Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2328

Search results for: coded distributed computation

2328 Private Coded Computation of Matrix Multiplication

Authors: Malihe Aliasgari, Yousef Nejatbakhsh


The era of Big Data and the immensity of real-life datasets compels computation tasks to be performed in a distributed fashion, where the data is dispersed among many servers that operate in parallel. However, massive parallelization leads to computational bottlenecks due to faulty servers and stragglers. Stragglers refer to a few slow or delay-prone processors that can bottleneck the entire computation because one has to wait for all the parallel nodes to finish. The problem of straggling processors, has been well studied in the context of distributed computing. Recently, it has been pointed out that, for the important case of linear functions, it is possible to improve over repetition strategies in terms of the tradeoff between performance and latency by carrying out linear precoding of the data prior to processing. The key idea is that, by employing suitable linear codes operating over fractions of the original data, a function may be completed as soon as enough number of processors, depending on the minimum distance of the code, have completed their operations. The problem of matrix-matrix multiplication in the presence of practically big sized of data sets faced with computational and memory related difficulties, which makes such operations are carried out using distributed computing platforms. In this work, we study the problem of distributed matrix-matrix multiplication W = XY under storage constraints, i.e., when each server is allowed to store a fixed fraction of each of the matrices X and Y, which is a fundamental building of many science and engineering fields such as machine learning, image and signal processing, wireless communication, optimization. Non-secure and secure matrix multiplication are studied. We want to study the setup, in which the identity of the matrix of interest should be kept private from the workers and then obtain the recovery threshold of the colluding model, that is, the number of workers that need to complete their task before the master server can recover the product W. The problem of secure and private distributed matrix multiplication W = XY which the matrix X is confidential, while matrix Y is selected in a private manner from a library of public matrices. We present the best currently known trade-off between communication load and recovery threshold. On the other words, we design an achievable PSGPD scheme for any arbitrary privacy level by trivially concatenating a robust PIR scheme for arbitrary colluding workers and private databases and the proposed SGPD code that provides a smaller computational complexity at the workers.

Keywords: coded distributed computation, private information retrieval, secret sharing, stragglers

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2327 A Unique Multi-Class Support Vector Machine Algorithm Using MapReduce

Authors: Aditi Viswanathan, Shree Ranjani, Aruna Govada


With data sizes constantly expanding, and with classical machine learning algorithms that analyze such data requiring larger and larger amounts of computation time and storage space, the need to distribute computation and memory requirements among several computers has become apparent. Although substantial work has been done in developing distributed binary SVM algorithms and multi-class SVM algorithms individually, the field of multi-class distributed SVMs remains largely unexplored. This research seeks to develop an algorithm that implements the Support Vector Machine over a multi-class data set and is efficient in a distributed environment. For this, we recursively choose the best binary split of a set of classes using a greedy technique. Much like the divide and conquer approach. Our algorithm has shown better computation time during the testing phase than the traditional sequential SVM methods (One vs. One, One vs. Rest) and out-performs them as the size of the data set grows. This approach also classifies the data with higher accuracy than the traditional multi-class algorithms.

Keywords: distributed algorithm, MapReduce, multi-class, support vector machine

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2326 Towards a Distributed Computation Platform Tailored for Educational Process Discovery and Analysis

Authors: Awatef Hicheur Cairns, Billel Gueni, Hind Hafdi, Christian Joubert, Nasser Khelifa


Given the ever changing needs of the job markets, education and training centers are increasingly held accountable for student success. Therefore, education and training centers have to focus on ways to streamline their offers and educational processes in order to achieve the highest level of quality in curriculum contents and managerial decisions. Educational process mining is an emerging field in the educational data mining (EDM) discipline, concerned with developing methods to discover, analyze and provide a visual representation of complete educational processes. In this paper, we present our distributed computation platform which allows different education centers and institutions to load their data and access to advanced data mining and process mining services. To achieve this, we present also a comparative study of the different clustering techniques developed in the context of process mining to partition efficiently educational traces. Our goal is to find the best strategy for distributing heavy analysis computations on many processing nodes of our platform.

Keywords: educational process mining, distributed process mining, clustering, distributed platform, educational data mining, ProM

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2325 Artificial Intelligence and Distributed System Computing: Application and Practice in Real Life

Authors: Lai Junzhe, Wang Lihao, Burra Venkata Durga Kumar


In recent years, due to today's global technological advances, big data and artificial intelligence technologies have been widely used in various industries and fields, playing an important role in reducing costs and increasing efficiency. Among them, artificial intelligence has derived another branch in its own continuous progress and the continuous development of computer personnel, namely distributed artificial intelligence computing systems. Distributed AI is a method for solving complex learning, decision-making, and planning problems, characterized by the ability to take advantage of large-scale computation and the spatial distribution of resources, and accordingly, it can handle problems with large data sets. Nowadays, distributed AI is widely used in military, medical, and human daily life and brings great convenience and efficient operation to life. In this paper, we will discuss three areas of distributed AI computing systems in vision processing, blockchain, and smart home to introduce the performance of distributed systems and the role of AI in distributed systems.

Keywords: distributed system, artificial intelligence, blockchain, IoT, visual information processing, smart home

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2324 The Primitive Code-Level Design Patterns for Distributed Programming

Authors: Bing Li


The primitive code-level design patterns (PDP) are the rudimentary programming elements to develop any distributed systems in the generic distributed programming environment, GreatFree. The PDP works with the primitive distributed application programming interfaces (PDA), the distributed modeling, and the distributed concurrency for scaling-up. They not only hide developers from underlying technical details but also support sufficient adaptability to a variety of distributed computing environments. Programming with them, the simplest distributed system, the lightweight messaging two-node client/server (TNCS) system, is constructed rapidly with straightforward and repeatable behaviors, copy-paste-replace (CPR). As any distributed systems are made up of the simplest ones, those PDAs, as well as the PDP, are generic for distributed programming.

Keywords: primitive APIs, primitive code-level design patterns, generic distributed programming, distributed systems, highly patterned development environment, messaging

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2323 A Survey on Concurrency Control Methods in Distributed Database

Authors: Seyed Mohsen Jameii


In the last years, remarkable improvements have been made in the ability of distributed database systems performance. A distributed database is composed of some sites which are connected to each other through network connections. In this system, if good harmonization is not made between different transactions, it may result in database incoherence. Nowadays, because of the complexity of many sites and their connection methods, it is difficult to extend different models in distributed database serially. The principle goal of concurrency control in distributed database is to ensure not interfering in accessibility of common database by different sites. Different concurrency control algorithms have been suggested to use in distributed database systems. In this paper, some available methods have been introduced and compared for concurrency control in distributed database.

Keywords: distributed database, two phase locking protocol, transaction, concurrency

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2322 HPPDFIM-HD: Transaction Distortion and Connected Perturbation Approach for Hierarchical Privacy Preserving Distributed Frequent Itemset Mining over Horizontally-Partitioned Dataset

Authors: Fuad Ali Mohammed Al-Yarimi


Many algorithms have been proposed to provide privacy preserving in data mining. These protocols are based on two main approaches named as: the perturbation approach and the Cryptographic approach. The first one is based on perturbation of the valuable information while the second one uses cryptographic techniques. The perturbation approach is much more efficient with reduced accuracy while the cryptographic approach can provide solutions with perfect accuracy. However, the cryptographic approach is a much slower method and requires considerable computation and communication overhead. In this paper, a new scalable protocol is proposed which combines the advantages of the perturbation and distortion along with cryptographic approach to perform privacy preserving in distributed frequent itemset mining on horizontally distributed data. Both the privacy and performance characteristics of the proposed protocol are studied empirically.

Keywords: anonymity data, data mining, distributed frequent itemset mining, gaussian perturbation, perturbation approach, privacy preserving data mining

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2321 Beam Coding with Orthogonal Complementary Golay Codes for Signal to Noise Ratio Improvement in Ultrasound Mammography

Authors: Y. Kumru, K. Enhos, H. Köymen


In this paper, we report the experimental results on using complementary Golay coded signals at 7.5 MHz to detect breast microcalcifications of 50 µm size. Simulations using complementary Golay coded signals show perfect consistence with the experimental results, confirming the improved signal to noise ratio for complementary Golay coded signals. For improving the success on detecting the microcalcifications, orthogonal complementary Golay sequences having cross-correlation for minimum interference are used as coded signals and compared to tone burst pulse of equal energy in terms of resolution under weak signal conditions. The measurements are conducted using an experimental ultrasound research scanner, Digital Phased Array System (DiPhAS) having 256 channels, a phased array transducer with 7.5 MHz center frequency and the results obtained through experiments are validated by Field-II simulation software. In addition, to investigate the superiority of coded signals in terms of resolution, multipurpose tissue equivalent phantom containing series of monofilament nylon targets, 240 µm in diameter, and cyst-like objects with attenuation of 0.5 dB/[MHz x cm] is used in the experiments. We obtained ultrasound images of monofilament nylon targets for the evaluation of resolution. Simulation and experimental results show that it is possible to differentiate closely positioned small targets with increased success by using coded excitation in very weak signal conditions.

Keywords: coded excitation, complementary golay codes, DiPhAS, medical ultrasound

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2320 Bahasa Melayu Hand Coded and Malaysian Sign Language Acquisition of Hearing Impaired Students at Early Intervention

Authors: Abdul Rahim Razalli, Nordin Mamat, Lee Kean Low


The objective of the study is to examine the acquisition of Bahasa Melayu hand coded and Malaysian Sign Language of hearing impaired children and the factors that influencing the acquisition of Malay language at early intervention. A qualitative research design was chosen to answer two research questions. Two sets of instruments have been used to obtain information of proficiency and factors that influence it. Five children with hearing problems, four teachers and three parents were selected as the respondents through purposive sampling technique. The findings show that pupils with hearing problems who mastered Bahasa Melayu hand coded have better acquisition of Bahasa Melayu as compared to those who acquired Malaysian Sign Language. The study also found that the parents, pupils, teachers and environmental factors have an impact on the acquisition of Bahasa Melayu hand coded. The implications of this study show that early intervention of Bahasa Melayu hand coded and the parents, pupils, teachers and environmental factors do help in the language proficiency of children with hearing problems. A more comprehensive study should be undertaken at a higher level to see the impact on an early intervention program for Malay language acquisition of hearing impaired children.

Keywords: Bahasa Melayu hand coded, Malaysian sign Language, hearing impaired children, early intervention

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2319 A Preliminary Conceptual Scale to Discretize the Distributed Manufacturing Continuum

Authors: Ijaz Ul Haq, Fiorenzo Franceschini


The distributed manufacturing methodology brings a new concept of decentralized manufacturing operations close to the proximity of end users. A preliminary scale, to measure distributed capacity and evaluate positioning of firms, is developed in this research. In the first part of the paper, a literature review has been performed which highlights the explorative nature of the studies conducted to present definitions and classifications due to novelty of this topic. From literature, five dimensions of distributed manufacturing development stages have been identified: localization, manufacturing technologies, customization and personalization, digitalization and democratization of design. Based on these determinants a conceptual scale is proposed to measure the status of distributed manufacturing of a generic firm. A multiple case study is then conducted in two steps to test the conceptual scale and to identify the corresponding level of distributed potential in each case study firm.

Keywords: distributed manufacturing, distributed capacity, localized production, ordinal scale

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2318 Performance of Coded Multi-Line Copper Wire for Communications in the Presence of Impulsive Noise

Authors: Israa Al-Neami, Ali J. Al-Askery, Martin Johnston, Charalampos Tsimenidis


In this paper, we focus on the design of a multi-line copper wire (MLCW) communication system. First, we construct our proposed MLCW channel and verify its characteristics based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. In addition, we apply Middleton class A impulsive noise (IN) to the copper channel for further investigation. Second, the MIMO system is adopted utilizing the proposed MLCW channel model and is compared to a single line G-fast system. Second, the performance of the coded system is obtained utilizing concatenated interleaved Reed-Solomon (RS) code with four-dimensional trellis-coded modulation (4D TCM), and compared to the single line G-fast system. Simulations are obtained for high quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) constellations that are commonly used with G-fast communications, the results demonstrate that the bit error rate (BER) performance of the coded MLCW system shows an improvement compared to the single line G-fast systems.

Keywords:, Middleton Class A impulsive noise, mitigation techniques, Copper channel model

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2317 Optimizing Communications Overhead in Heterogeneous Distributed Data Streams

Authors: Rashi Bhalla, Russel Pears, M. Asif Naeem


In this 'Information Explosion Era' analyzing data 'a critical commodity' and mining knowledge from vertically distributed data stream incurs huge communication cost. However, an effort to decrease the communication in the distributed environment has an adverse influence on the classification accuracy; therefore, a research challenge lies in maintaining a balance between transmission cost and accuracy. This paper proposes a method based on Bayesian inference to reduce the communication volume in a heterogeneous distributed environment while retaining prediction accuracy. Our experimental evaluation reveals that a significant reduction in communication can be achieved across a diverse range of dataset types.

Keywords: big data, bayesian inference, distributed data stream mining, heterogeneous-distributed data

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2316 Indexing and Incremental Approach Using Map Reduce Bipartite Graph (MRBG) for Mining Evolving Big Data

Authors: Adarsh Shroff


Big data is a collection of dataset so large and complex that it becomes difficult to process using data base management tools. To perform operations like search, analysis, visualization on big data by using data mining; which is the process of extraction of patterns or knowledge from large data set. In recent years, the data mining applications become stale and obsolete over time. Incremental processing is a promising approach to refreshing mining results. It utilizes previously saved states to avoid the expense of re-computation from scratch. This project uses i2MapReduce, an incremental processing extension to Map Reduce, the most widely used framework for mining big data. I2MapReduce performs key-value pair level incremental processing rather than task level re-computation, supports not only one-step computation but also more sophisticated iterative computation, which is widely used in data mining applications, and incorporates a set of novel techniques to reduce I/O overhead for accessing preserved fine-grain computation states. To optimize the mining results, evaluate i2MapReduce using a one-step algorithm and three iterative algorithms with diverse computation characteristics for efficient mining.

Keywords: big data, map reduce, incremental processing, iterative computation

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2315 Method of Successive Approximations for Modeling of Distributed Systems

Authors: A. Torokhti


A new method of mathematical modeling of the distributed nonlinear system is developed. The system is represented by a combination of the set of spatially distributed sensors and the fusion center. Its mathematical model is obtained from the iterative procedure that converges to the model which is optimal in the sense of minimizing an associated cost function.

Keywords: mathematical modeling, non-linear system, spatially distributed sensors, fusion center

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2314 Optimal Sizing and Placement of Distributed Generators for Profit Maximization Using Firefly Algorithm

Authors: Engy Adel Mohamed, Yasser Gamal-Eldin Hegazy


This paper presents a firefly based algorithm for optimal sizing and allocation of distributed generators for profit maximization. Distributed generators in the proposed algorithm are of photovoltaic and combined heat and power technologies. Combined heat and power distributed generators are modeled as voltage controlled nodes while photovoltaic distributed generators are modeled as constant power nodes. The proposed algorithm is implemented in MATLAB environment and tested the unbalanced IEEE 37-node feeder. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in optimal selection of distributed generators size and site in order to maximize the total system profit.

Keywords: distributed generators, firefly algorithm, IEEE 37-node feeder, profit maximization

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2313 Verifiable Secure Computation of Large Scale Two-Point Boundary Value Problems Using Certificate Validation

Authors: Yogita M. Ahire, Nedal M. Mohammed, Ahmed A. Hamoud


Scientific computation outsourcing is gaining popularity because it allows customers with limited computing resources and storage devices to outsource complex computation workloads to more powerful service providers. However, it raises some security and privacy concerns and challenges, such as customer input and output privacy, as well as cloud cheating behaviors. This study was motivated by these concerns and focused on privacy-preserving Two-Point Boundary Value Problems (BVP) as a common and realistic instance for verifiable safe multiparty computing. We'll look at the safe and verifiable schema with correctness guarantees by utilizing standard multiparty approaches to compute the result of a computation and then solely using verifiable ways to check that the result was right.

Keywords: verifiable computing, cloud computing, secure and privacy BVP, secure computation outsourcing

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2312 Sensitivity Analysis for 14 Bus Systems in a Distribution Network with Distributed Generators

Authors: Lakshya Bhat, Anubhav Shrivastava, Shiva Rudraswamy


There has been a formidable interest in the area of Distributed Generation in recent times. A wide number of loads are addressed by Distributed Generators and have better efficiency too. The major disadvantage in Distributed Generation is voltage control- is highlighted in this paper. The paper addresses voltage control at buses in IEEE 14 Bus system by regulating reactive power. An analysis is carried out by selecting the most optimum location in placing the Distributed Generators through load flow analysis and seeing where the voltage profile rises. MATLAB programming is used for simulation of voltage profile in the respective buses after introduction of DG’s. A tolerance limit of +/-5% of the base value has to be maintained. To maintain the tolerance limit, 3 methods are used. Sensitivity analysis of 3 methods for voltage control is carried out to determine the priority among the methods.

Keywords: distributed generators, distributed system, reactive power, voltage control, sensitivity analysis

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2311 Extracting Opinions from Big Data of Indonesian Customer Reviews Using Hadoop MapReduce

Authors: Veronica S. Moertini, Vinsensius Kevin, Gede Karya


Customer reviews have been collected by many kinds of e-commerce websites selling products, services, hotel rooms, tickets and so on. Each website collects its own customer reviews. The reviews can be crawled, collected from those websites and stored as big data. Text analysis techniques can be used to analyze that data to produce summarized information, such as customer opinions. Then, these opinions can be published by independent service provider websites and used to help customers in choosing the most suitable products or services. As the opinions are analyzed from big data of reviews originated from many websites, it is expected that the results are more trusted and accurate. Indonesian customers write reviews in Indonesian language, which comes with its own structures and uniqueness. We found that most of the reviews are expressed with “daily language”, which is informal, do not follow the correct grammar, have many abbreviations and slangs or non-formal words. Hadoop is an emerging platform aimed for storing and analyzing big data in distributed systems. A Hadoop cluster consists of master and slave nodes/computers operated in a network. Hadoop comes with distributed file system (HDFS) and MapReduce framework for supporting parallel computation. However, MapReduce has weakness (i.e. inefficient) for iterative computations, specifically, the cost of reading/writing data (I/O cost) is high. Given this fact, we conclude that MapReduce function is best adapted for “one-pass” computation. In this research, we develop an efficient technique for extracting or mining opinions from big data of Indonesian reviews, which is based on MapReduce with one-pass computation. In designing the algorithm, we avoid iterative computation and instead adopt a “look up table” technique. The stages of the proposed technique are: (1) Crawling the data reviews from websites; (2) cleaning and finding root words from the raw reviews; (3) computing the frequency of the meaningful opinion words; (4) analyzing customers sentiments towards defined objects. The experiments for evaluating the performance of the technique were conducted on a Hadoop cluster with 14 slave nodes. The results show that the proposed technique (stage 2 to 4) discovers useful opinions, is capable of processing big data efficiently and scalable.

Keywords: big data analysis, Hadoop MapReduce, analyzing text data, mining Indonesian reviews

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2310 Distributed Leadership: An Alternative at Higher Education Institutions in Turkey

Authors: Sakine Sincer


In today’s world, which takes further steps towards globalization each and every day, societies and cultures are re-shaped while the demands of the changing world are described once more. In this atmosphere, where the speed of change sometimes reaches a terrifying point, it is possible to state that effective leaders are needed more than ever in order to meet the above-stated needs and demands. The question of what effective leadership is keeping its importance on the agenda. Most of the answers to this question has mostly focused on the approach of distributed leadership recently. This study aims at analyzing the applicability of distributed leadership, which is accepted to be an example of effective leadership that can meet the needs of global world, which is changing more and more rapidly nowadays, at higher education institutions in Turkey. Within the framework of this study, first of all, the historical development of distributed leadership is addressed, and then a theoretical framework is drawn for this approach by means of underlying what distributed leadership is and is not. After that, different points of view about the approach are laid out within the borders of opinions expressed by Gronn and Spillane, who are accepted to be the most famous advocators of distributed leadership. Then, exemplar practices of distributed leadership are included in the study before drawing attention to the strengths and weaknesses of this approach. Lastly, the applicability of distributed leadership at higher education institutions in Turkey is analyzed. This study is carried out with the method of literature review by resorting to first- and second-hand sources on distributed leadership.

Keywords: globalization, school leadership, distributed leadership, higher education, management

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2309 An Experimental Testbed Using Virtual Containers for Distributed Systems

Authors: Parth Patel, Ying Zhu


Distributed systems have become ubiquitous, and they continue their growth through a range of services. With advances in resource virtualization technology such as Virtual Machines (VM) and software containers, developers no longer require high-end servers to test and develop distributed software. Even in commercial production, virtualization has streamlined the process of rapid deployment and service management. This paper introduces a distributed systems testbed that utilizes virtualization to enable distributed systems development on commodity computers. The testbed can be used to develop new services, implement theoretical distributed systems concepts for understanding, and experiment with virtual network topologies. We show its versatility through two case studies that utilize the testbed for implementing a theoretical algorithm and developing our own methodology to find high-risk edges. The results of using the testbed for these use cases have proven the effectiveness and versatility of this testbed across a range of scenarios.

Keywords: distributed systems, experimental testbed, peer-to-peer networks, virtual container technology

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2308 A Novel Probablistic Strategy for Modeling Photovoltaic Based Distributed Generators

Authors: Engy A. Mohamed, Y. G. Hegazy


This paper presents a novel algorithm for modeling photovoltaic based distributed generators for the purpose of optimal planning of distribution networks. The proposed algorithm utilizes sequential Monte Carlo method in order to accurately consider the stochastic nature of photovoltaic based distributed generators. The proposed algorithm is implemented in MATLAB environment and the results obtained are presented and discussed.

Keywords: comulative distribution function, distributed generation, Monte Carlo

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2307 Advanced Simulation and Enhancement for Distributed and Energy Efficient Scheduling for IEEE802.11s Wireless Enhanced Distributed Channel Access Networks

Authors: Fisayo G. Ojo, Shamala K. Subramaniam, Zuriati Ahmad Zukarnain


As technology is advancing and wireless applications are becoming dependable sources, while the physical layer of the applications are been embedded into tiny layer, so the more the problem on energy efficiency and consumption. This paper reviews works done in recent years in wireless applications and distributed computing, we discovered that applications are becoming dependable, and resource allocation sharing with other applications in distributed computing. Applications embedded in distributed system are suffering from power stability and efficiency. In the reviews, we also prove that discrete event simulation has been left behind untouched and not been adapted into distributed system as a simulation technique in scheduling of each event that took place in the development of distributed computing applications. We shed more lights on some researcher proposed techniques and results in our reviews to prove the unsatisfactory results, and to show that more work still have to be done on issues of energy efficiency in wireless applications, and congestion in distributed computing.

Keywords: discrete event simulation (DES), distributed computing, energy efficiency (EE), internet of things (IOT), quality of service (QOS), user equipment (UE), wireless mesh network (WMN), wireless sensor network (wsn), worldwide interoperability for microwave access x (WiMAX)

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2306 An Efficient FPGA Realization of Fir Filter Using Distributed Arithmetic

Authors: M. Iruleswari, A. Jeyapaul Murugan


Most fundamental part used in many Digital Signal Processing (DSP) application is a Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter because of its linear phase, stability and regular structure. Designing a high-speed and hardware efficient FIR filter is a very challenging task as the complexity increases with the filter order. In most applications the higher order filters are required but the memory usage of the filter increases exponentially with the order of the filter. Using multipliers occupy a large chip area and need high computation time. Multiplier-less memory-based techniques have gained popularity over past two decades due to their high throughput processing capability and reduced dynamic power consumption. This paper describes the design and implementation of highly efficient Look-Up Table (LUT) based circuit for the implementation of FIR filter using Distributed arithmetic algorithm. It is a multiplier less FIR filter. The LUT can be subdivided into a number of LUT to reduce the memory usage of the LUT for higher order filter. Analysis on the performance of various filter orders with different address length is done using Xilinx 14.5 synthesis tool. The proposed design provides less latency, less memory usage and high throughput.

Keywords: finite impulse response, distributed arithmetic, field programmable gate array, look-up table

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2305 Coordinated Voltage Control in Radial Distribution System with Distributed Generators Using Sensitivity Analysis

Authors: Anubhav Shrivastava Shivarudraswamy, Bhat Lakshya


Distributed generation has indeed become a major area of interest in recent years. Distributed generation can address a large number of loads in a power line and hence has better efficiency over the conventional methods. However, there are certain drawbacks associated with it, an increase in voltage being the major one. This paper addresses the voltage control at the buses for an IEEE 30 bus system by regulating reactive power. For carrying out the analysis, the suitable location for placing distributed generators (DG) is identified through load flow analysis and seeing where the voltage profile is dipping. MATLAB programming is used to regulate the voltage at all buses within +/- 5% of the base value even after the introduction of DGs. Three methods for regulation of voltage are discussed. A sensitivity based analysis is then carried out to determine the priority among the various methods listed in the paper.

Keywords: distributed generators, distributed system, reactive power, voltage control, sensitivity analysis

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2304 Stochastic Control of Decentralized Singularly Perturbed Systems

Authors: Walid S. Alfuhaid, Saud A. Alghamdi, John M. Watkins, M. Edwin Sawan


Designing a controller for stochastic decentralized interconnected large scale systems usually involves a high degree of complexity and computation ability. Noise, observability, and controllability of all system states, connectivity, and channel bandwidth are other constraints to design procedures for distributed large scale systems. The quasi-steady state model investigated in this paper is a reduced order model of the original system using singular perturbation techniques. This paper results in an optimal control synthesis to design an observer based feedback controller by standard stochastic control theory techniques using Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) approach and Kalman filter design with less complexity and computation requirements. Numerical example is given at the end to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

Keywords: decentralized, optimal control, output, singular perturb

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2303 Distributed Processing for Content Based Lecture Video Retrieval on Hadoop Framework

Authors: U. S. N. Raju, Kothuri Sai Kiran, Meena G. Kamal, Vinay Nikhil Pabba, Suresh Kanaparthi


There is huge amount of lecture video data available for public use, and many more lecture videos are being created and uploaded every day. Searching for videos on required topics from this huge database is a challenging task. Therefore, an efficient method for video retrieval is needed. An approach for automated video indexing and video search in large lecture video archives is presented. As the amount of video lecture data is huge, it is very inefficient to do the processing in a centralized computation framework. Hence, Hadoop Framework for distributed computing for Big Video Data is used. First, step in the process is automatic video segmentation and key-frame detection to offer a visual guideline for the video content navigation. In the next step, we extract textual metadata by applying video Optical Character Recognition (OCR) technology on key-frames. The OCR and detected slide text line types are adopted for keyword extraction, by which both video- and segment-level keywords are extracted for content-based video browsing and search. The performance of the indexing process can be improved for a large database by using distributed computing on Hadoop framework.

Keywords: video lectures, big video data, video retrieval, hadoop

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2302 Business-Intelligence Mining of Large Decentralized Multimedia Datasets with a Distributed Multi-Agent System

Authors: Karima Qayumi, Alex Norta


The rapid generation of high volume and a broad variety of data from the application of new technologies pose challenges for the generation of business-intelligence. Most organizations and business owners need to extract data from multiple sources and apply analytical methods for the purposes of developing their business. Therefore, the recently decentralized data management environment is relying on a distributed computing paradigm. While data are stored in highly distributed systems, the implementation of distributed data-mining techniques is a challenge. The aim of this technique is to gather knowledge from every domain and all the datasets stemming from distributed resources. As agent technologies offer significant contributions for managing the complexity of distributed systems, we consider this for next-generation data-mining processes. To demonstrate agent-based business intelligence operations, we use agent-oriented modeling techniques to develop a new artifact for mining massive datasets.

Keywords: agent-oriented modeling (AOM), business intelligence model (BIM), distributed data mining (DDM), multi-agent system (MAS)

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2301 Correction of Frequent English Writing Errors by Using Coded Indirect Corrective Feedback and Error Treatment

Authors: Chaiwat Tantarangsee


The purposes of this study are: 1) to study the frequent English writing errors of students registering the course: Reading and Writing English for Academic Purposes II, and 2) to find out the results of writing error correction by using coded indirect corrective feedback and writing error treatments. Samples include 28 2nd year English Major students, Faculty of Education, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Tool for experimental study includes the lesson plan of the course; Reading and Writing English for Academic Purposes II, and tool for data collection includes 4 writing tests of short texts. The research findings disclose that frequent English writing errors found in this course comprise 7 types of grammatical errors, namely Fragment sentence, Subject-verb agreement, Wrong form of verb tense, Singular or plural noun endings, Run-ons sentence, Wrong form of verb pattern and Lack of parallel structure. Moreover, it is found that the results of writing error correction by using coded indirect corrective feedback and error treatment reveal the overall reduction of the frequent English writing errors and the increase of students’ achievement in the writing of short texts with the significance at .05.

Keywords: coded indirect corrective feedback, error correction, error treatment, frequent English writing errors

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2300 Big Data Analysis with Rhipe

Authors: Byung Ho Jung, Ji Eun Shin, Dong Hoon Lim


Rhipe that integrates R and Hadoop environment made it possible to process and analyze massive amounts of data using a distributed processing environment. In this paper, we implemented multiple regression analysis using Rhipe with various data sizes of actual data. Experimental results for comparing the performance of our Rhipe with stats and biglm packages available on bigmemory, showed that our Rhipe was more fast than other packages owing to paralleling processing with increasing the number of map tasks as the size of data increases. We also compared the computing speeds of pseudo-distributed and fully-distributed modes for configuring Hadoop cluster. The results showed that fully-distributed mode was faster than pseudo-distributed mode, and computing speeds of fully-distributed mode were faster as the number of data nodes increases.

Keywords: big data, Hadoop, Parallel regression analysis, R, Rhipe

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2299 Performance Evaluation of Distributed and Co-Located MIMO LTE Physical Layer Using Wireless Open-Access Research Platform

Authors: Ishak Suleiman, Ahmad Kamsani Samingan, Yeoh Chun Yeow, Abdul Aziz Bin Abdul Rahman


In this paper, we evaluate the benefits of distributed 4x4 MIMO LTE downlink systems compared to that of the co-located 4x4 MIMO LTE downlink system. The performance evaluation was carried out experimentally by using Wireless Open-Access Research Platform (WARP), where the comparison between the 4x4 MIMO LTE transmission downlink system in distributed and co-located techniques was examined. The measured Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) results showed that the distributed technique achieved better system performance compared to the co-located arrangement.

Keywords: multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO), distributed MIMO, co-located MIMO, LTE

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