Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: Kotaro Miura

10 Stress Distribution in Axisymmetric Indentation of an Elastic Layer-Substrate Body

Authors: Kotaro Miura, Makoto Sakamoto, Yuji Tanabe

Abstract:

We focus on internal stress and displacement of an elastic axisymmetric contact problem for indentation of a layer-substrate body. An elastic layer is assumed to be perfectly bonded to an elastic semi-infinite substrate. The elastic layer is smoothly indented with a flat-ended cylindrical indenter. The analytical and exact solutions were obtained by solving an infinite system of simultaneous equations using the method to express a normal contact stress at the upper surface of the elastic layer as an appropriate series. This paper presented the numerical results of internal stress and displacement distributions for hard-coating system with constant values of Poisson’s ratio and the thickness of elastic layer.

Keywords: indentation, contact problem, stress distribution, coating materials, layer-substrate body

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9 Abnormality Detection of Persons Living Alone Using Daily Life Patterns Obtained from Sensors

Authors: Ippei Kamihira, Takashi Nakajima, Taiyo Matsumura, Hikaru Miura, Takashi Ono

Abstract:

In this research, the goal was construction of a system by which multiple sensors were used to observe the daily life behavior of persons living alone (while respecting their privacy). Using this information to judge such conditions as a bad physical condition or falling in the home, etc., so that these abnormal conditions can be made known to relatives and third parties. The daily life patterns of persons living alone are expressed by the number of responses of sensors each time that a set time period has elapsed. By comparing data for the prior two weeks, it was possible to judge a situation as 'normal' when the person was in a good physical condition or as 'abnormal' when the person was in a bad physical condition.

Keywords: sensors, elderly living alone, abnormality detection, iifestyle habit

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8 Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives on Climate-Induced Migration in Brazil: Legislation, Policies and Practice

Authors: Heloisa H. Miura, Luiza M. Pallone

Abstract:

In Brazil, people forced to move due to environmental causes, called 'environmental migrants', have always been neglected by public policies and legislation. Meanwhile, the numbers of climate-induced migration within and to Brazil continues to increase. The operating Immigration Law, implemented in 1980 under the Brazilian military regime, is widely considered to be out of date, once it does not offer legal protection to migrants who do not fit the definition of a refugee and are not allowed to stay regularly in the country. Aiming to reformulate Brazil’s legislation and policies on the matter, a new Migration Bill (PL 2516/2015) is currently being discussed in the Senate and is expected to define a more humanized approach to migration. Although the present draft foresees an expansion of the legal protection to different types of migrants, it still hesitates to include climate-induced displacements in its premises and to establish a migration management strategy. By introducing a human rights-based approach, this paper aims to provide a new multidisciplinary perspective to the protection of environmental migrants in Brazil.

Keywords: environmental migrants, human mobility, climate change, migration policy

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7 Melodic and Temporal Structure of Indonesian Sentences of Sitcom "International Class" Actors: Prosodic Study with Experimental Phonetics Approach

Authors: Tri Sulistyaningtyas, Yani Suryani, Dana Waskita, Linda Handayani Sukaemi, Ferry Fauzi Hermawan

Abstract:

The enthusiasm of foreigners studying the Indonesian language by Foreign Speakers (BIPA) was documented in a sitcom "International Class". Tone and stress when they speak the Indonesian language is unique and different from Indonesian pronunciation. By using the Praat program, this research aims to describe prosodic Indonesian language which is spoken by ‘International Class” actors consisting of Abbas from Nigeria, Lee from Korea, and Kotaro from Japan. Data for the research are taken from the video sitcom "International Class" that aired on Indonesian television. The results of this study revealed that pitch movement that arises when pronouncing Indonesian sentences was up and down gradually, there is also a rise and fall sharply. In terms of stress, respondents tend to contain a lot of stress when pronouncing Indonesian sentences. Meanwhile, in terms of temporal structure, the duration pronouncing Indonesian sentences tends to be longer than that of Indonesian speakers.

Keywords: melodic structure, temporal structure, prosody, experimental phonetics, international class

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6 An Intelligent Watch-Over System Using an IoT Device, for Elderly People Living by Themselves

Authors: Hideo Suzuki, Yuya Kiyonobu, Kotaro Matsushita, Masaki Hanada, Rie Suzuki, Noriko Niijima, Noriko Uosaki, Tadao Nakamura

Abstract:

People often worry about their elderly family members who are living by themselves or staying alone somewhere. An intelligent watch-over system for such elderly people, using a Raspberry Pi IoT device, has been newly developed to monitor those who live or stay separately from their families and alert them if a problem occurs. The system consists of motion sensors and temperature-humidity combined sensors that are located at seven points within an elderly person's home. The intelligent algorithms of the system detect signs and the possibility of unhealthy situations arising for the elderly relative; e.g., an unusually long bathing time, or a visit to a restroom, too high a room temperature, etc., by using data cached by the sensors above, at seven points within their house. The system gives more consideration to the elderly person's privacy, by using the sensors above, instead of using cameras and microphones placed around the house. The system invented and described here, can send a Twitter direct message to designated family members when an elderly relative is possibly in an unhealthy condition. Thus the system helps decrease family members' anxieties regarding their elderly relatives and increases their sense of security.

Keywords: elderly person, IoT device, Raspberry Pi, watch-over system

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5 Evidence of Total Mercury Biomagnification in Tropical Estuary Lagoon in East Coast of Peninsula, Malaysia

Authors: Quang Dung Le, Kentaro Tanaka, Viet Dung Luu, Kotaro Shirai

Abstract:

Mercury pollutant is great concerns in globe due to its toxicity and biomagnification through the food web. Recently increasing approaches of stable isotope analyses which have applied in food-web structure are enabled to elucidate more insight trophic transfer of pollutants in ecosystems. In this study, the integration of total mercury (Hg) and stable isotopic analyses (δ13C and δ15N) were measured from basal food sources to invertebrates and fishes in order to determine Hg transfer in Setiu lagoon food webs. The average Hg concentrations showed the increasing trend from low to high trophic levels. The result also indicated that potential Hg exposure from inside mangrove could be higher than that from the tidal flat of mangrove creek. Fish Hg concentrations are highly variable, and many factors driving this variability need further examinations. A positive correlation found between Hg concentrations and δ15N values (the trophic magnification factor was 3.02), suggesting Hg biomagnification through the lagoon food web. Almost all Hg concentrations in fishes and mud crabs did not present a risk for human consumption, however, the Hg concentrations of Caranx ignobilis exceed the permitted level could raise a concern of the potential risk for the marine system. Further investigations should be done to elucidate whether trophic relay relates to high Hg concentrations of some fish species in coastal systems.

Keywords: mercury, transfer, stable isotopes, health risk, mangrove, food web

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4 Effect of Nanostructure on Hydrogen Embrittlement Resistance of the Severely Deformed 316LN Austenitic Steel

Authors: Frank Jaksoni Mweta, Nozomu Adachi, Yoshikazu Todaka, Hirokazu Sato, Yuta Sato, Hiromi Miura, Masakazu Kobayashi, Chihiro Watanabe, Yoshiteru Aoyagi

Abstract:

Advances in the consumption of hydrogen fuel increase demands of high strength steel pipes and storage tanks. However, high strength steels are highly sensitive to hydrogen embrittlement. Because the introduction of hydrogen into steel during the fabrication process or from the environment is unavoidable, it is essential to improve hydrogen embrittlement resistance of high strength steels through microstructural control. In the present study, the heterogeneous nanostructure with a tensile strength of about 1.8 GPa and the homogeneous nanostructure with a tensile strength of about 2.0 GPa of 316LN steels were generated after 92% heavy cold rolling and high-pressure torsion straining, respectively. The heterogeneous nanostructure is composed of twin domains, shear bands, and lamellar grains. The homogeneous nanostructure is composed of uniformly distributed ultrafine nanograins. The influence of heterogeneous and homogenous nanostructures on the hydrogen embrittlement resistance was investigated. The specimen for each nanostructure was electrochemically charged with hydrogen for 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours, respectively. Under the same hydrogen charging time, both nanostructures show almost the same concentration of the diffusible hydrogen based on the thermal desorption analysis. The tensile properties of the homogenous nanostructure were severely affected by the diffusible hydrogen. However, the diffusible hydrogen shows less impact on the tensile properties of the heterogeneous nanostructure. The difference in embrittlement behavior between the heterogeneous and homogeneous nanostructures was elucidated based on the mechanism of the cracks' growth observed in the tensile fractography. The hydrogen embrittlement was suppressed in the heterogeneous nanostructure because the twin domain became an obstacle for crack growth. The homogeneous nanostructure was not consisting an obstacle such as a twin domain; thus, the crack growth resistance was low in this nanostructure.

Keywords: diffusible hydrogen, heterogeneous nanostructure, homogeneous nanostructure, hydrogen embrittlement

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3 Effects of Forest Bathing on Cardiovascular and Metabolic Parameters in Middle-Aged Males

Authors: Qing Li, Maiko Kobayashi, Shigeyoshi Kumeda, Hiroko Ochiai, Toshiya Ochiai, Takashi Miura, Takahide Kagawa, Michiko Imai, Toshiaki Otsuka, Tomoyuki Kawada

Abstract:

In the present study, we investigated the effects of a forest bathing program on cardiovascular and metabolic parameters. Nineteen healthy male subjects (mean age: 51.3 ± 8.8 years) were selected after obtaining informed consent. These subjects took day trips to a forest park named Akasawa Shizen Kyuyourin, Agematsu, Nagano Prefecture (situated in central Japan), and to an urban area of Nagano Prefecture as a control in August 2015. On both trips, they walked 2.6 km for 80 min each in the morning and afternoon on Saturdays. Blood and urine were sampled in the morning before and after each trip. Cardiovascular and metabolic parameters were measured. Blood pressure and pulse rate were measured by an ambulatory automatic blood pressure monitor. The Japanese version of the profile of mood states (POMS) test was conducted before, during and after the trips. Ambient temperature and humidity were monitoring during the trips. The forest bathing program significantly reduced pulse rate, and significantly increased the score for vigor and decreased the scores for depression, fatigue, and confusion in the POMS test. The levels of urinary noradrenaline and dopamine after forest bathing were significantly lower than those after urban area walking, suggesting the relaxing effect of the forest bathing program. The level of adiponectin in serum after the forest bathing program was significantly greater than that after urban area walking. There was no significant difference in blood pressure between forest and urban area trips during the trips.

Keywords: ambient temperature, blood pressure, forest bathing, forest therapy, human health, POMS, pulse rate

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2 Characterization of AlOOH Film Containing Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxide Prepared on Al Alloy by Steam Coating

Authors: Ai Serizawa, Kotaro Mori, Takahiro Ishizaki

Abstract:

Al alloys have been used as advanced structural materials in automobile and railway industries because of excellent physical and mechanical properties such as low density, good heat conductivity, and high specific strength. Their low corrosion resistance, however, limits their use in the corrosive environment. To improve the corrosion resistance of the Al alloys, the development of a novel coating technology has been highly desirable. Chemical conversion methods using layered double hydroxide (LDH) have attracted much attention because the LDH can suppress corrosion reaction due to their trapping ability of corrosive anions such as Cl- between layers. In this presentation, we report on a novel preparation method of AlOOH film containing Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) on Al alloy by steam coating. The corrosion resistance of the composite film including LDH was especially focused. Al-Mg-Si alloy was used as the substrate. The substrates were ultrasonically cleaned in ethanol for 10 min. The cleaned substrates were set in the autoclave with a 100 mL capacity. 20 ml of ultrapure water was located at the bottom of the autoclave to produce steam. The autoclave was heated up to a temperature of 100 to 200 °C, and then held at this temperature for up to 48 h, and was subsequently cooled naturally to room temperature, resulting in the formation of anticorrosive films on Al alloys. The resultant films were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, FE-SEM and electrochemical measurements. FE-SEM image of film surface treated at 180 °C for 48 h demonstrated that needle-like nanostructure was densely formed on the surface. XRD patterns revealed that the film formed on the Al alloys by steam coating was composed of crystal AlOOH and Mg-Al LDH. The corrosion resistance of the film was evaluated using electrochemical measurements. The potentiodynamic polarization curves of the film coated and uncoated substrates of Al-Mg-Si alloy after immersion in the 5 wt% NaCl aqueous solution for 30 min revealed that the corrosion current density, jcorr, of the film coated sample decreased by more than two orders of magnitude as compared to the uncoated sample, indicating that the corrosion resistance of the substrates of Al-Mg-Si alloy were improved by the formation of the anticorrosive film via steam coating.

Keywords: aluminum alloy, boehmite, corrosion resistance, steam process

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1 Deterioration Prediction of Pavement Load Bearing Capacity from FWD Data

Authors: Kotaro Sasai, Daijiro Mizutani, Kiyoyuki Kaito

Abstract:

Expressways in Japan have been built in an accelerating manner since the 1960s with the aid of rapid economic growth. About 40 percent in length of expressways in Japan is now 30 years and older and has become superannuated. Time-related deterioration has therefore reached to a degree that administrators, from a standpoint of operation and maintenance, are forced to take prompt measures on a large scale aiming at repairing inner damage deep in pavements. These measures have already been performed for bridge management in Japan and are also expected to be embodied for pavement management. Thus, planning methods for the measures are increasingly demanded. Deterioration of layers around road surface such as surface course and binder course is brought about at the early stages of whole pavement deterioration process, around 10 to 30 years after construction. These layers have been repaired primarily because inner damage usually becomes significant after outer damage, and because surveys for measuring inner damage such as Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) survey and open-cut survey are costly and time-consuming process, which has made it difficult for administrators to focus on inner damage as much as they have been supposed to. As expressways today have serious time-related deterioration within them deriving from the long time span since they started to be used, it is obvious the idea of repairing layers deep in pavements such as base course and subgrade must be taken into consideration when planning maintenance on a large scale. This sort of maintenance requires precisely predicting degrees of deterioration as well as grasping the present situations of pavements. Methods for predicting deterioration are determined to be either mechanical or statistical. While few mechanical models have been presented, as far as the authors know of, previous studies have presented statistical methods for predicting deterioration in pavements. One describes deterioration process by estimating Markov deterioration hazard model, while another study illustrates it by estimating Proportional deterioration hazard model. Both of the studies analyze deflection data obtained from FWD surveys and present statistical methods for predicting deterioration process of layers around road surface. However, layers of base course and subgrade remain unanalyzed. In this study, data collected from FWD surveys are analyzed to predict deterioration process of layers deep in pavements in addition to surface layers by a means of estimating a deterioration hazard model using continuous indexes. This model can prevent the loss of information of data when setting rating categories in Markov deterioration hazard model when evaluating degrees of deterioration in roadbeds and subgrades. As a result of portraying continuous indexes, the model can predict deterioration in each layer of pavements and evaluate it quantitatively. Additionally, as the model can also depict probability distribution of the indexes at an arbitrary point and establish a risk control level arbitrarily, it is expected that this study will provide knowledge like life cycle cost and informative content during decision making process referring to where to do maintenance on as well as when.

Keywords: deterioration hazard model, falling weight deflectometer, inner damage, load bearing capacity, pavement

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