Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1368

Search results for: costs

1308 A Bi-Objective Model to Address Simultaneous Formulation of Project Scheduling and Material Ordering

Authors: Babak H. Tabrizi, Seyed Farid Ghaderi

Abstract:

Concurrent planning of project scheduling and material ordering has been increasingly addressed within last decades as an approach to improve the project execution costs. Therefore, we have taken the problem into consideration in this paper, aiming to maximize schedules quality robustness, in addition to minimize the relevant costs. In this regard, a bi-objective mathematical model is developed to formulate the problem. Moreover, it is possible to utilize the all-unit discount for materials purchasing. The problem is then solved by the constraint method, and the Pareto front is obtained for a variety of robustness values. The applicability and efficiency of the proposed model is tested by different numerical instances, finally.

Keywords: Project Management, Project Scheduling, material ordering, e-constraint method

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
1307 Material Saving Strategies, Technologies and Effects on Return on Sales

Authors: Jasna Prester, Najla Podrug, Davor Filipović

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Manufacturing companies invest a significant amount of sales into material resources for production. In our sample, 58% of sales is used for manufacturing inputs, while only 24% of sales is used for salaries. This means that if a company is looking to reduce costs, the greater potential is in reduction of material costs than downsizing. This research shows that manufacturing companies in Croatia did realize material savings in last three years. It is also shown by which technologies they achieved materials cost savings. Through literature research, we found research gap as to which technologies reduce material consumption. As methodology of research four regression analyses are used to prove our findings.

Keywords: technologies, Croatia, materials savings strategies, return on sales

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
1306 Cost-Benefit Analysis for the Optimization of Noise Abatement Treatments at the Workplace

Authors: Paolo Lenzuni

Abstract:

Cost-effectiveness of noise abatement treatments at the workplace has not yet received adequate consideration. Furthermore, most of the published work is focused on productivity, despite the poor correlation of this quantity with noise levels. There is currently no tool to estimate the social benefit associated to a specific noise abatement treatment, and no comparison among different options is accordingly possible. In this paper, we present an algorithm which has been developed to predict the cost-effectiveness of any planned noise control treatment in a workplace. This algorithm is based the estimates of hearing threshold shifts included in ISO 1999, and on compensations that workers are entitled to once their work-related hearing impairments have been certified. The benefits of a noise abatement treatment are estimated by means of the lower compensation costs which are paid to the impaired workers. Although such benefits have no real meaning in strictly monetary terms, they allow a reliable comparison between different treatments, since actual social costs can be assumed to be proportional to compensation costs. The existing European legislation on occupational exposure to noise it mandates that the noise exposure level be reduced below the upper action limit (85 dBA). There is accordingly little or no motivation for employers to sustain the extra costs required to lower the noise exposure below the lower action limit (80 dBA). In order to make this goal more appealing for employers, the algorithm proposed in this work also includes an ad-hoc element that promotes actions which bring the noise exposure down below 80 dBA. The algorithm has a twofold potential: 1) it can be used as a quality index to promote cost-effective practices; 2) it can be added to the existing criteria used by workers’ compensation authorities to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of technical actions, and support dedicated employers.

Keywords: treatment, Noise, Cost-Effectiveness, occupational exposure

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
1305 Microalgae Bacteria Granules, an Alternative Technology to the Conventional Wastewater Treatment: Structural and Metabolic Characterization

Authors: M. Nita-Lazar, E. Manea, C. Bumbac, A. Banciu, C. Stoica

Abstract:

The population and economic growth have generated a significant new number of pollutant compounds which have to be degraded before reaching the environment. The wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have been the last barrier between the domestic and/or industrial wastewaters and the environment. At present, the conventional WWTPs have very high operational costs, most of them linked to the aeration process (60-65% from total energy costs related to wastewater treatment). In addition, they have had a low efficiency in pollutants removal such as pharmaceutical and other resilient anthropogenic compounds. In our study, we have been focused on new wastewater treatment strategies to enhance the efficiency of pollutants removal and decrease the wastewater treatment operational costs. The usage of mixed microalgae-bacteria granules technology generated high efficiency and low costs by a better harvesting and less expensive aeration. The intertrophic relationships between microalgae and bacteria have been characterized by the structure of the population community to their metabolic relationships. The results, obtained by microscopic studies, showed well-organized and stratified microalgae-bacteria granules where bacteria have been enveloped in the microalgal structures. Moreover, their population community structure has been modulated as well as their nitrification, denitrification processes (analysis based on qPCR genes expression) by the type of the pollutant compounds and amounts. In conclusion, the understanding and modulation of intertrophic relationships between microalgae and bacteria could be an economical and technological viable alternative to the conventional wastewater treatment. Acknowledgements: This research was supported by grant PN-III-P4-ID-PCE-2016-0865 from the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research and Innovation CNCS/CCCDI-UEFISCDI.

Keywords: Bacteria, Microalgae, activated sludge, granules

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1304 An Implementation of Incentive Systems within Property Life Cycles Will Reward Investors, Planners and Users

Authors: Nadine Wills

Abstract:

The whole life thinking of buildings (independent if these are commercial properties or residential properties) will raise if incentive systems are provided to investors, planners and users. The Use of Building Information Modelling (BIM)-Systems offers planners the possibility to plan and re-plan buildings for decades after a period of utilization without spending many capacities. The strategy-incentive should be to plan the building in a way that makes rescheduling possible by changing just parameters in the system and not re-planning the whole building. If users receive the chance to patient incentive systems, the building stock will have a long life period. Business models of tenant electricity or self-controlled operating costs are incentive systems for building –users to let fixed running costs decline without producing damages due to wrong purposes. BIM is the controlling body to ensure that users do not abuse the incentive solution and take negative influence on the building stock. The investor benefits from the planner’s and user’s incentives: the fact that the building becomes useful for the whole life without making unnecessary investments provides possibilities to make investments in different assets. Moreover, the investor gains the facility to achieve higher rents by merchandise the property with low operating costs. To execute BIM offers whole property life cycles.

Keywords: Life Cycle, Sustainability, incentives, bim

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
1303 An E-Retailing System Architecture Based on Cloud Computing

Authors: Chanchai Supaartagorn

Abstract:

E-retailing is the sale of goods online that takes place over the Internet. The Internet has shrunk the entire World. The world e-retailing is growing at an exponential rate in the Americas, Europe, and Asia. However, e-retailing costs require expensive investment, such as hardware, software, and security systems. Cloud computing technology is internet-based computing for the management and delivery of applications and services. Cloud-based e-retailing application models allow enterprises to lower their costs with their effective implementation of e-retailing activities. In this paper, we describe the concept of cloud computing and present the architecture of cloud computing, combining the features of e-retailing. In addition, we propose a strategy for implementing cloud computing with e-retailing. Finally, we explain the benefits from the architecture.

Keywords: Cloud Computing, Architecture, internet-based, e-retailing

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
1302 ADP Approach to Evaluate the Blood Supply Network of Ontario

Authors: Usama Abdulwahab, Mohammed Wahab

Abstract:

This paper presents the application of uncapacitated facility location problems (UFLP) and 1-median problems to support decision making in blood supply chain networks. A plethora of factors make blood supply-chain networks a complex, yet vital problem for the regional blood bank. These factors are rapidly increasing demand; criticality of the product; strict storage and handling requirements; and the vastness of the theater of operations. As in the UFLP, facilities can be opened at any of $m$ predefined locations with given fixed costs. Clients have to be allocated to the open facilities. In classical location models, the allocation cost is the distance between a client and an open facility. In this model, the costs are the allocation cost, transportation costs, and inventory costs. In order to address this problem the median algorithm is used to analyze inventory, evaluate supply chain status, monitor performance metrics at different levels of granularity, and detect potential problems and opportunities for improvement. The Euclidean distance data for some Ontario cities (demand nodes) are used to test the developed algorithm. Sitation software, lagrangian relaxation algorithm, and branch and bound heuristics are used to solve this model. Computational experiments confirm the efficiency of the proposed approach. Compared to the existing modeling and solution methods, the median algorithm approach not only provides a more general modeling framework but also leads to efficient solution times in general.

Keywords: facility location, approximate dynamic programming, perishable product, inventory model, blood platelet, P-median problem

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1301 Maintenance Alternatives Related to Costs of Wind Turbines Using Finite State Markov Model

Authors: Boukelkoul Lahcen

Abstract:

The cumulative costs for O&M may represent as much as 65%-90% of the turbine's investment cost. Nowadays the cost effectiveness concept becomes a decision-making and technology evaluation metric. The cost of energy metric accounts for the effect replacement cost and unscheduled maintenance cost parameters. One key of the proposed approach is the idea of maintaining the WTs which can be captured via use of a finite state Markov chain. Such a model can be embedded within a probabilistic operation and maintenance simulation reflecting the action to be done. In this paper, an approach of estimating the cost of O&M is presented. The finite state Markov model is used for decision problems with number of determined periods (life cycle) to predict the cost according to various options of maintenance.

Keywords: Cost, Markov Model, finite state, operation and maintenance

Procedia PDF Downloads 394
1300 Impact Logistic Management to Reduce Costs

Authors: Waleerak Sittisom

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The objectives of this research were to analyze transportation route management, to identify potential cost reductions in logistic operation. In-depth interview techniques and small group discussions were utilized with 25 participants from various backgrounds in the areas of logistics. The findings of this research revealed that there were four areas that companies are able to effectively manage a logistic cost reduction: managing the space within the transportation vehicles, managing transportation personnel, managing transportation cost, and managing control of transportation. On the other hand, there were four areas that companies were unable to effectively manage a logistic cost reduction: the working process of transportation, the route planning of transportation, the service point management, and technology management. There are five areas that cost reduction is feasible: personnel management, process of working, map planning, service point planning, and technology implementation. To be able to reduce costs, the transportation companies should suggest that customers use a file system to save truck space. Also, the transportation companies need to adopt new technology to manage their information system so that packages can be reached easy, safe, and fast. Staff needs to be trained regularly to increase knowledge and skills. Teamwork is required to effectively reduce the costs.

Keywords: Management, Logistics, Transportation, Cost Reduction

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
1299 Economical and Technical Analysis of Urban Transit System Selection Using TOPSIS Method According to Constructional and Operational Aspects

Authors: Ali Abdi Kordani, Meysam Rooyintan, Sid Mohammad Boroomandrad

Abstract:

Nowadays, one the most important problems in megacities is public transportation and satisfying citizens from this system in order to decrease the traffic congestions and air pollution. Accordingly, to improve the transit passengers and increase the travel safety, new transportation systems such as Bus Rapid Transit (BRT), tram, and monorail have expanded that each one has different merits and demerits. That is why comparing different systems for a systematic selection of public transportation systems in a big city like Tehran, which has numerous problems in terms of traffic and pollution, is essential. In this paper, it is tried to investigate the advantages and feasibility of using monorail, tram and BRT systems, which are widely used in most of megacities in all over the world. In Tehran, by using SPSS statistical analysis software and TOPSIS method, these three modes are compared to each other and their results will be assessed. Experts, who are experienced in the transportation field, answer the prepared matrix questionnaire to select each public transportation mode (tram, monorail, and BRT). The results according to experts’ judgments represent that monorail has the first priority, Tram has the second one, and BRT has the third one according to the considered indices like execution costs, wasting time, depreciation, pollution, operation costs, travel time, passenger satisfaction, benefit to cost ratio and traffic congestion.

Keywords: Pollution, tram, costs, BRT, monorail

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1298 Informal Carers in Telemonitoring of Users with Pacemakers: Characteristics, Time of Services Provided and Costs

Authors: Antonio Lopez-Villegas, Daniel Catalan-Matamoros, Rafael Bautista-Mesa, Emilio Robles-Musso, Cesar Leal-Costa

Abstract:

Objectives: The purpose of this trial was to evaluate the burden borne by and the costs to informal caregivers of users with telemonitoring of pacemakers. Methods: This is a controlled, non-randomised clinical trial, with data collected from informal caregivers, five years after implantation of pacemakers. The Spanish version of the Survey on Disabilities, Personal Autonomy, and Dependency Situations was used to get information on clinical and social characteristics, levels of professionalism, duration and types of care, difficulties in providing care, health status, economic and job aspects, impact on the family or leisure due to informal caregiving for patients with pacemakers. Results: After five years of follow-up, 55 users with pacemakers finished the study. Of which, 50 were helped by a caregiver, 18 were included in the telemonitoring group (TM) and 32 in the conventional follow-up group (HM). Overall, females represented 96.0% of the informal caregivers (88.89% in TM and 100.0% in HM group). The mean ages were 63.17 ± 15.92 and 63.13 ± 14.56 years, respectively (p = 0.83) in the groups. The majority (88.0%) of the caregivers declared that they had to provide their services between 6 and 7 days per week (83.33% in TM group versus 90.63% in HM group), without significant differences between both groups. The costs related to care provided by the informal caregivers were 47.04% higher in the conventional follow-up group than in the TM group. Conclusions: The results of this trial confirm that there were no significant differences between the informal caregivers regarding to baseline characteristics, workload and time worked in both groups of follow-up. The costs incurred by the informal caregivers providing care for users with pacemakers included in telemonitoring group are significantly lower than those in the conventional follow-up group. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02234245. Funding: The PONIENTE study, has been funded by the General Secretariat for Research, Development and Innovation, Regional Government of Andalusia (Spain), project reference number PI/0256/2017, under the research call 'Development and Innovation Projects in the Field of Biomedicine and Health Sciences', 2017.

Keywords: Telemedicine, Remote Monitoring, costs, disease burden, informal caregiving, pacemaker follow-up

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1297 On Disaggregation and Consolidation of Imperfect Quality Shipments in an Extended EPQ Model

Authors: Hung-Chi Chang

Abstract:

For an extended EPQ model with random yield, the existent study revealed that both the disaggregating and consolidating shipment policies for the imperfect quality items are independent of holding cost, and recommended a model with economic benefit by comparing the least total cost for each of the three models investigated. To better capture the real situation, we generalize the existent study to include different holding costs for perfect and imperfect quality items. Through analysis, we show that the above shipment policies are dependent on holding costs. Furthermore, we derive a simple decision rule solely based on the thresholds of problem parameters to select a superior model. The results are illustrated analytically and numerically.

Keywords: Inventory, consolidating shipments, disaggregating shipments, EPQ, imperfect quality

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1296 The Role of Privatization as a Moderator of the Impact of Non-Institutional Factors on the Performance of the Enterprises in Central and Eastern Europe

Authors: Margerita Topalli

Abstract:

In this paper, we analyze the impact of corruption (business environment, informal payments and state capture), crime and tax time, on the enterprise's performance during economic transition in the Central and Eastern Europe and the role of privatization as a moderator. We examine this effect by comparing the performance of the privatized enterprises and the state-owned-enterprises, while controlling for various forms of selection bias. The present study is based on firm-level panel data collected by the BEEPS for 27 transition countries over 2002, 2005, 2007, and 2011. In addition to firm characteristics, BEEPS collects valuable survey information on different forms of corruption, crime, tax time and firm ownership. We estimate the impact of corruption, crime, tax time on the different performance measures (sales, productivity, employment, labor costs and material costs) of the enterprise, whereby we control for firm ownership, with a special focus on the role of the privatization as a moderator. It argues that in general terms, the privatization has positive effects on the performance of enterprises during transition, but these effects are significantly different, depending on the examined performance measure (sales, productivity, employment, labor costs and material costs). When the privatization is effective, the privatized enterprises show a considerable performance improvements, particularly in terms of revenue growth and productivity growth. It also argues that the effects of privatization are different depending on the types of owner (outsider or insider) to whom it gives control. The results show that privatization to insider owners has no significant performance effect.

Keywords: Corruption, effects of privatization, enterprise performance, state capture, firm ownership, economic transition, Central and Eastern Europe

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
1295 The Study of Heat and Mass Transfer for Ferrous Materials' Filtration Drying

Authors: Dmytro Symak

Abstract:

Drying is a complex technologic, thermal and energy process. Energy cost of drying processes in many cases is the most costly stage of production, and can be over 50% of total costs. As we know, in Ukraine over 85% of Portland cement is produced moist, and the finished product energy costs make up to almost 60%. During the wet cement production, energy costs make up over 5500 kJ / kg of clinker, while during the dry only 3100 kJ / kg, that is, switching to a dry Portland cement will allow result into double cutting energy costs. Therefore, to study raw materials drying process in the manufacture of Portland cement is very actual task. The fine ferrous materials drying (small pyrites, red mud, clay Kyoko) is recommended to do by filtration method, that is one of the most intense. The essence of filtration method drying lies in heat agent filtering through a stationary layer of wet material, which is located on the perforated partition, in the "layer-dispersed material - perforated partition." For the optimum drying purposes, it is necessary to establish the dependence of pressure loss in the layer of dispersed material, and the values of heat and mass transfer, depending on the speed of the gas flow filtering. In our research, the experimentally determined pressure loss in the layer of dispersed material was generalized based on dimensionless complexes in the form and coefficients of heat exchange. We also determined the relation between the coefficients of mass and heat transfer. As a result of theoretic and experimental investigations, it was possible to develop a methodology for calculating the optimal parameters for the thermal agent and the main parameters for the filtration drying installation. The comparison of calculated by known operating expenses methods for the process of small pyrites drying in a rotating drum and filtration method shows to save up to 618 kWh per 1,000 kg of dry material and 700 kWh during filtration drying clay.

Keywords: Heat and Mass Transfer, cement, Drying, filtration method

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1294 Lie Symmetry Treatment for Pricing Options with Transactions Costs under the Fractional Black-Scholes Model

Authors: B. F. Nteumagne, E. Pindza, E. Mare

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We apply Lie symmetries analysis to price and hedge options in the fractional Brownian framework. The reputation of Lie groups is well spread in the area of Mathematical sciences and lately, in Finance. In the presence of transactions costs and under fractional Brownian motions, analytical solutions become difficult to obtain. Lie symmetries analysis allows us to simplify the problem and obtain new analytical solution. In this paper, we investigate the use of symmetries to reduce the partial differential equation obtained and obtain the analytical solution. We then proposed a hedging procedure and calibration technique for these types of options, and test the model on real market data. We show the robustness of our methodology by its application to the pricing of digital options.

Keywords: Symmetry‎, Option Pricing, fractional brownian model, transaction cost

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
1293 Value Index, a Novel Decision Making Approach for Waste Load Allocation

Authors: E. Feizi Ashtiani, S. Jamshidi, M.H Niksokhan, A. Feizi Ashtiani

Abstract:

Waste load allocation (WLA) policies may use multi-objective optimization methods to find the most appropriate and sustainable solutions. These usually intend to simultaneously minimize two criteria, total abatement costs (TC) and environmental violations (EV). If other criteria, such as inequity, need for minimization as well, it requires introducing more binary optimizations through different scenarios. In order to reduce the calculation steps, this study presents value index as an innovative decision making approach. Since the value index contains both the environmental violation and treatment costs, it can be maximized simultaneously with the equity index. It implies that the definition of different scenarios for environmental violations is no longer required. Furthermore, the solution is not necessarily the point with minimized total costs or environmental violations. This idea is testified for Haraz River, in north of Iran. Here, the dissolved oxygen (DO) level of river is simulated by Streeter-Phelps equation in MATLAB software. The WLA is determined for fish farms using multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) in two scenarios. At first, the trade-off curves of TC-EV and TC-Inequity are plotted separately as the conventional approach. In the second, the Value-Equity curve is derived. The comparative results show that the solutions are in a similar range of inequity with lower total costs. This is due to the freedom of environmental violation attained in value index. As a result, the conventional approach can well be replaced by the value index particularly for problems optimizing these objectives. This reduces the process to achieve the best solutions and may find better classification for scenario definition. It is also concluded that decision makers are better to focus on value index and weighting its contents to find the most sustainable alternatives based on their requirements.

Keywords: Equity, waste load allocation (WLA), Haraz River, multi objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO), value index

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1292 Cost-Effectiveness of a Certified Service or Hearing Dog Compared to a Regular Companion Dog

Authors: Lundqvist M., Alwin J., Levin L-A.

Abstract:

Background: Assistance dogs are dogs trained to assist persons with functional impairment or chronic diseases. The assistance dog concept includes different types: guide dogs, hearing dogs, and service dogs. The service dog can further be divided into subgroups of physical services dogs, diabetes alert dogs, and seizure alert dogs. To examine the long-term effects of health care interventions, both in terms of resource use and health outcomes, cost-effectiveness analyses can be conducted. This analysis can provide important input to decision-makers when setting priorities. Little is known when it comes to the cost-effectiveness of assistance dogs. The study aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of certified service or hearing dogs in comparison to regular companion dogs. Methods: The main data source for the analysis was the “service and hearing dog project”. It was a longitudinal interventional study with a pre-post design that incorporated fifty-five owners and their dogs. Data on all relevant costs affected by the use of a service dog such as; municipal services, health care costs, costs of sick leave, and costs of informal care were collected. Health-related quality of life was measured with the standardized instrument EQ-5D-3L. A decision-analytic Markov model was constructed to conduct the cost-effectiveness analysis. Outcomes were estimated over a 10-year time horizon. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio expressed as cost per gained quality-adjusted life year was the primary outcome. The analysis employed a societal perspective. Results: The result of the cost-effectiveness analysis showed that compared to a regular companion dog, a certified dog is cost-effective with both lower total costs [-32,000 USD] and more quality-adjusted life-years [0.17]. Also, we will present subgroup results analyzing the cost-effectiveness of physicals service dogs and diabetes alert dogs. Conclusions: The study shows that a certified dog is cost-effective in comparison with a regular companion dog for individuals with functional impairments or chronic diseases. Analyses of uncertainty imply that further studies are needed.

Keywords: Health Economics, Markov Model, service dogs, hearing dogs, quality-adjusted, life years

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1291 A Concept to Assess the Economic Importance of the On-Site Activities of ETICS

Authors: V. Sulakatko, F. U. Vogdt, I. Lill

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Construction technology and on-site construction activities have a direct influence on the life cycle costs of energy efficiently renovated apartment buildings. The systematic inadequacies of the External Thermal Insulation Composite System (ETICS) which occur during the construction phase increase the risk for all stakeholders, reduce mechanical durability and increase the life cycle costs of the building. The economic effect of these shortcomings can be minimised if the risk of the most significant on-site activities is recognised. The objective of the presented ETICS economic assessment concept is to evaluate the economic influence of on-site shortcomings and reveal their significance to the foreseeable future repair costs. The model assembles repair techniques, discusses their direct cost calculation methods, argues over the proper usage of net present value over the life cycle of the building, and proposes a simulation tool to evaluate the risk of on-site activities. As the technique is dependent on the selected real interest rate, a sensitivity analysis is anticipated to determine the validity of the recommendations. After the verification of the model on the sample buildings by the industry, it is expected to increase economic rationality of resource allocation and reduce high-risk systematic shortcomings during the construction process of ETICS.

Keywords: Life Cycle Costing, Cost Estimation, ETICS, activity-based cost estimating

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
1290 Economic Evaluation of Biogas and Biomethane from Animal Manure

Authors: Shahab Shafayyan, Tara Naderi

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Biogas is the product of decomposition of organic materials. A variety of sources, including animal wastes, municipal solid wastes, sewage and agricultural wastes may be used to produce biogas in an anaerobic process. The main forming material of biogas is methane gas, which can be used directly in a variety of ways, such as heating and as fuel, which is very common in a number of countries, such as China and India. In this article, the cost of biogas production from animal fertilizers, and its refined form, bio methane gas has been studied and it is shown that it can be an alternative for natural gas in terms of costs, in the near future. The cost of biogas purification to biomethane is more than three times the cost of biogas production for an average unit. Biomethane production costs, calculated for a small unit, is about $9/MMBTU and for an average unit is about $5.9/MMBTU.

Keywords: Biogas, Economic Evaluation, Anaerobic Digestion, biomethane

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1289 Investigation into Varied Inspection Utilization for Mass Customization

Authors: Glen Bright, Anthony Walker, Trishen Naidoo, Shaniel Davrajh

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An investigation into on-line inspection was performed where research is focused on the use of varied inspection (as opposed to 100% inspection) for mass customization (MC). Manufacturers need new methods for quality control in mass customization, and these methods need to address some of the old problems such as over-inspection and bottlenecking. Due to the risks of varied inspection, many manufacturers do not implement it and rather opt for sampling methods. However, there are many advantages of varied inspection and can have applications in mass customization. A control system incorporating fuzzy logic (FL) control is used to perform the variations in inspection usage in a simulated environment. The proposed system can have a key impact in appraisal costs reduction and possibly work-in-process reduction in high variety environments.

Keywords: Quality Control, Fuzzy Logic, appraisal costs, work-in-process

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1288 The Effect of Finding and Development Costs and Gas Price on Basins in the Barnett Shale

Authors: Hom Dhakal, Mohamed Hassan, Michael Kenomore, Amjad Shah

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Shale gas reservoirs have been of greater importance compared to shale oil reservoirs since 2009 and with the current nature of the oil market, understanding the technical and economic performance of shale gas reservoirs is of importance. Using the Barnett shale as a case study, an economic model was developed to quantify the effect of finding and development costs and gas prices on the basins in the Barnett shale using net present value as an evaluation parameter. A rate of return of 20% and a payback period of 60 months or less was used as the investment hurdle in the model. The Barnett was split into four basins (Strawn Basin, Ouachita Folded Belt, Forth-worth Syncline and Bend-arch Basin) with analysis conducted on each of the basin to provide a holistic outlook. The dataset consisted of only horizontal wells that started production from 2008 to at most 2015 with 1835 wells coming from the strawn basin, 137 wells from the Ouachita folded belt, 55 wells from the bend-arch basin and 724 wells from the forth-worth syncline. The data was analyzed initially on Microsoft Excel to determine the estimated ultimate recoverable (EUR). The range of EUR from each basin were loaded in the Palisade Risk software and a log normal distribution typical of Barnett shale wells was fitted to the dataset. Monte Carlo simulation was then carried out over a 1000 iterations to obtain a cumulative distribution plot showing the probabilistic distribution of EUR for each basin. From the cumulative distribution plot, the P10, P50 and P90 EUR values for each basin were used in the economic model. Gas production from an individual well with a EUR similar to the calculated EUR was chosen and rescaled to fit the calculated EUR values for each basin at the respective percentiles i.e. P10, P50 and P90. The rescaled production was entered into the economic model to determine the effect of the finding and development cost and gas price on the net present value (10% discount rate/year) as well as also determine the scenario that satisfied the proposed investment hurdle. The finding and development costs used in this paper (assumed to consist only of the drilling and completion costs) were £1 million, £2 million and £4 million while the gas price was varied from $2/MCF-$13/MCF based on Henry Hub spot prices from 2008-2015. One of the major findings in this study was that wells in the bend-arch basin were least economic, higher gas prices are needed in basins containing non-core counties and 90% of the Barnet shale wells were not economic at all finding and development costs irrespective of the gas price in all the basins. This study helps to determine the percentage of wells that are economic at different range of costs and gas prices, determine the basins that are most economic and the wells that satisfy the investment hurdle.

Keywords: Shale Gas, Barnett shale, unconventional gas, estimated ultimate recoverable

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1287 Health Post A Sustainable Prototype for the Third World

Authors: Chizzoniti Domenico, Beggiora Klizia, Cattani Letizia, Moscatelli Monica

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This paper concerns the study of sustainable construction materials applied on the "Health Post", a prototype for the primary health care situated in alienated areas of the world. It's suitable for social and climatic Sub-Saharan context; however, it could be moved in other countries of the world with similar urgent needs. The idea is to create a Health Post with local construction materials that have a low environmental impact and promote the local workforce allowing reuse of traditional building techniques lowering production costs and transport. The aim of Primary Health Care Centre is to be a flexible and expandable structure identifying a modular form that can be repeated several times to expand its existing functions. In this way it could be not only a health care centre but also a socio-cultural facility.

Keywords: Emergency, Health Care, low costs building, sustainable construction materials, green construction system, prototype

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1286 Supply Chain Control and Inventory Management in Garment Industry

Authors: Nisa Nur Duman, Sümeyya Kiliç

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In global competition conditions, survival of the plants by obtaining competitive advantage relies on the effective usage of existing sources. By this way, the plants can minimize their costs without losing their quality. They also take advantage took advantage on their competitors and enlarge customer portfolio by increasing profit margins. Changing structure of market and customer demands also change the structure of the competition between companies. Furthermore, competition is not only between the companies. By this manner, supply chain and supply chain management get importance by considering company performances. Companies that want to survive, search the ways of decreasing costs and the ways of meeting customer expectations. One of the important tools for reaching these goals is inventory managemet. The best inventory management system is meeting the demands by considering plant goals.

Keywords: Supply Chain, Inventory Management, Garment industry, apparel sector

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1285 Optimizing the Insertion of Renewables in the Colombian Power Sector

Authors: Felipe Henao, Yeny Rodriguez, Juan P. Viteri, Isaac Dyner

Abstract:

Colombia is rich in natural resources and greatly focuses on the exploitation of water for hydroelectricity purposes. Alternative cleaner energy sources, such as solar and wind power, have been largely neglected despite: a) its abundance, b) the complementarities between hydro, solar and wind power, and c) the cost competitiveness of renewable technologies. The current limited mix of energy sources creates considerable weaknesses for the system, particularly when facing extreme dry weather conditions, such as El Niño event. In the past, El Niño have exposed the truly consequences of a system heavily dependent on hydropower, i.e. loss of power supply, high energy production costs, and loss of overall competitiveness for the country. Nonetheless, it is expected that the participation of hydroelectricity will increase in the near future. In this context, this paper proposes a stochastic lineal programming model to optimize the insertion of renewable energy systems (RES) into the Colombian electricity sector. The model considers cost-based generation competition between traditional energy technologies and alternative RES. This work evaluates the financial, environmental, and technical implications of different combinations of technologies. Various scenarios regarding the future evolution of costs of the technologies are considered to conduct sensitivity analysis of the solutions – to assess the extent of the participation of the RES in the Colombian power sector. Optimization results indicate that, even in the worst case scenario, where costs remain constant, the Colombian power sector should diversify its portfolio of technologies and invest strongly in solar and wind power technologies. The diversification through RES will contribute to make the system less vulnerable to extreme weather conditions, reduce the overall system costs, cut CO2 emissions, and decrease the chances of having national blackout events in the future. In contrast, the business as usual scenario indicates that the system will turn more costly and less reliable.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Water management, Stochastic Programming, Energy policy and planning

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1284 Solar Power Satellites: Reconsideration Based on Novel Approaches

Authors: Alex Ellery

Abstract:

Solar power satellites (SPS), despite their promise as a clean energy source, have been relegated out of consideration due to their enormous cost and technological challenge. It has been suggested that for solar power satellites to become economically feasible, launch costs must decrease from their current $20,000/kg to < $200/kg. Even with the advent of single-stage-to-orbit launchers which propose launch costs dropping to $2,000/kg, this will not be realized. Yet, the advantages of solar power satellites are many. Here, I present a novel approach to reduce the specific cost of solar power satellites to ~$1/kg by leveraging two enabling technologies – in-situ resource utilization and 3D printing. The power of such technologies will open up enormous possibilities for providing additional options for combating climate change whilst meeting demands for global energy. From the constraints imposed by in-situ resource utilization, a novel approach to solar energy conversion in SPS may be realized.

Keywords: thermionic emission, clean energy sources, in-situ resource utilisation, solar power satellites

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1283 Multi-Period Supply Chain Design under Uncertainty

Authors: Amir Azaron

Abstract:

In this research, a stochastic programming approach is developed for designing supply chains with uncertain parameters. Demands and selling prices of products at markets are considered as the uncertain parameters. The proposed mathematical model will be multi-period two-stage stochastic programming, which takes into account the selection of retailer sites, suppliers, production levels, inventory levels, transportation modes to be used for shipping goods, and shipping quantities among the entities of the supply chain network. The objective function is to maximize the chain’s net present value. In order to maximize the chain’s NPV, the sum of first-stage investment costs on retailers, and the expected second-stage processing, inventory-holding and transportation costs should be kept as low as possible over multiple periods. The effects of supply uncertainty where suppliers are unreliable will also be investigated on the efficiency of the supply chain.

Keywords: Supply Chain Management, Stochastic Programming, Inventory Control, multiobjective programming

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1282 Analysis of Behavior and Determinants of Cost Stickiness in Manufacturing Companies in Indonesia

Authors: Farizy Yunaz, Catur Sasongko

Abstract:

This research aims to provide the empirical evidence regarding cost stickiness behavior and its determinants on listed manufacturing companies. Hypothesis testing is performed using pooled least square method. The result concludes that there is cost stickiness behavior in selling, general and administrative costs. In term of determinants, firm-specific adjustment costs measured by asset intensity and employee intensity have significant positive impact on the level of cost stickiness. Meanwhile, earnings target and leverage have significant negative impact on the level of cost stickiness. However, the management empire building incentives measured by free cash flow has no significant positive impact.

Keywords: leverage, adjustment cost, cost behavior, cost stickiness, earnings target, management empire building incentive

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1281 Overview of Time, Resource and Cost Planning Techniques in Construction Management Research

Authors: S. Das, R. Gupta, P. Jain

Abstract:

One way to approach construction scheduling optimization problem is to focus on the individual aspects of planning, which can be broadly classified as time scheduling, crew and resource management, and cost control. During the last four decades, construction planning has seen a lot of research, but to date, no paper had attempted to summarize the literature available under important heads. This paper addresses each of aspects separately, and presents the findings of an in-depth literature of the various planning techniques. For techniques dealing with time scheduling, the authors have adopted a rough chronological documentation. For crew and resource management, classification has been done on the basis of the different steps involved in the resource planning process. For cost control, techniques dealing with both estimation of costs and the subsequent optimization of costs have been dealt with separately.

Keywords: Resource Planning, construction planning techniques, time scheduling, cost control

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1280 Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) Fishing in ASEAN Countries

Authors: Wen Chiat Lee, K. Kuperan Viswanathan

Abstract:

Illegal, Unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing brings great losses to the economies of the fishing nations. Understanding the reasons contributing to IUU fishing is crucial in reducing it. Economic, institutional and social factors are key drivers of IIU fishing. The economic factor is the main contributor to IUU fishing. The two possible ways to curb the IUU fishing is highlighted. One way is to reduce the revenue from IUU fishing and another way is to increase the cost of IUU fishing. There are three costs of IUU fishing that can be increased namely the operating, capital and risk costs. Approaches for reducing the economic rent or profit from IUU fishing are developed and directions for reducing IUU fishing are also suggested. Improved registration of fishing vessels, preventing entry of illegal fish products and most importantly, developing co-management of fisheries are the ways forward for reducing IUU fishing. All governments in ASEAN must work in tandem with the stakeholders involved such as fishers, fishermen agencies or associations to exchange information for reducing the transaction cost of IUU fishing.

Keywords: Fisheries Management, co-management, illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing, economic rent framework

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1279 Machine Learning Application in Shovel Maintenance

Authors: Amir Taghizadeh Vahed, Adithya Thaduri

Abstract:

Shovels are the main components in the mining transportation system. The productivity of the mines depends on the availability of shovels due to its high capital and operating costs. The unplanned failure/shutdowns of a shovel results in higher repair costs, increase in downtime, as well as increasing indirect cost (i.e. loss of production and company’s reputation). In order to mitigate these failures, predictive maintenance can be useful approach using failure prediction. The modern mining machinery or shovels collect huge datasets automatically; it consists of reliability and maintenance data. However, the gathered datasets are useless until the information and knowledge of data are extracted. Machine learning as well as data mining, which has a major role in recent studies, has been used for the knowledge discovery process. In this study, data mining and machine learning approaches are implemented to detect not only anomalies but also patterns from a dataset and further detection of failures.

Keywords: Machine Learning, Maintenance, shovel, conditional based monitoring

Procedia PDF Downloads 90