Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1872

Search results for: fine aggregate powder

1872 Analysis of the Recovery of Burnility Index and Reduction of CO2 for Cement Manufacturing Utilizing Waste Cementitious Powder as Alternative Raw Material of Limestone

Authors: Kwon Eunhee, Park Dongcheon, Jung Jaemin


In countries around the world, environmental regulations are being strengthened, and Korea is no exception to this trend, which means that environment pollution and the environmental load have recently become a significant issue. For this reason, in this study limestone was replaced with cementitious powder to reduce the volume of construction waste as well as the emission of carbon dioxide caused by Tal-carbonate reaction. The research found that cementitious powder can be used as a substitute for limestone. However, the mix proportions of fine aggregate and powder included in the cementitious powder appear to have a great effect on substitution. Thus, future research should focus on developing a technology that can effectively separate and discharge fine aggregate and powder in the cementitious powder.

Keywords: waste cementitious powder, fine aggregate powder, CO2 emission, decarbonation reaction, calcining process

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1871 Moisture Impact on the Utilization of Recycled Concrete Fine Aggregate to Produce Mortar

Authors: Rahimullah Habibzai


To achieve a sustainable concrete industry, reduce exploitation of the natural aggregate resources, and mitigate waste concrete environmental burden, one way is to use recycled concrete aggregate. The utilization of low-quality fine aggregate inclusively recycled concrete sand that is produced from crushing waste concrete recently has become a popular and challenging topic among researchers nowadays. This study provides a scientific base for promoting the application of concrete waste as fine aggregate in producing concrete by conducting a comprehensive laboratory program. The mechanical properties of mortar made from recycled concrete fine aggregate (RCFA), that is produced by pulse power crushing concrete waste are satisfactory and capable of being utilized in the construction industry. A better treatment of RCFA particles and enhancing its quality will make it possible to be utilized in producing structural concrete. Pulse power discharge technology is proposed in this research to produce RCFA, which is a more effective and promising technique compared to other recycling methods to generate medium to high-quality recycled concrete fine aggregate with a reduced amount of powder, mitigate the environmental burden, and save more space.

Keywords: construction and demolition waste, concrete waste recycle fine aggregate, pulse power discharge

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1870 Microstructural Properties of the Interfacial Transition Zone and Strength Development of Concrete Incorporating Recycled Concrete Aggregate

Authors: S. Boudali, A. M. Soliman, B. Abdulsalam, K. Ayed, D. E. Kerdal, S. Poncet


This study investigates the potential of using crushed concrete as aggregates to produce green and sustainable concrete. Crushed concrete was sieved to powder fine recycled aggregate (PFRA) less than 80 µm and coarse recycled aggregates (CRA). Physical, mechanical, and microstructural properties for PFRA and CRA were evaluated. The effect of the additional rates of PFRA and CRA on strength development of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) was investigated. Additionally, the characteristics of interfacial transition zone (ITZ) between cement paste and recycled aggregate were also examined. Results show that concrete mixtures made with 100% of CRA and 40% PFRA exhibited similar performance to that of the control mixture prepared with 100% natural aggregate (NA) and 40% natural pozzolan (NP). Moreover, concrete mixture incorporating recycled aggregate exhibited a slightly higher later compressive strength than that of the concrete with NA. This was confirmed by the very dense microstructure for concrete mixture incorporating recycled concrete aggregates compared to that of conventional concrete mixture.

Keywords: compressive strength, recycled concrete aggregates, microstructure, interfacial transition zone, powder fine recycled aggregate

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1869 Study on Brick Aggregate Made Pervious Concrete at Zero Fine Level

Authors: Monjurul Hasan, Golam Kibria, Abdus Salam


Pervious concrete is a form of lightweight porous concrete, obtained by eliminating the fine aggregate from the normal concrete mix. The advantages of this type of concrete are lower density, lower cost due to lower cement content, lower thermal conductivity, relatively low drying shrinkage, no segregation and capillary movement of water. In this paper an investigation is made on the mechanical response of the pervious concrete at zero fine level (zero fine concrete) made with local brick aggregate. Effect of aggregate size variation on the strength, void ratio and permeability of the zero fine concrete is studied. Finally, a comparison is also presented between the stone aggregate made pervious concrete and brick aggregate made pervious concrete. In total 75 concrete cylinder were tested for compressive strength, 15 cylinder were tested for void ratio and 15 cylinder were tested for permeability test. Mix proportion (cement: Coarse aggregate) was kept fixed at 1:6 (by weights), where water cement ratio was valued 0.35 for preparing the sample specimens. The brick aggregate size varied among 25mm, 19mm, 12mm. It has been found that the compressive strength decreased with the increment of aggregate size but permeability increases and concrete made with 19mm maximum aggregate size yields the optimum value. No significant differences on the strength and permeability test are observed between the brick aggregate made zero fine concrete and stone aggregate made zero fine concrete.

Keywords: pervious concrete, brick aggregate concrete, zero fine concrete, permeability, porosity

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1868 Development of Non-Structural Crushed Palm Kernel Shell Fine Aggregate Concrete

Authors: Kazeem K. Adewole, Ismail A. Yahya


In the published literature, Palm Kernel Shell (PKS), an agricultural waste has largely been used as a large aggregate in PKS concrete production. In this paper, the development of Crushed Palm Kernel Shell Fine Aggregate Concrete (CPKSFAC) with crushed PKS (CPKS) as the fine aggregate and granite as the coarse aggregate is presented. 100mm x 100mm x 100mm 1:11/2:3 and 1:2:4 CPKSFAC and River Sand Fine Aggregate Concrete (RSFAC) cubes were molded, cured for 28 days and subjected to a compressive strength test. The average wet densities of the 1:11/2:3 and 1:2:4 CPKSFAC cubes are 2240kg/m3 and 2335kg/m3 respectively. The average wet densities of the 1:11/2:3 and 1:2:4 RSFAC cubes are 2606kg/m3 and 2553kg/m3 respectively. The average compressive strengths of the 1:11/2:3 and 1:2:4 CPKSFAC cubes are 15.40MPa and 14.30MPa respectively. This study demonstrates that CPKSFA is suitable for the production of non-structural C8/10 and C12/15 concrete specified in BS EN 206-1:2000.

Keywords: crushed palm kernel shell, fine aggregate, lightweight concrete, non-structural concrete

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1867 Use of Fine Recycled Aggregates in Normal Concrete Production

Authors: Vignesh Pechiappan Ayyathurai, Mukesh Limbachiya, Hsein Kew


There is a growing interest in using recycled, secondary use and industrial by product materials in high value commercial applications. Potential high volume applications include use of fine aggregate in flowable fill or as a component in manufactured aggregates. However, there is much scientific, as well as applied research needed in this area due to lack to availability of data on the mechanical and environmental properties of elements or products produced using fine recycled aggregates. The principle objectives of this research are to synthesize existing data on the beneficial reuse of fine recycled materials and to develop extensive testing programme for assessing and establishing engineering and long term durability properties of concrete and other construction products produced using such material for use in practical application widely. This paper is a research proposal for PhD admission. The proposed research aims to supply the necessary technical, as well as practical information on fine recycled aggregate concrete to the construction industry for promoting its wider use within the construction industry. Furthermore, to disseminate research outcomes to the local authorities for consideration of use of fine recycled aggregate concrete in various applications.

Keywords: FRA, fine aggregate, recycling, concrete

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
1866 Re-Use of Waste Marble in Producing Green Concrete

Authors: Hasan Şahan Arel


In this study, literature related to the replacement of cement with waste marble and the use of waste marble as an aggregate in concrete production was examined. Workability of the concrete decreased when marble powder was used as a substitute for fine aggregate. Marble powder contributed to the compressive strength of concrete because of the CaCO3 and SiO2 present in the chemical structure of the marble. Additionally, the use of marble pieces in place of coarse aggregate revealed that this contributed to the workability and mechanical properties of the concrete. When natural standard sand was replaced with marble dust at a ratio of 15% and 75%, the compressive strength and splitting tensile strength of the concrete increased by 20%-26% and 10%-15%, respectively. However, coarse marble aggregates exhibited the best performance at a 100% replacement ratio. Additionally, there was a greater improvement in the mechanical properties of concrete when waste marble was used in a coarse aggregate form when compared to that of when marble was used in a dust form. If the cement was replaced with marble powder in proportions of 20% or more, then adverse effects were observed on the compressive strength and workability of the concrete. This study indicated that marble dust at a cement-replacement ratio of 5%-10% affected the mechanical properties of concrete by decreasing the global annual CO2 emissions by 12% and also lowering the costs from US$40/m3 to US$33/m3.

Keywords: cement production, concrete, CO2 emission, marble, mechanical properties

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1865 Ceramic Ware Waste Potential as Co-Ballast in Dense Masonry Unit Production

Authors: A. A. Ajayi-Banji, M. A. Adegbile, T. D. Akpenpuun, J. Bello, O. Omobowale, D. A. Jenyo


Ceramic ware waste applicability as coarse aggregate was considered in this study for dense masonry unit production. The waste was crushed into 1.4 mm particle size and mixed with natural fine aggregate in the ratio 2:3. Portland ordinary cement, aggregate, and water mix ratio was 1:7:0.5. Masonry units produced were cured for 7, 21 and 28 days prior to compressive test. The result shows that curing age have a significant effect on all the compressive strength indices inspected except for Young’s modulus. Crushing force and the compressive strength of the ceramic-natural fine aggregate blocks increased by 11.7 – 54.7% and 11.6 – 59.2% respectively. The highest ceramic-natural fine block compressive strength at yield and peak, 4.97 MPa, was obtained after 21 days curing age. Ceramic aggregate introduced into the dense blocks improved the suitability of the blocks for construction purposes.

Keywords: ceramic ware waste, co-ballast, dense masonry unit, compressive strength, curing time

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1864 Performance of Self-Compacting Mortars Containing Foam Glass Granulate

Authors: Brahim Safi, Djamila Aboutaleb, Mohammed Saidi, Abdelbaki Benmounah, Fahima Benbrahim


The inorganic wastes are currently used in the manufacture of concretes as mineral additions by cement substitution or as fine/coarse aggregates by replacing traditional aggregates. In this respect, this study aims to valorize the mineral wastes in particular glass wastes to produce granulated foam glass (as fine aggregates). Granulated foam glasses (GFG) were prepared from the glass powder (glass cullet) and foaming agent (limestone) according to applied manufacturing of GFG (at a heat treatment 850 ° C for 20min). After, self-compacting mortars were elaborated with fine aggregate (sand) and other variant mortars with granulated foam glass at volume ratio (0, 30, 50 and 100 %). Rheological characterization tests (fluidity) and physic-mechanical (density, porosity /absorption of water and mechanical tests) were carried out on studied mortars. The results obtained show that a slightly decreasing of compressive strength of mortars having lightness very important for building construction.

Keywords: glass wastes, lightweight aggregate, mortar, fluidity, density, mechanical strength

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1863 An Investigation on Fresh and Hardened Properties of Concrete While Using Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) as Aggregate

Authors: Md. Jahidul Islam, A. K. M. Rakinul Islam, M. Salamah Meherier


This study investigates the suitability of using plastic, such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET), as a partial replacement of natural coarse and fine aggregates (for example, brick chips and natural sand) to produce lightweight concrete for load bearing structural members. The plastic coarse aggregate (PCA) and plastic fine aggregate (PFA) were produced from melted polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. Tests were conducted using three different water–cement (w/c) ratios, such as 0.42, 0.48, and 0.57, where PCA and PFA were used as 50% replacement of coarse and fine aggregate respectively. Fresh and hardened properties of concrete have been compared for natural aggregate concrete (NAC), PCA concrete (PCC) and PFA concrete (PFC). The compressive strength of concrete at 28 days varied with the water–cement ratio for both the PCC and PFC. Between PCC and PFC, PFA concrete showed the highest compressive strength (23.7 MPa) at 0.42 w/c ratio and also the lowest compressive strength (13.7 MPa) at 0.57 w/c ratio. Significant reduction in concrete density was mostly observed for PCC samples, ranging between 1977–1924 kg/m³. With the increase in water–cement ratio PCC achieved higher workability compare to both NAC and PFC. It was found that both the PCA and PFA contained concrete achieved the required compressive strength to be used for structural purpose as partial replacement of the natural aggregate; but to obtain the desired lower density as lightweight concrete the PCA is most suited.

Keywords: polyethylene terephthalate, plastic aggregate, concrete, fresh and hardened properties

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1862 Using Waste Marbles in Self Compacting Lightweight Concrete

Authors: Z. Funda Türkmenoğlu, Mehmet Türkmenoglu, Demet Yavuz,


In this study, the effects of waste marbles as aggregate material on workability and hardened concrete characteristics of self compacting lightweight concrete are investigated. For this purpose, self compacting light weight concrete are produced by waste marble aggregates are replaced with fine aggregate at 5%, 7.5%, and 10% ratios. Fresh concrete properties, slump flow, T50 time, V funnel, compressive strength and ultrasonic pulse velocity of self compacting lightweight concrete are determined. It is concluded from the test results that using waste marbles as aggregate material by replacement with fine aggregate slightly affects fresh and hardened concrete characteristics of self compacting lightweight concretes.

Keywords: hardened concrete characteristics, self compacting lightweight concrete, waste marble, workability

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1861 Unconfined Strength of Nano Reactive Silica Sand Powder Concrete

Authors: Hossein Kabir, Mojtaba Sadeghi


Nowadays, high-strength concrete is an integral element of a variety of high-rise buildings. On the other hand, finding a suitable aggregate size distribution is a great concern; hence, the concrete mix proportion is presented that has no coarse aggregate, which still withstands enough desirable strength. Nano Reactive Silica sand powder concrete (NRSSPC) is a type of concrete with no coarse material in its own composition. In this concrete, the only aggregate found in the mix design is silica sand powder with a size less than 150 mm that is infinitesimally small regarding the normal concrete. The research aim is to find the compressive strength of this particular concrete under the applied different conditions of curing and consolidation to compare the approaches. In this study, the young concrete specimens were compacted with a pressing or vibrating process. It is worthwhile to mention that in order to show the influence of temperature in the curing process, the concrete specimen was cured either in 20 ⁰C lime water or autoclaved in 90 ⁰C oven.

Keywords: reactive silica sand powder concrete (RSSPC), consolidation, compressive strength, normal curing, thermal accelerated curing

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
1860 A Study of Mortars with Granulated Blast Furnace Slag as Fine Aggregate and Its Influence on Properties of Burnt Clay Brick Masonry

Authors: Vibha Venkataramu, B. V. Venkatarama Reddy


Natural river sand is the most preferred choice as fine aggregate in masonry mortars. Uncontrolled mining of sand from riverbeds for several decades has had detrimental effects on the environment. Several countries across the world have put strict restrictions on sand mining from riverbeds. However, in countries like India, the huge infrastructural boom has made the local construction industry to look for alternative materials to sand. This study aims at understanding the suitability of granulated blast furnace slag (GBS) as fine aggregates in masonry mortars. Apart from characterising the material properties of GBS, such as particle size distribution, pH, chemical composition, etc., of GBS, tests were performed on the mortars with GBS as fine aggregate. Additionally, the properties of five brick tall, stack bonded masonry prisms with various types of GBS mortars were studied. The mortars with mix proportions 1: 0: 6 (cement: lime: fine aggregate), 1: 1: 6, and 1: 0: 3 were considered for the study. Fresh and hardened properties of mortar, such as flow and compressive strength, were studied. To understand the behaviour of GBS mortars on masonry, tests such as compressive strength and flexure bond strength were performed on masonry prisms made with a different type of GBS mortars. Furthermore, the elastic properties of masonry with GBS mortars were also studied under compression. For comparison purposes, the properties of corresponding control mortars with natural sand as fine aggregate and masonry prisms with sand mortars were also studied under similar testing conditions. From the study, it was observed the addition of GBS negatively influenced the flow of mortars and positively influenced the compressive strength. The GBS mortars showed 20 to 25 % higher compressive strength at 28 days of age, compared to corresponding control mortars. Furthermore, masonry made with GBS mortars showed nearly 10 % higher compressive strengths compared to control specimens. But, the impact of GBS on the flexural strength of masonry was marginal.

Keywords: building materials, fine aggregate, granulated blast furnace slag in mortars, masonry properties

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1859 Assessment of Mechanical Properties of Induction Furnace Slag as Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregate in Concrete

Authors: Muhammad Javed Bhatti, Tariq Ali, Muazz Ali


Due to growing environmental awareness in Pakistan, the researchers are increasingly turning to assess and analyze properties of industrial waste and finding solutions on using industrial waste as secondary material. Due to industrialization, enormous by-products are produced and to utilize these by-products is the main challenge faced in Pakistan. Induction furnace slag is one of the industrial by-products from the iron and steel making industries. This paper highlights the true utilization of induction furnace slag as partial replacement of fine aggregate. For the experimental investigation, mixes were prepared with fine aggregate replacement using 0 percent, 5 percent, 10 percent, 15 percent, 20 percent, 25 percent, 30 percent, 35 percent and 40 percent induction furnace slag to evaluate the workability, compaction factor, compressive strength, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity.

Keywords: compressive strength, deflection, induction furnace slag, workability

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1858 Construction of Green Aggregates from Waste Processing

Authors: Fahad K. Alqahtani


Nowadays construction industry is developing means to incorporate waste products in concrete to ensure sustainability. To meet the need of construction industry, a synthetic aggregate was developed using optimized technique called compression moulding press technique. The manufactured aggregate comprises mixture of plastic, waste which acts as binder, together with by-product waste which acts as fillers. The physical properties and microstructures of the inert materials and the manufactured aggregate were examined and compared with the conventional available aggregates. The outcomes suggest that the developed aggregate has potential to be used as substitution of conventional aggregate due to its less weight and water absorption. The microstructure analysis confirmed the efficiency of the manufacturing process where the final product has the same mixture of binder and filler.

Keywords: fly ash, plastic waste, quarry fine, red sand, synthetic aggregate

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1857 Formulation and Physico-Mechanical Characterization of a Self-Compacting Concrete Containing Seashells as an Addition Material

Authors: Brahim Safi, Mohammed Saidi, A. Benmounah, Jozef Mitterpach


The aim of this work is to study the rheological and physico-mechanical properties of a self-compacting concrete elaborated with sea shells as an addition cementitious (total replacement of limestone fillers) and sand (partial and total substitution fine aggregate). Also, this present study is registered in the context of sustainable development by using this waste type which caused environmental problems. After preparation the crushed shells (obtaining fine aggregate) and finely crushed shells (obtaining end powder), concretes were manufactured using these two products. Rheological characterization tests (fluidity, filling capacity and segregation) and physico-mechanical properties (density and strength) were carried on these concretes. The results obtained show that it can be used as fin addition (by total replacement of limestone) or also used as sand by total substitution of natural sand.

Keywords: seashells, limestone, sand, self-compacting concrete, fluidity, compressive strength, flexural strength

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1856 Polymer Modification of Fine Grained Concretes Used in Textile Reinforced Cementitious Composites

Authors: Esma Gizem Daskiran, Mehmet Mustafa Daskiran, Mustafa Gencoglu


Textile reinforced cementitious composite (TRCC) is a development of a composite material where textile and fine-grained concrete (matrix) materials are used in combination. These matrices offer high performance properties in many aspects. To achieve high performance, polymer modified fine-grained concretes were used as matrix material which have high flexural strength. In this study, ten latex polymers and ten powder polymers were added to fine-grained concrete mixtures. These latex and powder polymers were added to the mixtures at different rates related to binder weight. Mechanical properties such as compressive and flexural strength were studied. Results showed that latex polymer and redispersible polymer modified fine-grained concretes showed different mechanical performance. A wide range of both latex and redispersible powder polymers were studied. As the addition rate increased compressive strength decreased for all mixtures. Flexural strength increased as the addition rate increased but significant enhancement was not observed through all mixtures.

Keywords: textile reinforced composite, cement, fine grained concrete, latex, redispersible powder

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1855 Effect of Glass Powder and GGBS on Strength of Fly Ash Based Geopolymer Concrete

Authors: I. Ramesha Mithanthaya, N. Bhavanishankar Rao


In this study, the effect of glass powder (GP) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) on the compressive strength of Fly ash based geopolymer concrete has been investigated. The mass ratio of fine aggregate (fA) to coarse aggregate (CA) was maintained constant. NAOH flakes dissolved in water was used as activating liquid and mixed with fly ash (FA) to produce geopolymer paste or cementing material. This paste was added to mixture of CA and fA to obtain geopolymer concrete. Cube samples were prepared from this concrete. The ranges of investigation parameters include GP/FA from 0% to 20%, and GGBS/ FA from 0% to 20% with constant amount of GP. All the samples were air cured inside laboratory under room temperature. Compressive strength of cube samples after 7 days and 28 days curing were determined. The test results are presented and discussed. Based on the results of limited tests a suitable composition of FA, GP and GGBS for constant quantity of CA and fA has been obtained to produce geopolymer concrete of M32. It is found that geopolymer concrete is 14% cheaper than concrete of same strength using OPC. The strength gain in the case of geo-polymer concrete is rather slow compared to that of Portland cement concrete. Tensile strength of this concrete was also determined by conducting flexure test on beam prepared using this concrete. During curing, up to 7days, greyish-white powder used to come out from all the surfaces of sample and it was found to be a mixture of Carbonates and Sulphides of Na, Mg and Fe. Detailed investigation is necessary to arrive at an optimum mixture composition for producing Geo-polymer concrete of required strength. Effect of greyish-white powder on the strength and durability of the concrete is to be studied.

Keywords: geopolymer, industrial waste, green material, cost effective material, eco-friendly material

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1854 Mechanical Properties and Durability of Concretes Manufactured Using Pre-Coated Recycled Fine Aggregate

Authors: An Cheng, Hui-Mi Hsu, Sao-Jeng Chao, Wei-Ting Lin


This study investigated the mechanical properties and durability of concrete produced using recycled fine aggregate (RFA) pre-coated with fly ash, slag, and a polymer solution (PVA). We investigated the physical and microscopic properties of fresh concrete while adjusting several of the fabrication parameters, such as the constituent makeup and thickness of RFA pre-coatings. The study is divided into two parts. The first part involves mortar testing in which the RFA used for coating had a water/cement ratio of 0.5 and fly ash, slag, and PVA viscosity of 5~6cps, 21~26cps, 25~30cps, or 44~50cps. In these tests, 100% of the natural fine aggregate was replaced by RCA. The second part of the study involved the mixing of concrete with 25% FRA, which was respectively coated with fly ash, slag, or PVA at a viscosity of 44~50cps. In these tests, the water/cement ratio was either .4 or 0.6. The major findings in this study are summarized as follows: Coating RFA coated with fly ash and PVA was shown to increase flow in the fresh concrete; however, the coating of FRA with slag resulted in a slight decrease in flow. Coating FRA with slag was shown to improve the compressive and splitting strength to a greater degree than that achieved by coating FRA with fly ash and PVA. The mechanical properties of concrete mixed with slag were shown to increase with the thickness of the coating. Coating FRA with slag was also shown to enhance the durability of the concrete, regardless of the water/cement ratio.

Keywords: recycled fine aggregates, pre-coated, fly ash, slag, pre-coated thickness

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1853 Recycling of Aggregates from Construction Demolition Wastes in Concrete: Study of Physical and Mechanical Properties

Authors: M. Saidi, F. Ait Medjber, B. Safi, M. Samar


This work is focused on the study of valuation of recycled concrete aggregates, by measuring certain properties of concrete in the fresh and hardened state. In this study, rheological tests and physic-mechanical characterization on concretes and mortars were conducted with recycled concrete whose geometric properties were identified aggregates. Mortars were elaborated with recycled fine aggregate (0/5mm) and concretes were manufactured using recycled coarse aggregates (5/12.5 mm and 12.5/20 mm). First, a study of the mortars was conducted to determine the effectiveness of adjuvant polycarboxylate superplasticizer on the workability of these and their action deflocculating of the fine recycled sand. The rheological behavior of mortars based on fine aggregate recycled was characterized. The results confirm that the mortars composed of different fractions of recycled sand (0/5) have a better mechanical properties (compressive and flexural strength) compared to normal mortar. Also, the mechanical strengths of concretes made with recycled aggregates (5/12.5 mm and 12.5/20 mm), are comparable to those of conventional concrete with conventional aggregates, provided that the implementation can be improved by the addition of a superplasticizer.

Keywords: demolition wastes, recycled coarse aggregate, concrete, workability, mechanical strength, porosity/water absorption

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1852 XRD and Image Analysis of Low Carbon Type Recycled Cement Using Waste Cementitious Powder

Authors: Hyeonuk Shin, Hun Song, Yongsik Chu, Jongkyu Lee, Dongcheon Park


Although much current research has been devoted to reusing concrete in the form of recycled aggregate, insufficient attention has been given to researching the utilization of waste concrete powder, which constitutes 20 % or more of waste concrete and therefore the majority of waste cementitious powder is currently being discarded or buried in landfills. This study consists of foundational research for the purpose of reusing waste cementitious powder in the form of recycled cement that can answer the need for low carbon green growth. Progressing beyond the conventional practice of using the waste cementitious powder as inert filler material, this study contributes to the aim of manufacturing high value added materials that exploits the chemical properties of the waste cementitious powder, by presenting a pre-treatment method for the material and an optimal method of proportioning the mix of materials to develop a low carbon type of recycled cement.

Keywords: Low carbon type cement, Waste cementitious powder, Waste recycling

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1851 Suitability of Quarry Dust as Replacement of Sand in Medium Grade Concrete

Authors: Popoola M. Oyenola


Concrete plays the important role and a huge percentage of concrete is being utilized in every construction practices. Natural river sand is one of the major ingredients of concrete, is becoming expensive due to excessive cost of accessibility from sources. Also large scale depletion of sources creates environmental problems. Therefore, there is a need of economic alternative materials. Quarry dust is a waste obtained during quarrying process. It has been rampantly used in different construction practices and could be used as an effective fine aggregate instead of river sand. Partial and total replacement of fine aggregate in conventional concrete with quarry dust has been empirically conducted with the view to examining primarily the compressive strength of the resulting composite and possible total utilization of quarry dust as fine aggregate in the production of medium grade concrete. The results of the study showed that its specific gravity, porosity and water absorption showed satisfactory performance. The percentage replacement of natural river sand with quarry dust for a designed strength of 25N/mm2 varied at intervals of 10% up to a maximum value of 100%. A total of 132 cubes of 150 x 150 x 150mm were cast and tested at 7, 14 and 28 days of hydration. Compressive strength increases with curing age in all the mixes. Compressive strength decreases with increase in percentage of quarry dust. Generally the compressive strength of concrete incorporating quarry dust attained strength of 22.47 N/mm2 after 28 days which makes it a suitable aggregate for the production medium grade concrete.

Keywords: quarry dust, concrete, aggregates, compressive strength

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1850 Feasibility of Ground Alkali-Active Sandstone Powder for Use in Concrete as Mineral Admixture

Authors: Xia Chen, Hua-Quan Yang, Shi-Hua Zhou


Alkali-active sandstone aggregate was ground by vertical and ball mill into particles with residue over 45 μm less than 12%, and investigations have been launched on particles distribution and characterization of ground sandstone powder, fluidity, heat of hydration, strength as well as hydration products morphology of pastes with incorporation of ground sandstone powder. Results indicated that ground alkali-active sandstone powder with residue over 45 μm less than 8% was easily obtainable, and specific surface area was more sensitive to characterize its fineness with extension of grinding length. Incorporation of sandstone powder resulted in higher water demand and lower strength, advanced hydration of C3A and C2S within 3days and refined pore structure. Based on its manufacturing, characteristics and influence on properties of pastes, it was concluded that sandstone powder was a good selection for use in concrete as mineral admixture.

Keywords: concrete, mineral admixture, hydration, structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
1849 Utilization of Pozzolonic Material for the Enhancement of the Concrete Strength: A Comprehensive Review Paper

Authors: M. Parvez Alam, M. Bilal Khan


Concrete is the material of choice where strength, performance, durability, impermeability, fire resistance, and abrasion resistance are required. The hunger for the higher strength leads to other materials to achieve the desired results and thus, emerged the contribution of cementitious material for the strength of concrete In present day constructions, concrete is chosen as one of the best choices by civil engineers in construction materials. The concept of sustainability is touching new heights and many pozzolonic materials are tried and tested as partial replacement for the cement. In this paper, comprehensive review of available literatures are studied to evaluate the performance of pozzolonic materials such as ceramic waste powder, copper slag, silica fume on the strength of concrete by the partial replacement of ordinary materials such as cement, fine aggregate and coarse aggregate at different percentage of composition. From the study, we conclude that ceramic wastes are suitable to be used in the construction industry, and more significantly on the making of concrete. Ceramic wastes are found to be suitable for usage as substitution for fine and coarse aggregates and partial substitution in cement production. They were found to be performing better than normal concrete, in properties such as density, durability, permeability, and compressive strength. Copper slag is the waste material of matte smelting and refining of copper such that each ton of copper generates approximately 2.5 tons of copper slag. Copper slag is one of the materials that is considered as a waste which could have a promising future in construction Industry as partial or full substitute of aggregates. Silica fume, also known as micro silica or condensed silica fume, is a relatively new material compared to fly ash, It is another material that is used as an artificial pozzolonic admixture. High strength concrete made with silica fume provides high abrasion/corrosion resistance.

Keywords: concrete, pozzolonic materials, ceramic waste powder, copper slag

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1848 Using Recycled Wastes (Glass Powder) as Partially Replacement for Cement

Authors: Passant Youssef, Ahmed El-Tair, Amr El-Nemr


Lately, with the environmental changes, enthusiasts trigger to stop the contamination of environment. Thus, various efforts were exerted for innovating environmental friendly concrete to sustain as a ‘Green Building’ material. Green building materials consider the cement industry as one of the most sources of air pollutant with high rate of carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions. Several methods were developed to extensively reduce the influence of cement industry on environment. These methods such as using supplementary cementitious material or improving the cement manufacturing process are still under investigation. However, with the presence of recycled wastes from construction and finishing materials, the use of supplementary cementitious materials seems to provide an economic solution. Furthermore, it improves the mechanical properties of cement paste, in addition to; it modulates the workability and durability of concrete. In this paper, the glass powder was considered to be used as partial replacement of cement. This study provided the mechanical influence for using the glass powder as partial replacement of cement. In addition, it examines the microstructure of cement mortar using scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. The cement in concrete is replaced by waste glass powder in steps of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% by weight of cement and its effects on compressive and flexure strength were determined after 7 and 28 days. It was found that the 5% glass powder replacement increased the 7 days compressive strength by 20.5%, however, there was no increase in compressive strength after 28 days; which means that the glass powder did not react in the cement mortar due to its amorphous nature on the long run, and it can act as fine aggregate better that cement replacement. As well as, the 5% and 10% glass powder replacement increased the 28 days flexural strength by 46.9%. SEM micrographs showed very dense matrix for the optimum specimen compared to control specimen as well; some glass particles were clearly observed. High counts of silica were optimized from XRD while amorphous materials such as calcium silicate cannot be directly detected.

Keywords: supplementary materials, glass powder, concrete, cementitious materials

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1847 Partial Replacement for Cement and Coarse Aggregate in Concrete by Using Egg Shell Powder and Coconut Shell

Authors: A. K. Jain, M. C. Paliwal


The production of cement leads to the emission of large amounts of carbon-dioxide gas into the atmosphere which is a major contributor for the greenhouse effect and the global warming; hence it is mandatory either to quest for another material or partly replace it with some other material. According to the practical demonstrations and reports, Egg Shell Powder (ESP) can be used as a binding material for different field applications as it contains some of the properties of lime. It can partially replace the cement and further; it can be used in different proportion for enhancing the performance of cement. It can be used as a first-class alternative, for material reuse and waste recycling practices. Eggshell is calcium rich and analogous to limestone in chemical composition. Therefore, use of eggshell waste for partial replacement of cement in concrete is feasible. Different studies reveal that plasticity index of the soil can be improved by adding eggshell wastes in all the clay soil and it has wider application in construction projects including earth canals and earthen dams. The scarcity of aggregates is also increasing nowadays. Utilization of industrial waste or secondary materials is increasing in different construction applications. Coconut shell was successfully used in the construction industry for partial or full replacement for coarse aggregates. The use of coconut shell gives advantage of using waste material to partially replace the coarse aggregate. Studies carried on coconut shell indicate that it can partially replace the aggregate. It has good strength and modulus properties along with the advantage of high lignin content. It absorbs relatively low moisture due to its low cellulose content. In the paper, study carried out on eggshell powder and coconut shell will be discussed. Optimum proportions of these materials to be used for partial replacement of cement and aggregate will also be discussed.

Keywords: greenhouse, egg shell powder, binding material, aggregates, coconut shell, coarse aggregates

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1846 Development of Palm Kernel Shell Lightweight Masonry Mortar

Authors: Kazeem K. Adewole


There need to construct building walls with lightweight masonry bricks/blocks and mortar to reduce the weight and cost of cooling/heating of buildings in hot/cold climates is growing partly due to legislations on energy use and global warming. In this paper, the development of Palm Kernel Shell masonry mortar (PKSMM) prepared with Portland cement and crushed PKS fine aggregate (an agricultural waste) is demonstrated. We show that PKSMM can be used as a lightweight mortar for the construction of lightweight masonry walls with good thermal insulation efficiency than the natural river sand commonly used for masonry mortar production.

Keywords: building walls, fine aggregate, lightweight masonry mortar, palm kernel shell, wall thermal insulation efficacy

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1845 Studies on Mechanical Properties of Concrete and Mortar Containing Waste Glass Aggregate

Authors: Nadjoua Bourmatte, Hacène Houari


Glass has been indispensable to men’s life due to its properties, including pliability to take any shape with ease, bright surface, resistance to abrasion, reasonable safety and durability. Waste glass creates serious environmental problems, mainly due to the inconsistency of waste glass streams. With increasing environmental pressure to reduce solid waste and to recycle as much as possible, the concrete industry has adopted a number of methods to achieve this goal. The object of this research work is to study the effect of using recycled glass waste, as a partial replacement of fine aggregate, on the fresh and hardened properties of concrete. Recycled glass was used to replace fine aggregate in proportions of 0%, 25% and 50%. We could observe that the Glass waste aggregates are lighter than natural aggregates and they show a very low water absorption. The experimental results showed that the slump flow increased with the increase of recycled glass content. On the other hand, the compressive strength and tensile strength of recycled glass mixtures decreased with the increase in the recycled glass content. The results showed that recycled glass aggregate can successfully be used with limited level for producing concrete. The standard sand was substituted with aggregates based on glass waste for manufacturing mortars, Mortar based on glass shows a compressive strength and low bending with a 1/2 ratio with control mortar strength.

Keywords: concrete, environment, glass waste, recycling

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1844 Concrete Mix Design Using Neural Network

Authors: Rama Shanker, Anil Kumar Sachan


Basic ingredients of concrete are cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate and water. To produce a concrete of certain specific properties, optimum proportion of these ingredients are mixed. The important factors which govern the mix design are grade of concrete, type of cement and size, shape and grading of aggregates. Concrete mix design method is based on experimentally evolved empirical relationship between the factors in the choice of mix design. Basic draw backs of this method are that it does not produce desired strength, calculations are cumbersome and a number of tables are to be referred for arriving at trial mix proportion moreover, the variation in attainment of desired strength is uncertain below the target strength and may even fail. To solve this problem, a lot of cubes of standard grades were prepared and attained 28 days strength determined for different combination of cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate and water. An artificial neural network (ANN) was prepared using these data. The input of ANN were grade of concrete, type of cement, size, shape and grading of aggregates and output were proportions of various ingredients. With the help of these inputs and outputs, ANN was trained using feed forward back proportion model. Finally trained ANN was validated, it was seen that it gave the result with/ error of maximum 4 to 5%. Hence, specific type of concrete can be prepared from given material properties and proportions of these materials can be quickly evaluated using the proposed ANN.

Keywords: aggregate proportions, artificial neural network, concrete grade, concrete mix design

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1843 Effects of Particle Size Distribution on Mechanical Strength and Physical Properties in Engineered Quartz Stone

Authors: Esra Arici, Duygu Olmez, Murat Ozkan, Nurcan Topcu, Furkan Capraz, Gokhan Deniz, Arman Altinyay


Engineered quartz stone is a composite material comprising approximately 90 wt.% fine quartz aggregate with a variety of particle size ranges and `10 wt.% unsaturated polyester resin (UPR). In this study, the objective is to investigate the influence of particle size distribution on mechanical strength and physical properties of the engineered stone slabs. For this purpose, granular quartz with two particle size ranges of 63-200 µm and 100-300 µm were used individually and mixed with a difference in ratios of mixing. The void volume of each granular packing was measured in order to define the amount of filler; quartz powder with the size of less than 38 µm, and UPR required filling inter-particle spaces. Test slabs were prepared using vibration-compression under vacuum. The study reports that both impact strength and flexural strength of samples increased as the mix ratio of the particle size range of 63-200 µm increased. On the other hand, the values of water absorption rate, apparent density and abrasion resistance were not affected by the particle size distribution owing to vacuum compaction. It is found that increasing the mix ratio of the particle size range of 63-200 µm caused the higher porosity. This led to increasing in the amount of the binder paste needed. It is also observed that homogeneity in the slabs was improved with the particle size range of 63-200 µm.

Keywords: engineered quartz stone, fine quartz aggregate, granular packing, mechanical strength, particle size distribution, physical properties.

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