Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12486

Search results for: energy addition

12486 The Influence of Physical-Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Hemp Filling Materials by the Addition of Energy Byproducts

Authors: Sarka Keprdova, Jiri Bydzovsky


This article describes to what extent the addition of energy by-products into the structures of the technical hemp filling materials influence their properties. The article focuses on the changes in physical-mechanical and thermal technical properties of materials after the addition of ash or FBC ash or slag in the binding component of material. Technical hemp filling materials are made of technical hemp shives bonded by the mixture of cement and dry hydrate lime. They are applicable as fillers of vertical or horizontal structures or roofs. The research used eight types of energy by-products of power or heating plants in the Czech Republic. Secondary energy products were dispensed in three different percentage ratios as a replacement of cement in the binding component. Density, compressive strength and determination of the coefficient of thermal conductivity after 28, 60 and 90 days of curing in a laboratory environment were determined and subsequently evaluated on the specimens produced.

Keywords: ash, binder, cement, energy by-product, FBC ash (fluidized bed combustion ash), filling materials, shives, slag, technical hemp

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12485 A Review on Modeling and Optimization of Integration of Renewable Energy Resources (RER) for Minimum Energy Cost, Minimum CO₂ Emissions and Sustainable Development, in Recent Years

Authors: M. M. Wagh, V. V. Kulkarni


The rising economic activities, growing population and improving living standards of world have led to a steady growth in its appetite for quality and quantity of energy services. As the economy expands the electricity demand is going to grow further, increasing the challenges of the more generation and stresses on the utility grids. Appropriate energy model will help in proper utilization of the locally available renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, biomass, small hydro etc. to integrate in the available grid, reducing the investments in energy infrastructure. Further to these new technologies like smart grids, decentralized energy planning, energy management practices, energy efficiency are emerging. In this paper, the attempt has been made to study and review the recent energy planning models, energy forecasting models, and renewable energy integration models. In addition, various modeling techniques and tools are reviewed and discussed.

Keywords: energy modeling, integration of renewable energy, energy modeling tools, energy modeling techniques

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12484 Promotion of Renewable Marines Energies in Morocco: Perspectives and Strategies

Authors: Nachtane Mourad, Tarfaoui Mostapha, Saifaoui Dennoun, El Moumen Ahmed


The current energy policy recommends the subject of energy efficiency and to phase out fossil energy as a master question for the prospective years. The kingdom requires restructuring its power equipment by improving the percentage of renewable energy supply and optimizing power systems and storage. Developing energy efficiency, therefore, obliges as a consubstantial objection to reducing energy consumption. The objective of this work is to show the energy transition in Morocco towards renewable energies, in particular, to show the great potential of renewable marine energies in Morocco, This goes back to the advantages of cost and non-pollution in addition to that of the independence of fossil energies. Bearing in mind the necessity of the balance of the Moroccan energy mix, hydraulic and thermal power plants have also been installed which will be added to the power stations already established as a prospect for a balanced network that is flexible to fluctuate demand.

Keywords: renewable marine energy, energy transition, efficiency energy, renewable energy

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12483 Biomimetic Building Envelopes to Reduce Energy Consumption in Hot and Dry Climates

Authors: Aswitha Bachala


Energy shortage became a worldwide major problem since the 1970s, due to high energy consumption. Buildings are the primary energy users which consume 40% of global energy consumption, in which, 40%-50% of building’s energy usage is consumed due to its envelope. In hot and dry climates, 40% of energy is consumed only for cooling purpose, which implies major portion of energy savings can be worked through the envelopes. Biomimicry can be one solution for extracting efficient thermoregulation strategies found in nature. This paper aims to identify different biomimetic building envelopes which shall offer a higher potential to reduce energy consumption in hot and dry climates. It focuses on investigating the scope for reducing energy consumption through biomimetic approach in terms of envelopes. An in-depth research on different biomimetic building envelopes will be presented and analyzed in terms of heat absorption, in addition to, the impact it had on reducing the buildings energy consumption. This helps to understand feasible biomimetic building envelopes to mitigate heat absorption in hot and dry climates.

Keywords: biomimicry, building envelopes, energy consumption, hot and dry climate

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12482 Measuring Environmental Efficiency of Energy in OPEC Countries

Authors: Bahram Fathi, Seyedhossein Sajadifar, Naser Khiabani


Data envelopment analysis (DEA) has recently gained popularity in energy efficiency analysis. A common feature of the previously proposed DEA models for measuring energy efficiency performance is that they treat energy consumption as an input within a production framework without considering undesirable outputs. However, energy use results in the generation of undesirable outputs as byproducts of producing desirable outputs. Within a joint production framework of both desirable and undesirable outputs, this paper presents several DEA-type linear programming models for measuring energy efficiency performance. In addition to considering undesirable outputs, our models treat different energy sources as different inputs so that changes in energy mix could be accounted for in evaluating energy efficiency. The proposed models are applied to measure the energy efficiency performances of 12 OPEC countries and the results obtained are presented.

Keywords: energy efficiency, undesirable outputs, data envelopment analysis

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12481 Settlement Network Supplying Energy

Authors: Balázs Kulcsár


Few people now doubt the future of the global energy transition. The only question is whether the pace of renewables' penetration will be sufficient to compete with the rate of warming. Dynamic changes are also taking place in the Hungarian electricity system. In addition to nuclear power, which provides the basic electricity supply, the most dynamic is solar power, which is largely small-scale and residential. The emergence of solar power is outlining the emergence of energy production and supply fabric of municipalities. This creates the potential for over-producing municipalities to supply the electricity needs of neighboring settlements with lower production beyond renewables. By taking advantage of this energy sharing, electricity supply based on pure renewables can be achieved more quickly.

Keywords: renewable energy, energy geography, self-sufficiency, energy transition

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12480 Effects of High-Protein, Low-Energy Diet on Body Composition in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Clinical Trial

Authors: Makan Cheraghpour, Seyed Ahmad Hosseini, Damoon Ashtary-Larky, Saeed Shirali, Matin Ghanavati, Meysam Alipour


Background: In addition to reducing body weight, the low-calorie diets can reduce the lean body mass. It is hypothesized that in addition to reducing the body weight, the low-calorie diets can maintain the lean body mass. So, the current study aimed at evaluating the effects of high-protein diet with calorie restriction on body composition in overweight and obese individuals. Methods: 36 obese and overweight subjects were divided randomly into two groups. The first group received a normal-protein, low-energy diet (RDA), and the second group received a high-protein, low-energy diet (2×RDA). The anthropometric indices including height, weight, body mass index, body fat mass, fat free mass, and body fat percentage were evaluated before and after the study. Results: A significant reduction was observed in anthropometric indices in both groups (high-protein, low-energy diets and normal-protein, low-energy diets). In addition, more reduction in fat free mass was observed in the normal-protein, low-energy diet group compared to the high -protein, low-energy diet group. In other the anthropometric indices, significant differences were not observed between the two groups. Conclusion: Independently of the type of diet, low-calorie diet can improve the anthropometric indices, but during a weight loss, high-protein diet can help the fat free mass to be maintained.

Keywords: diet, high-protein, body mass index, body fat percentage

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12479 The Effectiveness of Bismuth Addition to Retard the Intermetallic Compound Formation

Authors: I. Siti Rabiatull Aisha, A. Ourdjini, O. Saliza Azlina


The aim of this paper is to study the effectiveness of bismuth addition in the solder alloy to retard the intermetallic compound formation and growth. In this study, three categories of solders such as Sn-4Ag-xCu (x = 0.5, 0.7, 1.0) and Sn-4Ag-0.5Cu-xBi (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.4) were used. Ni/Au surface finish substrates were dipped into the molten solder at a temperature of 180-190 oC and allowed to cool at room temperature. The intermetallic compound (IMCs) were subjected to the characterization in terms of composition and morphology. The IMC phases were identified by energy dispersive x-ray (EDX), whereas the optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to observe microstructure evolution of the solder joint. The results clearly showed that copper concentration dependency was high during the reflow stage. Besides, only Ni3Sn4 and Ni3Sn2 were detected for all copper concentrations. The addition of Bi was found to have no significant effect on the type of IMCs formed, but yet the grain became further refined.

Keywords: Bismuth addition, intermetallic compound, composition, morphology

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12478 Study on the Addition of Solar Generating and Energy Storage Units to a Power Distribution System

Authors: T. Costa, D. Narvaez, K. Melo, M. Villalva


Installation of micro-generators based on renewable energy in power distribution system has increased in recent years, with the main renewable sources being solar and wind. Due to the intermittent nature of renewable energy sources, such micro-generators produce time-varying energy which does not correspond at certain times of the day to the peak energy consumption of end users. For this reason, the use of energy storage units next to the grid contributes to the proper leveling of the buses’ voltage level according to Brazilian energy quality standards. In this work, the effect of the addition of a photovoltaic solar generator and a store of energy in the busbar voltages of an electric system is analyzed. The consumption profile is defined as the average hourly use of appliances in a common residence, and the generation profile is defined as a function of the solar irradiation available in a locality. The power summation method is validated with analytical calculation and is used to calculate the modules and angles of the voltages in the buses of an electrical system based on the IEEE standard, at each hour of the day and with defined load and generation profiles. The results show that bus 5 presents the worst voltage level at the power consumption peaks and stabilizes at the appropriate range with the inclusion of the energy storage during the night time period. Solar generator maintains improvement of the voltage level during the period when it receives solar irradiation, having peaks of production during the 12 pm (without exceeding the appropriate maximum levels of tension).

Keywords: energy storage, power distribution system, solar generator, voltage level

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12477 Uncertainty in Building Energy Performance Analysis at Different Stages of the Building’s Lifecycle

Authors: Elham Delzendeh, Song Wu, Mustafa Al-Adhami, Rima Alaaeddine


Over the last 15 years, prediction of energy consumption has become a common practice and necessity at different stages of the building’s lifecycle, particularly, at the design and post-occupancy stages for planning and maintenance purposes. This is due to the ever-growing response of governments to address sustainability and reduction of CO₂ emission in the building sector. However, there is a level of uncertainty in the estimation of energy consumption in buildings. The accuracy of energy consumption predictions is directly related to the precision of the initial inputs used in the energy assessment process. In this study, multiple cases of large non-residential buildings at design, construction, and post-occupancy stages are investigated. The energy consumption process and inputs, and the actual and predicted energy consumption of the cases are analysed. The findings of this study have pointed out and evidenced various parameters that cause uncertainty in the prediction of energy consumption in buildings such as modelling, location data, and occupant behaviour. In addition, unavailability and insufficiency of energy-consumption-related inputs at different stages of the building’s lifecycle are classified and categorized. Understanding the roots of uncertainty in building energy analysis will help energy modellers and energy simulation software developers reach more accurate energy consumption predictions in buildings.

Keywords: building lifecycle, efficiency, energy analysis, energy performance, uncertainty

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12476 Discussing Embedded versus Central Machine Learning in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Anne-Lena Kampen, Øivind Kure


Machine learning (ML) can be implemented in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) as a central solution or distributed solution where the ML is embedded in the nodes. Embedding improves privacy and may reduce prediction delay. In addition, the number of transmissions is reduced. However, quality factors such as prediction accuracy, fault detection efficiency and coordinated control of the overall system suffer. Here, we discuss and highlight the trade-offs that should be considered when choosing between embedding and centralized ML, especially for multihop networks. In addition, we present estimations that demonstrate the energy trade-offs between embedded and centralized ML. Although the total network energy consumption is lower with central prediction, it makes the network more prone for partitioning due to the high forwarding load on the one-hop nodes. Moreover, the continuous improvements in the number of operations per joule for embedded devices will move the energy balance toward embedded prediction.

Keywords: central machine learning, embedded machine learning, energy consumption, local machine learning, wireless sensor networks, WSN

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12475 Wear Map for Cu-Based Friction Materials with Different Contents of Fe Reinforcement

Authors: Haibin Zhou, Pingping Yao, Kunyang Fan


Copper-based sintered friction materials are widely used in the brake system of different applications such as engineering machinery or high-speed train, due to the excellent mechanical, thermal and tribological performance. Considering the diversity of the working conditions of brake system, it is necessary to identify well and understand the tribological performance and wear mechanisms of friction materials for different conditions. Fe has been a preferred reinforcement for copper-based friction materials, due to its ability to improve the wear resistance and mechanical properties of material. Wear map is well accepted as a useful research method for evaluation of wear performances and wear mechanisms over a wider range of working conditions. Therefore, it is significantly important to construct a wear map which can give out the effects of work condition and Fe reinforcement on tribological performance of Cu-based friction materials. In this study, the copper-based sintered friction materials with the different addition of Fe reinforcement (0-20 vol. %) were studied. The tribological tests were performed against stainless steel in a ring-on-ring braking tester with varying braking energy density (0-5000 J/cm2). The linear wear and friction coefficient were measured. The worn surface, cross section and debris were analyzed to determine the dominant wear mechanisms for different testing conditions. On the basis of experimental results, the wear map and wear mechanism map were established, in terms of braking energy density and the addition of Fe. It was found that with low contents of Fe and low braking energy density, adhesive wear was the dominant wear mechanism of friction materials. Oxidative wear and abrasive wear mainly occurred under moderate braking energy density. In the condition of high braking energy density, with both high and low addition of Fe, delamination appeared as the main wear mechanism.

Keywords: Cu-based friction materials, Fe reinforcement, wear map, wear mechanism

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12474 A Study on Energy Efficiency of Vertical Water Treatment System with DC Power Supply

Authors: Young-Kwan Choi, Gang-Wook Shin, Sung-Taek Hong


Water supply system consumes large amount of power load during water treatment and transportation of purified water. Many energy conserving high efficiency materials such as DC motor and LED light have recently been introduced to water supply system for energy conservation. This paper performed empirical analysis on BLDC, AC motors, and comparatively analyzed the change in power according to DC power supply ratio in order to conserve energy of a next-generation water treatment system called vertical water treatment system. In addition, a DC distribution system linked with photovoltaic generation was simulated to analyze the energy conserving effect of DC load.

Keywords: vertical water treatment system, DC power supply, energy efficiency, BLDC

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12473 Performance Assessment in a Voice Coil Motor for Maximizing the Energy Harvesting with Gait Motions

Authors: Hector A. Tinoco, Cesar Garcia-Diaz, Olga L. Ocampo-Lopez


In this study, an experimental approach is established to assess the performance of different beams coupled to a Voice Coil Motor (VCM) with the aim to maximize mechanically the energy harvesting in the inductive transducer that is included on it. The VCM is extracted from a recycled hard disk drive (HDD) and it is adapted for carrying out experimental tests of energy harvesting. Two individuals were selected for walking with the VCM-beam device as well as to evaluate the performance varying two parameters in the beam; length of the beams and a mass addition. Results show that the energy harvesting is maximized with specific beams; however, the harvesting efficiency is improved when a mass is added to the end of the beams.

Keywords: hard disk drive, energy harvesting, voice coil motor, energy harvester, gait motions

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12472 Efficient Use of Energy through Incorporation of a Gas Turbine in Methanol Plant

Authors: M. Azadi, N. Tahouni, M. H. Panjeshahi


A techno-economic evaluation for efficient use of energy in a large scale industrial plant of methanol is carried out. This assessment is based on integration of a gas turbine with an existing plant of methanol in which the outlet gas products of exothermic reactor is expanded to power generation. Also, it is decided that methanol production rate is constant through addition of power generation system to the existing methanol plant. Having incorporated a gas turbine with the existing plant, the economic results showed total investment of MUSD 16.9, energy saving of 3.6 MUSD/yr with payback period of approximately 4.7 years.

Keywords: energy saving, methanol, gas turbine, power generation

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12471 Design and Modeling of a Green Building Energy Efficient System

Authors: Berhane Gebreslassie


Conventional commericial buildings are among the highest unwisely consumes enormous amount of energy and as consequence produce significant amount Carbon Dioxide (CO2). Traditional/conventional buildings have been built for years without consideration being given to their impact on the global warming issues as well as their CO2 contributions. Since 1973, simulation of Green Building (GB) for Energy Efficiency started and many countries in particular the US showed a positive response to minimize the usage of energy in respect to reducing the CO2 emission. As a consequence many software companies developed their own unique building energy efficiency simulation software, interfacing interoperability with Building Information Modeling (BIM). The last decade has witnessed very rapid growing number of researches on GB energy efficiency system. However, the study also indicates that the results of current GB simulation are not yet satisfactory to meet the objectives of GB. In addition most of these previous studies are unlikely excluded the studies of ultimate building energy efficiencies simulation. The aim of this project is to meet the objectives of GB by design, modeling and simulation of building ultimate energy efficiencies system. This research project presents multi-level, L-shape office building in which every particular part of the building materials has been tested for energy efficiency. An overall of 78.62% energy is saved, approaching to NetZero energy saving. Furthermore, the building is implements with distributed energy resources like renewable energies and integrating with Smart Building Automation System (SBAS) for controlling and monitoring energy usage.

Keywords: ultimate energy saving, optimum energy saving, green building, sustainable materials and renewable energy

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12470 Automated Irrigation System with Programmable Logic Controller and Photovoltaic Energy

Authors: J. P. Reges, L. C. S. Mazza, E. J. Braga, J. A. Bessa, A. R. Alexandria


This paper proposes the development of control and automation of irrigation system located sunflower harvest in the Teaching Unit, Research and Extension (UEPE), the Apodi Plateau in Limoeiro do Norte. The sunflower extraction, which in turn serves to get the produced oil from its seeds, animal feed, and is widely used in human food. Its nutritional potential is quite high what makes of foods produced from vegetal, very rich and healthy. The focus of research is to make the autonomous irrigation system sunflower crop from programmable logic control energized with alternative energy sources, solar photovoltaics. The application of automated irrigation system becomes interesting when it provides convenience and implements new forms of managements of the implementation of irrigated cropping systems. The intended use of automated addition to irrigation quality and consequently brings enormous improvement for production of small samples. Addition to applying the necessary and sufficient features of water management in irrigation systems, the system (PLC + actuators + Renewable Energy) will enable to manage the quantitative water required for each crop, and at the same time, insert the use of sources alternative energy. The entry of the automated collection will bring a new format, and in previous years, used the process of irrigation water wastage base and being the whole manual irrigation process.

Keywords: automation, control, sunflower, irrigation, programming, renewable energy

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12469 Impact of Climate Change on Energy Consumption of the Residential Building Stock in Turkey

Authors: Sadik Yigit


The energy consumed in the buildings constitutes a large portion of the total energy consumption in the world. In this study, it was aimed to measure the impact of climate change on the energy consumption of residential building stock by analyzing a typical mid-rise residential building in four different climate regions of Turkey. An integrated system was developed using the "Distribution Evolutionary Algorithms in Python" tool and Energy Plus. By using the developed integrated system, the energy performance of the typical residential building was analyzed under the effect of different climate change scenarios. The results indicated that predicted overheating will be experienced in the future, which will significantly increase the cooling energy loads of the buildings. In addition, design solutions to improve the future energy performance of the buildings were proposed, considering budget constraints. The results of the study will guide researchers studying in this area of research and designers in the sector in finding climate change resilient design solutions.

Keywords: energy_efficient, residential buildings, climate change, energyplus

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12468 The Energy Efficient Water Reuse by Combination of Nano-Filtration and Capacitive Deionization Processes

Authors: Youngmin Kim, Jae-Hwan Ahn, Seog-Ku Kim, Hye-Cheol Oh, Bokjin Lee, Hee-Jun Kang


The high energy consuming processes such as advanced oxidation and reverse osmosis are used as a reuse process. This study aims at developing an energy efficient reuse process by combination of nanofiltration (NF) and capacitive deionization processes (CDI) processes. Lab scale experiments were conducted by using effluents from a wastewater treatment plant located at Koyang city in Korea. Commercial NF membrane (NE4040-70, Toray Ltd.) and CDI module (E40, Siontech INC.) were tested in series. The pollutant removal efficiencies were evaluated on the basis of Korean water quality criteria for water reuse. In addition, the energy consumptions were also calculated. As a result, the hybrid process showed lower energy consumption than conventional reverse osmosis process even though its effluent did meet the Korean standard. Consequently, this study suggests that the hybrid process is feasible for the energy efficient water reuse.

Keywords: capacitive deionization, energy efficient process, nanofiltration, water reuse

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12467 Evaluating the Nexus between Energy Demand and Economic Growth Using the VECM Approach: Case Study of Nigeria, China, and the United States

Authors: Rita U. Onolemhemhen, Saheed L. Bello, Akin P. Iwayemi


The effectiveness of energy demand policy depends on identifying the key drivers of energy demand both in the short-run and the long-run. This paper examines the influence of regional differences on the link between energy demand and other explanatory variables for Nigeria, China and USA using the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) approach. This study employed annual time series data on energy consumption (ED), real gross domestic product (GDP) per capita (RGDP), real energy prices (P) and urbanization (N) for a thirty-six-year sample period. The utilized time-series data are sourced from World Bank’s World Development Indicators (WDI, 2016) and US Energy Information Administration (EIA). Results from the study, shows that all the independent variables (income, urbanization, and price) substantially affect the long-run energy consumption in Nigeria, USA and China, whereas, income has no significant effect on short-run energy demand in USA and Nigeria. In addition, the long-run effect of urbanization is relatively stronger in China. Urbanization is a key factor in energy demand, it therefore recommended that more attention should be given to the development of rural communities to reduce the inflow of migrants into urban communities which causes the increase in energy demand and energy excesses should be penalized while energy management should be incentivized.

Keywords: economic growth, energy demand, income, real GDP, urbanization, VECM

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12466 Investigation on the Effect of Titanium (Ti) Plus Boron (B) Addition to the Mg-AZ31 Alloy in the as Cast and After Extrusion on Its Metallurgical and Mechanical Characteristics

Authors: Adnan I. O. Zaid, Raghad S. Hemeimat


Magnesium - aluminum alloys are versatile materials which are used in manufacturing a number of engineering and industrial parts in the automobile and aircraft industries due to their strength – to –weight -ratio. Against these preferable characteristics, magnesium is difficult to deform at room temperature therefore it is alloyed with other elements mainly Aluminum and Zinc to add some required properties particularly for their high strength - to -weight ratio. Mg and its alloys oxidize rapidly therefore care should be taken during melting or machining them; but they are not fire hazardous. Grain refinement is an important technology to improve the mechanical properties and the micro structure uniformity of the alloys. Grain refinement has been introduced in early fifties; when Cibula showed that the presence of Ti, and Ti+ B, produced a great refining effect in Al. since then it became an industrial practice to grain refine Al. Most of the published work on grain refinement was directed toward grain refining Al and Zinc alloys; however, the effect of the addition of rare earth material on the grain size or the mechanical behavior of Mg alloys has not been previously investigated. This forms the main objective of the research work; where, the effect of Ti addition on the grain size, mechanical behavior, ductility, and the extrusion force & energy consumed in forward extrusion of Mg-AZ31 alloy is investigated and discussed in two conditions, first in the as cast condition and the second after extrusion. It was found that addition of Ti to Mg- AZ31 alloy has resulted in reduction of its grain size by 14%; the reduction in grain size after extrusion was much higher. However the increase in Vicker’s hardness was 3% after the addition of Ti in the as cast condition, and higher values for Vicker’s hardness were achieved after extrusion. Furthermore, an increase in the strength coefficient by 36% was achieved with the addition of Ti to Mg-AZ31 alloy in the as cast condition. Similarly, the work hardening index was also increased indicating an enhancement of the ductility and formability. As for the extrusion process, it was found that the force and energy required for the extrusion were both reduced by 57% and 59% with the addition of Ti.

Keywords: cast condition, direct extrusion, ductility, MgAZ31 alloy, super - plasticity

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12465 Energy Initiatives for Turkey

Authors: A.Beril Tugrul, Selahattin Cimen


Dependency of humanity on the energy is ever-increasing today and the energy policies are reaching undeniable and un-ignorable dimensions steering the political events as well. Therefore, energy has the highest priority for Turkey like any other country. In this study, the energy supply security for Turkey evaluated according to the strategic criteria of energy policy. Under these circumstances, different alternatives are described and assessed with in terms of the energy expansion of Turkey. With this study, different opportunities in the energy expansion of Turkey is clarified and emphasized.

Keywords: energy policy, energy strategy, future projection, Turkey

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12464 C₅₉Pd: A Heterogeneous Catalytic Material for Heck Coupling Reaction

Authors: Manjusha C. Padole, Parag A. Deshpande


Density functional theory calculations were carried out for identification of an active heterogeneous catalyst to carry out Heck coupling reaction which is of pharmaceutical importance. One of the carbonaceous nanomaterials, heterofullerene, was designed for the reaction. Stability and reactivity of the proposed heterofullerenes (C59M, M = Pd/Ni) were established with insights into the metal-carbon bond, electron affinity and chemical potential. Adsorbent potentials of both the heterofullerenes were examined from the adsorption study of four halobenzenes (C6H5F, C6H5Cl, C6H5Br and C6H5I). Oxidative addition activities of all four halobenzenes were investigated by developing free energy landscapes over both the heterofullerenes for rate determining step (oxidative addition). C6H5I showed a good catalytic activity for the rate determining step. Thus, C6H5I was proposed as a suitable halobenzene and complete free energy landscapes for Heck coupling reaction were developed over C59Pd and C59Ni. Smaller activation barriers observed over C59Pd in comparison with C59Ni put us in a position to propose C59Pd to be an efficient heterofullerene for carrying Heck coupling reaction.

Keywords: metal-substituted fullerene, density functional theory, electron affinity, oxidative addition, Heck coupling reaction

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12463 Evaluation of Alternative Energy Sources for Energy Production in Turkey

Authors: Naci Büyükkaracığan, Murat Ahmet Ökmen


In parallel with the population growth rate, the need of human being for energy sources in the world is gradually increasing incessant. The addition of this situation that demand for energy will be busier in the future, industrialization, the rise in living standards and technological developments, especially in developing countries. Alternative energy sources have aroused interest due to reasons such as serious environmental issues that were caused by fossil energy sources, potentially decreasing reserves, different social, political and economic problems caused by dependency on source providing countries and price instability. Especially in developed countries as European countries and also U.S.A particularly, alternative energy sources such as wind, geothermal, solar and biomass energy, hydrolic and hydrogen have been utilized in different forms, especially in electricity production. It includes a review of technical and environmental factors for energy sources that are potential replacements for fossil fuels and examines their fitness to supply the energy for a high standard of living on a worldwide basis. Despite all developments, fossil energy sources have been overwhelmingly used all around the world in primary energy sources consumption and they will outnumber other energy sources in the short term. Today, parallel to population growth and economy in Turkey, energy sources consumption is increasingly continuing. On one side, Turkey, currently 80% dependent on energy providing countries, has been heavily conducting fossil energy sources raw material quest within its own borders in order to lower the percentage, and the other side, there have been many researches for exploring potential of alternative energy sources and utilization. This case will lead to both a decrease in foreign energy dependency and a variety of energy sources. This study showed the current energy potential of Turkey and presents historical development of these energy sources and their share in electricity production. The research also seeked for answers to arguments that if the potential can be sufficient in the future. As a result of this study, it was concluded that observed geothermal energy, particularly active tectonic regions of Turkey, to have an alternative energy potential could be considered to be valuable on bass wind and solar energy.

Keywords: alternative energy sources, energy productions, hydroenergy, solar energy, wind energy

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12462 Theoretical Performance of a Sustainable Clean Energy On-Site Generation Device to Convert Consumers into Producers and Its Possible Impact on Electrical National Grids

Authors: Eudes Vera


In this paper, a theoretical evaluation is carried out of the performance of a forthcoming fuel-less clean energy generation device, the Air Motor. The underlying physical principles that support this technology are succinctly described. Examples of the machine and theoretical values of input and output powers are also given. In addition, its main features like portability, on-site energy generation and delivery, miniaturization of generation plants, efficiency, and scaling down of the whole electric infrastructure are discussed. The main component of the Air Motor, the Thermal Air Turbine, generates useful power by converting in mechanical energy part of the thermal energy contained in a fan-produced airflow while leaving intact its kinetic energy. Due to this fact an air motor can contain a long succession of identical air turbines and the total power generated out of a single airflow can be very large, as well as its mechanical efficiency. It is found using the corresponding formulae that the mechanical efficiency of this device can be much greater than 100%, while its thermal efficiency is always less than 100%. On account of its multiple advantages, the Air Motor seems to be the perfect device to convert energy consumers into energy producers worldwide. If so, it would appear that current national electrical grids would no longer be necessary, because it does not seem practical or economical to bring the energy from far-away distances while it can be generated and consumed locally at the consumer’s premises using just the thermal energy contained in the ambient air.

Keywords: electrical grid, clean energy, renewable energy, in situ generation and delivery, generation efficiency

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12461 Improving Energy Efficiency through Industrial Symbiosis: A Conceptual Framework of Energy Management in Energy-Intensive Industries

Authors: Yuanjun Chen, Yongjiang Shi


Rising energy prices have drawn a focus to global energy issues, and the severe pollution that has resulted from energy-intensive industrial sectors has yet to be addressed. By combining Energy Efficiency with Industrial Symbiosis, the practices of efficient energy utilization and improvement can be not only enriched at the factory level but also upgraded into “within and/or between firm level”. The academic contribution of this paper provides a conceptual framework of energy management through IS. The management of waste energy within/between firms can contribute to the reduction of energy consumption and provides a solution to the environmental issues.

Keywords: energy efficiency, energy management, industrial symbiosis, energy-intensive industry

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12460 Proposing a New Design Method for Added Viscoelastic Damper’s Application in Steel Moment-Frame

Authors: Saeed Javaherzadeh, Babak Dindar Safa


Structure, given its ductility, can depreciate significant amount of seismic energy in the form of hysteresis behavior; the amount of energy depreciation depends on the structure ductility rate. So in seismic guidelines such as ASCE7-10 code, to reduce the number of design forces and using the seismic energy dissipation capacity of structure, when entering non-linear behavior range of the materials, the response modification factor is used. Various parameters such as ductility modification factor, overstrength factor and reliability factor, are effective in determining the value of this factor. Also, gradually, energy dissipation systems, especially added dampers, have become an inseparable part of the seismic design. In this paper, in addition to reviewing of previous studies, using the response modification factor caused by using more added viscoelastic dampers, a new design method has introduced for steel moment-frame with added dampers installed. To do this, in addition to using bilinear behavior models and quick ways such as using the equivalent lateral force method and capacity spectrum method for the proposed design methodology, the results has been controlled with non-linear time history analysis for a number of structural. The analysis is done by Opensees Software.

Keywords: added viscoelastic damper, design base shear, response modification factor, non-linear time history

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12459 Optimal Type and Installation Time of Wind Farm in a Power System, Considering Service Providers

Authors: M. H. Abedi, A. Jalilvand


The economic development benefits of wind energy may be the most tangible basis for the local and state officials’ interests. In addition to the direct salaries associated with building and operating wind projects, the wind energy industry provides indirect jobs and benefits. The optimal planning of a wind farm is one most important topic in renewable energy technology. Many methods have been implemented to optimize the cost and output benefit of wind farms, but the contribution of this paper is mentioning different types of service providers and also time of installation of wind turbines during planning horizon years. Genetic algorithm (GA) is used to optimize the problem. It is observed that an appropriate layout of wind farm can cause to minimize the different types of cost.

Keywords: renewable energy, wind farm, optimization, planning

Procedia PDF Downloads 434
12458 Numerical Analysis of the Effect of Height and Rate of Fluid Flow on a Stepped Spillway

Authors: Amir Abbas Kamanbedast, Abbas Saki


Stepped spillways are composed of several steps, which start from around the spillway crest and continue to the downstream heel. Recently, such spillways have been receiving increasing attention due to the significant effect of the associated stairs on the flow’s rate of energy dissipation. Energy dissipation in the stepped spillways across the overflow can be explained by the watercourse contact with the stairs (i.e., large, harsh surfaces). In this context, less energy must be dissipated at the end of the spillway, and, hence, a smaller (less expensive) energy-dissipating structure is required. In this study, a stepped spillway was simulated using the model Fluent 3, and a standard model was used to model the flow disturbance. For this purpose, the energy dissipation from the stepped spillway was investigated in terms of the different numbers of stairs involved. Using k-ε, the disturbances of the numerical method for velocity and of flow depth at the downstream overflow were obtained, and, then, the energy that was dissipated throughout the spillway was calculated. Our results showed that an increase in the number of stairs can considerably increase the amount of energy dissipation for the fixed, upstream energy. In addition, the results of the numerical analyses were provided as isobar and velocity curves so points that were sensitive to cavitation could be determined.

Keywords: stepped spillway, fluent software, turbulence model of k-ε, VOF model

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
12457 Energy Efficient Lighting in Educational Buildings through the Example of a High School in Istanbul

Authors: Nihan Gurel Ulusan


It is obvious that electrical energy, which is an inseparable part of modern day’s human and also the most important power source of our age, should be generated on a level that will suffice the nation’s requirements. The electrical energy used for a sustainable architectural design should be reduced as much as possible. Designing the buildings as energy efficient systems which aim at reducing the artificial illumination loads has been a current subject of our times as a result of concepts gaining importance like conscious consumption of energy sources, environment-friendly designs and sustainability. Reducing the consumption of electrical energy regarding the artificial lighting carries great significance, especially in the volumes which are used all day long like the educational buildings. Starting out with such an aim in this paper, the educational buildings are explored in terms of energy efficient lighting. Firstly, illumination techniques, illumination systems, light sources, luminaries, illumination controls and 'efficient energy' usage in lighting are mentioned. In addition, natural and artificial lighting systems used in educational buildings and also the spaces building up these kind buildings are examined in terms of energy efficient lighting. Lastly, the illumination properties of the school sample chosen for this study, Kağıthane Anadolu Lisesi, a typical high school in Istanbul, is observed. Suggestions are made in order to improve the system by evaluating the illumination properties of the classes with the survey carried out with the users.

Keywords: educational buildings, energy efficient, illumination techniques, lighting

Procedia PDF Downloads 190