Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2238

Search results for: stone matrix asphalt

2238 Laboratory Evaluation of Asphalt Concrete Prepared with Over Burnt Brick Aggregate Treated by Zycosoil

Authors: D. Sarkar, M. Pal, A. K. Sarkar

Abstract:

Asphaltic concrete for pavement construction in India are produced by using crushed stone, gravels etc. as aggregate. In north-Eastern region of India, there is a scarcity o f stone aggregate. Therefore the road engineers are always in search of an optional material as aggregate which can replace the regularly used material. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the utilization of substandard or marginal aggregates in flexible pavement construction. The investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effects of using lower quality aggregates such as over burnt brick aggregate on the preparation of asphalt concrete for flexible pavements. The scope of this work included a review of available literature and existing data, a laboratory evaluation organized to determine the effects of marginal aggregates and potential techniques to upgrade these substandard materials, and a laboratory evaluation of these upgraded marginal aggregate asphalt mixtures. Over burnt brick aggregates are water susceptible and can leads to moisture damage. Moisture damage is the progressive loss of functionality of the material owing to loss of the adhesion bond between the asphalt binder and the aggregate surface. Hence, zycosoil as an anti striping additive were evaluated in this study. This study summarizes the results of the laboratory evaluation carried out to investigate the properties of asphalt concrete prepared with zycosoil modified over burnt brick aggregate. Marshall specimen were prepared with stone aggregate, zycosoil modified stone aggregate, over burnt brick aggregate and zycosoil modified over burnt brick aggregate. Results show that addition of zycosoil with stone aggregate increased stability by 6% and addition of zycosoil with over burnt brick aggregate increased stability by 30%.

Keywords: asphalt concrete, over burnt brick aggregate, marshall stability, zycosoil

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2237 Response of Pavement under Temperature and Vehicle Coupled Loading

Authors: Yang Zhong, Mei-Jie Xu

Abstract:

To study the dynamic mechanics response of asphalt pavement under the temperature load and vehicle loading, asphalt pavement was regarded as multilayered elastic half-space system, and theory analysis was conducted by regarding dynamic modulus of asphalt mixture as the parameter. Firstly, based on the dynamic modulus test of asphalt mixture, function relationship between the dynamic modulus of representative asphalt mixture and temperature was obtained. In addition, the analytical solution for thermal stress in the single layer was derived by using Laplace integral transformation and Hankel integral transformation respectively by using thermal equations of equilibrium. The analytical solution of calculation model of thermal stress in asphalt pavement was derived by transfer matrix of thermal stress in multilayer elastic system. Finally, the variation of thermal stress in pavement structure was analyzed. The result shows that there is an obvious difference between the thermal stress based on dynamic modulus and the solution based on static modulus. Therefore, the dynamic change of parameter in asphalt mixture should be taken into consideration when the theoretical analysis is taken out.

Keywords: asphalt pavement, dynamic modulus, integral transformation, transfer matrix, thermal stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 420
2236 Creep Compliance Characteristics of Cement Dust Asphalt Concrete Mixtures

Authors: Ayman Othman, Tallat Abd el Wahed

Abstract:

The current research is directed towards studying the creep compliance characteristics of asphalt concrete mixtures modified with cement dust. This study can aid in assessing the permanent deformation potential of asphalt concrete mixtures. Cement dust was added to the mixture as mineral filler and compared with regular lime stone filler. A power law model was used to characterize the creep compliance behavior of the studied mixtures. Creep testing results have revealed that the creep compliance power law parameters have a strong relationship with mixture type. Testing results of the studied mixtures, as indicated by the creep compliance parameters revealed an enhancement in the creep resistance, Marshall stability, indirect tensile strength and compressive strength for cement dust mixtures as compared to mixtures with traditional lime stone filler. It is concluded that cement dust can be successfully used to decrease the potential of asphalt concrete mixture to permanent deformation and improve its mechanical properties. This is in addition to the environmental benefits that can be gained when using cement dust in asphalt paving technology.

Keywords: cement dust, asphalt concrete mixtures, creep compliance, Marshall stability, indirect tensile strength, compressive strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
2235 The Microstructural and Mechanical Characterization of Organo-Clay-Modified Bitumen, Calcareous Aggregate, and Organo-Clay Blends

Authors: A. Gürses, T. B. Barın, Ç. Doğar

Abstract:

Bitumen has been widely used as the binder of aggregate in road pavement due to its good viscoelastic properties, as a viscous organic mixture with various chemical compositions. Bitumen is a liquid at high temperature and it becomes brittle at low temperatures, and this temperature-sensitivity can cause the rutting and cracking of the pavement and limit its application. Therefore, the properties of existing asphalt materials need to be enhanced. The pavement with polymer modified bitumen exhibits greater resistance to rutting and thermal cracking, decreased fatigue damage, as well as stripping and temperature susceptibility; however, they are expensive and their applications have disadvantages. Bituminous mixtures are composed of very irregular aggregates bound together with hydrocarbon-based asphalt, with a low volume fraction of voids dispersed within the matrix. Montmorillonite (MMT) is a layered silicate with low cost and abundance, which consists of layers of tetrahedral silicate and octahedral hydroxide sheets. Recently, the layered silicates have been widely used for the modification of polymers, as well as in many different fields. However, there are not too much studies related with the preparation of the modified asphalt with MMT, currently. In this study, organo-clay-modified bitumen, and calcareous aggregate and organo-clay blends were prepared by hot blending method with OMMT, which has been synthesized using a cationic surfactant (Cetyltrymethylammonium bromide, CTAB) and long chain hydrocarbon, and MMT. When the exchangeable cations in the interlayer region of pristine MMT were exchanged with hydrocarbon attached surfactant ions, the MMT becomes organophilic and more compatible with bitumen. The effects of the super hydrophobic OMMT onto the micro structural and mechanic properties (Marshall Stability and volumetric parameters) of the prepared blends were investigated. Stability and volumetric parameters of the blends prepared were measured using Marshall Test. Also, in order to investigate the morphological and micro structural properties of the organo-clay-modified bitumen and calcareous aggregate and organo-clay blends, their SEM and HRTEM images were taken. It was observed that the stability and volumetric parameters of the prepared mixtures improved significantly compared to the conventional hot mixes and even the stone matrix mixture. A micro structural analysis based on SEM images indicates that the organo-clay platelets dispersed in the bitumen have a dominant role in the increase of effectiveness of bitumen - aggregate interactions.

Keywords: hot mix asphalt, stone matrix asphalt, organo clay, Marshall test, calcareous aggregate, modified bitumen

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
2234 Permanent Deformation Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures with Red Mud as a Filler

Authors: Liseane Padilha Thives, Mayara S. S. Lima, João Victor Staub De Melo, Glicério Trichês

Abstract:

Red mud is a waste resulting from the processing of bauxite to alumina, the raw material of the production of aluminum. The large quantity of red mud generated and inadequately disposed in the environment has motivated researchers to develop methods for reinsertion of this waste into the productive cycle. This work aims to evaluate the resistance to permanent deformation of dense asphalt mixtures with red mud filler. The red mud was characterized by tests of X-ray diffraction, fluorescence, specific mass, laser granulometry, pH and scanning electron microscopy. For the analysis of the influence of the quantity of red mud in the mechanical performance of asphalt mixtures, a total filler content of 7% was established. Asphalt mixtures with 3%, 5% and 7% red mud were produced. A conventional mixture with 7% stone powder filler was used as reference. The asphalt mixtures were evaluated for performance to permanent deformation in the French Rutting Tester (FRT) traffic simulator. The mixture with 5% red mud presented greater resistance to permanent deformation with rutting depth at 30,000 cycles of 3.50%. The asphalt mixtures with red mud presented better performance, with reduction of the rutting of 12.63 to 42.62% in relation to the reference mixture. This study confirmed the viability of reinserting the red mud in the production chain and possible usage in the construction industry. The red mud as filler in asphalt mixtures is a reuse option of this waste and mitigation of the disposal problems, as well as being an environmentally friendly alternative.

Keywords: asphalt mixtures, permanent deformation, red mud, pavements

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
2233 Optimization of Carbon Nanotube Content of Asphalt Nanocomposites with Regard to Resistance to Permanent Deformation

Authors: João V. Staub de Melo, Glicério Trichês, Liseane P. Thives

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of the development of asphalt nanocomposites containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with high resistance to permanent deformation, aiming to increase the performance of asphalt surfaces in relation to the rutting problem. Asphalt nanocomposites were prepared with the addition of different proportions of CNTs (1%, 2% and 3%) in relation to the weight of asphalt binder. The base binder used was a conventional binder (50-70 penetration) classified as PG 58-22. The optimum percentage of CNT addition in the asphalt binder (base) was determined through the evaluation of the rheological and empirical characteristics of the nanocomposites produced. In order to evaluate the contribution and the effects of the nanocomposite (optimized) in relation to the rutting, the conventional and nanomodified asphalt mixtures were tested in a French traffic simulator (Orniéreur). The results obtained demonstrate the efficient contribution of the asphalt nanocomposite containing CNTs to the resistance to permanent deformation of the asphalt mixture.

Keywords: asphalt nanocomposites, asphalt mixtures, carbon nanotubes, nanotechnology, permanent deformation

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2232 Effect of Rubber Tyre and Plastic Wastes Use in Asphalt Concrete Pavement

Authors: F. Onyango, Salim R. Wanjala, M. Ndege, L. Masu

Abstract:

Asphalt concrete pavements have a short life cycle, failing mainly due to temperature changes, traffic loading and ageing. Modified asphalt mixtures provide the technology to produce a bituminous binder with improved viscoelastic properties which remain in balance over a wider temperature range and loading conditions. In this research, 60/70 penetration grade asphalt binder was modified by adding 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 percent by weight of asphalt binder following the wet process and the mineral aggregate was modified by adding 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 percent crumb rubber by volume of the mineral aggregate following the dry process. The LDPE modified asphalt binder Rheological properties were evaluated. The laboratory results showed an increase in viscosity, softening point and stiffness of the binder. The modified asphalt was then used in preparing asphalt mixtures by Marshall Mix design procedure. The Marshall stability values for mixes containing 2% crumb rubber and 4% LDPE were found to be 30% higher than the conventional asphalt concrete mix.

Keywords: crumb rubber, dry process, hot mix asphalt, wet process

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2231 Evaluation of Ultrasonic Techniques for the Estimation of Air Voids in Asphalt Concrete

Authors: Majid Zargar, Frank Bullen, Ron Ayers

Abstract:

One of the important factors in the design of asphalt concrete mixes is the accurate measurement of air voids and their variable distribution. Both can have significant impact on long and short term fatigue and creep behaviour under traffic. While some simple methods exist for overall evaluation of air voids, measuring air void distribution in asphalt concrete is very complex, involving expensive techniques such as X-ray methodologies. The research reported in the paper investigated the use of non-destructive ultrasonic techniques as an alternative to estimate the amount of air voids and their distribution within asphalt samples. Seventy-four Standard AC–14 asphalt samples made with three types of bitumen; Multigrade, PMB and C320 were analysed using ultrasonic techniques. The results have illustrated that ultrasonic testing has the potential of being a rapid, accurate and cost-effective method of estimating air void distribution in asphalt.

Keywords: asphalt concrete, air voids, ultrasonic, mechanical behaviour

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
2230 A Study on Fatigue Performance of Asphalt Using AMPT

Authors: Yuan Jie Kelvin Lu, Amin Chegenizadeh

Abstract:

Asphalt pavement itself is a mixture made up of mainly aggregates, binders, and fillers that acts as a composition used for pavement construction. An experimental program was setup to determine the fatigue performance test of Asphalt with three different grades of conventional binders. Asphalt specimen has achieved the maximum optimum bulk density and air voids with a consistent bulk density of 2.3 t/m3, with an air void of 5% ± 0.5, before loading into the Asphalt Mixture Performance Tested (AMPT) for fatigue test. The number of cycles is defined as the point where phase angle drops, which is caused by the formation of cracks due to the increasing micro cracks when asphalt is undergoing repeated cycles of loading. Thus, the data collected are analyzed using the drop of phase angle as failure criteria. Based in the data analyzed, it is evident that the fatigue life of asphalt lies on the grade of binder. The result obtained shows that all specimens do experience a drop in phase angle due to macro cracks in the asphalt specimen.

Keywords: asphalt binder, AMPT, CX test, simplified – viscoelastic continuum damage (S-VECD)

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
2229 Comparison of Rheological Properties for Polymer Modified Asphalt Produced in Riyadh

Authors: Ali M. Babalghaith, Hamad A. Alsoliman, Abdulrahman S. Al-Suhaibani

Abstract:

Flexible pavement made with neat asphalt binder is not enough to resist heavy traffic loads as well as harsh environmental condition found in Riyadh region. Therefore, there is a need to modify asphalt binder with polymers to satisfy such conditions. There are several types of polymers that are used to modify asphalt binder. The objective of this paper is to compare the rheological properties of six polymer modified asphalt binders (Lucolast7010, Anglomak2144, Paveflex140, SBS KTR401, EE-2 and Crumb rubber) obtained from asphalt manufacturer plants. The rheological properties of polymer modified asphalt binders were tested using conventional tests such as penetration, softening point and viscosity; and SHRP tests such as dynamic shear rheometer and bending beam rheometer. The results have indicated that the polymer modified asphalt binders have lower penetration and higher softening point than neat asphalt indicating an improvement in stiffness of asphalt binder, and as a result, more resistant to rutting. Moreover, the dynamic shear rheometer results have shown that all modifiers used in this study improved the binder properties and satisfied the Superpave specifications except SBS KTR401 which failed to satisfy the rutting parameter (G*/sinδ).

Keywords: polymer modified asphalt, rheological properties, SBS, crumb rubber, EE-2

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
2228 Laboratory Evaluation of Rutting and Fatigue Damage Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures Modified with Carbon Nano Tubes

Authors: Ali Zain Ul Abadeen, Arshad Hussain

Abstract:

Roads are considered as the national capital, and huge developmental budget is spent on its construction, maintenance, and rehabilitation. Due to proliferating traffic volume, heavier loads and challenging environmental factors, the need for high-performance asphalt pavement is increased. In this research, the asphalt mixture was modified with carbon nanotubes ranging from 0.2% to 2% of binder to study the effect of CNT modification on rutting potential and fatigue life of asphalt mixtures. During this study, the conventional and modified asphalt mixture was subjected to a uni-axial dynamic creep test and dry Hamburg wheel tracking test to study rutting resistance. Fatigue behavior of asphalt mixture was studied using a four-point bending test apparatus. The plateau value of asphalt mixture was taken as a measure of fatigue performance according to the ratio of dissipated energy approach. Results of these experiments showed that CNT modified asphalt mixtures had reduced rut depth and increased rutting and fatigue resistance at higher percentages of carbon nanotubes.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, fatigue, four point bending test, modified asphalt, rutting

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
2227 Recycled Asphalt Pavement with Warm Mix Additive for Sustainable Road Construction

Authors: Meor Othman Hamzah, Lillian Gungat, Nur Izzi Md. Yusoff, Jan Valentin

Abstract:

The recent hike in raw materials costs and the quest for preservation of the environment has prompted asphalt industries to adopt greener road construction technology. This paper presents a study on such technology by means of asphalt recycling and use of warm mix asphalt (WMA) additive. It evaluates the effects of a WMA named RH-WMA on binder rheological properties and asphalt mixture performance. The recycled asphalt, obtained from local roads, was processed, fractionated, and incorporated with virgin aggregate and binder. For binder testing, the recycled asphalt was extracted and blended with virgin binder. The binder and mixtures specimen containing 30 % and 50 % recycled asphalt contents were mixed with 3 % RH-WMA. The rheological properties of the binder were evaluated based on fundamental, viscosity, and frequency sweep tests. Indirect tensile strength and resilient modulus tests were carried out to assess the mixture’s performances. The rheological properties and strength performance results showed that the addition of RH-WMA slightly reduced the binder and mixtures stiffness. The percentage of recycled asphalt increased the stiffness of binder and mixture, and thus improves the resistance to rutting. Therefore, the integration of recycled asphalt and RH-WMA can be an alternative material for road sustainable construction for countries in the tropics.

Keywords: recycled asphalt, warm mix additive, rheological, mixture performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 440
2226 Development of Recycled-Modified Asphalt Using Basalt Aggregate

Authors: Dong Wook Lee, Seung Hyun Kim, Jeongho Oh

Abstract:

With the strengthened regulation on the mandatory use of recycled aggregate, development of construction materials using recycled aggregate has recently increased. This study aimed to secure the performance of asphalt concrete mixture by developing recycled-modified asphalt using recycled basalt aggregate from the Jeju area. The strength of the basalt aggregate from the Jeju area used in this study was similar to that of general aggregate, while the specific surface area was larger due to the development of pores. Modified asphalt was developed using a general aggregate-recycled aggregate ratio of 7:3, and the results indicated that the Marshall stability increased by 27% compared to that of asphalt concrete mixture using only general aggregate, and the flow values showed similar levels. Also, the indirect tensile strength increased by 79%, and the toughness increased by more than 100%. In addition, the TSR for examining moisture resistance was 0.95 indicating that the reduction in the indirect tensile strength due to moisture was very low (5% level), and the developed recycled-modified asphalt could satisfy all the quality standards of asphalt concrete mixture.

Keywords: asphalt concrete mixture, performance grade, recycled basalt aggregate, recycled-modified asphalt

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2225 A Molecular-Level Study of Combining the Waste Polymer and High-Concentration Waste Cooking Oil as an Additive on Reclamation of Aged Asphalt Pavement

Authors: Qiuhao Chang, Liangliang Huang, Xingru Wu

Abstract:

In the United States, over 90% of the roads are paved with asphalt. The aging of asphalt is the most serious problem that causes the deterioration of asphalt pavement. Waste cooking oils (WCOs) have been found they can restore the properties of aged asphalt and promote the reuse of aged asphalt pavement. In our previous study, it was found the optimal WCO concentration to restore the aged asphalt sample should be in the range of 10~15 wt% of the aged asphalt sample. After the WCO concentration exceeds 15 wt%, as the WCO concentration increases, some important properties of the asphalt sample can be weakened by the addition of WCO, such as cohesion energy density, surface free energy density, bulk modulus, shear modulus, etc. However, maximizing the utilization of WCO can create environmental and economic benefits. Therefore, in this study, a new idea about using the waste polymer is another additive to restore the WCO modified asphalt that contains a high concentration of WCO (15-25 wt%) is proposed, which has never been reported before. In this way, both waste polymer and WCO can be utilized. The molecular dynamics simulation is used to study the effect of waste polymer on properties of WCO modified asphalt and understand the corresponding mechanism at the molecular level. The radial distribution function, self-diffusion, cohesion energy density, surface free energy density, bulk modulus, shear modulus, adhesion energy between asphalt and aggregate are analyzed to validate the feasibility of combining the waste polymer and WCO to restore the aged asphalt. Finally, the optimal concentration of waste polymer and WCO are determined.

Keywords: reclaim aged asphalt pavement, waste cooking oil, waste polymer, molecular dynamics simulation

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2224 Thermo-Oxidative Degradation of Asphalt Modified with High Density Polyethylene and Engine Oil

Authors: Helder Shelton Abel Manguene, Giovanna Buonocore, Herminio Francisco Muiambo

Abstract:

Paved roads are designed for 10-15 years of life. However, many asphalted roads suffer degradation before reaching their lifetime due to aging caused by load conditions and climatic factors. Oxidation is the main asphalt aging mechanism, which leads to a reduced bond between aggregate particles, increasing the potential for stripping and moisture damage, decreasing fatigue lifetime and reducing resistance to thermal cracking. To improve the performance of asphalt and mitigate these problems, modifiers such as polymers, oils and certain residues have been used. This work aims to study the influence of the addition of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and engine oil on the thermal stability of asphalt in an oxidizing atmosphere. For the study, compositions containing asphalt, motor oil and HDPE were prepared, varying the concentration of the motor oil by 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10% and keeping the HDPE concentration fixed at 5%. The results show that the pure asphalt sample is degraded in a single step that starts at approximately 311 ºC; All samples of modified asphalt except the one that contains 5% of motor oil have three degradation steps that start below the starting temperature of degradation of pure asphalt (about 250-300 ºC); The temperature of onset of degradation of the modified asphalt is shown to decrease as the concentration of the motor oil increases, suggesting a slight loss of thermal stability of the asphalt as the quantity of the motor oil increases.

Keywords: Asphalt, DTG, engine oil, HDPE, TGA

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2223 Effect of Nano-Alumina on the Mechanical Properties of Cold Recycled Asphalt

Authors: Shahab Hasani Nasab, Aran Aeini, Navid Kermanshahi

Abstract:

In order to reduce road building costs and reduce environmental damage, recycled materials can be used instead of mineral materials in the production of asphalt mixtures. Today, in most parts of the world, cold recycled asphalt with bitumen emulsion, has acceptable results. However, Cold Recycled Asphalt have some deficiency such as stripping, thermal cracking, and rutting. This requires the addition of additives to reduce this deficiency of recycled pavement with emulsified asphalt. In this research, nano-alumina and emulsified asphalt were used to modify the properties of recycled asphalt mixtures according to the technical specifications and the operation of cold recycling. Marshall test methods, dynamic creep test, and resiliency modulus test has been used to obtain the nano-alumina’s effects on asphalt mixture properties. The results show that the addition of nano-alumina would reduce the Marshall stability in samples but increases the rutting resistance. The resiliency modulus increases significantly with this additive.

Keywords: cold asphalt, cold recycling, nano-alumina, dynamic creep, bitumen emulsion

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2222 Influence of the Quality Differences in the Same Type of Bitumen and Dosage Rate of Reclaimed Asphalt on Lifetime

Authors: Pahirangan Sivapatham, , Esser Barbara

Abstract:

The impacts of the asphalt mix design, the properties of aggregates and quality differences in the same type of bitumen, as well as the dosage rate of reclaimed asphalt on the relevant material parameter of the analytical pavement design method are not known. Due to that, in this study, the influence of the above mentioned characteristics on relevant material parameters has been determined and analyzed by means of the analytical pavement calculations method. Therefore, material parameters for several asphalt mixes for asphalt wearing course, asphalt binder course and asphalt base course have been determined. Thereby several bitumens of the same type from different producer’s have been used. In addition, asphalt base course materials with three different dosages of reclaimed asphalt have been produced and tested. As material parameter according to the German analytical pavement design guide(RDO Asphalt), the stiffness’s at different temperatures and fatigue behavior have been determined. The findings of asphalt base course materials produced with several pen graded bitumen from different producers and different dosages of reclaimed asphalt indicate the distinct impact on fatigue behaviors and mechanical properties. The calculated test results of the analytical pavement design method show significant differences in the lifetimes. The pavement design calculation is to carry out by means of the actual material parameter. The calculated lifetime of the asphalt base course materials differentiates by the factor 3.2. The determining test results of bitumen characteristics meet the requirement according to the German Standards. But, further investigations of bitumen in different aging conditions show significant differences in their quality. The fatigue behavior and stiffness of asphalt pavement improves with increasing dosage of reclaimed asphalt. Furthermore, the type of aggregates used shows no significant influences.

Keywords: reclaimed asphalt pavement, quality differences in the bitumen, life time calculation, Asphalt mix with RAP

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
2221 Circular Raft Footings Strengthened by Stone Columns under Static Loads

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, B. Mohammadi-Haji

Abstract:

Stone columns have been widely employed to improve the load-settlement characteristics of soft soils. The results of two small scale displacement control loading tests on stone columns were used in order to validate numerical finite element simulations. Additionally, a series of numerical calculations of static loading have been performed on strengthened raft footing to investigate the effects of using stone columns on bearing capacity of footings. The bearing capacity of single and group of stone columns under static loading compares with unimproved ground.

Keywords: circular raft footing, numerical analysis, validation, vertically encased stone column

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
2220 Cleaner Technology for Stone Crushers

Authors: S. M. Ahuja

Abstract:

There are about 12000 stone crusher units in India and are located in clusters around urban areas to the stone quarries. These crushers create lot of fugitive dust emissions and noise pollution which is a major health hazard for the people working in the crushers and also living in its vicinity. Ambient air monitoring was carried out near various stone crushers and it has been observed that fugitive emission varied from 300 to 8000 mg/Nm3. A number of stone crushers were thoroughly studied and their existing pollution control devices were examined. Limitations in the existing technology were also studied. A technology consisting of minimal effective spray nozzles to reduce the emissions at source followed by a containment cum control system having modular cyclones as air pollution control device has been conceived. Besides preliminary energy audit has also been carried out in some of the stone crushers which indicates substantial potential for energy saving.

Keywords: stone crushers, spray nozzles, energy audit

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
2219 Environmental Potentials within the Production of Asphalt Mixtures

Authors: Florian Gschösser, Walter Purrer

Abstract:

The paper shows examples for the (environmental) optimization of production processes for asphalt mixtures applied for typical road pavements in Austria and Switzerland. The conducted “from-cradle-to-gate” LCA firstly analyzes the production one cubic meter of asphalt and secondly all material production processes for exemplary highway pavements applied in Austria and Switzerland. It is shown that environmental impacts can be reduced by the application of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and by the optimization of specific production characteristics, e.g. the reduction of the initial moisture of the mineral aggregate and the reduction of the mixing temperature by the application of low-viscosity and foam bitumen. The results of the LCA study demonstrate reduction potentials per cubic meter asphalt of up to 57 % (Global Warming Potential–GWP) and 77 % (Ozone depletion–ODP). The analysis per square meter of asphalt pavement determined environmental potentials of up to 40 % (GWP) and 56 % (ODP).

Keywords: asphalt mixtures, environmental potentials, life cycle assessment, material production

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2218 Best Timing for Capturing Satellite Thermal Images, Asphalt, and Concrete Objects

Authors: Toufic Abd El-Latif Sadek

Abstract:

The asphalt object represents the asphalted areas like roads, and the concrete object represents the concrete areas like concrete buildings. The efficient extraction of asphalt and concrete objects from one satellite thermal image occurred at a specific time, by preventing the gaps in times which give the close and same brightness values between asphalt and concrete, and among other objects. So that to achieve efficient extraction and then better analysis. Seven sample objects were used un this study, asphalt, concrete, metal, rock, dry soil, vegetation, and water. It has been found that, the best timing for capturing satellite thermal images to extract the two objects asphalt and concrete from one satellite thermal image, saving time and money, occurred at a specific time in different months. A table is deduced shows the optimal timing for capturing satellite thermal images to extract effectively these two objects.

Keywords: asphalt, concrete, satellite thermal images, timing

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
2217 Synthesis of Telechelic Polymers for Asphalt Pavements

Authors: Paula C Arroyo, Norma A Sánchez, Mikhail Tlenkopatchev

Abstract:

The continuous growth in population has resulted in an increment in road construction. The road construction requires more lasting and resistant pavements. Among the different applications of polymers, the reinforcement of pavements throw the modification of asphalt has demonstrated to be an area of special interest for new polymers. The modified asphalt should exhibit a considerable good performance, good elastic properties and an increment in the performance grade (PG). Some of the current polymers used in asphalt are styrene butadiene styrene (SBS), poly(n-butyl methacrylate)-(glycidyl methacrylate) and ethylene-vinyl acetate EVA. The goal of this study was to synthesize low molecular weight (2,000 – 150,000 D) telechelic polymers to be applied at low concentrations in asphalt in order to modify its rheological properties and make it more resistant and durable. The telechelic polymers were obtained from different molar relationships between tensioned and functionalized olefins by ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) and cross metathesis (CR). The synthesis was carried out under inert conditions with Grubbs second generation catalyst. The reaction efficiency was superior to 96% and telechelic polymers were characterized. The telechelic polymers were used to modify asphalt and the rheological properties of the modified asphalt were evaluated finding that at low concentrations (1%) the PG increased in one or two degrees.

Keywords: asphalt polymers, metathesis polymers, telechelic polymers, modified asphalt

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2216 Shear Reinforcement of Stone Columns During Soil Liquefaction

Authors: Zeineb Ben Salem, Wissem Frikha, Mounir Bouassida

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to assess the effectiveness of stone columns as a liquefaction countermeasure focusing on shear reinforcementbenefit. In fact, stone columns which have high shear modulus relative to the surrounding soils potentially can carry higher shear stress levels. Thus, stone columns provide shear reinforcement and decrease the Cyclic Shear Stress Ratio CSR to which the treated soils would be subjected during an earthquake. In order to quantify the level of shear stress reduction in reinforced soil, several approaches have been developed. Nevertheless, the available approaches do not take into account the improvement of the soil parameters, mainly the shear modulusdue to stone columns installation. Indeed, in situ control tests carried out before and after the installation of stone columns based upon the results of collected data derived from 24 case histories have given evidence of the improvement of the existing soil properties.In this paper, the assessment of shear reinforcement of stone columns that accounts such improvement of the soil parameters due to stone column installation is investigated. Comparative results indicate that considering the improvement effects considerably affect the assessment of shear reinforcement for liquefaction analysis of reinforced soil by stone columns.

Keywords: stone column, liquefaction, shear reinforcement, CSR, soil improvement

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
2215 Application of Lean Manufacturing Tools in Hot Asphalt Production

Authors: S. Bayona, J. Nunez, D. Paez, C. Diaz

Abstract:

The application of Lean manufacturing tools continues to be an effective solution for increasing productivity, reducing costs and eliminating waste in the manufacture of goods and services. This article analyzes the production process of a hot asphalt manufacturing company from an administrative and technical perspective. Three main phases were analyzed, the first phase was related to the determination of the risk priority number of the main operations in asphalt mix production process by an FMEA (Failure Mode Effects Analysis), in the second phase the Value Stream Mapping (VSM) of the production line was performed and in the third phase a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses Opportunities, Threats) matrix was constructed. Among the most valued failure modes were the lack training of workers in occupational safety and health issues, the lack of signaling and classification of granulated material, and the overweight of vehicles loaded. The analysis of the results in the three phases agree on the importance of training operational workers, improve communication with external actors in order to minimize delays in material orders and strengthen control suppliers.

Keywords: asphalt, lean manufacturing, productivity, process

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2214 Evaluation of Stone Column Behavior Strengthened Circular Raft Footing under Static Load

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, B. Mohammadi-Haji

Abstract:

Stone columns have been widely employing to improve the load-settlement characteristics of soft soils. The results of two small scale displacement control loading tests on stone columns were used in order to validate numerical finite element simulations. Additionally, a series of numerical calculations of static loading have been performed on strengthened raft footing to investigate the effects of using stone columns on bearing capacity of footings. The bearing capacity of single and group of stone columns under static loading compares with unimproved ground.

Keywords: circular raft footing, numerical analysis, validation, vertically encased stone column

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
2213 Effect of Saturation and Deformation Rate on Split Tensile Strength for Various Sedimentary Rocks

Authors: D. K. Soni

Abstract:

A study of engineering properties of stones, i.e. compressive strength, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, density, hardness were carried out to explore the possibility of optimum utilization of stone. The laboratory test results on equally dimensioned discs of the stone show a considerable variation in computed split tensile strength with varied rates of deformation. Hence, the effect of strain rate on the tensile strength of a sand stone and lime stone under wet and dry conditions has been studied experimentally using the split tensile strength test technique. It has been observed that the tensile strength of these stone is very much dependent on the rate of deformation particularly in a dry state. On saturation the value of split tensile strength reduced considerably depending upon the structure of rock and amount of water absorption.

Keywords: sedimentary rocks, split tensile test, deformation rate, saturation rate, sand stone, lime stone

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
2212 Design of a Laboratory Test for InvestigatingPermanent Deformation of Asphalt

Authors: Esmaeil Ahmadinia, Frank Bullen, Ron Ayers

Abstract:

Many concerns have been raised in recent years about the adequacy of existing creep test methods for evaluating rut-resistance of asphalt mixes. Many researchers believe the main reason for the creep tests being unable to duplicate field results is related to a lack of a realistic confinement for laboratory specimens. In-situ asphalt under axle loads is surrounded by a mass of asphalt, which provides stress-strain generated confinement. However, most existing creep tests are largely unconfined in their nature. It has been hypothesised that by providing a degree of confinement, representative of field conditions, in a creep test, it could be possible to establish a better correlation between the field and laboratory. In this study, a new methodology is explored where confinement for asphalt specimens is provided. The proposed methodology is founded on the current Australian test method, adapted to provide simulated field conditions through the provision of sample confinement.

Keywords: asphalt mixture, creep test, confinements, permanent deformation

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
2211 Measurement of Asphalt Pavement Temperature to Find out the Proper Asphalt Binder Performance Grade to the Asphalt Mixtures in Southern Desert of Libya

Authors: Khlifa El Atrash, Gabriel Assaf

Abstract:

Most developing countries use volumetric analysis in designing asphalt mixtures, which can also be upgraded in hot arid weather. However, in order to be effective, it should include many important aspects which are materials, environment, and method of construction. The overall intent of the work reported in this study is to test different asphalt mixtures while taking into consideration the environment, type and source of material, tools, equipment, and the construction method. In this study, several tests were conducted on many samples that were carefully prepared under the expected traffic loads and temperatures in a dry hot climate. Several asphalt concrete mixtures were designed using two different binders. These mixtures were analyzed under two types of tests - Complex Modulus and Rutting test - to evaluate the hot mix asphalt properties under the represented temperatures and traffic load in Libya. These factors play an important role to improve the pavement performances in a hot climate weather based on the properties of the asphalt mixture, climate, and traffic load. This research summarized some recommendations for making asphalt mixtures used in hot dry areas. Such asphalt mixtures should use asphalt binder which is less affected by pavement temperature change and traffic load. The properties of the mixture, such as durability, deformation, air voids and performance, largely depend on the type of materials, environment, and mixing method. These properties, in turn, affect the pavement performance. Therefore, this study is aimed to develop a method for designing an asphalt mixture that takes into account field loading, various stresses, and temperature spectrums.

Keywords: volumetric analysis, pavement performances, hot climate, asphalt mixture, traffic load

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
2210 Numerical Analysis of Geosynthetic-Encased Stone Columns under Laterally Loads

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, M. Hossein Zade

Abstract:

Out of all methods for ground improvement, stone column became more popular these days due to its simple construction and economic consideration. Installation of stone column especially in loose fine graded soil causes increasing in load bearing capacity and settlement reduction. Encased granular stone columns (EGCs) are commonly subjected to vertical load. However, they may also be subjected to significant amount of shear loading. In this study, three-dimensional finite element (FE) analyses were conducted to estimate the shear load capacity of EGCs in sandy soil. Two types of different cases, stone column and geosynthetic encased stone column were studied at different normal pressures varying from 15 kPa to 75 kPa. Also, the effect of diameter in two cases was considered. A close agreement between the experimental and numerical curves of shear stress - horizontal displacement trend line is observed. The obtained result showed that, by increasing the normal pressure and diameter of stone column, higher shear strength is mobilized by soil; however, in the case of encased stone column, increasing the diameter had more dominated effect in mobilized shear strength.

Keywords: encased stone column, laterally load, ordinary stone column, validation

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
2209 The Effect of Nanoclay on Long Term Performance of Asphalt Concrete Pavement

Authors: A. Khodadadi, Hasani, Salehi

Abstract:

The advantages of using modified asphalt binders are widely recognized—primarily, improved rutting resistance, reduced fatigue cracking and less cold-temperature cracking. Nanoclays are known to enhance the properties of many polymers. Nanoclays are used to improve modulus and tensile strength, flame resistance and thermal and structural properties of many materials. This paper intends to investigate the application and development of nano-technological concepts for bituminous materials and asphalt pavements. The application of nano clay on the fatigue life of asphalt pavement have not been yet thoroughly understood. In this research, two type of highway asphalt materials, dense Marshall specimens, with 2% nano clay and without nano clay, were employed for the fatigue behavior of the asphalt pavement.The effect of nano additive on the performance of flexible pavements has been investigated through the indirect tensile test for the samples prepared with 2% nano clay and without nano clay in four stress levels from 200–500 kPa. The primary results indicated samples with 2% nano clay have almost double or even more fatigue life in most of stress levels.

Keywords: Nano clay, Asphalt, fatigue life, pavement

Procedia PDF Downloads 348