Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5484

Search results for: construction planning

5484 Construction Project Planning Using Fuzzy Critical Path Approach

Authors: Omar M. Aldenali

Abstract:

Planning is one of the most important phases of the management science and network planning, which represents the project activities relationship. Critical path is one of the project management techniques used to plan and control the execution of a project activities. The objective of this paper is to implement a fuzzy logic approach to arrange network planning on construction projects. This method is used to finding out critical path in the fuzzy construction project network. The trapezoidal fuzzy numbers are used to represent the activity construction project times. A numerical example that represents a house construction project is introduced. The critical path method is implemented on the fuzzy construction network activities, and the results showed that this method significantly affects the completion time of the construction projects.

Keywords: construction project, critical path, fuzzy network project, planning

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
5483 BIM Model and Virtual Prototyping in Construction Management

Authors: Samar Alkindy

Abstract:

Purpose: The BIM model has been used to support the planning of different construction projects in the industry by showing the different stages of the construction process. The model has been instrumental in identifying some of the common errors in the construction process through the spatial arrangement. The continuous use of the BIM model in the construction industry has resulted in various radical changes such as virtual prototyping. Construction virtual prototyping is a highly advanced technology that incorporates a BIM model with realistic graphical simulations, and facilitates the simulation of the project before a product is built in the factory. The paper presents virtual prototyping in the construction industry by examining its application, challenges and benefits to a construction project. Methodology approach: A case study was conducted for this study in four major construction projects, which incorporate virtual construction prototyping in several stages of the construction project. Furthermore, there was the administration of interviews with the project manager and engineer and the planning manager. Findings: Data collected from the methodological approach shows a positive response for virtual construction prototyping in construction, especially concerning communication and visualization. Furthermore, the use of virtual prototyping has increased collaboration and efficiency between construction experts handling a project. During the planning stage, virtual prototyping has increased accuracy, reduced planning time, and reduced the amount of rework during the implementation stage. Irrespective of virtual prototyping being a new concept in the construction industry, the findings outline that the approach will benefit the management of construction projects.

Keywords: construction operations, construction planning, process simulation, virtual prototyping

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5482 Time Overrun in Pre-Construction Planning Phase of Construction Projects

Authors: Hafiz Usama Imad, Muhammad Akram Akhund, Tauha Hussain Ali, Ali Raza Khoso, Fida Hussain Siddiqui

Abstract:

Construction industry plays a significant role in fulfilling the major requirements of the human being. It is one of the major constituents of every developed country. Although the construction industry of both the developing and developed countries encompasses a major part of the economy, and millions of rupees are utilized every year on various kinds of construction projects. But, this industry is facing numerous hurdles in terms of its budget and timely completion. Construction projects generally consist of several phases like planning, designing, execution, and finishing. This research study aims to determine the significant factors of time overrun in pre-construction planning (PCP) phase of construction projects in Pakistan. Questionnaires were distributed by various means and responses of respondents were compiled and collected data were then analyzed through a statistical technique using SPSS version 24. Major causes of time overrun in pre-construction planning phase; which is an extremely important phase of construction projects, were revealed. The research conclusion will provide a pathway for stakeholders to pay attention to the mentioned causes to overcome the major issue of time overrun.

Keywords: construction industry, Pakistan, pre-construction planning phase, time overrun

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5481 The Sustainability of Human Resource Planning for Construction Projects

Authors: Adegbenga Ashiru, Adebimpe L. Ashiru

Abstract:

The construction industry is considered to work by diversifying personnel. Hence managing human resource is an issue considered to be a highly challenging task. Nonetheless, HR planning for the construction project is a very critical aspect of managing human resource within an expanding nature of construction industry, and there are rising concerns over the failure of construction planning to achieve its goals in spite of the substantial resources allocated to it and as a result of different planning strategies. To justify the above statement, this research was carried out to examine the sustainability of HR planning for construction project. Based on the researcher’s experience, a quantitative approach was adopted that provided a broader understanding of the research and was analysed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to obtain the descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. However, research findings showed that literature sources agreed with varying challenges of HR planning on construction projects which were justified by empirical findings. Also, the paper identified four major factors and the key consideration for Project HR Planning (Organisation’s structure with right individuals at right positions and evaluation current resources) will lead to the efficient utilisation implementation of new HR Planning technique and tools for a construction project. Essentially the main reoccurring theme identified was that management of the construction organisations needs to look into the essential factors needed to be considered at the strategic level. Furthermore, leaders leading a construction project team should consider those essential factors needed at the operational level to clarify the numerous functions of HRM in the construction organisations and avoid inconsistencies among several practices on construction projects. The Sustainability of HR planning for construction project policy was indicated and recommendations were made for further future research.

Keywords: construction industry, HRM planning in construction, SHRM in construction, HR planning in construction

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
5480 Overview of Time, Resource and Cost Planning Techniques in Construction Management Research

Authors: R. Gupta, P. Jain, S. Das

Abstract:

One way to approach construction scheduling optimization problem is to focus on the individual aspects of planning, which can be broadly classified as time scheduling, crew and resource management, and cost control. During the last four decades, construction planning has seen a lot of research, but to date, no paper had attempted to summarize the literature available under important heads. This paper addresses each of aspects separately, and presents the findings of an in-depth literature of the various planning techniques. For techniques dealing with time scheduling, the authors have adopted a rough chronological documentation. For crew and resource management, classification has been done on the basis of the different steps involved in the resource planning process. For cost control, techniques dealing with both estimation of costs and the subsequent optimization of costs have been dealt with separately.

Keywords: construction planning techniques, time scheduling, resource planning, cost control

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
5479 Planning of Construction Material Flow Using Hybrid Simulation Modeling

Authors: A. M. Naraghi, V. Gonzalez, M. O'Sullivan, C. G. Walker, M. Poshdar, F. Ying, M. Abdelmegid

Abstract:

Discrete Event Simulation (DES) and Agent Based Simulation (ABS) are two simulation approaches that have been proposed to support decision-making in the construction industry. Despite the wide use of these simulation approaches in the construction field, their applications for production and material planning is still limited. This is largely due to the dynamic and complex nature of construction material supply chain systems. Moreover, managing the flow of construction material is not well integrated with site logistics in traditional construction planning methods. This paper presents a hybrid of DES and ABS to simulate on-site and off-site material supply processes. DES is applied to determine the best production scenarios with information of on-site production systems, while ABS is used to optimize the supply chain network. A case study of a construction piling project in New Zealand is presented illustrating the potential benefits of using the proposed hybrid simulation model in construction material flow planning. The hybrid model presented can be used to evaluate the impact of different decisions on construction supply chain management.

Keywords: construction supply-chain management, simulation modeling, decision-support tools, hybrid simulation

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5478 Planning Method Study on the Ecological Restrained Construction Area from the Perspective of Governance: A Case from Yangzijin, Yangzhou, China

Authors: Rushi Tan, Yilun Xu, Xiaohui Wang

Abstract:

The restrained construction zoning, an important part in the urban master plan, is a necessary planning tool to control the city sprawl, to guarantee the reservation implementation of the various types of protective elements, and to realize the storage of the essential urban spatial resources. Simultaneously, owing to the diverse constitutes of restrained construction area and the various stakeholders involved in, its planning requires an overall consideration of all elements from the perspective of coordination, balance and practicability to deal with the problems and conflicts in this process. Taking Yangzijin Ecological Restrained Construction Area in Yangzhou as an example, this study analyzes all the potential actors, agencies and stakeholders in this restrained construction area, as well as the relevant conflicts between each other. Besides, this study tries to build up a planning procedure based on the framework of governance theory, and proposes a possible planning method that combines "rigidity" and "flexibility" to protect the ecological limitation boundary, to take every interest into account, and to promote economic development in a harmonious society.

Keywords: restrained construction area, governance, stakeholder, flexible stratagem, China

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5477 The Impact of Using Building Information Modeling Technology in Construction Projects Management

Authors: Mohammad Ashraf

Abstract:

This research links the use of Building Information Modeling technology in constructions and infrastructure projects, starting from the moment when considering the establishment of a project to demolishing or renovating it, going through the design work, planning, procurement and implementation. BIM Software's which used are Revit, Navisworks and Asta Project in the case study for the Atletico Madrid Stadium project (Wanda Stadium). Also, the project improves through various phases of construction (planning - implementation - management). Besides, the level of the details managed within this project advances gradually. In addition, the construction process problems become about 30 % less than before, resulting from high coordination between designing, implementation and follow through that is done by the project management office (PMO). The current disposition in the industry is to tightly manage the detail contained within the planning and coordination phases of construction, but we miss the opportunity to manage that data as it matures and grows into the execution and commissioning phases.

Keywords: construction management, BIM technology, planning, design, procurements, critical path method

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
5476 Investigation of the Factors Influencing the Construction Planning Process Using Participant Observation Method

Authors: Ashokkumar Subbiah

Abstract:

This study investigates the impact of factors that influenced the success of construction planning for a major construction project in Qatar. An approach of participant observation is adopted which is informed by the principles of ethnography: one that reports the participants’ view of their world rather than imposing an artificial theoretical framework upon it. As participant observant, key factors were observed and identified that had an impact on the management and execution of the construction planning. It is found that a ‘shadow culture’ exists between the project participants which, it is argued, is only observable from the perspective of an embedded participant observer. The shadow culture acts to enable the management of the planning process, and its efficacy relates to the ‘quality’ of human inter-relationships amongst immediate stakeholders. Whilst this study uses the concept of shadow culture, it is treated as both a methodological stance and one of the findings of this research in the context of the major construction project in Qatar. The concept of shadow culture is not imposed upon the findings, but instead is used as a research tool: respondents report their own worldview and this is reported from the view of a participant observant in a manner that is understandable and useful to those who are not part of the construction project. The findings of this study identify similar factors influencing the planning process of the Qatar project, but the shadow culture predominantly influences these factors towards the failure of planning process. The research concludes by questioning the assumption that construction planning is a mechanistic process that has to be conducted solely by the planning team. Instead, it is a highly social phenomenon in which the seemingly mechanistic process is made workable by the quality of relationships that exist in the project. Drawing on this the final section provides a series of recommendations that may be helpful in enhancing the efficacy of project planning; these include better training/education at the pre-construction phase; recognition of the importance of shadow processes at management levels, and better appreciation of the impact of contract type and chosen procurement route.

Keywords: construction planning, participant observation, project participants, shadow culture

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5475 Interactive Planning of Suburban Apartment Buildings

Authors: J. Koiso-Kanttila, A. Soikkeli, A. Aapaoja

Abstract:

Construction in Finland is focusing increasingly on renovation instead of conventional new construction, and this trend will continue to grow in the coming years and decades. Renovation of the large number of suburban residential apartment buildings built in the 1960s and 1970s poses a particular challenge. However, renovation projects are demanding for the residents of these buildings, since they usually are uninitiated in construction issues. On the other hand, renovation projects generally apply the operating models of new construction. Nevertheless, the residents of an existing residential apartment building are some of the best experts on the site. Thus, in this research project we applied a relational model in developing and testing at case sites a planning process that employs interactive planning methods. Current residents, housing company managers, the city zoning manager, the contractor’s and prefab element supplier’s representatives, professional designers and researchers all took part in the planning. The entire interactive planning process progressed phase by phase as the participants’ and designers’ concerted discussion and ideation process, so that the end result was a renovation plan desired by the residents.

Keywords: apartment building renovation, interactive planning, project alliance, user-orientedness

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
5474 Simulation IDM for Schedule Generation of Slip-Form Operations

Authors: Hesham A. Khalek, Shafik S. Khoury, Remon F. Aziz, Mohamed A. Hakam

Abstract:

Slipforming operation’s linearity is a source of planning complications, and operation is usually subjected to bottlenecks at any point, so careful planning is required in order to achieve success. On the other hand, Discrete-event simulation concepts can be applied to simulate and analyze construction operations and to efficiently support construction scheduling. Nevertheless, preparation of input data for construction simulation is very challenging, time-consuming and human prone-error source. Therefore, to enhance the benefits of using DES in construction scheduling, this study proposes an integrated module to establish a framework for automating the generation of time schedules and decision support for Slipform construction projects, particularly through the project feasibility study phase by using data exchange between project data stored in an Intermediate database, DES and Scheduling software. Using the stored information, proposed system creates construction tasks attribute [e.g. activities durations, material quantities and resources amount], then DES uses all the given information to create a proposal for the construction schedule automatically. This research is considered a demonstration of a flexible Slipform project modeling, rapid scenario-based planning and schedule generation approach that may be of interest to both practitioners and researchers.

Keywords: discrete-event simulation, modeling, construction planning, data exchange, scheduling generation, EZstrobe

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5473 A Refinement Strategy Coupling Event-B and Planning Domain Definition Language (PDDL) for Planning Problems

Authors: Sabrine Ammar, Mohamed Tahar Bhiri

Abstract:

Automatic planning has a de facto standard language called Planning Domain Definition Language (PDDL) for describing planning problems. It aims to formalize the planning problems described by the concept of state space. PDDL-related dynamic analysis tools, namely planners and validators, are insufficient for verifying and validating PDDL descriptions. Indeed, these tools made it possible to detect errors a posteriori by means of test activity. In this paper, we recommend a formal approach coupling the two languages Event-B and PDDL, for automatic planning. Event-B is used for formal modeling by stepwise refinement with mathematical proofs of planning problems. Thus, this paper proposes a refinement strategy allowing to obtain reliable PDDL descriptions from an ultimate Event-B model correct by construction. The ultimate Event-B model, correct by construction which is supposed to be translatable into PDDL, is automatically translated into PDDL using our MDE Event-B2PDDL tool.

Keywords: code generation, event-b, PDDL, refinement strategy, translation rules

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5472 Challenges and Opportunities for Implementing Integrated Project Delivery Method in Public Sector Construction

Authors: Ahsan Ahmed, Ming Lu, Syed Zaidi, Farhan Khan

Abstract:

The Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) method has been proposed as the solution to tackle complexity and fragmentation in the real world while addressing the construction industry’s growing needs for productivity and sustainability. Although the private sector has taken the initiative in implementing IPD and taken advantage of new technology such as building information modeling (BIM) in delivering projects, IPD remains less known and rarely used in public sector construction. The focus of this paper is set on the use of IPD in projects in public sector, which is potentially complemented by the use of analytical functionalities for workface planning and construction oriented design enabled by recent research advances in BIM. Experiences and lessons learned from implementing IPD in the private sector and in BIM-based construction automation research would play a vital role in reducing barriers and eliminating issues in connection with project delivery in the public sector. The paper elaborates issues challenges, contractual relationships and the interactions throughout the planning, design and construction phases in the context of implementing IPD on construction projects in the public sector. A slab construction case is used as a ‘sandbox’ model to elaborate (1) the ideal way of communication, integration, and collaboration among all the parties involved in project delivery in planning and (2) the execution of projects by using IDP principles and optimization, simulation analyses.

Keywords: integrated project delivery, IPD, building information modeling, BIM

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5471 Understanding Complexity at Pre-Construction Stage in Project Planning of Construction Projects

Authors: Mehran Barani Shikhrobat, Roger Flanagan

Abstract:

The construction planning and scheduling based on using the current tools and techniques is resulted deterministic in nature (Gantt chart, CPM) or applying a very little probability of completion (PERT) for each task. However, every project embodies assumptions and influences and should start with a complete set of clearly defined goals and constraints that remain constant throughout the duration of the project. Construction planners continue to apply the traditional methods and tools of “hard” project management that were developed for “ideal projects,” neglecting the potential influence of complexity on the design and construction process. The aim of this research is to investigate the emergence and growth of complexity in project planning and to provide a model to consider the influence of complexity on the total project duration at the post-contract award pre-construction stage of a project. The literature review showed that complexity originates from different sources of environment, technical, and workflow interactions. They can be divided into two categories of complexity factors, first, project tasks, and second, project organisation management. Project tasks may originate from performance, lack of resources, or environmental changes for a specific task. Complexity factors that relate to organisation and management refer to workflow and interdependence of different parts. The literature review highlighted the ineffectiveness of traditional tools and techniques in planning for complexity. However, this research focus on understanding the fundamental causes of the complexity of construction projects were investigated through a questionnaire with industry experts. The results were used to develop a model that considers the core complexity factors and their interactions. System dynamics were used to investigate the model to consider the influence of complexity on project planning. Feedback from experts revealed 20 major complexity factors that impact project planning. The factors are divided into five categories known as core complexity factors. To understand the weight of each factor in comparison, the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) analysis method is used. The comparison showed that externalities are ranked as the biggest influence across the complexity factors. The research underlines that there are many internal and external factors that impact project activities and the project overall. This research shows the importance of considering the influence of complexity on the project master plan undertaken at the post-contract award pre-construction phase of a project.

Keywords: project planning, project complexity measurement, planning uncertainty management, project risk management, strategic project scheduling

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5470 From Ritual City to Modern City: The City Space Transformation of Xi’an in the Early 20th Century

Authors: Zhang Bian, Zhao Jijun

Abstract:

The urban layout of Xi’an city (the capital Chang’an in the Tang dynasty) was shaped by feudal etiquette, but this dominant factor was replaced by modern city planning during the period of the Republic of China. This makes Xi’an a representative case to explore the transformation process of Chinese cities in the early 20th century. By analyzing the contrast and connection between the historical texts of city planning and the realistic construction activities recorded by the maps and images, this paper reviews the transformation process of the urban space of Xi’an in the early 20th century and divides it into four phases according to important events that significantly impacted planning and construction activities. Based on this, the entire transformation of Xi’an’s city planning and practices can be characterized by three aspects: 1) the dominant force of the city plan and construction changed with the establishment of modern city administrations; 2) the layout of the city was continuously broadened to meet the demand of modern economy and city life; and, 3) the ritual space was transformed into practical space for commercial and recreational activities.

Keywords: city space, the early 20th century, transformation, Xi’an city

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5469 Planning for Sustainability in the Built Environment

Authors: Adedayo Jeremiah Adeyekun, Samuel Oluwagbemiga Ishola

Abstract:

This paper aimed to identify the significance of sustainability in the built environment, the economic and environmental importance to building and construction projects. Sustainability in the built environment has been a key objective of research over the past several decades. Sustainability in the built environment requires reconciliation between economic, environmental and social impacts of design and planning decisions made during the life cycle of a project from inception to termination. Planning for sustainability in the built environment needs us to go beyond our individual disciplines to consider the variety of economic, social and environmental impacts of our decisions in the long term. A decision to build a green residential development in an isolated location may pass some of the test of sustainability through its reduction in stormwater runoff, energy efficiency, and ecological sustainability in the building, but it may fail to be sustainable from a transportation perspective. Sustainability is important to the planning, design, construction, and preservation of the built environment; because it helps these activities reflect multiple values and considerations. In fact, the arts and sciences of the built environment have traditionally integrated values and fostered creative expression, capabilities that can and should lead the sustainability movement as society seeks ways to live in dynamic balance with its own diverse needs and the natural world. This research aimed to capture the state-of-the-art in the development of innovative sustainable design and planning strategies for building and construction projects. Therefore, there is a need for a holistic selection and implication approach for identifying potential sustainable strategies applicable to a particular project and evaluating the overall life cycle impact of each alternative by accounting for different applicable impacts and making the final selection among various viable alternatives.

Keywords: sustainability, built environment, planning, design, construction

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
5468 Increasing of Resiliency by Using Gas Storage in Iranian Gas Network

Authors: Mohsen Dourandish

Abstract:

Iran has a huge pipeline network in every state of country which is the longest and vastest pipeline network after Russia and USA (360,000 Km high pressure pipelines and 250,000 Km distribution networks). Furthermore in recent years National Iranian Gas Company is planning to develop natural gas network to cover all cities and villages above 20 families, in a way that 97 percent of Iran population will be gas consumer by 2020. In this condition, network resiliency will be the first priority of NIGC and due to that several planning for increasing resiliency of gas network is under construction. The most important strategy of NIGC is converting tree form pattern network to loop gas networks and developing underground gas storage near main gas consuming centers. In this regard NIGC is planning for construction of over 3500 km high-pressure pipeline and also 10 TCM gas storage capacities in UGSs.

Keywords: Iranian gas network, peak shaving, resiliency, underground gas storage

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5467 The Micro-Activated Organic Regeneration in Rural Construction: A Case Study of Yangdun Village in Deqing County, Zhejiang Province

Authors: Chengyuan Zhu, Zhu Wang

Abstract:

With the strategy of Rural Rejuvenation proposed in China, the rural has become the focus of all works today. In addition to the support of industry and policy, the rural planning and construction which is the space dependence of Rural Rejuvenation are also very crucial. Based on an analysis of the case of Yangdun Village in Deqing County, this paper summarizes village existing resources and construction status quo. It tries to illuminate the micro-activated organic renewal strategies and methods, based on ecological landscape, history context, industry development and living life requirements. It takes advantage of industrial linkage and then asks for the coordination of both spatial and industrial planning, the revival and remodeling of the rural image can be achieved through shaping the of architectural and landscape nodes as well as the activation of street space.

Keywords: rural construction, rural human settlements, micro-activation, organic renewal

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5466 Scope of Implmenting Building Information Modeling in (Aec) Industry Firms in India

Authors: Padmini Raman

Abstract:

The architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry is facing enormous technological and institutional changes and challenges including the information technology and appropriate application of sustainable practices. The engineer and architect must be able to handle with a rapid pace of technological change. BIM is a unique process of producing and managing a building by exploring a digital module before the actual project is constructed and later during its construction, facility operation and maintenance. BIM has been Adopted by construction contractors and architects in the western country mostly in US and UK to improve the planning and management of construction projects. In India, BIM is a basic stage of adoption only, several issues about data acquisition and management comes during the design formation and planning of a construction project due to the complexity, ambiguity, and fragmented nature of the Indian construction industry. This paper tells about the view a strategy for India’s AEC firms to successfully implement BIM in their current working processes. By surveying and collecting data about problems faced by these architectural firms, it will be analysed how to avoid those situations from rising and, thus, introducing BIM Capabilities in such firms in the most effective way. while this application is widely accepted throughout the industry in many countries for managing project information for cost control and facilities management.

Keywords: AEC industry, building information module, Indian industry, new technology, BIM implementation in India

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5465 Conversion of HVAC Lines into HVDC in Transmission Expansion Planning

Authors: Juan P. Novoa, Mario A. Rios

Abstract:

This paper presents a transmission planning methodology that considers the conversion of HVAC transmission lines to HVDC as an alternative of expansion of power systems, as a consequence of restrictions for the construction of new lines. The transmission expansion planning problem formulates an optimization problem that minimizes the total cost that includes the investment cost to convert lines from HVAC to HVDC and possible required reinforcements of the power system prior to the conversion. The costs analysis assesses the impact of the conversion on the reliability because transmission lines are out of service during the conversion work. The presented methodology is applied to a test system considering a planning a horizon of 10 years.

Keywords: transmission expansion planning, HVDC, cost optimization, energy non-supplied

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5464 Machine Learning Approach to Project Control Threshold Reliability Evaluation

Authors: Y. Kim, H. Lee, M. Park, B. Lee

Abstract:

Planning is understood as the determination of what has to be performed, how, in which sequence, when, what resources are needed, and their cost within the organization before execution. In most construction project, it is evident that the inherent nature of planning is dynamic, and initial planning is subject to be changed due to various uncertain conditions of construction project. Planners take a continuous revision process during the course of a project and until the very end of project. However, current practice lacks reliable, systematic tool for setting variance thresholds to determine when and what corrective actions to be taken. Rather it is heavily dependent on the level of experience and knowledge of the planner. Thus, this paper introduces a machine learning approach to evaluate project control threshold reliability incorporating project-specific data and presents a method to automate the process. The results have shown that the model improves the efficiency and accuracy of the monitoring process as an early warning.

Keywords: machine learning, project control, project progress monitoring, schedule

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5463 Analysis of Delay Causes in Construction Projects in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ibrahim Mahamid, A. Al-Ghonamy, M. Aichouni

Abstract:

This study aims at identifying the risk matrix for delay causes in construction projects in Saudi Arabia from consultants’ viewpoint. A questionnaire survey was undertaken of 51 consultants working on construction projects in the Northern Province of Saudi Arabia. 35 delay causes were identified through a literature review. The study concluded that the top delay causes in construction projects in Saudi Arabia from consultants’ perspective are: bid award for lowest price, changes in material types and specifications during construction, contract management, duration of contract period, fluctuation of prices of materials, frequent changes in design, improper planning, inflationary pressure, lack of adequate manpower, long period of design and time of implementation, payments delay, poor labor productivity, and rework.

Keywords: delays, construction, consultants, contributors, risk map

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5462 Most Important Educational Planning Issues in the Developing Countries

Authors: Naeem Khan

Abstract:

In 1971 Williams in his essay titled "What Educational Planning is About in Higher Education" defined educational planning as "planning in education, as in anything else consist essentially of deciding, in advance, what you want, to do and how you are going to do in". In the “World Year book of Education”. While Anderson and Bowman in 1976 in their joint article titled "Theoretical Considerations in Educational Planning" defined it as "the process of preparing a set of decisions for future action pertaining in education". There are so many other definitions which are related to educational planning in which every one stress on the importance of educational planning. But developing countries face a lot of problems related to the educational planning and this paper is to discuss few of them.

Keywords: educational planning, problems, developing countries, education system,

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5461 Renovation Planning Model for a Shopping Mall

Authors: Hsin-Yun Lee

Abstract:

In this study, the pedestrian simulation VISWALK integration and application platform ant algorithms written program made to construct a renovation engineering schedule planning mode. The use of simulation analysis platform construction site when the user running the simulation, after calculating the user walks in the case of construction delays, the ant algorithm to find out the minimum delay time schedule plan, and add volume and unit area deactivated loss of business computing, and finally to the owners and users of two different positions cut considerations pick out the best schedule planning. To assess and validate its effectiveness, this study constructed the model imported floor of a shopping mall floor renovation engineering cases. Verify that the case can be found from the mode of the proposed project schedule planning program can effectively reduce the delay time and the user's walking mall loss of business, the impact of the operation on the renovation engineering facilities in the building to a minimum.

Keywords: pedestrian, renovation, schedule, simulation

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5460 Water's Role in Creating a Sense of Belonging

Authors: Narges Nejati

Abstract:

Nowadays as science hasten toward technology, only quantity of construction noticed and there is a little attention toward quality of construction and there is no usage for element which was prevalent in traditional architecture. This is the cause of this issue that nowadays we see building that most of them just keep you from heat and cold of outside environment and there is no trace of any culture of their country or nation in it. And although we know that man is a creature that adores beauty by his nature, but this spiritual need of him is ignored. And designers by taking an enormous price instead of planning (spiritual designing) to release peace, they attend to planning which make a human soul bothered and ill. The present research is trying to illustrate price of concepts and principles of water usage as one of the elements of nature and also shows the water application in some of the Iranian constructions and the results show the motif of using water in constructions and also some benefits of using it in constructions. And also this matter can causes a reconnection between nature and constructing of a beautiful environment which is consonant and proportional with man’ physical, spiritual and cultural needs. And causes peace and comfort of men. A construction which man feels a friendly atmosphere in them which he has a sense of belonging to them not a construction which arouses feeling of weariness and fatigue.

Keywords: water usage, belonging, sustainable architecture, urban design

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5459 Uncertain Time-Cost Trade off Problems of Construction Projects Using Fuzzy Set Theory

Authors: V. S. S. Kumar, B. Vikram

Abstract:

The development of effective decision support tools that adopted in the construction industry is vital in the world we live in today, since it can lead to substantial cost reduction and efficient resource consumption. Solving the time-cost trade off problems and its related variants is at the heart of scientific research for optimizing construction planning problems. In general, the classical optimization techniques have difficulties in dealing with TCT problems. One of the main reasons of their failure is that they can easily be entrapped in local minima. This paper presents an investigation on the application of meta-heuristic techniques to two particular variants of the time-cost trade of analysis, the time-cost trade off problem (TCT), and time-cost trade off optimization problem (TCO). In first problem, the total project cost should be minimized, and in the second problem, the total project cost and total project duration should be minimized simultaneously. Finally it is expected that, the optimization models developed in this paper will contribute significantly for efficient planning and management of construction project.

Keywords: fuzzy sets, uncertainty, optimization, time cost trade off problems

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5458 Sustainable Smart Contraction: China Eco-district Evolution Research and Future Exploration

Authors: Xincheng He, Weijun Gao, Gangwei Cai

Abstract:

In the process of rapid urbanization, large-scale industrial production, and unreasonable planning and construction have caused various ecological and environmental problems, while hindered the sustainable development of cities. The ecological district not only realizes the coordinated development of society, economy, and environment but also conforms to the trend of smart contraction of the development of cities in China from the periphery to the center. This paper reviews the development of China's ecological district, including the full life cycle process of policy, planning, implementation, and operation. Based on sorting out the concept, connotation, and development status of China’s ecological district, the relationship between the construction of the ecological district and the sustainable city is discussed. Summarizing the development trend of the ecological district, the ecological district should combine the construction of smart cities, actively respond to the digital information era, and improve the construction of the ecological district system. It proposes that the future direction of city's sustainable development needs to change from a thematic focus on ecology to the common urbanization of humanity, society, and nature. Focusing on people-oriented, ecological, and digital future communities will become an important construction method for the city's sustainable smart contraction.

Keywords: eco-district, smart contraction, sustainable development, future community

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5457 Expert System for Road Bridge Constructions

Authors: Michael Dimmer, Holger Flederer

Abstract:

The basis of realizing a construction project is a technically flawless concept which satisfies conditions regarding environment and costs, as well as static-constructional terms. The presented software system actively supports civil engineers during the setup of optimal designs, by giving advice regarding durability, life-cycle costs, sustainability and much more. A major part of the surrounding conditions of a design process is gathered and assimilated by experienced engineers subconsciously. It is a question about eligible building techniques and their practicability by considering emerging costs. Planning engineers have acquired many of this experience during their professional life and use them for their daily work. Occasionally, the planning engineer should disassociate himself from his experience to be open for new and better solutions which meet the functional demands, as well. The developed expert system gives planning engineers recommendations for preferred design options of new constructions as well as for existing bridge constructions. It is possible to analyze construction elements and techniques regarding sustainability and life-cycle costs. This way the software provides recommendations for future constructions. Furthermore, there is an option to design existing road bridges especially for heavy duty transport. This implies a route planning tool to get quick and reliable information as to whether the bridge support structures of a transport route have been measured sufficiently for a certain heavy duty transport. The use of this expert system in bridge planning companies and building authorities will save costs massively for new and existent bridge constructions. This is achieved by consequently considering parameters like life-cycle costs and sustainability for its planning recommendations.

Keywords: expert system, planning process, road bridges, software system

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
5456 Dynamic Construction Site Layout Using Ant Colony Optimization

Authors: Yassir AbdelRazig

Abstract:

Evolutionary optimization methods such as genetic algorithms have been used extensively for the construction site layout problem. More recently, ant colony optimization algorithms, which are evolutionary methods based on the foraging behavior of ants, have been successfully applied to benchmark combinatorial optimization problems. This paper proposes a formulation of the site layout problem in terms of a sequencing problem that is suitable for solution using an ant colony optimization algorithm. In the construction industry, site layout is a very important planning problem. The objective of site layout is to position temporary facilities both geographically and at the correct time such that the construction work can be performed satisfactorily with minimal costs and improved safety and working environment. During the last decade, evolutionary methods such as genetic algorithms have been used extensively for the construction site layout problem. This paper proposes an ant colony optimization model for construction site layout. A simple case study for a highway project is utilized to illustrate the application of the model.

Keywords: ant colony, construction site layout, optimization, genetic algorithms

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
5455 Strategic Planning in South African Higher Education

Authors: Noxolo Mafu

Abstract:

This study presents an overview of strategic planning in South African higher education institutions by tracing its trends and mystique in order to identify its impact. Over the democratic decades, strategic planning has become integral to institutional survival. It has been used as a potent tool by several institutions to catch up and surpass counterparts. While planning has always been part of higher education, strategic planning should be considered different. Strategic planning is primarily about development and maintenance of a strategic fitting between an institution and its dynamic opportunities. This presupposes existence of sets of stages that institutions pursue of which, can be regarded for assessment of the impact of strategic planning in an institution. The network theory serves guides the study in demystifying apparent organisational networks in strategic planning processes.

Keywords: network theory, strategy, planning, strategic planning, assessment, impact

Procedia PDF Downloads 333