Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5586

Search results for: cementitious materials

5586 XRD and Image Analysis of Low Carbon Type Recycled Cement Using Waste Cementitious Powder

Authors: Hyeonuk Shin, Hun Song, Yongsik Chu, Jongkyu Lee, Dongcheon Park


Although much current research has been devoted to reusing concrete in the form of recycled aggregate, insufficient attention has been given to researching the utilization of waste concrete powder, which constitutes 20 % or more of waste concrete and therefore the majority of waste cementitious powder is currently being discarded or buried in landfills. This study consists of foundational research for the purpose of reusing waste cementitious powder in the form of recycled cement that can answer the need for low carbon green growth. Progressing beyond the conventional practice of using the waste cementitious powder as inert filler material, this study contributes to the aim of manufacturing high value added materials that exploits the chemical properties of the waste cementitious powder, by presenting a pre-treatment method for the material and an optimal method of proportioning the mix of materials to develop a low carbon type of recycled cement.

Keywords: Low carbon type cement, Waste cementitious powder, Waste recycling

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5585 Analyzing the Effect of Biomass and Cementitious Materials on Air Content in Concrete

Authors: Mohammed Albahttiti, Eliana Aguilar


A push for sustainability in the concrete industry is increasing. Cow manure itself is becoming a problem and having the potential solution to use it in concrete as a cementitious replacement would be an ideal solution. For cow manure ash to become a well-rounded substitute, it would have to meet the right criteria to progress in becoming a more popular idea in the concrete industry. This investigation primarily focuses on how the replacement of cow manure ash affects the air content and air void distribution in concrete. In order to assess these parameters, the Super Air Meter (SAM) was used to test concrete in this research. In addition, multiple additional tests were performed, which included the slump test, temperature, and compression test. The strength results of the manure ash in concrete were promising. The manure showed compression strength results that are similar to that of the other supplementary cementitious materials tested. On the other hand, concrete samples made with cow manure ash showed 2% air content loss and an increasing SAM number proportional to cow manure content starting at 0.38 and increasing to 0.8. In conclusion, while the use of cow manure results in loss of air content, it results in compressive strengths similar to other supplementary cementitious materials.

Keywords: air content, biomass ash, cow manure ash, super air meter, supplementary cementitious materials

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5584 The Effect of Fly Ash and Natural Pozzolans on the Quality of Passive Oxide Film Developed on Steel Reinforcement Bars

Authors: M.S. Ashraf, Raja Rizwan Hussain, A. M. Alhozaimy


The effect of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) with concrete pore solution on the protective properties of the oxide films that form on reinforcing steel bars has been experimentally investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel Scan. The tests were conducted on oxide films grown in saturated calcium hydroxide solutions that included different representative amounts of NaOH and KOH. In addition to that, commonly used supplementary cementitious materials (natural pozzolan and fly ash) were also added. The results of electrochemical tests show that supplementary cementitious materials do have an effect on the protective properties of the passive oxide film. In particular, natural pozzolans has been shown to have a highly positive influence on the film quality. Fly ash also increases the protective qualities of the passive film.

Keywords: supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs), passive film, EIS, Tafel scan, rebar, concrete, simulated concrete pore solution (SPS)

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5583 Analysis of the Recovery of Burnility Index and Reduction of CO2 for Cement Manufacturing Utilizing Waste Cementitious Powder as Alternative Raw Material of Limestone

Authors: Kwon Eunhee, Park Dongcheon, Jung Jaemin


In countries around the world, environmental regulations are being strengthened, and Korea is no exception to this trend, which means that environment pollution and the environmental load have recently become a significant issue. For this reason, in this study limestone was replaced with cementitious powder to reduce the volume of construction waste as well as the emission of carbon dioxide caused by Tal-carbonate reaction. The research found that cementitious powder can be used as a substitute for limestone. However, the mix proportions of fine aggregate and powder included in the cementitious powder appear to have a great effect on substitution. Thus, future research should focus on developing a technology that can effectively separate and discharge fine aggregate and powder in the cementitious powder.

Keywords: waste cementitious powder, fine aggregate powder, CO2 emission, decarbonation reaction, calcining process

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5582 Torsional Behavior of Reinforced Concrete (RC) Beams Strengthened by Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Materials– a Review

Authors: Sifatullah Bahij, Safiullah Omary, Francoise Feugeas, Amanullah Faqiri


Reinforced concrete (RC) is commonly used material in the construction sector, due to its low-cost and durability, and allowed the architectures and designers to construct structural members with different shapes and finishing. Usually, RC members are designed to sustain service loads efficiently without any destruction. However, because of the faults in the design phase, overloading, materials deficiencies, and environmental effects, most of the structural elements will require maintenance and repairing over their lifetime. Therefore, strengthening and repair of the deteriorated and/or existing RC structures are much important to extend their life cycle. Various techniques are existing to retrofit and strengthen RC structural elements such as steel plate bonding, external pre-stressing, section enlargement, fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) wrapping, etc. Although these configurations can successfully improve the load bearing capacity of the beams, they are still prone to corrosion damage which results in failure of the strengthened elements. Therefore, many researchers used fiber reinforced cementitious materials due to its low-cost, corrosion resistance, and result in improvement of the tensile and fatigue behaviors. Various types of cementitious materials have been used to strengthen or repair structural elements. This paper has summarized to accumulate data regarding on previously published research papers concerning the torsional behaviors of RC beams strengthened by various types of cementitious materials.

Keywords: reinforced concrete beams, strengthening techniques, cementitious materials, torsional strength, twisting angle

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5581 Effect of Temperature on the Properties of Cement Paste Modified with Nanoparticles

Authors: Karine Pimenta Teixeira, Jessica Flores, Isadora PerdigãO Rocha, Leticia De Sá Carneiro, Mahsa Kamali, Ali Ghahremaninezhad


The advent of nanotechnology has enabled innovative solutions towards improving the behavior of infrastructure materials. Nanomaterials have the potential to revolutionize the construction industry by improving the performance and durability of construction materials, as well as imparting new functionalities to these materials. Due to variability in the environmental temperature during mixing and curing of cementitious materials in practice, it is important to understand how curing temperature influences the behavior of cementitious materials. In addition, high temperature curing is relevant in applications such as oil well cement and precast industry. Knowledge of the influence of temperature on the performance of cementitious materials modified with nanoparticles is important in the nanoengineering of cementitious materials in applications such as oil well cement and precast industry. This presentation aims to investigate the influence of temperature on the hydration, mechanical properties and durability of cementitious materials modified with TiO2 nanoparticles. It was found that temperature improved the early hydration. The cement pastes cured at high temperatures showed an increase in the compressive strength at early age but the strength gain decreased at late ages. The electrical resistivity of the cement pastes cured at high temperatures was shown to decrease more noticeably at late ages compared to that of the room temperature cured cement paste. SEM examination indicated that hydration product was more uniformly distributed in the microstructure of the cement paste cured at room temperature compared to the cement pastes cured at high temperature.

Keywords: cement paste, nanoparticles, temperature, hydration

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5580 Experimental Investigation of Cementitious Materials in Low Strength Range for Sustainability and Affordability

Authors: Mulubrhan Berihu, Supratic Gupta, Adisu Demmewoz


Due to the design versatility, availability, and cost-efficiency, concrete is continuing to be the most used construction material on earth. However, the production of Portland cement, the primary component of concrete mix, is causing to have a serious effect on environmental and economic impacts. This shows there is a need to study using of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs). The most commonly used supplementary cementitious materials are wastes and the use of these industrial waste products has technical, economic and environmental benefits besides the reduction of CO2 emission from cement production. This paper aims to document the effect on the strength property of concrete due to the use of low cement by maximizing supplementary cementitious materials like fly ash. The amount of cement content was below 250 kg/m3 and in all the mixes, the quantity powder (cement + fly ash) is almost kept at about 500 kg. According to this seven different cement content (250 kg/m3, 195 kg/m3, 150 kg/m3, 125 kg/m3, 100 kg/m3, 85 kg/m3, 70 kg/m3) with different amount of replacement of SCMs was conducted. The mix proportion was prepared by keeping the water content constant and varying the cement content, SCMs and water to binder ratio. Based on the different mix proportions of pozzolana (Fly ash), a range of mix designs was formulated. The test results showed that using up to 85 kg/m3 of cement is possible for plain concrete works like hollow block concrete to achieve 9.8 Mpa and the experimental results indicate that strength is a function of w/b.

Keywords: efficiency factor, cement content, compressive strength, mix proportion, w/c ratio, water permeability, SCMs

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5579 The Effect of Supplementary Cementitious Materials on the Quality of Passive Oxide Film Developed on Steel Reinforcement Bars in Simulated Concrete Pore Solution

Authors: M. S. Ashraf, Raja Rizwan Hussain, A. M. Alhozaimy, A. I. Al-Negheimish


The effect of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) with concrete pore solution on the protective properties of the oxide films that form on reinforcing steel bars has been experimentally investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel Scan. The tests were conducted on oxide films grown in saturated calcium hydroxide solutions that included different representative amounts of NaOH and KOH which are the compounds commonly observed in ordinary portland cement concrete pore solution. In addition to that, commonly used mineral admixtures (silica fume, natural pozzolan and fly ash) were also added to the simulated concrete pore solution. The results of electrochemical tests show that supplementary cementitious materials do have an effect on the protective properties of the passive oxide film. In particular, silica fume has been shown to have a negative influence on the film quality though it has positive effect on the concrete properties. Fly ash and natural pozzolan increase the protective qualities of the passive film. The research data in this area is very limited in the past and needed further investigation.

Keywords: supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs), passive film, EIS, Tafel scan, rebar, concrete, simulated concrete pore solution (SPS)

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5578 Effects of Supplementary Cementitious Materials on Early Age Thermal Properties of Cement Paste

Authors: Maryam Ghareh Chaei, Masuzyo Chilwesa, Ali Akbarnezhad, Arnaud Castel, Redmond Lloyd, Stephen Foster


Cement hydration is an exothermic chemical reaction generally leading to a rise in concrete’s temperature. This internal heating of concrete may, in turn, lead to a temperature difference between the hotter interior and the cooler exterior of concrete and thus differential thermal stresses in early ages which could be particularly significant in mass concrete. Such differential thermal stresses result in early age thermal cracking of concrete when exceeding the concrete’s tensile strength. The extent of temperature rise and thus early age differential thermal stresses is generally a function of hydration heat intensity, thermal properties of concrete and size of the concrete element. Both hydration heat intensity and thermal properties of concrete may vary considerably with variations in the type cementitious materials and other constituents. With this in mind, partial replacement of cement with supplementary cementitious materials including fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag has been investigated widely as an effective strategy to moderate the heat generation rate and thus reduce the risk of early age thermal cracking of concrete. However, there is currently a lack of adequate literature on effect of partial replacement of cement with fly ash and/or ground granulated blast furnace slag on the thermal properties of concrete. This paper presents the results of an experimental conducted to evaluate the effect of addition of varying percentages of fly ash (up to 60%) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (up to 50%) on the heat capacity and thermal conductivity of early age cement paste. The water to cementitious materials ratio is kept 0.45 for all the paste samples. The results of the experimental studies were used in a numerical analysis performed using Comsol Multiphysics to highlight the effects of variations in the thermal properties of concrete, due to variations in the type of aggregate and content of supplemenraty cementitious materials, on the risk of early age cracking of a concrete raft.

Keywords: thermal diffusivity, early age thermal cracking, concrete, supplementary cementitious materials

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5577 Investigation on Strength Properties of Concrete Using Industrial Waste as Supplementary Cementitious Material

Authors: Ravi Prasad Darapureddi


The use of industrial waste in making concrete reduce the consumption of natural resources and pollution of the environment. These materials possess problems of disposal and health hazards. An attempt has been made to use paper and thermal industrial wastes such as lime sludge and flyash. Present investigation is aimed at the utilization of Lime Sludge and Flyash as Supplementary Cementitious Materials (SCM) and influence of these materials on strength properties of concrete. Thermal industry waste fly ash is mixed with lime sludge and used as a replacement to cement at different proportions to obtain the strength properties and compared with ordinary concrete prepared without any additives. Grade of concrete prepared was M₂₅ designed according to Indian standard method. Cement has been replaced by paper industry waste and fly ash in different proportions such as 0% (normal concrete), 10%, 20%, and 30% by weight. Mechanical properties such as compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and flexural strength were assessed. Test results indicated that the use of lime sludge and Fly ash in concrete had improved the properties of concrete. Better results were observed at 20% replacement of cement with these additives.

Keywords: supplementary cementitious materials, lime sludge, fly ash, strength properties

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5576 Using Different Methods of Nanofabrication as a New Way to Activate Cement Replacement Materials in Concrete Industry

Authors: Azadeh Askarinejad, Parham Hayati, Reza Parchami, Parisa Hayati


One of the most important industries and building operations causing carbon dioxide emission is the cement and concrete related industries so that cement production (including direct fuel for mining and transporting raw material) consumes approximately 6 million Btus per metric-ton, and releases about 1 metric-ton of CO2. Reducing the consumption of cement with simultaneous utilizing waste materials as cement replacement is preferred for reasons of environmental protection. Blended cements consist of different supplementary cementitious materials (SCM), such as fly ash, silica fume, Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS), limestone, natural pozzolans, etc. these materials should be chemically activated to show effective cementitious properties. The present review article reports three different methods of nanofabrication that were used for activation of two types of SCMs.

Keywords: nanofabrication, cement replacement materials, activation, concrete

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5575 Sustainability of Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Rashad Al Araj, Adil K. Tamimi


Concrete, despite being one of the most produced materials in the world, still has weaknesses and drawbacks. Significant concern of the cementitious materials in structural applications is their quasi-brittle behavior, which causes the material to crack and lose its durability. One of the very recently proposed mitigations for this problem is the implementation of nanotechnology in the concrete mix by adding carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to it. CNTs can enhance the critical mechanical properties of concrete as a structural material. Thus, this paper demonstrates a state-of-the-art review of reinforcing concrete with CNTs, emphasizing on the structural performance. It also goes over the properties of CNTs alone, the present methods and costs associated with producing them, the possible special applications of concretes reinforced with CNTs, the key challenges and drawbacks that this new technology still encounters, and the most reliable practices and methodologies to produce CNT-reinforced concrete in the lab. This work has shown that the addition of CNTs to the concrete mix in percentages as low as 0.25% weight of cement could increase the flexural strength and toughness of concrete by more than 45% and 25%, respectively, and enhance other durability-related properties, given that an effective dispersion of CNTs in the cementitious mix is achieved. Since nano reinforcement for cementitious materials is a new technology, many challenges have to be tackled before it becomes practiced at the mass level.

Keywords: sustainability, carbon nano tube, microsilica, concrete

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5574 Damage in Cementitious Materials Exposed to Sodium Chloride Solution and Thermal Cycling: The Effect of Using Supplementary Cementitious Materials

Authors: Fadi Althoey, Yaghoob Farnam


Sodium chloride (NaCl) can interact with the tricalcium aluminate (C3A) and its hydrates in concrete matrix. This interaction can result in formation of a harmful chemical phase as the temperature changes. It is thought that this chemical phase is embroiled in the premature concrete deterioration in the cold regions. This work examines the potential formation of the harmful chemical phase in various pastes prepared by using different types of ordinary portland cement (OPC) and supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs). The quantification of the chemical phase was done by using a low temperature differential scanning calorimetry. The results showed that the chemical phase formation can be reduced by using Type V cement (low content of C3A). The use of SCMs showed different behaviors on the formation of the chemical phase. Slag and Class F fly ash can reduce the chemical phase by the dilution of cement whereas silica fume can reduce the amount of the chemical phase by dilution and pozzolanic activates. Interestingly, the use of Class C fly ash has a negative effect on concrete exposed to NaCl through increasing the formation of the chemical phase.

Keywords: concrete, damage, chemcial phase, NaCl, SCMs

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5573 Application of Biomass Ashes as Supplementary Cementitious Materials in the Cement Mortar Production

Authors: S. Šupić, M. Malešev, V. Radonjanin, M. Radeka, M. Laban


The production of low cost and environmentally friendly products represents an important step for developing countries. Biomass is one of the largest renewable energy sources, and Serbia is among the top European countries in terms of the amount of available and unused biomass. Substituting cement with the ashes obtained by the combustion of biomass would reduce the negative impact of concrete industry on the environment and would provide a waste valorization by the reuse of this type of by-product in mortars and concretes manufacture. The study contains data on physical properties, chemical characteristics and pozzolanic properties of obtained biomass ashes: wheat straw ash and mixture of wheat and soya straw ash in Serbia, which were, later, used as supplementary cementitious materials in preparation of mortars. Experimental research of influence of biomass ashes on physical and mechanical properties of cement mortars was conducted. The results indicate that the biomass ashes can be successfully used in mortars as substitutes of cement without compromising their physical and mechanical performances.

Keywords: biomass, ash, cementitious material, mortar

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5572 Characterization of Calcined Clay Blended Self Compacting Concrete-Correlation between Super-Plasticizer Dosage and Self Compacting Concrete Properties

Authors: Kumator Josiphiah Taku


Sustainability in construction is essential to the economic construction and can be achieved by the use of locally available construction materials. This research work, thus, uses locally available materials –calcined clay and Sandcrete SPR-300 superplasticizer in the production of Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) by investigating the correlation between the superplasticizer dosage and the fresh and hardened states properties of a grade 50 SCC made by incorporating a Calcined Clay (CC) – Portland Limestone Cement (PLC) blend as the cementitious matter at 20% replacement of PLC with CC and using CC as filler. The superplasticizer dosage was varied from 0.4 to 3.0% by weight of cementitious material and the slump, v-funnel, L-box and strength parameters investigated. The result shows a positive correlation between the increased dosage of the superplasticizer and the fresh and hardened states properties of the SCC up to 2% dosage. The J¬Spread¬, t¬500J¬, Slump flow, L-box H¬2¬/H¬1 ¬ratio and strength, all increases with SP dosage while the V-funnel flow decreased with SP dosage. Overall, SP ratio of 0.5 to 2.0 can be used in improving the properties of SCC produced using calcined clay both as filler and cementitious material.

Keywords: calcined clay, compressive strength, fresh-state properties of SCC, self compacting concrete, superplasticizer dosage

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5571 The Development of a Low Carbon Cementitious Material Produced from Cement, Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag and High Calcium Fly Ash

Authors: Ali Shubbar, Hassnen M. Jafer, Anmar Dulaimi, William Atherton, Ali Al-Rifaie


This research represents experimental work for investigation of the influence of utilising Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS) and High Calcium Fly Ash (HCFA) as a partial replacement for Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and produce a low carbon cementitious material with comparable compressive strength to OPC. Firstly, GGBS was used as a partial replacement to OPC to produce a binary blended cementitious material (BBCM); the replacements were 0, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50% by the dry mass of OPC. The optimum BBCM was mixed with HCFA to produce a ternary blended cementitious material (TBCM). The replacements were 0, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50% by the dry mass of BBCM. The compressive strength at ages of 7 and 28 days was utilised for assessing the performance of the test specimens in comparison to the reference mixture using 100% OPC as a binder. The results showed that the optimum BBCM was the mix produced from 25% GGBS and 75% OPC with compressive strength of 32.2 MPa at the age of 28 days. In addition, the results of the TBCM have shown that the addition of 10, 15, 20 and 25% of HCFA to the optimum BBCM improved the compressive strength by 22.7, 11.3, 5.2 and 2.1% respectively at 28 days. However, the replacement of optimum BBCM with more than 25% HCFA have showed a gradual drop in the compressive strength in comparison to the control mix. TBCM with 25% HCFA was considered to be the optimum as it showed better compressive strength than the control mix and at the same time reduced the amount of cement to 56%. Reducing the cement content to 56% will contribute to decrease the cost of construction materials, provide better compressive strength and also reduce the CO2 emissions into the atmosphere.

Keywords: cementitious material, compressive strength, GGBS, HCFA, OPC

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5570 The Influence of Silica on the Properties of Cementitious Composites

Authors: Eva Stefanovska, Estefania Cuenca, Aleksandra Momirov, Monika Fidanchevska, Liberato Ferrara, Emilija Fidanchevski


Silica is used in construction materials as a part of natural raw materials or as an additive in powder form (micro and nano dimensions). SiO₂ particles in cement act as centers of nucleation, as a filler or as pozzolan material. In this regard, silica improves the microstructure of cementitious composites, increases the mechanical properties, and finally also results into improved durability of the final products. Improved properties of cementitious composites may lead to better structural efficiency, which, together with increased durability, results into increased sustainability signature of structures made with this kind of materials. The aim of the present work was to investigate the influence of silica on the properties of cement. Fly ash (as received and mechanically activated) and synthetized silica (sol-gel method using TEOS as precursor) was used in the investigation as source of silica. Four types of cement mixtures were investigated (reference cement paste, cement paste with addition of 15wt.% as-received fly ash, cement paste with 15 wt.% mechanically activated fly ash and cement paste with 14wt.% mechanically activated fly ash and 1 wt.% silica). The influence of silica on setting time and mechanical properties (2, 7 and 28 days) was followed. As a matter of fact it will be shown that cement paste with composition 85 wt. % cement, 14 wt.% mechanically activated fly ash and 1 wt. % SiO₂ obtained by the sol-gel method was the best performing one, with increased compressive and flexure strength by 9 and 10 % respectively, as compared to the reference mixture. Acknowledgements: 'COST Action CA15202,'

Keywords: cement, fly ash, mechanical properties, silica, sol-gel

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5569 Prediction of Mechanical Strength of Multiscale Hybrid Reinforced Cementitious Composite

Authors: Salam Alrekabi, A. B. Cundy, Mohammed Haloob Al-Majidi


Novel multiscale hybrid reinforced cementitious composites based on carbon nanotubes (MHRCC-CNT), and carbon nanofibers (MHRCC-CNF) are new types of cement-based material fabricated with micro steel fibers and nanofilaments, featuring superior strain hardening, ductility, and energy absorption. This study focused on established models to predict the compressive strength, and direct and splitting tensile strengths of the produced cementitious composites. The analysis was carried out based on the experimental data presented by the previous author’s study, regression analysis, and the established models that available in the literature. The obtained models showed small differences in the predictions and target values with experimental verification indicated that the estimation of the mechanical properties could be achieved with good accuracy.

Keywords: multiscale hybrid reinforced cementitious composites, carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, mechanical strength prediction

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5568 Study of the Effect of Using Corn-Cob Ash on Mortar and Concrete Properties: Case Study of Sudan

Authors: Taghried I. M. Abdel-Magid, Gheida T. A. Al-Khelifa, Ahmed O. Adam, Esra G. A. Mohamed, Saeed M. S. Saeed


The use of pozzolanic materials in concrete industry is facing challenges due to unpredictable behavior of natural materials. Corncob ash (CCA) is considered to be one of the promising plant-based materials that possess cementitious properties. Corn is one of the major planted crops in Sudan. Corncob is considered as waste and normally thrown away or burnt. The main purpose of this research was to test the hypothesis that CCA can sufficiently replace cement in a concrete mixture or a cement mortar. In this study, CCA was used to replace cement in mortar in three percentages: 0, 20, and 25%. The effect of this replacement was found to be positive in terms of long-term compressive strength, while not as such in short-term compressive strength. In the concrete mix, the introduction of CCA was found to have a positive impact on the slump test characteristics, whereas the early and late compressive strengths deteriorated by approximately 30%. More research is needed in this area to upgrade the efficient use of CCA in cement mortar and concrete properties.

Keywords: cementitious materials, compressive strength, corncob ash, pozzolanic materials

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5567 Predicting Long-Term Performance of Concrete under Sulfate Attack

Authors: Elakneswaran Yogarajah, Toyoharu Nawa, Eiji Owaki


Cement-based materials have been using in various reinforced concrete structural components as well as in nuclear waste repositories. The sulfate attack has been an environmental issue for cement-based materials exposed to sulfate bearing groundwater or soils, and it plays an important role in the durability of concrete structures. The reaction between penetrating sulfate ions and cement hydrates can result in swelling, spalling and cracking of cement matrix in concrete. These processes induce a reduction of mechanical properties and a decrease of service life of an affected structure. It has been identified that the precipitation of secondary sulfate bearing phases such as ettringite, gypsum, and thaumasite can cause the damage. Furthermore, crystallization of soluble salts such as sodium sulfate crystals induces degradation due to formation and phase changes. Crystallization of mirabilite (Na₂SO₄:10H₂O) and thenardite (Na₂SO₄) or their phase changes (mirabilite to thenardite or vice versa) due to temperature or sodium sulfate concentration do not involve any chemical interaction with cement hydrates. Over the past couple of decades, an intensive work has been carried out on sulfate attack in cement-based materials. However, there are several uncertainties still exist regarding the mechanism for the damage of concrete in sulfate environments. In this study, modelling work has been conducted to investigate the chemical degradation of cementitious materials in various sulfate environments. Both internal and external sulfate attack are considered for the simulation. In the internal sulfate attack, hydrate assemblage and pore solution chemistry of co-hydrating Portland cement (PC) and slag mixing with sodium sulfate solution are calculated to determine the degradation of the PC and slag-blended cementitious materials. Pitzer interactions coefficients were used to calculate the activity coefficients of solution chemistry at high ionic strength. The deterioration mechanism of co-hydrating cementitious materials with 25% of Na₂SO₄ by weight is the formation of mirabilite crystals and ettringite. Their formation strongly depends on sodium sulfate concentration and temperature. For the external sulfate attack, the deterioration of various types of cementitious materials under external sulfate ingress is simulated through reactive transport model. The reactive transport model is verified with experimental data in terms of phase assemblage of various cementitious materials with spatial distribution for different sulfate solution. Finally, the reactive transport model is used to predict the long-term performance of cementitious materials exposed to 10% of Na₂SO₄ for 1000 years. The dissolution of cement hydrates and secondary formation of sulfate-bearing products mainly ettringite are the dominant degradation mechanisms, but not the sodium sulfate crystallization.

Keywords: thermodynamic calculations, reactive transport, radioactive waste disposal, PHREEQC

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5566 The Effect of Carbon Nanofibers on the Electrical Resistance of Cementitious Composites

Authors: Reza Pourjafar, Morteza Sohrabi-Gilani, Mostafa Jamshidi Avanaki, Malek Mohammad Ranjbar


Cementitious composites like concrete, are the most widely used materials in civil infrastructures. Numerous investigations on fiber’s effect on the properties of cement-based composites have been conducted in the last few decades. The use of fibers such as carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in these materials is an ongoing field and needs further researches and studies. Excellent mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties of carbon nanotubes and nanofibers have motivated the development of advanced nanocomposites with outstanding and multifunctional properties. In this study, the electrical resistance of CNF reinforced cement mortar was examined. Three different dosages of CNF were used, and the resistances were compared to plain cement mortar. One of the biggest challenges in this study is dispersing CNF particles in the mortar mixture. Therefore, polycarboxylate superplasticizer and ultrasonication of the mixture have been selected for the purpose of dispersing CNFs in the cement matrix. The obtained results indicated that the electrical resistance of the CNF reinforced mortar samples decreases with increasing CNF content, which would be the first step towards examining strain and damage monitoring ability of cementitious composites containing CNF for structural health monitoring purposes.

Keywords: carbon nanofiber, cement and concrete, CNF reinforced mortar, smart mater, strain monitoring, structural health monitoring

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5565 Evaluation of Engineering Cementitious Composites (ECC) with Different Percentage of Fibers

Authors: Bhaumik Merchant, Ajay Gelot


Concrete is good in compression but if any type of strain applied to it, it starts to fail. Where the steel is good tension, it can bear the deflection up to its elastic limits. This project is based on behavior of engineered cementitious composited (ECC) when it is replaced with the different amount of Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) Fibers. As for research, PVA fibers is used with cementitious up to 2% to evaluate the optimum amount of fiber on which we can find the maximum compressive, tensile and flexural strength. PVA is basically an adhesive which is used to formulate glue. Generally due to excessive loading, cracks develops which concludes to successive damage to the structural component. In research plasticizer is used to increase workability. With the help of optimum amount of PVA fibers, it can limit the crack widths up to 60µm to 100µm. Also can be used to reduce resources and funds for rehabilitation of structure. At the starting this fiber concrete can be double the cost as compare to conventional concrete but as it can amplify the duration of structure, it will be less costlier than the conventional concrete.

Keywords: compressive strength, engineered cementitious composites, flexural strength, polyvinyl alcohol fibers, rehabilitation of structures

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5564 Characterization of the Corn Cob to Know Its Potential as a Source of Biosilica to Be Used in Sustainable Cementitious Mixtures

Authors: Sandra C. L. Dorea, Joann K. Whalen, Yixin Shao, Oumarou Savadogo


The major challenge for industries that rely on fossil fuels in manufacturing processes or to provide goods and services is to lower their CO2 emissions, as the case for the manufacture of Portland cement. Feasible materials for this purpose can include agro-industrial or agricultural wastes, which are termed 'biosilica' since the silica was contained in a biological matrix (biomass). Corn cob (CC) has some characteristics that make it a good candidate as biosilica source: 1) it is an abundant grain crop produced around the world; 2) more production means more available residues is left in the field to be used. This work aims to evaluate the CC collected from different farms in Canada during the corn harvest in order to see if they can be used together as a biosilica source. The characterization of the raw CC was made in the physical, chemical, and thermal way. The moisture content, the granulometry, and the morphology were also analyzed. The ash content measured was 2,1%. The Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and its Derivative (DTG) evaluated of CC as a function of weight loss with temperature variation ranging between 30°C and 800°C in an atmosphere of N2. The chemical composition and the presence of silica revealed that the different sources of the CC do not interfere in its basic chemical composition, which means that this kind of waste can be used together as a source of biosilica no matter where they come from. Then, this biosilica can partially replace the cement Portland making sustainable cementitious mixtures and contributing to reduce the CO2 emissions.

Keywords: biosilica, characterization, corn cob, sustainable cementitious materials

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5563 Using Recycled Wastes (Glass Powder) as Partially Replacement for Cement

Authors: Passant Youssef, Ahmed El-Tair, Amr El-Nemr


Lately, with the environmental changes, enthusiasts trigger to stop the contamination of environment. Thus, various efforts were exerted for innovating environmental friendly concrete to sustain as a ‘Green Building’ material. Green building materials consider the cement industry as one of the most sources of air pollutant with high rate of carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions. Several methods were developed to extensively reduce the influence of cement industry on environment. These methods such as using supplementary cementitious material or improving the cement manufacturing process are still under investigation. However, with the presence of recycled wastes from construction and finishing materials, the use of supplementary cementitious materials seems to provide an economic solution. Furthermore, it improves the mechanical properties of cement paste, in addition to; it modulates the workability and durability of concrete. In this paper, the glass powder was considered to be used as partial replacement of cement. This study provided the mechanical influence for using the glass powder as partial replacement of cement. In addition, it examines the microstructure of cement mortar using scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. The cement in concrete is replaced by waste glass powder in steps of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% by weight of cement and its effects on compressive and flexure strength were determined after 7 and 28 days. It was found that the 5% glass powder replacement increased the 7 days compressive strength by 20.5%, however, there was no increase in compressive strength after 28 days; which means that the glass powder did not react in the cement mortar due to its amorphous nature on the long run, and it can act as fine aggregate better that cement replacement. As well as, the 5% and 10% glass powder replacement increased the 28 days flexural strength by 46.9%. SEM micrographs showed very dense matrix for the optimum specimen compared to control specimen as well; some glass particles were clearly observed. High counts of silica were optimized from XRD while amorphous materials such as calcium silicate cannot be directly detected.

Keywords: supplementary materials, glass powder, concrete, cementitious materials

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5562 Effect of Pulverised Burnt Clay Waste Fineness on the Compressive Strength of Concrete

Authors: Emmanuel Onaivi Ajayi, Adewumi John Babafemi


The use of supplementary cementitious materials as partial replacement for cement is steadily increasing in the construction industry. Concrete produced with these materials has shown significant improvement in durability compared to conventional concrete. However, blended cement concretes produced using these supplementary materials typically gain compressive strength at later ages beyond the 28-day, and this does not favour its use when early age strength is required. Improving the fineness of the supplementary materials could be a way to improving the strength performance of its blended cement concrete. In this paper, the effect of pulverised burnt clay waste fineness on the compressive strength of concrete has been investigated. Two different fineness of pulverised burnt clay waste classified as coarse and fine portions were obtained by sieving the original pulverised burnt clay waste portion through sieve sizes No. 100 (150 µm) and No. 200 (75 µm), respectively. Pulverised burnt clay waste dosages of 0% (control), 10% and 20% by weight of binder were used in producing the concrete mixtures. It is found that the compressive strength of the concrete depends on the fineness and proportion of pulverised burnt clay waste. The result shows improvement in compressive strength at all curing ages with the fine portion pulverised burnt clay waste having the highest strength and improved early age compressive strength.

Keywords: pulverized burnt clay waste, supplementary cementitious materials, compressive strength, pozzolans, fineness

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5561 Material Chemistry Level Deformation and Failure in Cementitious Materials

Authors: Ram V. Mohan, John Rivas-Murillo, Ahmed Mohamed, Wayne D. Hodo


Cementitious materials, an excellent example of highly complex, heterogeneous material systems, are cement-based systems that include cement paste, mortar, and concrete that are heavily used in civil infrastructure; though commonly used are one of the most complex in terms of the material morphology and structure than most materials, for example, crystalline metals. Processes and features occurring at the nanometer sized morphological structures affect the performance, deformation/failure behavior at larger length scales. In addition, cementitious materials undergo chemical and morphological changes gaining strength during the transient hydration process. Hydration in cement is a very complex process creating complex microstructures and the associated molecular structures that vary with hydration. A fundamental understanding can be gained through multi-scale level modeling for the behavior and properties of cementitious materials starting from the material chemistry level atomistic scale to further explore their role and the manifested effects at larger length and engineering scales. This predictive modeling enables the understanding, and studying the influence of material chemistry level changes and nanomaterial additives on the expected resultant material characteristics and deformation behavior. Atomistic-molecular dynamic level modeling is required to couple material science to engineering mechanics. Starting at the molecular level a comprehensive description of the material’s chemistry is required to understand the fundamental properties that govern behavior occurring across each relevant length scale. Material chemistry level models and molecular dynamics modeling and simulations are employed in our work to describe the molecular-level chemistry features of calcium-silicate-hydrate (CSH), one of the key hydrated constituents of cement paste, their associated deformation and failure. The molecular level atomic structure for CSH can be represented by Jennite mineral structure. Jennite has been widely accepted by researchers and is typically used to represent the molecular structure of the CSH gel formed during the hydration of cement clinkers. This paper will focus on our recent work on the shear and compressive deformation and failure behavior of CSH represented by Jennite mineral structure that has been widely accepted by researchers and is typically used to represent the molecular structure of CSH formed during the hydration of cement clinkers. The deformation and failure behavior under shear and compression loading deformation in traditional hydrated CSH; effect of material chemistry changes on the predicted stress-strain behavior, transition from linear to non-linear behavior and identify the on-set of failure based on material chemistry structures of CSH Jennite and changes in its chemistry structure will be discussed.

Keywords: cementitious materials, deformation, failure, material chemistry modeling

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5560 Effect of Mineral Admixture on Self-Healing Performance in Concrete

Authors: Young-Cheol Choi, Sung-Won Yoo, Bong Chun Lee, Byoungsun Park, Sang-Hwa Jung


Cracks in concrete commonly provide the passages of ingresses of aggressive and harmful ions into concrete inside and thus reduce the durability of concrete members. In order to solve this problem, self-healing concrete based on mineral admixture has become a major issue. Self-healing materials are those which have the ability of autonomously repairing some damages or small cracks in concrete structures. Concrete has an inherent healing potential, called natural healing, which can take place in ordinary concrete elements but its power is limited and is not predictable. The main mechanism of self-healing in cracked concrete is the continued hydration of unreacted binder and the crystallization of calcium carbonate. Some mineral admixtures have been found to promote the self-healing of cementitious materials. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of mineral admixture on the self-healing performances of high strength concrete. The potential capability of self-healing of cementitious materials was evaluated using isothermal conduction calorimeter. The self-healing efficiencies were studied by means of water flow tests on cracked concrete specimens. The results show a different healing behaviour depending on presence of the crystalline admixture.

Keywords: mineral admixture, self-healing, water flow test, crystallization

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5559 Experimental Study on Strength Development of Low Cement Concrete Using Mix Design for Both Binary and Ternary Mixes

Authors: Mulubrhan Berihu, Supratic Gupta, Zena Gebriel


Due to the design versatility, availability, and cost efficiency, concrete is continuing to be the most used construction material on earth. However, the production of Portland cement, the primary component of concrete mix is causing to have a serious effect on environmental and economic impacts. This shows there is a need to study using of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs). The most commonly used supplementary cementitious materials are wastes and the use of these industrial waste products has technical, economical and environmental benefits besides the reduction of CO2 emission from cement production. The study aims to document the effect on strength property of concrete due to use of low cement by maximizing supplementary cementitious materials like fly ash or marble powder. Based on the different mix proportion of pozzolana and marble powder a range of mix design was formulated. The first part of the project is to study the strength of low cement concrete using fly ash replacement experimentally. The test results showed that using up to 85 kg/m3 of cement is possible for plain concrete works like hollow block concrete to achieve 9.8 Mpa and the experimental results indicates that strength is a function of w/b. In the second part a new set of mix design has been carried out with fly ash and marble powder to study the strength of both binary and ternary mixes. In this experimental study, three groups of mix design (c+FA, c+FA+m and c+m), four sets of mixes for each group were taken up. Experimental results show that c+FA has maintained the best strength and impermeability whereas c+m obtained less compressive strength, poorer permeability and split tensile strength. c+FA shows a big difference in gaining of compressive strength from 7 days to 28 days compression strength compared to others and this obviously shows the slow rate of hydration of fly ash concrete. As the w/b ratio increases the strength decreases significantly. At the same time higher permeability has been seen in the specimens which were tested for three hours than one hour.

Keywords: efficiency factor, cement content, compressive strength, mix proportion, w/c ratio, water permeability, SCMs

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5558 Reuse of Refractory Brick Wastes (RBW) as a Supplementary Cementitious Materials in a High Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete

Authors: B. Safi, B. Amrane, M. Saidi


The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the reuse of refractory brick wastes (RBW) as a supplementary cementitious materials (by a total replacement of silica fume) to produce a high performance fiber-reinforced concrete (HPFRC). This work presents an experimental study on the formulation and physico-mechanical characterization of ultra high performance fiber reinforced concretes based on three types of refractory brick wastes. These have been retrieved from the manufacturing unit of float glass MFG (Mediterranean Float Glass) after their use in the oven basin (ie d. they are considered waste unit). Three compositions of concrete (HPFRC) were established based on three types of refractory brick wastes (finely crushed), with the dosage of each type of bricks is kept constant, similar the dosage of silica fume used for the control concrete. While all the other components and the water/binder ratio are maintained constant with the same quantity of the superplasticizer. The performance of HPFRC, were evaluated by determining the essential characteristics of fresh and hardened concrete.

Keywords: refractory bricks, concrete, fiber, fluidity, compressive strength, tensile strength

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5557 Cement-Based Composites with Carbon Nanofillers for Smart Structural Health Monitoring Sensors

Authors: Antonella D'Alessandro, Filippo Ubertini, Annibale Luigi Materazzi


The progress of nanotechnology resulted in the development of new instruments in the field of civil engineering. In particular, the introduction of carbon nanofillers into construction materials can enhance their mechanical and electrical properties. In construction, concrete is among the most used materials. Due to the characteristics of its components and its structure, concrete is suitable for modification, at the nanometer level too. Moreover, to guarantee structural safety, it is desirable to achieve a widespread monitoring of structures. The ideal thing would be to realize structures able to identify their behavior modifications, states of incipient damage or conditions of possible risk for people. This paper presents a research work about novel cementitious composites with conductive carbon nanoinclusions able of monitoring their state of deformation, with particular attention to concrete. The self-sensing ability is achieved through the correlation between the variation of stress or strain and that of electrical resistance. Carbon nanofillers appear particularly suitable for such applications. Nanomodified concretes with different carbon nanofillers has been tested. The samples have been subjected to cyclic and dynamic loads. The experimental campaign shows the potentialities of this new type of sensors made of nanomodified concrete for diffuse Structural Health Monitoring.

Keywords: carbon nanofillers, cementitious nanocomposites, smart sensors, structural health monitoring.

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