometritis group were that they had been bred three or more times unsuccessfully in the breeding season or had a history of more than one year of reproductive failure. In addition, two or more of the following criteria on a checklist were present: abnormal clinical findings, transrectal ultrasonographic uterine examination showed abnormal fluid in the uterus (echogenic or ≥2 cm in diameter), positive endometrial cytology; and bacterial and/or fungal growth. Serum samples were collected for measuring IL-6, PGF₂α, and PGE₂ concentrations, as well as serum miRNA isolation and quantitative real-time PCR. Serum concentrations of IL-6, PGE₂, and PGF₂α were higher (P ≤ 0.001) in mares with endometritis compared to the control healthy ones. The expression profile of eca-miR-155, eca-miR-223, eca-miR-17, eca-miR-200a, and eca-miR-205 increased (P≤0.001) in mares with endometritis compared to the control ones. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that revealed that serum miRNA and serum inflammatory mediators (IL-6, PGE₂, and PGF₂α) could be used as non-invasive gold standard biomarkers, and therefore might be served as an important additional diagnostic tool for endometritis in Arabian mares. Moreover, estimation of the serum concentrations of serum miRNA, IL-6, PGE₂, and PGF₂α is a promising recommended tool during the breeding soundness examination in mares.

Keywords: Arabian Mares, endometritis, inflammatory mediators, serum miRNA

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830 Diagnostic Evaluation of Micro Rna (miRNA-21, miRNA-215 and miRNA-378) in Patients with Colorectal Cancer

Authors: Ossama Abdelmotaal, Olfat Shaker, Tarek Salman, Lamiaa Nabeel, Mostafa Shabayek

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Colorectal Cancer (CRC) is an important worldwide health problem. Colonoscopy is used in detecting CRC suffer from drawbacks where colonoscopy is an invasive method. This study validates easier and less time-consuming techniques to evaluate the usefulness of detecting miRNA-21, miRNA-215 and miRNA-378 in the sera of colorectal cancer patients as new diagnostic tools. This study includes malignant (Colo Rectal Cancer patients, n= 64)) and healthy (n=27) groups. The studied groups were subjected to colonoscopic examination and estimation of miRNA-21, miRNA-215 and miRNA-378 in sera by RT-PCR. miRNA-21 showed the statistically significantly highest median fold change. miRNA-378 showed statistically significantly lower value (Both showed over-expression). miRNA-215 showed the statistically significantly lowest median fold change (It showed down-regulation). Overall the miRNA (21-215 and 378) appear to be promising method of detecting CRC and evaluating its stages.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, miRNA-21, miRNA-215, miRNA-378

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829 MicroRNA Differential Profiling in Hepatitis C Patients Undergoing Major Surgeries: Propofol versus Sevoflurane Anesthesia

Authors: Hala Demerdash, Ola M. Zanaty, Emad Eldin Arida

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Background: This study investigated the micoRNA expression changes induced by Sevoflurane and Propofol and their effects on liver functions. Patients and methods: The study was designed as randomized controlled study, carried out on 200 adult patients, scheduled for major surgeries under general anesthesia (GA). Patients were randomly divided into four groups; groups SC and PC included chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients where SC group are patients receiving Sevoflurane, and PC group are patients receiving Propofol anesthesia. While S and P groups included non- hepatitis patients; S group are patients receiving Sevoflurane and P group are patients receiving Propofol. Anesthesia in Group S and SC patients was maintained by sevoflurane, while anesthesia in Group P and PC patients was maintained by propofol infusion. Blood samples were analyzed for PT, PTT and liver enzymes. Serum samples were analyzed for microRNA before and after surgery. Results: Results show miRNA-122 and miRNA-21 were absent in serum of S and P groups in pre-operative samples. However, they were expressed in SC and PC groups. In post-operative samples; miRNA-122 revealed an increased expression in all groups; with more exaggerated response in SC group. On the other hand miRNA-21 revealed increased expression in both SC and PC groups; a slight expression in S group with absent expression in P group. There was a post-operative negative correlation between miR-122 and ALT (r=-0.46) in SC group and (r=-0.411) in PC group and positive correlation between ALT and miR-21 (r=0.335) in SC group and (r=0.379) in PC group. The amount of blood loss was positively correlated with miR-122 (r=0.366) in SC group and (r=0.384) in PC group. Conclusion: Propofol anesthesia is safer than Sevoflurane anesthesia in patients with CHC. Sevoflurane and Propofol anesthesia affect miRNA expression in both CHC and non-hepatitis patients.

Keywords: anesthesia, chronic hepatitis C, micoRNA, propofol, sevoflurane

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828 Identification of microRNAs in Early and Late Onset of Parkinson’s Disease Patient

Authors: Ahmad Rasyadan Arshad, A. Rahman A. Jamal, N. Mohamed Ibrahim, Nor Azian Abdul Murad

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Introduction: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a complex and asymptomatic disease where patients are usually diagnosed at late stage where about 70% of the dopaminergic neurons are lost. Therefore, identification of molecular biomarkers is crucial for early diagnosis of PD. MicroRNA (miRNA) is a short nucleotide non-coding small RNA which regulates the gene expression in post-translational process. The involvement of these miRNAs in neurodegenerative diseases includes maintenance of neuronal development, necrosis, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Thus, miRNA could be a potential biomarkers for diagnosis of PD. Objective: This study aim to identify the miRNA involved in Late Onset PD (LOPD) and Early Onset PD (EOPD) compared to the controls. Methods: This is a case-control study involved PD patients in the Chancellor Tunku Muhriz Hospital at the UKM Medical Centre. miRNA samples were extracted using miRNeasy serum/plasma kit from Qiagen. The quality of miRNA extracted was determined using Agilent RNA 6000 Nano kit in the Bioanalyzer. miRNA expression was performed using GeneChip miRNA 4.0 chip from Affymetrix. Microarray was performed in EOPD (n= 7), LOPD (n=9) and healthy control (n=11). Expression Console and Transcriptomic Analyses Console were used to analyze the microarray data. Result: miR-129-5p was significantly downregulated in EOPD compared to LOPD with -4.2 fold change (p = <0.050. miR-301a-3p was upregulated in EOPD compared to healthy control (fold = 10.3, p = <0.05). In LOPD versus healthy control, miR-486-3p (fold = 15.28, p = <0.05), miR-29c-3p (fold = 12.21, p = <0.05) and miR-301a-3p (fold = 10.01, p =< 0.05) were upregulated. Conclusion: Several miRNA have been identified to be differentially expressed in EOPD compared to LOPD and PD versus control. These miRNAs could serve as the potential biomarkers for early diagnosis of PD. However, these miRNAs need to be validated in a larger sample size.

Keywords: early onset PD, late onset PD, microRNA (miRNA), microarray

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827 Identification of miRNA-miRNA Interactions between Virus and Host in Human Cytomegalovirus Infection

Authors: Kai-Yao Huang, Tzong-Yi Lee, Pin-Hao Ho, Tzu-Hao Chang, Cheng-Wei Chang

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Background: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infects much people around the world, and there were many researches mention that many diseases were caused by HCMV. To understand the mechanism of HCMV lead to diseases during infection. We observe a microRNA (miRNA) – miRNA interaction between HCMV and host during infection. We found HCMV miRNA sequence component complementary with host miRNA precursors, and we also found that the host miRNA abundances were decrease in HCMV infection. Hence, we focus on the host miRNA which may target by the other HCMV miRNA to find theirs target mRNAs expression and analysis these mRNAs affect what kind of signaling pathway. Interestingly, we found the affected mRNA play an important role in some diseases related pathways, and these diseases had been annotated by HCMV infection. Results: From our analysis procedure, we found 464 human miRNAs might be targeted by 26 HCMV miRNAs and there were 291 human miRNAs shows the concordant decrease trend during HCMV infection. For case study, we found hcmv-miR-US22-5p may regulate hsa-mir-877 and we analysis the KEGG pathway which built by hsa-mir-877 validate target mRNA. Additionally, through survey KEGG Disease database found that these mRNA co-regulate some disease related pathway for instance cancer, nerve disease. However, there were studies annotated that HCMV infection casuse cancer and Alzheimer. Conclusions: This work supply a different scenario of miRNA target interactions(MTIs). In previous study assume miRNA only target to other mRNA. Here we wonder there is possibility that miRNAs might regulate non-mRNA targets, like other miRNAs. In this study, we not only consider the sequence similarity with HCMV miRNAs and human miRNA precursors but also the expression trend of these miRNAs. Then we analysis the human miRNAs validate target mRNAs and its associated KEGG pathway. Finally, we survey related works to validate our investigation.

Keywords: human cytomegalovirus, HCMV, microRNA, miRNA

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826 MiRNA Regulation of CXCL12β during Inflammation

Authors: Raju Ranjha, Surbhi Aggarwal

Abstract:

Background: Inflammation plays an important role in infectious and non-infectious diseases. MiRNA is also reported to play role in inflammation and associated cancers. Chemokine CXCL12 is also known to play role in inflammation and various cancers. CXCL12/CXCR4 chemokine axis was involved in pathogenesis of IBD specially UC. Supplementation of CXCL12 induces homing of dendritic cells to spleen and enhances control of plasmodium parasite in BALB/c mice. We looked at the regulation of CXCL12β by miRNA in UC colitis. Prolonged inflammation of colon in UC patient increases the risk of developing colorectal cancer. We looked at the expression differences of CXCl12β and its targeting miRNA in cancer susceptible area of colon of UC patients. Aim: Aim of this study was to find out the expression regulation of CXCL12β by miRNA in inflammation. Materials and Methods: Biopsy samples and blood samples were collected from UC patients and non-IBD controls. mRNA expression was analyzed using microarray and real-time PCR. CXCL12β targeting miRNA were looked by using online target prediction tools. Expression of CXCL12β in blood samples and cell line supernatant was analyzed using ELISA. miRNA target was validated using dual luciferase assay. Results and conclusion: We found miR-200a regulate the expression of CXCL12β in UC. Expression of CXCL12β was increased in cancer susceptible part of colon and expression of its targeting miRNA was decreased in the same part of colon. miR-200a regulate CXCL12β expression in inflammation and may be an important therapeutic target in inflammation associated cancer.

Keywords: inflammation, miRNA, regulation, CXCL12

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825 Intra-miR-ExploreR, a Novel Bioinformatics Platform for Integrated Discovery of MiRNA:mRNA Gene Regulatory Networks

Authors: Surajit Bhattacharya, Daniel Veltri, Atit A. Patel, Daniel N. Cox

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miRNAs have emerged as key post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, however identification of biologically-relevant target genes for this epigenetic regulatory mechanism remains a significant challenge. To address this knowledge gap, we have developed a novel tool in R, Intra-miR-ExploreR, that facilitates integrated discovery of miRNA targets by incorporating target databases and novel target prediction algorithms, using statistical methods including Pearson and Distance Correlation on microarray data, to arrive at high confidence intragenic miRNA target predictions. We have explored the efficacy of this tool using Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism for bioinformatics analyses and functional validation. A number of putative targets were obtained which were also validated using qRT-PCR analysis. Additional features of the tool include downloadable text files containing GO analysis from DAVID and Pubmed links of literature related to gene sets. Moreover, we are constructing interaction maps of intragenic miRNAs, using both micro array and RNA-seq data, focusing on neural tissues to uncover regulatory codes via which these molecules regulate gene expression to direct cellular development.

Keywords: miRNA, miRNA:mRNA target prediction, statistical methods, miRNA:mRNA interaction network

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824 Micro-Ribonucleic Acid-21 as High Potential Prostate Cancer Biomarker

Authors: Regina R. Gunawan, Indwiani Astuti, H. Raden Danarto

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Cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide. Cancer is caused by mutations that alter the function of normal human genes and give rise to cancer genes. MicroRNA (miRNA) is a small non-coding RNA that regulates the gen through complementary bond towards mRNA target and cause mRNA degradation. miRNA works by either promoting or suppressing cell proliferation. miRNA level expression in cancer may offer another value of miRNA as a biomarker in cancer diagnostic. miRNA-21 is believed to have a role in carcinogenesis by enhancing proliferation, anti-apoptosis, cell cycle progression and invasion of tumor cells. Hsa-miR-21-5p marker has been identified in Prostate Cancer (PCa) and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) patient’s urine. This research planned to explore the diagnostic performance of miR-21 to differentiate PCa and BPH patients. In this study, urine samples were collected from 20 PCa patients and 20 BPH patients. miR-21 relative expression against the reference gene was analyzed and compared between the two. miRNA expression was analyzed using the comparative quantification method to find the fold change. miR-21 validity in identifying PCa patients was performed by quantifying the sensitivity and specificity with the contingency table. miR-21 relative expression against miR-16 in PCa patient and in BPH patient has 12,98 differences in fold change. From a contingency table of Cq expression of miR-21 in identifying PCa patients from BPH patient, Cq miR-21 has 100% sensitivity and 75% specificity. miR-21 relative expression can be used in discriminating PCa from BPH by using a urine sample. Furthermore, the expression of miR-21 has higher sensitivity compared to PSA (Prostate specific antigen), therefore miR-21 has a high potential to be analyzed and developed more.

Keywords: benign prostate hyperplasia, biomarker, miRNA-21, prostate cancer

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823 MicroRNA Profiling Reveals Novel Circulating Biomarkers in Acute Phase of Myocardial Infarction

Authors: A. Maciejak, M. Kiliszek, G. Opolski, D. Tulacz, A. Segiet, K. Matlak, S. Dobrzycki, G. Sygitowicz, B. Burzynska, M. Gora

Abstract:

Introduction and aims: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is one of the most severe cardiovascular diseases affecting millions of patients each year worldwide. An early and accurate diagnosis of AMI is essential for optimal treatment. Therefore, new approaches that can complement and improve current strategies for AMI diagnosis are urgently needed. Recent studies have revealed the presence of stable circulating myocardial-derived microRNAs (miRNAs) in human peripheral blood, suggesting that such miRNAs could serve as potential biomarkers of infarction. The present study aimed to identify differentially expressed circulating miRNAs in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. Materials and methods: miRNA expression profile analysis was performed using Exiqon Serum/Plasma Focus microRNA PCR panel in plasma samples of n=16 patients on the first day of AMI (admission) and in samples from the same patients collected six months after AMI. Selected miRNAs were validated by RT-qPCR using serum samples from an independent set of n=14 AMI patients. Results: The profiling study identified 46 species of plasma miRNAs that were differentially expressed (p < 0.05) on admission compared to six months after AMI. The validation in the independent group of patients confirmed that miR-133b and miR-22-5p were significantly up-regulated upon AMI. Conclusions: Our results suggest that miRNA expression profiling provides better understanding of the changes that occur in the acute phase of MI in the myocardium and could be useful in determination of the potential role of extracellular miRNAs as paracrine signaling molecules. miR-22-5p represents a novel promising biomarker for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction.

Keywords: acute myocardial infarction, circulating microRNAs, microRNA expression profiling, miR-22-5p

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822 Comparison of Extracellular miRNA from Different Lymphocyte Cell Lines and Isolation Methods

Authors: Christelle E. Chua, Alicia L. Ho

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The development of a panel of differential gene expression signatures has been of interest in the field of biomarker discovery for radiation exposure. In the absence of the availability of exposed human subjects, lymphocyte cell lines have often been used as a surrogate to human whole blood, when performing ex vivo irradiation studies. The extent of variation between different lymphocyte cell lines is currently unclear, especially with regard to the expression of extracellular miRNA. This study compares the expression profile of extracellular miRNA isolated from different lymphocyte cell lines. It also compares the profile of miRNA obtained when different exosome isolation kits are used. Lymphocyte cell lines were created using lymphocytes isolated from healthy adult males of similar racial descent (Chinese American and Chinese Singaporean) and immortalised with Epstein-Barr virus. The cell lines were cultured in exosome-free cell culture media for 72h and the cell culture supernatant was removed for exosome isolation. Two exosome isolation kits were used. Total exosome isolation reagent (TEIR, ThermoFisher) is a polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based exosome precipitation kit, while ExoSpin (ES, Cell Guidance Systems) is a PEG-based exosome precipitation kit that includes an additional size exclusion chromatography step. miRNA from the isolated exosomes were isolated using miRNEASY minikit (Qiagen) and analysed using nCounter miRNA assay (Nanostring). Principal component analysis (PCA) results suggested that the overall extracellular miRNA expression profile differed between the lymphocyte cell line originating from the Chinese American donor and the cell line originating from the Chinese Singaporean donor. As the gender, age and racial origins of both donors are similar, this may suggest that there are other genetic or epigenetic differences that account for the variation in extracellular miRNA gene expression in lymphocyte cell lines. However, statistical analysis showed that only 3 miRNA genes had a fold difference > 2 at p < 0.05, suggesting that the differences may not be of that great a significance as to impact overall conclusions drawn from different cell lines. Subsequent analysis using cell lines from other donors will give further insight into the reproducibility of results when difference cell lines are used. PCA results also suggested that the method of exosome isolation impacted the expression profile. 107 miRNA had a fold difference > 2 at p < 0.05. This suggests that the inclusion of an additional size exclusion chromatography step altered the subset of the extracellular vesicles that were isolated. In conclusion, these results suggest that extracellular miRNA can be isolated and analysed from exosomes derived from lymphocyte cell lines. However, care must be taken in the choice of cell line and method of exosome isolation used.

Keywords: biomarker, extracellular miRNA, isolation methods, lymphocyte cell line

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821 Expression of miRNA 335 in Gall Bladder Cancer: A Correlative Study

Authors: Naseem Fatima, A. N. Srivastava, Tasleem Raza, Vijay Kumar

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Introduction: Carcinoma gallbladder is third most common gastrointestinal lethal disease with the highest incidence and mortality rate among women in Northern India. Scientists have found several risk factors that make a person more likely to develop gallbladder cancer; among these risk factors, deregulation of miRNAs has been demonstrated to be one of the most crucial factors. The changes in the expression of specific miRNA genes result in the control of inflammation, cell cycle regulation, stress response, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and invasion thus mediate the process in tumorgenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of MiRNA-335 and may as a molecular marker in early detection of gallbladder cancer in suspected cases. Material and Methods: A total of 20 consecutive patients with gallbladder cancer aged between 30-75 years were registered for the study. Total RNA was extracted from tissue by using the mirVANA MiRNA isolation Kit according to the manufacturer’s protocol. The MiRNA- 335 and U6 snRNA-specific cDNA were reverse-transcribed from total RNA using Taqman microRNA reverse-transcription kit according to the manufacturer’s protocol. TaqMan MiRNA probes hsa-miR-335 and Taqman Master Mix without AmpEase UNG, Individual real-time PCR assays were performed in a 20 μL reaction volume on a Real-Time PCR system (Applied Biosystems StepOnePlus™) to detect MiRNA-335 expression in tissue. Relative quantification of target MiRNA expression was evaluated using the comparative cycle threshold (CT) method. The correlation was done in between cycle threshold (CT Value) of target MiRNA in gallbladder cancer with respect to non-cancerous Cholelithiasis gallbladder. Each sample was examined in triplicate. The Newman-Keuls Multiple Comparison Test was used to determine the expression of miR-335. Results: MiRNA335 was found to be significantly downregulated in the gallbladder cancer tissue (P<0.001), when compared with non-cancerous Cholelithiasis gallbladder cases. Out of 20 cases, 75% showed reduced expression of MiRNA335, were at last stage of disease with low overall survival rate and remaining 25% were showed up-regulated expression of MiRNA335 with high survival rate. Conclusion: The present study showed that reduced expression of MiRNA335 is associated with the advancement of the disease, and its deregulation may provide important clues to understanding it as a prognostic marker and opportunities for future research.

Keywords: carcinoma gallbladder, downregulation, MiRNA-335, RT-PCR assay

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820 Increase in Specificity of MicroRNA Detection by RT-qPCR Assay Using a Specific Extension Sequence

Authors: Kyung Jin Kim, Jiwon Kwak, Jae-Hoon Lee, Soo Suk Lee

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We describe an innovative method for highly specific detection of miRNAs using a specially modified method of poly(A) adaptor RT-qPCR. We use uniquely designed specific extension sequence, which plays important role in providing an opportunity to affect high specificity of miRNA detection. This method involves two steps of reactions as like previously reported and which are poly(A) tailing and reverse-transcription followed by real-time PCR. Firstly, miRNAs are extended by a poly(A) tailing reaction and then converted into cDNA. Here, we remarkably reduced the reaction time by the application of short length of poly(T) adaptor. Next, cDNA is hybridized to the 3’-end of a specific extension sequence which contains miRNA sequence and results in producing a novel PCR template. Thereafter, the SYBR Green-based RT-qPCR progresses with a universal poly(T) adaptor forward primer and a universal reverse primer. The target miRNA, miR-106b in human brain total RNA, could be detected quantitatively in the range of seven orders of magnitude, which demonstrate that the assay displays a dynamic range of at least 7 logs. In addition, the better specificity of this novel extension-based assay against well known poly(A) tailing method for miRNA detection was confirmed by melt curve analysis of real-time PCR product, clear gel electrophoresis and sequence chromatogram images of amplified DNAs.

Keywords: microRNA(miRNA), specific extension sequence, RT-qPCR, poly(A) tailing assay, reverse transcription

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819 A Hybrid Feature Selection and Deep Learning Algorithm for Cancer Disease Classification

Authors: Niousha Bagheri Khulenjani, Mohammad Saniee Abadeh

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Learning from very big datasets is a significant problem for most present data mining and machine learning algorithms. MicroRNA (miRNA) is one of the important big genomic and non-coding datasets presenting the genome sequences. In this paper, a hybrid method for the classification of the miRNA data is proposed. Due to the variety of cancers and high number of genes, analyzing the miRNA dataset has been a challenging problem for researchers. The number of features corresponding to the number of samples is high and the data suffer from being imbalanced. The feature selection method has been used to select features having more ability to distinguish classes and eliminating obscures features. Afterward, a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) classifier for classification of cancer types is utilized, which employs a Genetic Algorithm to highlight optimized hyper-parameters of CNN. In order to make the process of classification by CNN faster, Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) is recommended for calculating the mathematic equation in a parallel way. The proposed method is tested on a real-world dataset with 8,129 patients, 29 different types of tumors, and 1,046 miRNA biomarkers, taken from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database.

Keywords: cancer classification, feature selection, deep learning, genetic algorithm

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818 In Silico Analysis of Salivary miRNAs to Identify the Diagnostic Biomarkers for Oral Cancer

Authors: Andleeb Zahra, Itrat Rubab, Sumaira Malik, Amina Khan, Muhammad Jawad Khan, M. Qaiser Fatmi

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Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Recent studies have highlighted the role of miRNA in disease pathology, indicating its potential use in an early diagnostic tool. miRNAs are small, double stranded, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by deregulating mRNAs. miRNAs play important roles in modifying various cellular processes such as cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and immune response. Dis-regulated expression of miRNAs is known to affect the cell growth, and this may function as tumor suppressors or oncogenes in various cancers. Objectives: The main objectives of this study were to characterize the extracellular miRNAs involved in oral cancer (OC) to assist early detection of cancer as well as to propose a list of genes that can potentially be used as biomarkers of OC. We used gene expression data by microarrays already available in literature. Materials and Methods: In the first step, a total of 318 miRNAs involved in oral carcinoma were shortlisted followed by the prediction of their target genes. Simultaneously, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of oral carcinoma from all experiments were identified. The common genes between lists of DEGs of OC based on experimentally proven data and target genes of each miRNA were identified. These common genes are the targets of specific miRNA, which is involved in OC. Finally, a list of genes was generated which may be used as biomarker of OC. Results and Conclusion: In results, we included some of pathways in cancer to show the change in gene expression under the control of specific miRNA. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) provided a list of major biomarkers like CDH2, CDK7 and functional enrichment analysis identified the role of miRNA in major pathways like cell adhesion molecules pathway affected by cancer. We observed that at least 25 genes are regulated by maximum number of miRNAs, and thereby, they can be used as biomarkers of OC. To better understand the role of miRNA with respect to their target genes further experiments are required, and our study provides a platform to better understand the miRNA-OC relationship at genomics level.

Keywords: biomarkers, gene expression, miRNA, oral carcinoma

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817 A Kernel-Based Method for MicroRNA Precursor Identification

Authors: Bin Liu

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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules, functioning in transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. The discrimination of the real pre-miRNAs from the false ones (such as hairpin sequences with similar stem-loops) is necessary for the understanding of miRNAs’ role in the control of cell life and death. Since both their small size and sequence specificity, it cannot be based on sequence information alone but requires structure information about the miRNA precursor to get satisfactory performance. Kmers are convenient and widely used features for modeling the properties of miRNAs and other biological sequences. However, Kmers suffer from the inherent limitation that if the parameter K is increased to incorporate long range effects, some certain Kmer will appear rarely or even not appear, as a consequence, most Kmers absent and a few present once. Thus, the statistical learning approaches using Kmers as features become susceptible to noisy data once K becomes large. In this study, we proposed a Gapped k-mer approach to overcome the disadvantages of Kmers, and applied this method to the field of miRNA prediction. Combined with the structure status composition, a classifier called imiRNA-GSSC was proposed. We show that compared to the original imiRNA-kmer and alternative approaches. Trained on human miRNA precursors, this predictor can achieve an accuracy of 82.34 for predicting 4022 pre-miRNA precursors from eleven species.

Keywords: gapped k-mer, imiRNA-GSSC, microRNA precursor, support vector machine

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816 Effect of Serum Electrolytes on a QTc Interval and Mortality in Patients admitted to Coronary Care Unit

Authors: Thoetchai Peeraphatdit, Peter A. Brady, Suraj Kapa, Samuel J. Asirvatham, Niyada Naksuk

Abstract:

Background: Serum electrolyte abnormalities are a common cause of an acquired prolonged QT syndrome, especially, in the coronary care unit (CCU) setting. Optimal electrolyte ranges among the CCU patients have not been sufficiently investigated. Methods: We identified 8,498 consecutive CCU patients who were admitted to the CCU at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, the USA, from 2004 through 2013. Association between first serum electrolytes and baseline corrected QT intervals (QTc), as well as in-hospital mortality, was tested using multivariate linear regression and logistic regression, respectively. Serum potassium 4.0- < 4.5 mEq/L, ionized calcium (iCa) 4.6-4.8 mg/dL, and magnesium 2.0- < 2.2 mg/dL were used as the reference levels. Results: There was a modest level-dependent relationship between hypokalemia ( < 4.0 mEq/L), hypocalcemia ( < 4.4 mg/dL), and a prolonged QTc interval; serum magnesium did not affect the QTc interval. Association between the serum electrolytes and in-hospital mortality included a U-shaped relationship for serum potassium (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.53 and OR 1.91for serum potassium 4.5- < 5.0 and ≥ 5.0 mEq/L, respectively) and an inverted J-shaped relationship for iCa (adjusted OR 2.79 and OR 2.03 for calcium < 4.4 and 4.4- < 4.6 mg/dL, respectively). For serum magnesium, the mortality was greater only among patients with levels ≥ 2.4 mg/dL (adjusted OR 1.40), compared to the reference level. Findings were similar in sensitivity analyses examining the association between mean serum electrolytes and mean QTc intervals, as well as in-hospital mortality. Conclusions: Serum potassium 4.0- < 4.5 mEq/L, iCa ≥ 4.6 mg/dL, and magnesium < 2.4 mg/dL had a neutral effect on QTc intervals and were associated with the lowest in-hospital mortality among the CCU patients.

Keywords: calcium, electrocardiography, long-QT syndrome, magnesium, mortality, potassium

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815 Evaluation of the Relation between Serum and Saliva Levels of Sodium and Glucose in Healthy Referred Patients to Tabriz Faculty of Dentistry

Authors: Samaneh Nazemi, Ayla Bahramian, Marzieh Aghazadeh

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Saliva is a clear liquid composed of water, electrolytes, glucose, amylase, glycoproteins, and antimicrobial enzymes. The presence of a wide range of molecules and proteins in saliva has made this fluid valuable in screening for some diseases as well as epidemiological studies. Saliva is easier than serum to collect in large populations. Due to the importance of sodium and glucose levels in many biological processes, this study investigates the relationship between sodium and glucose levels in salivary and serum samples of healthy individuals referring to Tabriz Dental School. This descriptive-analytical study was performed on 40 healthy individuals referred to the Oral Diseases Department of Tabriz Dental School. Serum and saliva samples were taken from these patients according to standard protocols. Data were presented as mean (standard deviation) and frequency (percentage) for quantitative and qualitative variables. Pearson test, paired-samples T-test and SPSS 24 software were used to determine the correlation between serum and salivary levels of these biomarkers. In this study, P less than 0.05% is considered significant. Out of 40 participants in this study, 14 (35%) were male, and 26 (65%) were female. According to the results of this study, the mean salivary sodium (127.53 ml/dl) was lower than the mean serum sodium (141.2725 ml/dl). In contrast, the mean salivary glucose (4.55 ml/dl) was lower than the mean serum glucose (89.7575 ml/dl). The result of paired samples T-test (p-value<0.05) showed that there is a statistically significant difference between the mean of serum sodium and salivary sodium, as well as between the serum glucose and salivary glucose. Pearson correlation test results showed that there is no significant correlation between serum sodium and salivary sodium (p-value >0.05), but here is a positive correlation between serum glucose and salivary glucose (p-value<0.001). Both serum sodium and glucose were higher than salivary sodium and glucose.In conclusion, this study found that there was not a statistical relationship between salivary glucose and serum glucose and also salivary sodium and serum sodium of healthy individuals. Perhaps salivary samples can’t be used to measure glucose and sodium in these individuals.

Keywords: glucose, saliva, serum, sodium

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814 Aza-Flavanones as Small Molecule Inhibitors of MicroRNA-10b in MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: Debasmita Mukhopadhyay, Manika Pal Bhadra

Abstract:

MiRNAs contribute to oncogenesis either as tumor suppressors or oncogenes. Hence, discovery of miRNA-based therapeutics are imperative to ameliorate cancer. Modulation of miRNA maturation is accomplished via several therapeutic agents, including small molecules and oligonucleotides. Due to the attractive pharmacokinetic properties of small molecules over oligonucleotides, we set to identify small molecule inhibitors of a metastasis-inducing microRNA. Cytotoxicity profile of aza-flavanone C1 was analyzed in a panel of breast cancer cells employing the NCI-60 screen protocols. Flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and western blotting of apoptotic or EMT markers were performed to analyze the effect of C1. A dual luciferase assay unequivocally suggested that C1 repressed endogenous miR-10b in MDA-MB-231 cells. A derivative of aza-flavanone C1 is shown as a strong inhibitor miR-10b. Blockade of miR-10b by C1 resulted in decreased expression of miR-10b targets in an aggressive breast cancer cell line model, MDA-MB-231. Abrogation of TWIST1, an EMT-inducing transcription factor also contributed to C1 mediated apoptosis. Moreover C1 exhibited a specific and selective down-regulation of miR-10b and did not function as a general inhibitor of miRNA biogenesis or other oncomiRs of breast carcinoma. Aza-flavanone congener C1 functions as a potent inhibitor of the metastasis-inducing microRNA, miR-10b. Our present study provides evidence for targeting metastasis-inducing microRNA, miR-10b with a derivative of Aza-flavanone. Better pharmacokinetic properties of small molecules place them as attractive agents compared to nucleic acids based therapies to target miRNA. Further work, in generating analogues based on aza-flavanone moieties will significantly improve the affinity of the small molecules to bind miR-10b. Finally, it is imperative to develop small molecules as novel miRNA-therapeutics in the fight against cancer.

Keywords: breast cancer, microRNA, metastasis, EMT

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813 Association of Serum Uric Acid Level and Bone Mineral Density of Menopausal Women

Authors: Soyeon Kang, Youn-Jee Chung, Jung Namkung

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Objective: This retrospective study investigated the association between uric acid level and bone mineral density (BMD) in the postmenopausal period. Methods: The study included 328 menopausal women (mean age, 57.3 ± 6.5 years; mean serum uric acid level, 4.6 ± 1.0 mg/dL). Patients were divided into three groups by tertile of serum uric acid level. Patients who used hormone treatment (HT), bisphosphonates, or lipid-lowering agents were included. Results: Blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and serum triglyceride levels were significantly higher in the upper uric acid tertiles. No significant difference was found in the mean uric acid levels between medication users and non-users. Distinct HT regimens showed different mean serum uric acid levels. In a cross-sectional analysis, higher serum uric acid levels showed a tendency toward increased BMD in the spine and femoral neck. Longitudinal analysis of 186 women who underwent follow-up examination at a mean interval of 14.6 months revealed a trend toward a smaller reduction in femoral neck BMD in women in the upper serum uric acid tertiles. Conclusion: A positive correlation exists between serum uric acid levels and BMD in menopausal women.

Keywords: menopause, antioxidant, uric acid, bone mineral density

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812 MicroRNA-1246 Expression Associated with Resistance to Oncogenic BRAF Inhibitors in Mutant BRAF Melanoma Cells

Authors: Jae-Hyeon Kim, Michael Lee

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Intrinsic and acquired resistance limits the therapeutic benefits of oncogenic BRAF inhibitors in melanoma. MicroRNAs (miRNA) regulate the expression of target mRNAs by repressing their translation. Thus, we investigated miRNA expression patterns in melanoma cell lines to identify candidate biomarkers for acquired resistance to BRAF inhibitor. Here, we used Affymetrix miRNA V3.0 microarray profiling platform to compare miRNA expression levels in three cell lines containing BRAF inhibitor-sensitive A375P BRAF V600E cells, their BRAF inhibitor-resistant counterparts (A375P/Mdr), and SK-MEL-2 BRAF-WT cells with intrinsic resistance to BRAF inhibitor. The miRNAs with at least a two-fold change in expression between BRAF inhibitor-sensitive and –resistant cell lines, were identified as differentially expressed. Averaged intensity measurements identified 138 and 217 miRNAs that were differentially expressed by 2 fold or more between: 1) A375P and A375P/Mdr; 2) A375P and SK-MEL-2, respectively. The hierarchical clustering revealed differences in miRNA expression profiles between BRAF inhibitor-sensitive and –resistant cell lines for miRNAs involved in intrinsic and acquired resistance to BRAF inhibitor. In particular, 43 miRNAs were identified whose expression was consistently altered in two BRAF inhibitor-resistant cell lines, regardless of intrinsic and acquired resistance. Twenty five miRNAs were consistently upregulated and 18 downregulated more than 2-fold. Although some discrepancies were detected when miRNA microarray data were compared with qPCR-measured expression levels, qRT-PCR for five miRNAs (miR-3617, miR-92a1, miR-1246, miR-1936-3p, and miR-17-3p) results showed excellent agreement with microarray experiments. To further investigate cellular functions of miRNAs, we examined effects on cell proliferation. Synthetic oligonucleotide miRNA mimics were transfected into three cell lines, and proliferation was quantified using a colorimetric assay. Of the 5 miRNAs tested, only miR-1246 altered cell proliferation of A375P/Mdr cells. The transfection of miR-1246 mimic strongly conferred PLX-4720 resistance to A375P/Mdr cells, implying that miR-1246 upregulation confers acquired resistance to BRAF inhibition. We also found that PLX-4720 caused much greater G2/M arrest in A375P/Mdr cells transfected with miR-1246mimic than that seen in scrambled RNA-transfected cells. Additionally, miR-1246 mimic partially caused a resistance to autophagy induction by PLX-4720. These results indicate that autophagy does play an essential death-promoting role inPLX-4720-induced cell death. Taken together, these results suggest that miRNA expression profiling in melanoma cells can provide valuable information for a network of BRAF inhibitor resistance-associated miRNAs.

Keywords: microRNA, BRAF inhibitor, drug resistance, autophagy

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811 Improving the Bioprocess Phenotype of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Using CRISPR/Cas9 and Sponge Decoy Mediated MiRNA Knockdowns

Authors: Kevin Kellner, Nga Lao, Orla Coleman, Paula Meleady, Niall Barron

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Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells are the prominent cell line used in biopharmaceutical production. To improve yields and find beneficial bioprocess phenotypes genetic engineering plays an essential role in recent research. The miR-23 cluster, specifically miR-24 and miR-27, was first identified as differentially expressed during hypothermic conditions suggesting a role in proliferation and productivity in CHO cells. In this study, we used sponge decoy technology to stably deplete the miRNA expression of the cluster. Furthermore, we implemented the CRISPR/Cas9 system to knockdown miRNA expression. Sponge constructs were designed for an imperfect binding of the miRNA target, protecting from RISC mediated cleavage. GuideRNAs for the CRISPR/Cas9 system were designed to target the seed region of the miRNA. The expression of mature miRNA and precursor were confirmed using RT-qPCR. For both approaches stable expressing mixed populations were generated and characterised in batch cultures. It was shown, that CRISPR/Cas9 can be implemented in CHO cells with achieving high knockdown efficacy of every single member of the cluster. Targeting of one miRNA member showed that its genomic paralog is successfully targeted as well. The stable depletion of miR-24 using CRISPR/Cas9 showed increased growth and specific productivity in a CHO-K1 mAb expressing cell line. This phenotype was further characterized using quantitative label-free LC-MS/MS showing 186 proteins differently expressed with 19 involved in proliferation and 26 involved in protein folding/translation. Targeting miR-27 in the same cell line showed increased viability in late stages of the culture compared to the control. To evaluate the phenotype in an industry relevant cell line; the miR-23 cluster, miR-24 and miR-27 were stably depleted in a Fc fusion CHO-S cell line which showed increased batch titers up to 1.5-fold. In this work, we highlighted that the stable depletion of the miR-23 cluster and its members can improve the bioprocess phenotype concerning growth and productivity in two different cell lines. Furthermore, we showed that using CRISPR/Cas9 is comparable to the traditional sponge decoy technology.

Keywords: Chinese Hamster ovary cells, CRISPR/Cas9, microRNAs, sponge decoy technology

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810 Vitamin A Status and Its Correlation with the Dietary Intake of Young Females of Lahore, Pakistan

Authors: Sarah Fatima, Ahmad A. Malik, Saima Sadaf

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This study was conducted in order to assess the dietary record and vitamin A status of young females of Lahore. A total sample of 376 consisted of 16 – 20 years of unmarried college going females. Three main tools were adopted: questionnaire, 3-day food diary and serum retinol test. The anthropometric measurements showed that a total of 32.6% of the sample was underweight (BMI < 18.5) and 54.5% had a healthy weight (BMI 18.5 – 22.9). The average Vitamin A intake of the sample was 257.95 µg/day while the RDA for the selected age group was 700 µg/day. The mean energy intake of the adolescents was 1153.64 kcal/ day, whereas the Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) for this age group was 2368 kcal/day. The mean serum Vitamin A level was 24.81µg/dL. 69.6% of the sample was deficient in serum Vitamin A i.e. serum retinol < 24 µg/dL. 30.4% had serum retinol in normal limit (24 – 84 µg/dL) from which 25.3% lied in lower limit (24 – 44 µg/dL) and only 5.1% had serum retinol in 44 – 64 µg/dL range. A slightly negative correlation (r = - 0.21, 95% confidence interval) was found between dietary intake of Vitamin A and serum Vitamin A It was concluded that the dietary intake of major nutrients and vitamin A is not adequate in the selected group. This is also confirmed by the lower serum retinol levels. Hence, vitamin An intake and status are generally inadequate, and vitamin deficiency is prevalent in the unmarried young females of Lahore.

Keywords: vitamin A, young Females, vitamin deficiency, Lahore

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809 miCoRe: Colorectal Cancer miRNAs Database

Authors: Rahul Agarwal, Ashutosh Singh

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Colorectal cancer (CRC) also refers as bowel cancer or colon cancer. It involves the development of abnormal growth of cells in colon or rectum part of the body. This work leads to the development of a miRNA database in colorectal cancer. We named this database- miCoRe. This database comprises of all validated colon-rectal cancer miRNAs information from various published literature with an effectual knowledge based information retrieval system. miRNAs have been collected from various published literature reports. MySQL is used for main-framework of miCoRe while the front-end was developed in PHP script. The aim of developing miCoRe is to create a comprehensive central repository of colorectal carcinoma miRNAs with all germane information of miRNAs and their target genes. The current version of miCoRe consists of 238 miRNAs which are known to be implicated in malignancy of CRC. Alongside with miRNA information, miCoRe also contains the information related to the target genes of these miRNA. miCoRe furnishes the information about the mechanism of incidence and progression of the disease, which would further help the researchers to look for colorectal specific miRNAs therapies and CRC specific targeted drug designing. Moreover, it will also help in development of biomarkers for the better and early detection of CRC and will help in better clinical management of the disease.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, database, miCoRe, miRNAs

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808 The Relationship between Impared Fasting Glucose and Serum Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Level

Authors: Nanhee Cho, Eugene Han, Hanbyul Kim, Hochan Cho

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Pre-diabetes includes impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and there is a strong probability that pre-diabetes will lead to diabetes mellitus (DM). Serum fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21) is known to be increased as a compensatory response to metabolic imbalance under conditions such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, and DM. This study aims to identify the relationship of serum FGF-21 with pre-diabetes, and with biomarkers of related metabolic diseases. Fifty five Korea adult patients participated in a cohort study from June 2012 to December 2015. The analysis revealed that BMI, FBS levels, and serum FGF-21 levels were significantly higher in the IFG group compared to those in the normal group. A multiple regression analysis was conduted on the correlations of serum FGF-21 levels with BMI, and FBS levels, and the result did not show statistical significance. In conclusion, our results revealed that serum FGF-21 level serve as a marker to predict IFG.

Keywords: cytokine, fibroblast growth factor 21, impaired fasting glucose, prediabetes

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807 Preliminary Studies: Relationship between Serum Level of Vitamin D and Symptoms of Schizophrenia Measured by Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale in Sumatera Utara

Authors: Novi Prasanty, Mustafa Ma, Elmeida Effendy

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Background: Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder that most often encountered. Nearly 1% of the world population suffers from schizophrenia during their lifetime. Schizophrenia is a severe form of psychotic disorders, and tend to be chronic. Vitamin D plays crucial roles in neuroprotection and neurodevelopment, and low levels are commonly associated with schizophrenia. Lower vitamin D levels were correlated with more severe positive, negative, and overall symptoms in schizophrenia patient men and women. Methods: 54 schizophrenic patients, male and female, who are diagnosed with semistructured MINI ICD-X. A symptom of schizophrenia was measured by using positive and negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Examination of serum vitamin D using ELFA. Analysis to compare the serum levels of vitamin D male and female with Independent T-test, and the relationship between serum level of vitamin D and symptom with correlation. Results: In this study serum levels in male schizophrenic patients 22.12 (4.16), and 16.54 (2.88) in female schizophrenic patients. There are differences in male schizophrenic patients and women (p < 0.001). The negative correlation between serum levels of vitamin D in the PANSS total score in patients with schizophrenic male with r -0.58, p (0,016), and the female schizophrenic patients with r -0.69, p (0.031). Conclusion and Suggestion: There is a negative correlation between serum levels of vitamin D with a total score of PANSS, the lower the serum levels of vitamin D, the higher the total score of the PANSS.

Keywords: PANSS, schizophrenia, serum levels of vitamin D, severity illness

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806 Preventive Effect of Zinc on Nickel Hepatotoxicity and Nephrotoxicity in Albino (Wistar) Rats

Authors: Zine Kechrid, Samira Bouhalit

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Aim: We studied the effect of intraperitonial zinc treatment on nickel sulphate-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in Wistar strain male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Liver and kidney dysfunction parameters represented by aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), blood glucose, serum total protein, serum urea, serum creatinine, and serum belurebin were estimated. Liver glutathione level, catalase and GPx activities were also determined in liver as indicators of oxidative damage. Result: Nickel treatment led to high serum glucose concentration and produced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity characterized by increasing GPT, GOT and alkaline phosphatase activities, serum total protein, serum urea, serum creatinine and serum belurebin concentrations. In addition, liver glutathione level, catalase and GSH-Px activities diminished due to high lipid peroxidation. The simultaneous administration of zinc with nickel sulphate resulted in a remarkable improvement of the previous parameters compared with rats treated with nickel alone. Conclusion: In conclusion, nickel sulphate led to liver and kidney dysfunctions and hepatic lipid peroxidation in animals, but simultaneous treatment with zinc offers a relative protection against nickel induced hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity and lipid peroxidation.

Keywords: nickel, zinc, rats, GOT, GPT, nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity

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805 Study of the Chronic Effects of CRACK on Some Biochemical Parameters Including Triglycerides, Cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, Amylase, Lipase, Albumin, Protein in Rat

Authors: Alireza Jafarzadeh, Bahram Amu-Oqhli Tabrizi, Hadi Khayat Nouri, Arash Khaki

Abstract:

30 head of adult Vistar rats were chosen to evaluate the chronic narcotic effects of crack on some biochemical parameters. The rats weighted approximately 200 to 250 g. They were divided into 5 groups of 6 and were housed in identical condition in terms of food and ambience. Rats were maintained at 12 hours light and 12 hours darkness. Rats were injected 7.8 mg/kg BW crack intraperitoneally. The groups one to four received daily medication for one to four weeks respectively. The control groups were injected identical dose of saline. The blood was taken from control and test groups then serum was separated from. Serum biochemical parameters of amylase, lipase, triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, protein and albumin were measured by diagnostic kits. Serum protein and albumin levels did not show statistically significant changes. Serum lipase and amylase showed significant changes both of which were increased. The serum levels of cholesterol, LDL and HDL demonstrated no significant changes. Triglycerides values showed a significant increase in serum. Serum VLDL in groups 3 and 4 exhibited significant changes compare to other groups.

Keywords: albumin, amylase, cholesterol, crack, HDL, LDL, lipase, protein, rat, triglycerides, VLDL

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804 Simultaneous Analysis of 25 Trace Elements in Micro Volume of Human Serum by Inductively Coupled Plasma–Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Azmawati Mohammed Nawi, Siok-Fong Chin, Shamsul Azhar Shah, Rahman Jamal

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In recent years, trace elements have gained importance as biomarkers in many chronic diseases. Unfortunately, the requirement for sample volume increases according to the extent of investigation for diagnosis or elucidating the mechanism of the disease. Here, we describe the method development and validation for simultaneous determination of 25 trace elements (lithium (Li), beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), aluminium (Al), vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), gallium (Ga), arsenic (As), selenium (Se), rubidium (Rb), strontium (Sr), silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), caesium (Cs), barium (Ba), mercury (Hg), thallium (Tl), lead (Pb), uranium (U)) using just 20 µL of human serum. Serum samples were digested with nitric acid and hydrochloric acid (ratio 1:1, v/v) and analysed using inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Seronorm®, a human-derived serum control material was used as quality control samples. The intra-day and inter-day precisions were consistently < 15% for all elements. The validated method was later applied to 30 human serum samples to evaluate its suitability. In conclusion, we have successfully developed and validated a precise and accurate analytical method for determining 25 trace elements requiring very low volume of human serum.

Keywords: acid digestion, ICP-MS, trace element, serum

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803 Assessment of Sex Differences in Serum Urea and Creatinine Level in Response to Spinal Cord Injury Using Albino Rat Models

Authors: Waziri B. I., Elkhashab M. M.

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Background: One of the most serious consequences of spinal cord injury (SCI) is progressive deterioration of renal function mostly as a result of urine stasis and ascending infection of the paralyzed bladder. This necessitates for investigation of early changes in serum urea and creatinine and associated sex related differences in response to SCI. Methods: A total of 24 adult albino rats weighing above 150g were divided equally into two groups, a control and experimental group (n = 12) each containing an equal number of male and female rats. The experimental group animals were paralyzed by complete transection of spinal cord below T4 level after deep anesthesia with ketamine 75mg/kg. Blood samples were collected from both groups five days post SCI for analysis. Mean values of serum urea (mmol/L) and creatinine (µmol/L) for both groups were compared. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The results showed significantly higher levels (P < 0.05) of serum urea and creatinine in the male SCI models with mean values of 92.12 ± 0.98 and 2573 ± 70.97 respectively compared with their controls where the mean values for serum urea and creatinine were 6.31 ± 1.48 and 476. 95 ± 4.67 respectively. In the female SCI models, serum urea 13.11 ± 0.81 and creatinine 519.88 ± 31.13 were not significantly different from that of female controls with serum urea and creatinine levels of 11.71 ± 1.43 and 493.69 ± 17.10 respectively (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Spinal cord injury caused a significant increase in serum Urea and Creatinine levels in the male models compared to the females. This indicated that males might have higher risk of renal dysfunction following SCI.

Keywords: albino rats, creatinine, spinal cord injury (SCI), urea

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802 Evaluation of Osteoprotegrin (OPG) and Tumor Necrosis Factor A (TNF-A) Changes in Synovial Fluid and Serum in Dogs with Osteoarthritis; An Experimental Study

Authors: Behrooz Nikahval, Mohammad Saeed Ahrari-Khafi, Sakineh Behroozpoor, Saeed Nazifi

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Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive and degenerative condition of the articular cartilage and other joints’ structures. It is essential to diagnose this condition as early as possible. The present research was performed to measure the Osteoprotegrin (OPG) and Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNF-α) in synovial fluid and blood serum of dogs with surgically transected cruciate ligament as a model of OA, to evaluate if measuring of these parameters can be used as a way of early diagnosis of OA. In the present study, four mature, clinically healthy dogs were selected to investigate the effect of experimental OA, on OPG and TNF-α as a way of early detection of OA. OPG and TNF-α were measured in synovial fluid and blood serum on days 0, 14, 28, 90 and 180 after surgical transaction of cranial cruciate ligament in one stifle joint. Statistical analysis of the results showed that there was a significant increase in TNF-α in both synovial fluid and blood serum. OPG showed a decrease two weeks after OA induction. However, it fluctuated afterward. In conclusion, TNF-α could be used in both synovial fluid and blood serum as a way of early detection of OA; however, further research still needs to be conducted on OPG values in OA detection.

Keywords: osteoarthritis, osteoprotegrin, tumor necrosis factor α, synovial fluid, serum, dog

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