Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3565

Search results for: curing condition

3565 Effect of Strength Class of Concrete and Curing Conditions on Capillary Water Absorption of Self-Compacting and Conventional Concrete

Authors: E. Ebru Demirci, Remzi Şahin

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to compare Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) and Conventional Concrete (CC) in terms of their capillary water absorption. During the comparison of SCC and CC, the effects of two different factors were also investigated: concrete strength class and curing condition. In the study, both SCC and CC were produced in three different concrete classes (C25, C50 and C70) and the other parameter (i.e curing condition) was determined as two levels: moisture and air curing. It was observed that, for both curing environments and all strength classes of concrete, SCCs had lower capillary water absorption values than that of CCs. It was also detected that, for both SCC and CC, capillary water absorption values of samples kept in moisture curing were significantly lower than that of samples stored in air curing. Additionally, it was determined that capillary water absorption values for both SCC and CC decrease with increasing strength class of concrete for both curing environments.

Keywords: capillary water absorption, curing condition, reinforced concrete beam, self-compacting concrete

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3564 Adverse Curing Conditions and Performance of Concrete: Bangladesh Perspective

Authors: T. Manzur

Abstract:

Concrete is the predominant construction material in Bangladesh. In large projects, stringent quality control procedures are usually followed under the supervision of experienced engineers and skilled labors. However, in the case of small projects and particularly at distant locations from major cities, proper quality control is often an issue. It has been found from experience that such quality related issues mainly arise from inappropriate proportioning of concrete mixes and improper curing conditions. In most cases external curing method is followed which requires supply of adequate quantity of water along with proper protection against evaporation. Often these conditions are found missing in the general construction sites and eventually lead to production of weaker concrete both in terms of strength and durability. In this study, an attempt has been made to investigate the performance of general concreting works of the country when subjected to several adverse curing conditions that are quite common in various small to medium construction sites. A total of six different types of adverse curing conditions were simulated in the laboratory and samples were kept under those conditions for several days. A set of samples was also submerged in normal curing condition having proper supply of curing water. Performance of concrete was evaluated in terms of compressive strength, tensile strength, chloride permeability and drying shrinkage. About 37% and 25% reduction in 28-day compressive and tensile strength were observed respectively, for samples subjected to most adverse curing condition as compared to the samples under normal curing conditions. Normal curing concrete exhibited moderate permeability (close to low permeability) whereas concrete under adverse curing conditions showed very high permeability values. Similar results were also obtained for shrinkage tests. This study, thus, will assist concerned engineers and supervisors to understand the importance of quality assurance during the curing period of concrete.

Keywords: adverse, concrete, curing, compressive strength, drying shrinkage, permeability, tensile strength

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3563 The Effects of Various Curing Compounds on the Mechanical Characteristics of Roller Compacted Concrete Pavements (RCCP)

Authors: Azadeh Askarinejad, Parmida Hayati, Parham Hayati, Reza Parchami

Abstract:

Curing is a very important factor in the ultimate strength and durability of roller compacted concrete pavements (RCCP). Curing involves keeping the concrete is saturated or close to saturation point. Since maintaining concrete moisture has a significant impact on its mechanical properties, permeability and durability, curing is important. The most common procedure for curing of roller compacted concrete is using a white pigmented curing compound. This method is effective, economical and fast. In the present study, different curing compounds were applied on concrete specimens and the results of their effects on the mechanical properties were compared with each other and usual methods of curing in order to select appropriate materials and methods of curing for RCCP construction.

Keywords: curing compounds, roller compacted concrete pavements, mechanical properties, durability

Procedia PDF Downloads 496
3562 Effect of Strength Class of Concrete and Curing Conditions on Capillary Absorption of Self-Compacting and Conventional Concrete

Authors: Emine Ebru Demirci, Remzi Şahin

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to compare Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) and Conventional Concrete (CC), which are used in beams with dense reinforcement, in terms of their capillary absorption. During the comparison of SCC and CC, the effects of two different factors were also investigated: concrete strength class and curing condition. In the study, both SCC and CC were produced in three different concrete classes (C25, C50 and C70) and the other parameter (i.e curing condition) was determined as two levels: moisture and air curing. Beam dimensions were determined to be 200 x 250 x 3000 mm. Reinforcements of the beams were calculated and placed as 2ø12 for the top and 3ø12 for the bottom. Stirrups with dimension 8 mm were used as lateral rebar and stirrup distances were chosen as 10 cm in the confinement zone and 15 cm at the central zone. In this manner, densification of rebars in lateral cross-sections of beams and handling of SCC in real conditions were aimed. Concrete covers of the rebars were chosen to be equal in all directions as 25 mm. The capillary absorption measurements were performed on core samples taken from the beams. Core samples of ø8x16 cm were taken from the beginning (0-100 cm), middle (100-200 cm) and end (200-300 cm) region of the beams according to the casting direction of SCC. However core samples were taken from lateral surface of the beams. In the study, capillary absorption experiments were performed according to Turkish Standard TS EN 13057. It was observed that, for both curing environments and all strength classes of concrete, SCC’s had lower capillary absorption values than that of CC’s. The capillary absorption values of C25 class of SCC are 11% and 16% lower than that of C25 class of CC for air and moisture conditions, respectively. For C50 class, these decreases were 6% and 18%, while for C70 class, they were 16% and 9%, respectively. It was also detected that, for both SCC and CC, capillary absorption values of samples kept in moisture curing are significantly lower than that of samples stored in air curing. For CC’s; C25, C50 and C70 class moisture-cured samples were found to have 26%, 12% and 31% lower capillary absorption values, respectively, when compared to the air-cured ones. For SCC’s; these values were 30%, 23% and 24%, respectively. Apart from that, it was determined that capillary absorption values for both SCC and CC decrease with increasing strength class of concrete for both curing environments. It was found that, for air cured CC, C50 and C70 class of concretes had 39% and 63% lower capillary absorption values compared to the C25 class of concrete. For the same type of concrete samples cured in the moisture environment, these values were found to be 27% and 66%. It was found that for SCC samples, capillary absorption value of C50 and C70 concretes, which were kept in air curing, were 35% and 65% lower than that of C25, while for moisture-cured samples these values were 29% and 63%, respectively. When standard deviations of the capillary absorption values are compared for core samples obtained from the beginning, middle and end of the CC and SCC beams, it was found that, in all three strength classes of concrete, the variation is much smaller for SCC than CC. This demonstrated that SCC’s had more uniform character than CC’s.

Keywords: self compacting concrete, reinforced concrete beam, capillary absorption, strength class, curing condition

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3561 The Importance of Water Temperature and Curing Conditions on Concrete Curing

Authors: Ahmad Javid Zia, Abdulkerim Ilgun, Suleyman Kamil Akin, Mustafa Altin

Abstract:

Curing conditions that help concrete, which is one of the most widely used building materials in construction sector, gain strength today is one the important issues. In this study the varying concrete strength depending on water temperature at curing stage is investigated through tests at laboratory. At laboratory the curing conditions has been determined according to both TS EN 12390-2 and regular construction site while performing the experiments on specimens. Five samples have been taken from concrete and cured under five different curing conditions and the compressive strength results of concrete specimens have been compared. One of these five curing conditions has been prepared accordance with TS EN 12390-2, the sample cured at 20 ± 2 ˚C and accepted as reference samples. Two of the remaining sample groups have been cured in 5 ± 2 ˚C and 15 ± 2 ˚C and the other two have been cured outside of the laboratory. One group of the samples which have been cured outside has been watered twice a day and the other group has not been watered at all. The experiments have been carried out on 150x150x150 mm cube samples of C20 (200 kg/cm2) and C25 (250 kg/cm2). 7 and 28 days compressive strength of specimens have been measured and compared.

Keywords: concrete curing, curing conditions, water temperature, concrete compressive strength

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3560 Effect of Curing Temperature on Unconfined Compression Strength of Bagasse Ash-Calcium Carbide Residue Treated Organic Clay

Authors: John Trihatmoko, Luky Handoko

Abstract:

A series of experimental program was undertaken to study the effect of curing temperature on the unconfined compression strength of bagasse ash (BA) - calcium carbide residue (CCR) stabilized organic clay (OC). A preliminary experiment was performed to get the physical properties of OC, and to get the optimum water content (OMC), the standard compaction test was done. The stabilizing agents used in this research was (40% BA + 60% CCR) . Then to obtain the best binder proportion, unconfined compression test was undertaken for OC + 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15% of binder with 7, 14, 21, 28 and 56 days curing period. The best quantity of the binder was found on 9%. Finally, to study the effect of curing temperature, the unconfined compression test was performed on OC + 9% binder with 7, 14, 21, 28 and 56 days curing time with 20O, 25O, 30O, 40O, and 50O C curing temperature. The result indicates that unconfined compression strength (UCS) of treated OC improve according to the increase of curing temperature at the same curing time. The improvement of UCS is probably due to the degree of cementation and pozzolanic reactions.

Keywords: curing temperature, organic clay, bagasse ash, calcium carbide residue, unconfined compression strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
3559 Combined Effect of High Curing Temperature and Crack Width on Chloride Migration in Reinforced Concrete Beams

Authors: Elkedrouci Lotfi, Diao Bo, Pang Sen, Li Yi

Abstract:

Deterioration of reinforced concrete structures is a serious concern in the construction engineering, largely due to chloride induced corrosion of reinforcement. Chloride penetration is markedly influenced by one or several major factors at the same time such as cuing in combination with different crack widths which have spectacular effect on reinforced concrete structures. This research presents the results of an experimental investigation involving reinforced concrete beams with three different crack widths ranging from 0 to 0.2mm, curing temperatures of 20°C or 40°C and water-to-cement of 0.5. Chloride content profiles were determined under non-steady state diffusion at 20°C. Based on the obtained results, higher chloride content was obtained under condition of high curing temperature in combination with large crack more than 0.1mm and there are no significant differences between narrow crack width (less than 0.1 mm) and beams without crack (0mm).

Keywords: crack width, high curing temperature, rapid chloride migration, reinforced concrete beam

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
3558 Development of High Strength Self Curing Concrete Using Super Absorbing Polymer

Authors: K. Bala Subramanian, A. Siva, S. Swaminathan, Arul. M. G. Ajin

Abstract:

Concrete is an essential building material which is widely used in construction industry all over the world due to its compressible strength. Curing of concrete plays a vital role in durability and other performance necessities. Improper curing can affect the concrete performance and durability easily. When areas like scarcity of water, structures is not accessible by humans external curing cannot be performed, so we opt for internal curing. Internal curing (or) self-curing plays a major role in developing the concrete pore structure and microstructure. The concept of internal curing is to enhance the hydration process to maintain the temperature uniformly. The evaporation of water in the concrete is reduced by self-curing agent (Super Absorbing Polymer – SAP) thereby increasing the water retention capacity of the concrete. The research work was carried out to reduce water, which is prime material used for concrete in the construction industry. Concrete curing plays a major role in developing hydration process. Concept of self-curing will reduce the evaporation of water from concrete. Self-curing will increase water retention capacity as compared to the conventional concrete. Proper self-curing (or) internal curing increases the strength, durability and performance of concrete. Super absorbing Polymer (SAP) used as internal curing agent. In this study 0.2% to 0.4% of SAP was varied in different grade of high strength concrete. In the experiment replacement of cement by silica fumes with 5%, 10% and 15% are studied. It is found that replacement of silica fumes by 10 % gives more strength and durability when compared to others

Keywords: compressive strength, high strength concrete rapid chloride permeability, super absorbing polymer

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3557 Influence of Initial Curing Time, Water Content and Apparent Water Content on Geopolymer Modified Sludge Generated in Landslide Area

Authors: Minh Chien Vu, Tomoaki Satomi, Hiroshi Takahashi

Abstract:

As being lack of sufficient strength to support the loading of construction as well as service life cause the clay content and clay mineralogy, soft and highly compressible soils (sludge) constitute a major problem in geotechnical engineering projects. Geopolymer, a kind of inorganic polymer, is a promising material with a wide range of applications and offers a lower level of CO₂ emissions than conventional Portland cement. However, the feasibility of geopolymer in term of modified the soft and highly compressible soil has not been received much attention due to the requirement of heat treatment for activating the fly ash component and the existence of high content of clay-size particles in the composition of sludge that affected on the efficiency of the reaction. On the other hand, the geopolymer modified sludge could be affected by other important factors such as initial curing time, initial water content and apparent water content. Therefore, this paper describes a different potential application of geopolymer: soil stabilization in landslide areas to adapt to the technical properties of sludge so that heavy machines can move on. Sludge condition process is utilized to demonstrate the possibility for stabilizing sludge using fly ash-based geopolymer at ambient curing condition ( ± 20 °C) in term of failure strength, strain and bulk density. Sludge conditioning is a process whereby sludge is treated with chemicals or various other means to improve the dewatering characteristics of sludge before applying in the construction area. The effect of initial curing time, water content and apparent water content on the modification of sludge are the main focus of this study. Test results indicate that the initial curing time has potential for improving failure strain and strength of modified sludge with the specific condition of soft soil. The result further shows that the initial water content over than 50% total mass of sludge could significantly lead to a decrease of strength performance of geopolymer-based modified sludge. The optimum apparent water content of geopolymer modified sludge is strongly influenced by the amount of geopolymer content and initial water content of sludge. The solution to minimize the effect of high initial water content will be considered deeper in the future.

Keywords: landslide, sludge, fly ash, geopolymer, sludge conditioning

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
3556 Evaluate Effects of Different Curing Methods on Compressive Strength, Modulus of Elasticity and Durability of Concrete

Authors: Dhara Shah, Chandrakant Shah

Abstract:

Construction industry utilizes plenty of water in the name of curing. Looking at the present scenario, the days are not so far when all construction industries will have to switch over to an alternative-self curing system, not only to save water for sustainable development of the environment but also to promote indoor and outdoor construction activities even in water scarce areas. At the same time, curing is essential for the development of proper strength and durability. IS 456-2000 recommends a curing period of 7 days for ordinary Portland cement concrete, and 10 to 14 days for concrete prepared using mineral admixtures or blended cements. But, being the last act in the concreting operations, it is often neglected or not fully done. Consequently, the quality of hardened concrete suffers, more so, if the freshly laid concrete gets exposed to the environmental conditions of low humidity, high wind velocity and high ambient temperature. To avoid the adverse effects of neglected or insufficient curing, which is considered a universal phenomenon, concrete technologist and research scientists have come up with curing compounds. Concrete is said to be self-cured, if it is able to retain its water content to perform chemical reaction for the development of its strength. Curing compounds are liquids which are either incorporated in concrete or sprayed directly onto concrete surfaces and which then dry to form a relatively impermeable membrane that retards the loss of moisture from the concrete. They are an efficient and cost-effective means of curing concrete and may be applied to freshly placed concrete or that which has been partially cured by some other means. However, they may affect the bond between concrete and subsequent surface treatments. Special care in the choice of a suitable compound needs to be exercised in such circumstances. Curing compounds are generally formulated from wax emulsions, chlorinated rubbers, synthetic and natural resins, and from PVA emulsions. Their effectiveness varies quite widely, depending on the material and strength of the emulsion.

Keywords: curing methods, self-curing compound, compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, durability

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
3555 Influence of Alccofine on Semi-Light Weight Concrete under Accelerated Curing and Conventional Curing Regimes

Authors: P. Parthiban, J. Karthikeyan

Abstract:

This paper deals with the performance of semi-light weight concrete, prepared by using wood ash pellets as coarse aggregates which were improved by partial replacement of cement with alccofine. Alccofine is a mineral admixture which contains high glass content obtained through the process of controlled granulation. This is finer than cement which carries its own pozzolanic property. Therefore, cement could be replaced by alccofine as 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, 55%, 60%, 65%, and 70% to enhance the strength and durability properties of concrete. High range water reducing admixtures (HRWA) were used in these mixes which were dosed up to 1.5% weight of the total cementitious content (alccofine & cement). It also develops the weaker transition zone into more impermeable layer. Specimens were subjected in both the accelerated curing method as well as conventional curing method. Experimental results were compared and reported, in that the maximum compressive strength of 32.6 MPa was achieved on 28th day with 30% replacement level in a density of 2200 kg/m3 to a conventional curing, while in the accelerated curing, maximum compressive strength was achieved at 40% replacement level. Rapid chloride penetration test (RCPT) output results for the conventional curing method at 0% and 70% give 3296.7 and 545.6 coulombs.

Keywords: Alccofine, compressive strength, RCPT, wood ash pellets

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3554 Effect of Carbon-Free Fly Ash and Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag on Compressive Strength of Mortar under Different Curing Conditions

Authors: Abdul Khaliq Amiri, Shigeyuki Date

Abstract:

This study investigates the effect of using carbon-free fly ash (CfFA) and ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS) on the compressive strength of mortar. The CfFA used in this investigation is high-quality fly ash and the carbon content is 1.0% or less. In this study, three types of blends with a 30% water-binder ratio (w/b) were prepared: control, binary and ternary blends. The Control blend contained only Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), in binary and ternary blends OPC was partially replaced with CfFA and GGBFS at different substitution rates. Mortar specimens were cured for 1 day, 7 days and 28 days under two curing conditions: steam curing and water curing. The steam cured specimens were exposed to two different pre-curing times (1.5 h and 2.5 h) and one steam curing duration (6 h) at 45 °C. The test results showed that water cured specimens revealed higher compressive strength than steam cured specimens at later ages. An increase in CfFA and GGBFS contents caused a decrease in the compressive strength of mortar. Ternary mixes exhibited better compressive strength than binary mixes containing CfFA with the same replacement ratio of mineral admixtures.

Keywords: carbon-free fly ash, compressive strength, ground granulated blast-furnace slag, steam curing, water curing

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
3553 Effect of Fresh Concrete Curing Methods on Its Compressive Strength

Authors: Xianghe Dai, Dennis Lam, Therese Sheehan, Naveed Rehman, Jie Yang

Abstract:

Concrete is one of the most used construction materials that may be made onsite as fresh concrete and then placed in formwork to produce the desired shapes of structures. It has been recognized that the raw materials and mix proportion of concrete dominate the mechanical characteristics of hardened concrete, and the curing method and environment applied to the concrete in early stages of hardening will significantly influence the concrete properties, such as compressive strength, durability, permeability etc. In construction practice, there are various curing methods to maintain the presence of mixing water throughout the early stages of concrete hardening. They are also beneficial to concrete in hot weather conditions as they provide cooling and prevent the evaporation of water. Such methods include ponding or immersion, spraying or fogging, saturated wet covering etc. Also there are various curing methods that may be implemented to decrease the level of water lost which belongs to the concrete surface, such as putting a layer of impervious paper, plastic sheeting or membrane on the concrete to cover it. In the concrete material laboratory, accelerated strength gain methods supply the concrete with heat and additional moisture by applying live steam, coils that are subject to heating or pads that have been warmed electrically. Currently when determining the mechanical parameters of a concrete, the concrete is usually sampled from fresh concrete on site and then cured and tested in laboratories where standardized curing procedures are adopted. However, in engineering practice, curing procedures in the construction sites after the placing of concrete might be very different from the laboratory criteria, and this includes some standard curing procedures adopted in the laboratory that can’t be applied on site. Sometimes the contractor compromises the curing methods in order to reduce construction costs etc. Obviously the difference between curing procedures adopted in the laboratory and those used on construction sites might over- or under-estimate the real concrete quality. This paper presents the effect of three typical curing methods (air curing, water immersion curing, plastic film curing) and of maintaining concrete in steel moulds on the compressive strength development of normal concrete. In this study, Portland cement with 30% fly ash was used and different curing periods, 7 days, 28 days and 60 days were applied. It was found that the highest compressive strength was observed from concrete samples to which 7-day water immersion curing was applied and from samples maintained in steel moulds up to the testing date. The research results implied that concrete used as infill in steel tubular members might develop a higher strength than predicted by design assumptions based on air curing methods. Wrapping concrete with plastic film as a curing method might delay the concrete strength development in the early stages. Water immersion curing for 7 days might significantly increase the concrete compressive strength.

Keywords: compressive strength, air curing, water immersion curing, plastic film curing, maintaining in steel mould, comparison

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3552 Hysteresis Behaviour of Mass Concrete Mixed with Plastic Fibre under Compression

Authors: A. A. Okeola, T. I. Sijuade

Abstract:

Unreinforced concrete is a comparatively brittle substance when exposed to tensile stresses, the required tensile strength is provided by the introduction of steel which is used as reinforcement. The strength of concrete may be improved tremendously by the addition of fibre. This study focused on investigating the compressive strength of mass concrete mixed with different percentage of plastic fibre. Twelve samples of concrete cubes with varied percentage of plastic fibre at 7, 14 and 28 days of water submerged curing were tested under compression loading. The result shows that the compressive strength of plastic fibre reinforced concrete increased with rise in curing age. The strength increases for all percentage dosage of fibre used for the concrete. The density of the Plastic Fibre Reinforced Concrete (PFRC) also increases with curing age, which implies that during curing, concrete absorbs water which aids its hydration. The least compressive strength obtained with the introduction of plastic fibre is more than the targeted 20 N/mm2 recommended for construction work showing that PFRC can be used where significant loading is expected.

Keywords: compressive strength, concrete, curing, density, plastic fibre

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
3551 Towards Sustainable Concrete: Maturity Method to Evaluate the Effect of Curing Conditions on the Strength Development in Concrete Structures under Kuwait Environmental Conditions

Authors: F. Al-Fahad, J. Chakkamalayath, A. Al-Aibani

Abstract:

Conventional methods of determination of concrete strength under controlled laboratory conditions will not accurately represent the actual strength of concrete developed under site curing conditions. This difference in strength measurement will be more in the extreme environment in Kuwait as it is characterized by hot marine environment with normal temperature in summer exceeding 50°C accompanied by dry wind in desert areas and salt laden wind on marine and on shore areas. Therefore, it is required to have test methods to measure the in-place properties of concrete for quality assurance and for the development of durable concrete structures. The maturity method, which defines the strength of a given concrete mix as a function of its age and temperature history, is an approach for quality control for the production of sustainable and durable concrete structures. The unique harsh environmental conditions in Kuwait make it impractical to adopt experiences and empirical equations developed from the maturity methods in other countries. Concrete curing, especially in the early age plays an important role in developing and improving the strength of the structure. This paper investigates the use of maturity method to assess the effectiveness of three different types of curing methods on the compressive and flexural strength development of one high strength concrete mix of 60 MPa produced with silica fume. This maturity approach was used to predict accurately, the concrete compressive and flexural strength at later ages under different curing conditions. Maturity curves were developed for compressive and flexure strengths for a commonly used concrete mix in Kuwait, which was cured using three different curing conditions, including water curing, external spray coating and the use of internal curing compound during concrete mixing. It was observed that the maturity curve developed for the same mix depends on the type of curing conditions. It can be used to predict the concrete strength under different exposure and curing conditions. This study showed that concrete curing with external spray curing method cannot be recommended to use as it failed to aid concrete in reaching accepted values of strength, especially for flexural strength. Using internal curing compound lead to accepted levels of strength when compared with water cuing. Utilization of the developed maturity curves will help contactors and engineers to determine the in-place concrete strength at any time, and under different curing conditions. This will help in deciding the appropriate time to remove the formwork. The reduction in construction time and cost has positive impacts towards sustainable construction.

Keywords: curing, durability, maturity, strength

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3550 Self-Healing Performance of Heavyweight Concrete with Steam Curing

Authors: Hideki Igawa, Yoshinori Kitsutaka, Takashi Yokomuro, Hideo Eguchi

Abstract:

In this study, the crack self-healing performance of the heavyweight concrete used in the walls of containers and structures designed to shield radioactive materials was investigated. A steam curing temperature that preserves self-healing properties and demolding strength was identified. The presented simultaneously mixing method using the expanding material and the fly ash in the process of admixture can maximize the self-curing performance. Also adding synthetic fibers in the heavyweight concrete improved the self-healing performance.

Keywords: expanding material, heavyweight concrete, self-healing performance, synthetic fiber

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
3549 Communicating with Spirits: Bridging the Nether World of Spirits and the Real World in Healing Performances

Authors: S. Ishak, M. G. Nasuruddin

Abstract:

Traditional Malay performances are carried out for both entertainment and curing purposes. In curing rituals, the men and women serving as shamans, communicates with the spirits and beings from the nether world to facilitate the curing process. The dependency on engaging with these other-worldly beings however, have raised religious issues of being syirik, namely practicing in rituals which are religiously forbidden. This study aims to observe how ritual leaders attempt to negotiate the fine balance between what has been religiously forbidden and the psychological and sociological needs of the patient. Two curing rituals, the main peteri and the malibobou were chosen to exemplify the communication between the physical and spiritual realities. In both rituals, the healers engaged in procedures of curing as they attempted to diagnose sicknesses and proffer cures with the help of the spirits. The main peteri was conducted by a male shaman, the tuk teri whereas the malibobou was conducted by a female ritual specialist, the bobohizan. Main peteri and the malibobou both ended with ritually thanking and sending off the spirits back to their nether, invisible domains. These curing rituals heal not only the sick individual, but by extension, the village community. Therefore, there is a need to reconcile these rituals with religious tenets, beliefs and sociological-political-cultural dimensions.

Keywords: traditional healing, trance, spirits, main peteri, bobohizan

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
3548 Studies on Partial Replacement of Cement by Rice Husk Ash under Sodium Phosphate Medium

Authors: Dharmana Pradeep, Chandan Kumar Patnaikuni, N. V. S. Venugopal

Abstract:

Rice Husk Ash (RHA) is a green product contains carbon and also loaded with silica. For the development of durability and strength of any concrete, curing phenomenon shall be very important. In this communication, we reported the exposure of partial replacement of cement with RHA at different percentages of 0%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%, 12.5% and 15% by weight under sodium phosphate curing atmosphere. The mix is designed for M40 grade concrete with the proportions of 1:2.2:3.72. The tests conducted on concrete was a compressive strength, and the specimens were cured in normal water & exposed to the chemical solution for 7, 28 & 56 days. For chemical curing 0.5% & 1% concentrated sodium phosphates were used and were compared with normal concrete strength results. The strength of specimens of 1% sodium phosphate exposure showed that the compressive strength decreased with increase in RHA percentages.

Keywords: rice husk ash, compressive strength, sodium phosphate, curing

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
3547 Improvement of GVPI Insulation System Characteristics by Curing Process Modification

Authors: M. Shadmand

Abstract:

The curing process of insulation system for electrical machines plays a determinative role for its durability and reliability. Polar structure of insulating resin molecules and used filler of insulation system can be taken as an occasion to leverage it to enhance overall characteristics of insulation system, mechanically and electrically. The curing process regime for insulating system plays an important role for its mechanical and electrical characteristics by arranging the polymerization of chain structure for resin. In this research, the effect of electrical field application on in-curing insulating system for Global Vacuum Pressurized Impregnation (GVPI) system for traction motor was considered by performing the dissipation factor, polarization and de-polarization current (PDC) and voltage endurance (aging) measurements on sample test objects. Outcome results depicted obvious improvement in mechanical strength of the insulation system as well as higher electrical characteristics with routing and long-time (aging) electrical tests. Coming together, polarization of insulation system during curing process would enhance the machine life time. 

Keywords: insulation system, GVPI, PDC, aging

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
3546 UV-Cured Coatings Based on Acrylated Epoxidized Soybean Oil and Epoxy Carboxylate

Authors: Alaaddin Cerit, Suheyla Kocaman, Ulku Soydal

Abstract:

During the past two decades, photoinitiated polymerization has been attracting a great interest in terms of scientific and industrial activity. The wide recognition of UV treatment in the polymer industry results not only from its many practical applications but also from its advantage for low-cost processes. Unlike most thermal curing systems, radiation-curable systems can polymerize at room temperature without additional heat, and the curing is completed in a very short time. The advantage of cationic UV technology is that post-cure can continue in the ‘dark’ after radiation. In this study, bio-based acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) was cured with UV radiation using radicalic photoinitiator Irgacure 184. Triarylsulphonium hexafluoroantimonate was used as cationic photoinitiator for curing of 3,4-epoxycyclohexylmethyl-3,4-epoxycyclohexanecarboxylate. The effect of curing time and the amount of initiators on the curing degree and thermal properties were investigated. The thermal properties of the coating were analyzed after crosslinking UV irradiation. The level of crosslinking in the coating was evaluated by FTIR analysis. Cationic UV-cured coatings demonstrated excellent adhesion and corrosion resistance properties. Therefore, our study holds a great potential with its simple and low-cost applications.

Keywords: acrylated epoxidized soybean oil, epoxy carboxylate, thermal properties, uv-curing

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
3545 Quality Characteristics of Cured Dried Camel Meat Formulated with Different Medicinal Plants as Natural Preservatives

Authors: H. S. Aljabeili, E. A. Abd El-Hady, M. M. Abd El-Razik, M. Abd Elgadir

Abstract:

The aim of the study is determining the quality characteristics of produced curing and dried camel meat contained some medicinal plants of thyme, rosemary, clove and ginger as natural preservatives. Camel meat samples were sliced and divided into five batches, one batch recorded as control sample was treated by the curing mixture (2.5%) contained the following ingredients: black pepper 1 gm, cumin 0.4 gm, spices mixture 0.5 gm, dried onion 3 gm, dried garlic 0.5 gm and salt 2 gm. To evaluate the effect of different natural preservatives sources of thyme, rosemary, clove and ginger, 3.0% of the aforementioned natural preservatives was mixed with the aforementioned curing mixture and used for curing the four batches of sliced camel meat. After curing process, cured sliced camel meat (control and treated with the natural preservatives) were conducting to drying process at 35 ± 3 °C for 36 h in a drying cabinet. The quality characteristics of prepared dried camel meat were evaluated such as chemical composition, microbiological characteristics and sensory characteristics. Based on the microbiological and sensory characteristics, it could be suggested that the selected medicinal plants specially thyme and rosemary could be used as natural preservatives for preparing semi dry camel meat without negative effects.

Keywords: curing, dried camel meat, medicinal plants, natural preservatives, quality characteristics

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
3544 Comparison of Water Curing and Carbonation Curing on Mortar Mix Incorporating Cement Kiln Dust

Authors: Devender Sharma, Shweta Goyal

Abstract:

Sustainable development is a key to protect the environment for a secure future. Accelerated carbonation curing is a comparatively new technique for curing of concrete which involves sequestration of carbon dioxide gas into the precast concrete, resulting in improvement of the properties of concrete. This paper presents the results of a study to evaluate the effect of carbonation curing on cement mortars incorporating cement kiln dust (CKD) as partial replacement of cement. The mortar specimens were prepared by replacing cement with CKD in varying percentages of 0-50% by the weight of cement. The specimens were subjected to 12 hour carbonation curing, followed by sealed packing till testing age. The results were compared with the normal curing procedure, in which the specimens were water cured till the testing age. Compressive strength and microstructure of the mix were studied. It was noted that on increasing the percentage of CKD up to 10% by the weight of the cement, no considerable change was observed in the compressive strength. But as the percentage of CKD was further increased, there was a decrease in compressive strength, with strength decreasing up to 40% when 50% of the cement was replaced with CKD. The decrease in strength is due to the lesser lime content in CKD as compared to cement. High ettringite formation was observed in mixes with high percentages of CKD, thus indicating a decrease in the compressive strength. With carbonation curing, an early age strength gain was observed in mortars, even with higher percentages of CKD. The early strength of the carbonation cured mixes was found to be greater than water cured mixes irrespective of the percentage of CKD. 7 days and 28 days compressive strength of the mix was comparable for both the carbonation cured and water cured specimen. The increase in compressive strength can be attributed to the conversion of unstable Ca(OH)2 into stable CaCO3, which causes densification of the mix. CaCO3 precipitation and greater CSH gel formation was clearly observed in the SEM images of carbonation cured specimen, indicating higher compressive strength. Thus, carbonation curing can be used as an efficient method to enhance the properties of concrete.

Keywords: carbonation, cement kiln dust, compressive strength, microstructure

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3543 Experimental Investigations on Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Soft Soil Improved by a Group of End-Bearing Column

Authors: Mamata Mohanty, J. T. Shahu

Abstract:

The in-situ deep mixing is an effective ground improvement technique which involves columnar inclusion into soft ground to increase its bearing capacity and reduce settlement. The first part of the study presents the results of unconfined compression on cement-admixed clay prepared at different cement content and subjected to varying curing periods. It is found that cement content is a prime factor controlling the strength of the cement-admixed clay. Besides cement content, curing period is important parameter that adds to the strength of cement-admixed clay. Increase in cement content leads to significant increase in Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) values especially at cement contents greater than 8%. The second part of the study investigated the bearing capacity of the clay ground improved by a group of end-bearing column using model tests under plain-strain condition. This study mainly focus to examine the effect of cement contents on the ultimate bearing capacity and failure stress of the improved clay ground. The study shows that the bearing capacity of the improved ground increases significantly with increase in cement contents of the soil-cement columns. A considerable increase in the stiffness of the model ground and failure stress was observed with increase in cement contents.

Keywords: bearing capacity, cement content, curing time, unconfined compressive strength, undrained shear strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
3542 Real-Time Compressive Strength Monitoring for NPP Concrete Construction Using an Embedded Piezoelectric Self-Sensing Technique

Authors: Junkyeong Kim, Seunghee Park, Ju-Won Kim, Myung-Sug Cho

Abstract:

Recently, demands for the construction of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) using high strength concrete (HSC) has been increased. However, HSC might be susceptible to brittle fracture if the curing process is inadequate. To prevent unexpected collapse during and after the construction of HSC structures, it is essential to confirm the strength development of HSC during the curing process. However, several traditional strength-measuring methods are not effective and practical. In this study, a novel method to estimate the strength development of HSC based on electromechanical impedance (EMI) measurements using an embedded piezoelectric sensor is proposed. The EMI of NPP concrete specimen was tracked to monitor the strength development. In addition, cross-correlation coefficient was applied in sequence to examine the trend of the impedance variations more quantitatively. The results confirmed that the proposed technique can be applied successfully monitoring of the strength development during the curing process of HSC structures.

Keywords: concrete curing, embedded piezoelectric sensor, high strength concrete, nuclear power plant, self-sensing impedance

Procedia PDF Downloads 422
3541 Unconfined Strength of Nano Reactive Silica Sand Powder Concrete

Authors: Hossein Kabir, Mojtaba Sadeghi

Abstract:

Nowadays, high-strength concrete is an integral element of a variety of high-rise buildings. On the other hand, finding a suitable aggregate size distribution is a great concern; hence, the concrete mix proportion is presented that has no coarse aggregate, which still withstands enough desirable strength. Nano Reactive Silica sand powder concrete (NRSSPC) is a type of concrete with no coarse material in its own composition. In this concrete, the only aggregate found in the mix design is silica sand powder with a size less than 150 mm that is infinitesimally small regarding the normal concrete. The research aim is to find the compressive strength of this particular concrete under the applied different conditions of curing and consolidation to compare the approaches. In this study, the young concrete specimens were compacted with a pressing or vibrating process. It is worthwhile to mention that in order to show the influence of temperature in the curing process, the concrete specimen was cured either in 20 ⁰C lime water or autoclaved in 90 ⁰C oven.

Keywords: reactive silica sand powder concrete (RSSPC), consolidation, compressive strength, normal curing, thermal accelerated curing

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
3540 Preparation and Properties of Chloroacetated Natural Rubber Rubber Foam Using Corn Starch as Curing Agent

Authors: Ploenpit Boochathum, Pitchayanad Kaolim, Phimjutha Srisangkaew

Abstract:

In general, rubber foam is produced based on the sulfur curing system. However, the remaining sulfur in the rubber product waste is burned to sulfur dioxide gas causing the environment pollution. To avoid using sulfur as curing agent in the rubber foam products, this research work proposes non-sulfur curing system by using corn starch as a curing agent. The ether crosslinks were proposed to be produced via the functional bonding between hydroxyl groups of the starch molecules and chloroacetate groups added on the natural rubber molecules. The chloroacetated natural rubber (CNR) latex was prepared via the epoxidation reaction of the concentrated natural rubber latex, subsequently, epoxy rings were attacked by chloroacetic acid to produce hydroxyl groups and chloroacetate groups on the rubber molecules. Foaming agent namely NaHCO3 was selected to add in the CNR latex due to the low decomposition temperature at about 50°C. The appropriate curing temperature was assigned to be 90°C that is above gelatinization temperature; 60-70°C, of starch. The effect of weight ratio of starch, i.e., 0 phr, 3 phr and 5 phr, on the physical properties of CNR rubber foam was investigated. It was found that density reduced from 0.81 g/cm3 for 0 phr to 0.75 g/cm3 for 3 phr and 0.79 g/cm3 for 5 phr. The ability to return to its original thickness after prolonged compressive stresses of CNR rubber foam cured with starch loading of 5 phr was found to be considerably better than that of CNR rubber foam cured with starch 3 phr and CNR rubber foam without addition of starch according to the compression set that was determined to decrease from 66.67% to 40% and 26.67% with the increase loading of starch. The mechanical properties including tensile strength and modulus of CNR rubber foams cured using starch were determined to increase except that the elongation at break was found to decrease. In addition, all mechanical properties of CNR rubber foams cured with the starch 3 phr and 5 phr were found to be slightly different and drastically higher than those of CNR rubber foam without the addition of starch. This research work indicates that starch can be applicable as a curing agent for CNR rubber. This is confirmed by the increase of the elastic modulus (G') of CNR rubber foams that was cured with the starch over the CNR rubber foam without curing agent. This type of rubber foam is believed to be one of the biodegradable and environment-friendly product that can be cured at low temperature of 90°C.

Keywords: chloroacetated natural rubber, corn starch, non-sulfur curing system, rubber foam

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
3539 Influence of Sodium Lauryl Ether Sulfate and Curing Temperature on Behaviors of Lightweight Kaolinite-Based Geopolymer

Authors: W. Sornlar, S. Supothina, A. Wannagon

Abstract:

Lightweight geopolymer can be prepared by using some foaming agents, such as metal powders or hydrogen peroxide; however, it is difficult to control the generated cell size due to the high reactivity of the system. This study aims to investigate the influence of Sodium Lauryl Ether Sulfate (SLES) foam addition and curing temperature on the physical, mechanical, thermal, and microstructure behaviors of the lightweight kaolinite-based geopolymer. To provide porous structure, the geopolymer paste was mixed with 0-15 wt% of SLES foam before casting into the mold. Testing and characterizations were carried out after 28 days. The results showed that SLES foam generated the regular and spherical macropores, which were well distributed in the geopolymer samples. The total porosity increased as SLES foam increased, similarly as the apparent porosity and water absorption. On the other hand, the bulk density and mechanical strength decreased as SLES foam increased. Curing temperature was studied simultaneously due to it strongly affects the mechanical strength of geopolymer. In this study, rising of curing temperature from 27 to 50°C (at 75% relative humidity) improved the compressive strength of samples but deteriorated after curing at 60°C. Among them, the composition of 15 wt% SLES foam (NF15) presented the highest porosity (70.51-72.89%), the lowest density (0.68-0.73 g/cm³), and very low thermal conductivity (0.172-0.197 W/mK). It had the proper compressive strength of 4.21-4.74 MPa that can be applied for the thermal insulation.

Keywords: lightweight, kaolinite-based geopolymer, curing temperature, foaming agent, thermal conductivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
3538 Effect of Curing Temperature on Mechanical Properties of Jute Fiber Reinforced Polylactic Acid Based Green Composite

Authors: Sehijpal Singh Khangura, Jai Inder Preet Singh, Vikas Dhawan

Abstract:

Global warming, growing awareness of the environment, waste management issues, dwindling fossil resources, and rising oil prices resulted to increase the research in the materials that are friendly to our health and environment. Due to these reasons, green products are increasingly being promoted for sustainable development. In this work, fully biodegradable green composites have been developed using jute fibers as reinforcement and poly lactic acid as matrix material by film stacking technique. The effect of curing temperature during development of composites ranging from 160 °C, 170 °C, 180 °C and 190 °C was investigated for various mechanical properties. Results obtained from various tests indicate that impact strength decreases with an increase in curing temperature, but tensile and flexural strength increases till 180 °C, thereafter both the properties decrease. This study gives an optimum curing temperature for the development of jute/PLA composites.

Keywords: natural fibers, polymer matrix composites, jute, compression molding, biodegradation

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
3537 Evaluation of Limestone as Self-Curing Aggregate for Concretes in the Southeast of Yucatan Peninsula

Authors: D. G. Rejon-Parra, B. Escobar-Morales, Romeli Barbosa, J. C. Cruz

Abstract:

In the southeast of Yucatan Peninsula, sedimentary limestone has different degrees of compaction. Due to its recent geological formation (Quaternary) and weathering effects causing an affordable aggregate for local manufacturers of concrete. It is characterized as lightweight aggregates (average density of 2,50), susceptible to abrasion and varying porosities (water content exceeding 7,50 % of its mass, in saturated condition). In this study, local aggregates with two moisture conditions (saturated and dry), have been examined in order to compare them for optimizing the performance of concrete. It is possible that these aggregates favour a phenomenon of mass transport (self-curing by porous aggregate); influencing the water reactions to form crystalline and gel hydration products. Based on the ACI methodology, a concrete mixture of 250 kg/cm2 was designed, with portland blended cement 30R. The bond between the mortar and the coarse aggregate was characterized as physicochemical based on trials which were carefully observed during time span of 28 days. The BET technique was used to analyse the micro porosity and surface areas of contact of the different crystalline phases of the limestone. Its chemical composition and crystal structures were verified with scanning electron microscopy SEM-EDS. On the third day, the samples with saturated aggregate reached 237 kg/cm2 of resistence, nearly the design strength; while samples with dry aggregate, exceeded the design strength, with a capacity of 308 kg/cm2. Aggregates in dry conditions demand a high quantity of water in the initial mixture, causing high resistance at the early stages. In saturated conditions, the development of resistance is progressive but constant.

Keywords: concrete, internal curing, limestone aggregate, porosity

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
3536 Fabrication of Eco-Friendly Pigment Printed Textiles by Reducing Formaldehyde Content

Authors: Sidra Saleemi, Raja Fahad Qureshi, Farooq Ahmed, Rabia Almas, Tahir Jameel

Abstract:

This research aimed to decrease formaldehyde content in substrates printed by pigments using different fixation temperature and concentration of urea in order to produce eco-friendly textiles. Substrates were printed by hand screen printing method as per recipe followed by drying and curing. Standard test methods were adapted to measure formaldehyde content washing and rubbing fastness. Formaldehyde content is instantaneously decreased by raising the temperature during curing printed fabric. Good results of both dry and wet rubbing fastness were found at 160˚C slightly improved dry rubbing results are achieved with 2% urea at a curing temperature of 150˚C.

Keywords: formaldehyde content, pigment printing, urea, washing fastness, rubbing fastness

Procedia PDF Downloads 209