Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 60

Search results for: big-4 auditors

60 Dysfunctional Behavior of External Auditors, The Collision of Time Budget and Time Deadline

Authors: Rabih Nehme, Abdullah Al Mutawa

Abstract:

The general goal behind this research is to gain a better understanding of factors leading to dysfunctional behavior of auditors. Recent accounting scandals -Enron, Waste Management Inc., WorldCom, Xerox Corporation, etc. -provided an ample proof of how the role of auditors has become the basis of controversial debates in many circles and instances in our modern time. The majority of lawsuits and accounting scandals seem to have a central topic in focus, namely the question ''Where were the auditors? The survey we offer up for research is made up of 34 questions that are designed to analyse the perception of auditors and the cause of dysfunctional behavior. The object of this research is comprised of auditors positioned and employed at the Big Four audit firms in Kuwait. Dysfunctional behavior (DB) is measured against two signal proxies of dysfunctional behavior; premature sign-off and under reporting of chargeable time. DB is analysed against time budget pressure and time deadline pressure. The research results' suggest that the general belief among auditors is that the profession of accountancy predetermines their tendency to commit certain patterns of dysfunctional behavior. Having our investigation conducted at the Big Four audit firms, we have come to the conclusion that there is a general difference in behavior patterns among perceptions of dysfunctional behavior and normal skeptic professional behavior.

Keywords: big four, dysfunctional behavior, time budget, time deadline

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59 Digitalization and High Audit Fees: An Empirical Study Applied to US Firms

Authors: Arpine Maghakyan

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The purpose of this paper is to study the relationship between the level of industry digitalization and audit fees, especially, the relationship between Big 4 auditor fees and industry digitalization level. On the one hand, automation of business processes decreases internal control weakness and manual mistakes; increases work effectiveness and integrations. On the other hand, it may cause serious misstatements, high business risks or even bankruptcy, typically in early stages of automation. Incomplete automation can bring high audit risk especially if the auditor does not fully understand client’s business automation model. Higher audit risk consequently will cause higher audit fees. Higher audit fees for clients with high automation level are more highlighted in Big 4 auditor’s behavior. Using data of US firms from 2005-2015, we found that industry level digitalization is an interaction for the auditor quality on audit fees. Moreover, the choice of Big4 or non-Big4 is correlated with client’s industry digitalization level. Big4 client, which has higher digitalization level, pays more than one with low digitalization level. In addition, a high-digitalized firm that has Big 4 auditor pays higher audit fee than non-Big 4 client. We use audit fees and firm-specific variables from Audit Analytics and Compustat databases. We analyze collected data by using fixed effects regression methods and Wald tests for sensitivity check. We use fixed effects regression models for firms for determination of the connections between technology use in business and audit fees. We control for firm size, complexity, inherent risk, profitability and auditor quality. We chose fixed effects model as it makes possible to control for variables that have not or cannot be measured.

Keywords: audit fees, auditor quality, digitalization, Big4

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58 Split-Share Structure Reform and Statutory Audit Fees in China

Authors: Hsiao-Wen Wang

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The split-share structure reform in China represents one of the most significant milestones in the evolution of the capital market. With the goal of converting non-tradable shares into tradable shares, the reform laid the foundation and supported the development of full-scale privatization. This study explores China’s split-share structure reform and its impact on statutory audit fees. This study finds that auditors earn a significant statutory audit fee premium after the split-share structure reform. The Big 4 auditors who provide better audit quality receive higher statutory audit fee premium than non-Big 4 auditors after the share reform, which is attributable to their brand reputation, rather than the relative market dominance.

Keywords: chinese split-share structure reform, statutory audit fees, big-4 auditors, corporate governance

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57 CyberSecurity Malaysia: Towards Becoming a National Certification Body for Information Security Management Systems Internal Auditors

Authors: M. S. Razana, Z. W. Shafiuddin

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Internal auditing is one of the most important activities for organizations that implement information security management systems (ISMS). The purpose of internal audits is to ensure the ISMS implementation is in accordance to the ISO/IEC 27001 standard and the organization’s own requirements for its ISMS. Competent internal auditors are the main element that contributes to the effectiveness of internal auditing activities. To realize this need, CyberSecurity Malaysia is now in the process of becoming a certification body that certifies ISMS internal auditors. The certification scheme will assess the competence of internal auditors in generic knowledge and skills in management systems, and also in ISMS-specific knowledge and skills. The certification assessment is based on the ISO/IEC 19011 Guidelines for auditing management systems, ISO/IEC 27007 Guidelines for information security management systems auditing and ISO/IEC 27001 Information security management systems requirements. The certification scheme complies with the ISO/IEC 17024 General requirements for bodies operating certification systems of persons. Candidates who pass the exam will be certified as an ISMS Internal Auditor, whose competency will be evaluated every three years.

Keywords: ISMS internal audit, ISMS internal auditor, ISO/IEC 17024, competence, certification

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56 Auditor with the Javanese Characters: Revealing the Relationship towards Its Client

Authors: Krisna Damayanti

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Negative issue about the relationship between auditors and clients often heard. It arises in view of the rise of a variety of phenomena resulting from the audit practice of greed and do not appreciate the independence of the audit profession and professional code of ethics. It is a logical consequence of the practice of capitalism in accounting. The purpose of this paper would like to uncover the existing auditing practices in Indonesia, especially Java, which is associated with a strong influence of Javanese culture with reluctant/"shy", politely, "legowo", "ngemong" friendly, "not mentholo", "tepo seliro", "ngajeni", "acquiescent". The method used by interpretive approach that emphasizes the role of language, interpret and understand and see social reality as something other than a label, name or concept. Auditing practices in each country has a culture that will affect the standard set by those regulatory standards although there has been an adaptation of IAS. In Indonesia the majority of parties dominated by Javanesse racial regulators, so Java culture is embedded in every audit practices thus conditions in Java requires auditors to behave like that, sometimes interfere with standard Java code of conduct that must be executed by an auditor. Auditors who live in Java have the characters of Javanese culture that is hard to avoid in the audit practice. However, in practice, the auditor still are relevant in their profession.

Keywords: auditors, java, character, profession, code of ethics, client

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55 Independent Audit in Brazilian Companies Listed on B3: An Analysis of Companies That Received Qualified Opinion and Disclaimer of Opinion

Authors: Diego Saldo Alves, Marcelo Paveck Ayub

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The quality of accounting information is very important for the decision-making of managers, investors government and other information users. The opinion of the independent audit has a significant influence on the decision-making, especially the investors. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyze the reasons that companies listed on Brazilian Stock Exchange B3, if they received qualified opinion and disclaimer of opinion of the independent auditors. We analyzed the reports of the independent auditors of 23 Brazilian companies listed in B3 that received qualified opinion and disclaimer of opinion between the years 2012 and 2017. The findings show that the companies do not comply the International Financial Reporting Standard, IFRS, also they did not provide documentation to prove the operations performed, did not account expenses, problems in corporate governance and internal controls.

Keywords: audit, disclaimer of opinion, independent auditors, qualified opinion

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54 Legal Responsibility of the External Auditor Qualitative Case Study of Libyan Environment

Authors: Bubaker F. Shareia

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The aim of this paper is to determine a general frame of the auditor's legal responsibilities in Libya which were implied in professional codes and rules, these codes and rules were concerned with the auditor's rights and duties in conducting his professional duties. This will provide a background for the Libyan accounting profession, and the challenges in tailoring Auditors to meet third party's needs. Being informed of the kinds of legal responsibilities which the external auditors could face during conducting their duties. The study is based on a literature review and archival research, reinforced by a qualitative case study comprised of interviews, questionnaire and a study of internal documents. To reach such an understanding, the researcher designed two questionnaires for collecting the data. One questionnaire was distributed among the certified public accountant firms in Libya and the second was distributed among a group of randomly selected lawyers and judges in the same country. Most auditors agreed upon the determination of their responsibilities toward the state and they emphasized that their responsibilities toward their clients were limited to the accepted standards of auditing. Moreover, all auditors who were surveyed emphasized that there has never been any juridical claims against them, and as a consequence they have never paid any legal fines. This study focuses on one country, which does limit its generalisability. However, it also suggests fruitful research areas in considering the impact and challenge of the historic factors in the accounting profession in emerging economies.

Keywords: accounting, external auditor, legal responsibilities, libyan accounting profession

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53 The Effect of Book-Tax Conformity on Audit Quality: Evidence from Canada

Authors: Yosra Makni Fourati, Sana Masmoudi Mardassi

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This paper investigates the effect of Book-tax conformity on audit quality regarding the proxies of audit fees, auditors’ industry specialization and audit report lag. Using a sample of Canadian firms listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange spanning the years 2006- 2016, we applied an Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression to test hypotheses of this research. The authors find that higher Book-tax conformity leads to lower audit fees. They also provide evidence that there is a negative association between Book-tax conformity and auditors’ industry specialization, whereas there is a positive association between Book-tax conformity and audit report lag. Overall, the findings are prominent to better understanding the effect of Book-tax conformity on audit quality and are relevant for academic researchers, practitioners, and regulators. As the paper investigates the relationship of Book-tax conformity and audit quality using a sample of Canadian firms, it brings original insights regarding the importance of audit fees and Book-tax conformity. In addition, it considers the role of auditor’s industry specialization in the relation between audit quality and Book-tax conformity by considering a sample listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange. This paper contributes to the existing literature by highlighting the Canadian setting, to our best knowledge. In addition, our results are prominent to the auditing literature as they introduce a different determinant of auditors’ industry specialization and audit report lag.

Keywords: audit fees, auditors' industry specialization, audit report lag, book-tax conformity

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52 The Voluntary Audit of Semi-Annual Consolidated Financial Statements Decision and Accounting Conservatism

Authors: Shuofen Hsu, Ya-Yi Chao, Chao-Wei Li

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This paper investigates the relationship between voluntary audit (hereafter, VA) of semi-annual consolidated financial statements decision and accounting conservatism. In general, there are four kinds of auditors' assurance services, which include audit, review, agreed-upon procedure and compliance engagements base on degree of assurance. The VA work by auditors may not only have the higher audit quality but an important signal of more reliable information than the review work. In Taiwan, The listed companies must prepare the semi-annual consolidated financial statements and with auditors' review before 2012, but some of the listed companies choose the assurance work from review to audit voluntarily. Due to the adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards, the listed companies were required to prepare the second quarterly consolidated financial statements which should be reviewed by auditors since 2013. This rule will change some of the assurance work from audit to review by auditors, and the information asymmetry maybe increased. To control the selection bias, we use two-stage model to test the relationship between VA decision and accounting conservatism. Our empirical results indicate that the VA decision and accounting conservatism have a significant positive relationship in firms with family-controlled. That is, firms with family-controlled are more likely to do VA and to prepare more conservative consolidated financial statements to reduce the information asymmetry, meaning that there is a complementary effect between VA and accounting conservatism for firms with more information asymmetry. But on the contrary, we find that the VA decision and accounting conservatism have a significant negative relationship in firms with professional managers-controlled, meaning that there is a substitution effect between VA and accounting conservatism for firms with less information asymmetry. Finally, the accounting conservatism of consolidated financial statements decrease after the adoption of IFRSs (International Financial Reporting Standards) in Taiwan. It means that the disclosure and transparency of consolidated financial statements had be improved.

Keywords: voluntary audit, accounting conservatism, audit quality, information asymmetry

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51 Exploration of Professional Skepticism among Entry-level Auditors in China from Psychological and Cultural Perspectives

Authors: Sammy Xiaoyan Ying

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Professional skepticism remains one of the most important and controversial topics in auditing. This study examines the influence of client cooperativeness and fraud risk on judgments of professional skepticism among Chinese entry-level auditors in the context of evaluation of client-provided audit evidence. Given that the essence of auditors’ PS rests on distrust of clients, this study invokes trust-related theories from psychological and cultural perspectives. Specifically, invoking psychology theories of trust concerning positive relationship between risk and distrust, this study hypothesizes that professional skepticism is likely to be positively associated with client fraud risk. The results support the hypothesis and show that lower (higher) levels of client fraud risk lead to lower (higher) levels of professional skepticism. Furthermore, drawing on analysis of relationship between cooperation and trust, with particular reference to guanxi dynamics in the Chinese culture, this study hypothesizes that professional skepticism is likely to be negatively associated with client cooperativeness. The results support the hypothesis and show that higher (lower) levels of client cooperativeness lead to lower (higher) levels of professional skepticism. The findings may assist audit firms and auditing educators in improving training and education programs and enhancing entry-level auditors’ abilities to maintain professional skepticism. Also, practitioners and regulators may benefit from increasing awareness of psychological factors in influencing professional skepticism.

Keywords: audit judgment, Chinese culture, entry-level auditor, professional skepticism

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50 Corporate Governance Role of Audit Committees in the Banking Sector: Evidence from Libya

Authors: Abdulaziz Abdulsaleh

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This study aims at identifying the practices that should be taken into consideration by audit committees as a tool of corporate governance in Libyan commercial banks by investigating various perceptions on this topic. The study is based on a questionnaire submitted to audit committees ‘members at Libyan commercial banks, directors of internal audit departments as well as members of board of directors at these banks in addition to a number of external auditors and academic staff from Libyan universities. The study reveals that the role of audit committees has to be shifted from traditional areas of accounting to a broader role including functions related to financial reporting, audit planning, support the independence of internal and external auditors, acting as a channel of communication between external auditors and board of directors, reviewing external audit, and evaluating internal control systems. Although the study is a starting point in developing a framework of good audit committees’ practices in Libya, it is believed that the adoption of its results can result in enhancing the corporate governance practices not only in the banking sector but also in the entire corporate sector in Libya.

Keywords: audit committees, corporate governance, commercial banks, Libya

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49 Internal Audit Function Contributions to the External Audit

Authors: Douglas F. Prawitt, Nathan Y. Sharp, David A. Wood

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Consistent with prior experimental and survey studies, we find that IAFs that spend more time directly assisting the external auditor is associated with lower external audit fees. Interestingly, we do not find evidence that external auditors reduce fees based on work previously performed by the IAF. We also find that the time spent assisting the external auditor has a greater negative effect on external audit fees than the time spent performing tasks upon which the auditor may rely but that are not performed as direct assistance to the external audit. Our results also show that previous proxies used to measure this relation is either not associated with or are negatively associated with our direct measures of how the IAF can contribute to the external audit and are highly positively associated with the size and the complexity of the organization. Thus, we conclude the disparate experimental and archival results may be attributable to issues surrounding the construct validity of measures used in previous archival studies and that when measures similar to those used in experimental studies are employed in archival tests, the archival results are consistent with experimental findings. Our research makes four primary contributions to the literature. First, we provide evidence that internal auditing contributes to a reduction in external audit fees. Second, we replicate and provide an explanation for why previous archival studies find that internal auditing has either no association with external audit fees or is associated with an increase in those fees: prior studies generally use proxies of internal audit contribution that do not adequately capture the intended construct. Third, our research expands on survey-based research (e.g., Oil Libya sh.co.) by separately examining the impact on the audit fee of the internal auditors’ work, indirectly assisting external auditors and internal auditors’ prior work upon which external auditors can rely. Finally, we extend prior research by using a new, independent data source to validate and extend prior studies. This data set also allows for a sample of examining the impact of internal auditing on the external audit fee and the use of a more comprehensive external audit fee model that better controls for determinants of the external audit fee.

Keywords: internal audit, contribution, external audit, function

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
48 Audit Quality and Audit Regulation in European Union: A Perspective, Considering Actual and Perception Based Measures

Authors: Daniela Monteiro

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Considering the entry into force of the new EU audit reform regarding statutory auditors, in effect in all member states since 2016, this research aims to identify which audit regulation rules are associated with a high-level audit quality on both its dimensions, i.e., the actual quality and the perceived quality, in relation to public interest entities, within the European Union, and whether those rules have the same impact on both dimensions. Its measurement was based on the following proxies: the quality of financial information through earnings management and the impact of qualified opinions on financial costs. We considered in the research regulation subjects such as auditors’ rotation and provision of services (NAS) and also the level of market concentration. The criteria to include these issues in the research was its contemplation of the new rules. We studied the period before the audit reform (2009-2015) when the regulation measures were less uniform. Besides the consideration of both dimensions of audit quality and several regulation measures, we believe our conclusions configure an important contribution to this research field, considering the involvement of the first 15 member states of the European Union. The results consolidate the assumption that the balance between competence and independence is not the only challenge related to the regulation of the audit profession. The evidence demonstrates that the balance between actual and perceived quality is also a relevant matter. The major conclusion is that the challenge is to keep balanced both actual and perceived audit quality whilst ensuring the independence and competence of auditors.

Keywords:

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47 The Voluntary Review Decision of Quarterly Consolidated Financial Statements in Emerging Market: Evidence from Taiwan

Authors: Shuofen Hsu, Ya-Yi Chao, Chao-Wei Li

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This paper investigates the factors of whether firms’ quarterly consolidated financial statements to be voluntary reviewed by auditor. To promote the information transparency, the Financial Supervisory Commission of Executive Yuan in Taiwan ruled the Taiwanese listed companies should announce the first and third quarterly consolidated financial statements since 2008 to 2012, while the Commission didn’t require the consolidated financial statements should be reviewed by auditors. This is a very special practice in emerging market, especially in Taiwan. The valuable data of this period is suitable for us to research the determinants of firms’ voluntary review decision in emerging markets. We collected the auditors' report of each company and each year of Taiwanese listed companies since 2008 to 2012 for our research samples. We use probit model to test and analyze the determinants of voluntary review decision of the first and third quarterly consolidated financial statements. Our empirical result shows that the firms whose first and third quarterly consolidated financial statements are voluntary to be reviewed by auditors have better ranking of information transparency, higher audit quality, and better corporate governance, suggesting that voluntary review is a good signal to firms’ better information and corporate governance quality.

Keywords: voluntary review, information transparency, audit quality, quarterly consolidated financial statements

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46 The Effect of Internal Auditing Function on the Quality of Financial Reporting: A Theoretical Framework

Authors: Hani Albogami

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The internal audit function is considered as one of the internal corporate governance mechanisms that may have an impact on improving earnings quality by constraining earnings management. The internal audit function is also a unique corporate governance mechanism because internal auditors have more involvement with the day-to-day operations comparing to the audit committee, and also internal auditors audit their companies the whole year compared to the external auditor who audits only a certain time of the year. The relationships between internal audit function and earnings management can be understood by some theories. Therefore, this paper provides a theoretical background of the influence of the quality of internal audit function on earnings management. In particular, the agency theory, institutional theory, singling theory, and resource dependency theory are adapted by this paper to provide some understanding and analyses that can be a basis for future research to contribute to the corporate governance academic studies.

Keywords: internal audit, corporate governance, earnings management, accounting

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45 Financial Statement Fraud: The Need for a Paradigm Shift to Forensic Accounting

Authors: Ifedapo Francis Awolowo

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The unrelenting series of embarrassing audit failures should stimulate a paradigm shift in accounting. And in this age of information revolution, there is need for a constant improvement on the products or services one offers to the market in order to be relevant. This study explores the perceptions of external auditors, forensic accountants and accounting academics on whether a paradigm shift to forensic accounting can reduce financial statement frauds. Through Neo-empiricism/inductive analytical approach, findings reveal that a paradigm shift to forensic accounting might be the right step in the right direction in order to increase the chances of fraud prevention and detection in the financial statement. This research has implication on accounting education on the need to incorporate forensic accounting into present day accounting curriculum. Accounting professional bodies, accounting standard setters and accounting firms all have roles to play in incorporating forensic accounting education into accounting curriculum. Particularly, there is need to alter the ISA 240 to make the prevention and detection of frauds the responsibilities of bot those charged with the management and governance of companies and statutory auditors.

Keywords: financial statement fraud, forensic accounting, fraud prevention and detection, auditing, audit expectation gap, corporate governance

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44 Tax Avoidance During The Financial Crisis: Role Of Independent Commissioners And External Auditors

Authors: Yasir Ramadhan

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This study aims to investigate tax avoidance practices when a financial crisis occurs due to the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study also finds out how the influence of independent commissioners and external auditors on tax avoidance practices during the COVID-19 pandemic. Tax avoidance practices are measured by the current ETR. The role of the independent board of commissioners is measured by the proportion of independent commissioners in the composition of the board of commissioners, while the external auditor is measured by audit quality. In this study, there were 342 observations of companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange from 2019 to 2020. This study used the difference-in-differences (DiD) method in data analysis. The results of this study indicate that companies do tax avoidance during the COVID-19 pandemic. Meanwhile, independent commissioners and qualified audits are not proven to be able to negate tax avoidance practices during the COVID-19 Pandemic. These results also show that a higher proportion of independent commissioners and audit quality are not sufficient for countries with low levels of auditor litigation and investor protection and weak regulatory frameworks.

Keywords: audit, commissioner, tax avoidance, COVID-19 pandemic

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43 Factors Influencing the Voluntary Disclosure of Vietnamese Listed Companies

Authors: Pham Duc Hieu, Do Thi Huong Lan

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The aim of this paper is to investigate the factors affecting the extent of voluntary disclosure by examining the annual reports of 205 industrial and manufacturing companies listing on Ho Chi Minh Stock Exchange (HSX) and Hanoi Stock Exchange (HNX) for the year end of 2012. Those factors include company size, profitability, leverage, state ownership, managerial ownership, and foreign ownership, board independence, role duality and type of external auditors. Evidence from this study suggests two main findings. (1) Companies with high foreign ownership have a high level of voluntary disclosure. (2) The company size is an important factor related to the increased level of voluntary disclosure in annual reports made by Vietnamese listed companies. The larger the company, the higher the information is disclosed. However, no significant associations are found between profitability, leverage, state ownership, managerial ownership, board independence, role duality and type of external auditors as hypothesized in this study.

Keywords: voluntary disclosure, Vietnamese listed companies, voluntary, duality

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42 Public Governance in Brazil: The Perception of Professionals and Counselors of the Courts of Auditors on Transparency, Responsiveness and Accountability of Public Policies

Authors: Paulino Varela Tavares, Ana Lucia Romao

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Public governance represents an articulated arrangement, dynamic and interactive, present in the exercise of authority aimed at strengthening the decision-making procedure in public administration with transparency, accountability, responsiveness and capable of to emerge control and social empowerment, to pursue and achieve the objectives efficiently and with the effectiveness desired for the collectivity, respecting the laws and provide social, institutional and economic equity in society. In this context, using a multidimensional approach with the application of a questionnaire with four questions directed to twenty Counselors of the Courts of Auditors of the States (Brazil) and twenty professionals (liberals, teachers, and specialists) of the public administration in Brazil, preliminary results indicate that 70% believe that the level of transparency in public policies is low; 40% say that the government makes accountability because it is required by law, but, other instruments must be developed to force the government to account for all accounts with society; 75% say that government responsiveness is very limited because of the lack of long term planning, which is greatly affected by party political issues in Brazil. Therefore, the results, as yet, point out that Brazilian society has a huge challenge regarding the transparency, accountability, and responsiveness of governments in relation to their public policies.

Keywords: accountability, public governance, responsiveness, transparency

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41 Moderating Effect of Owner's Influence on the Relationship between the Probability of Client Failure and Going Concern Opinion Issuance

Authors: Mohammad Noor Hisham Osman, Ahmed Razman Abdul Latiff, Zaidi Mat Daud, Zulkarnain Muhamad Sori

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The problem that Malaysian auditors do not issue going concern opinion (GC opinion) to seriously financially distressed companies is still a pressing issue. Policy makers, particularly the Financial Statement Review Committee (FSRC) of Malaysian Institute of Accountant, have raised this issue as early as in 2009. Similar problem happened in the US, UK, and many developing countries. It is important for auditors to issue GC opinion properly because such opinion is one signal about the viability of a company much needed by stakeholders. There are at least two unanswered questions or research gaps in the literature on determinants of GC opinion. Firstly, is client’s probability of failure associated with GC opinion issuance? Secondly, to what extent influential owners (management, family, and institution) moderate the association between client probability of failure and GC opinion issuance. The objective of this study is, therefore, twofold; (1) To examine the extent of the relationship between the probability of client failure and the issuance of GC opinion and (2) To examine the level of management, family, and institutional ownerships moderate the association between client probability of failure and the issuance of GC opinion. This study is quantitative in nature, and the sources of data are secondary (mainly company’s annual reports). A total of four hypotheses have been developed and tested on data accumulated from annual reports of seriously financially distressed Malaysian public listed companies. Data from 2006 to 2012 on a sample of 644 observations have been analyzed using panel logistic regression. It is found that certainty (rather than probability) of client failure affects the issuance of GC opinion. In addition, it is found that only the level of family ownership does positively moderate the relationship between client probability of failure and GC opinion issuance. This study is a contribution to auditing literature as its findings can enhance our understanding about audit quality; particularly on the variables that are associated with the issuance of GC opinion. The findings of this study shed light on the roles family owners in GC opinion issuance process, and this would open ways for the researcher to suggest measures that can be used to tackle the problem of auditors do not want to issue GC opinion to financially distressed clients. The measures to be suggested can be useful to policy makers in formulating future promulgations.

Keywords: audit quality, auditing, auditor characteristics, going concern opinion, Malaysia

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40 Client Importance and Audit Quality under Civil Law versus Common Law Societies

Authors: Kelly Grani Yuen

Abstract:

Accounting scandals and auditing frauds are perceived to be driven by aggressive companies and misrepresentation of audit reports. However, local legal systems and law enforcements may affect the services auditors provide to their ‘important’ clients. Under the civil law and common law jurisdictions, the standard setters, the government, and the regulatory bodies treat cases differently. As such, whether or not different forms of legal systems and extent of law enforcement plays an important role in auditor’s Audit Quality is a question this paper attempts to explore. The paper focuses on the investigation in Asia, where Hong Kong represents the common-law jurisdiction, while Taiwan and China represent the civil law jurisdiction. Only the ten reputable accounting firms are used in this study due to the differences in rankings and establishments of some of the small local audit firms. This will also contribute to the data collected between the years 2007-2013. By focusing on the use of multiple regression based on the dependent (Audit Quality) and independent variables (Client Importance, Law Enforcement, and Press Freedom), six different models are established. Results demonstrate that since different jurisdictions have different legal systems and market regulations, auditor’s treatment on ‘important’ clients will vary. However, with the moderators in place (law enforcement and press freedom), the relationship between client importance and audit quality may be smoothed out. With that in mind, this study contributes to local governments and standard setters’ consideration on legal reform and proper law enforcement in the market. Perhaps, with such modifications on the economic systems, collusion between companies and auditors can finally be put to a halt.

Keywords: audit quality, client importance, jurisdiction, modified audit opinions

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39 The Impact of Audit Committee Industry Expertise on Internal Audit Function

Authors: Abdulaziz Alzeban

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This study examines whether internal audit function is indeed greater when audit committee members have industry expertise combined with auditing expertise. Data from a survey of 64 chief internal auditors from companies registered on the Saudi Stock Exchange TADAWL, provides results that suggest that when audit committee members possess both industry expertise and auditing expertise, the committee’s role in improving the quality of internal audit is enhanced. This outcome is concluded as one that can be generalized beyond the Saudi Arabian context.

Keywords: internal audit, audit committee, industry expertise, function

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38 Accounting Information Systems of Kuwaiti Companies: Obstacles and Barriers

Authors: Haya Y Alobaid

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The aim of this paper is to identify and discuss the obstacles to the ability of the accounting information systems of Kuwaiti companies to deal with electronic commerce, and then to propose appropriate solutions to overcome the barriers. The study revealed a remarkable decrease in external auditors who have professional certification. The results also showed an agreement regarding the accounting systems and the ability to deal with e-commerce, with a different degree of importance, despite the presence of obstacles to the ability of accounting systems in dealing with different companies.

Keywords: accounting information systems, obstacle and barriers, electronic commerce, Kuwait companies

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37 The Effect of Role Conflict, Role Ambiguity and Job Satisfaction on Auditor Performance

Authors: Binti Shofiatul Jannah, Hans Wakhida Rakhmatullah

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This paper aims to examine the influence of role conflict, role ambiguity and job satisfaction on auditor performance. This study uses survey method using a questionnaire to collect the data. The questionnaires distributes were 104 respondents. The respondents are auditors who work for public accounting firms in East Java. Partial Least Square (PLS) with program SmartPLS version 2.0 were used to hypothesis testing. The result shows that: (1) there is no negative influence of role conflict on auditor performance; (2) there is negative influence of role ambiguity on auditor performance; (3) there is positive influence of job satisfaction on auditor performance.

Keywords: role conflict, role ambiguity, job satisfaction, performance

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36 The Impact of Religiosity and Ethical Senstivity on Accounting Students’ Ethical Judgement Decision

Authors: Ahmed Mohamed Alteer

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The purpose of this paper is come up with theoretical model through understanding the causes and motives behind the auditors' sensitive to ethical dilemma through Auditing Students. This study considers the possibility of auditing students’ ethical judgement being affected by two individual factors, namely ethical sensitivity and religiosity. The finding of this study that there are several ethical theories a models provide a significant understanding of ethical issues and supported that ethical sensitivity and religiosity may affect ethical judgement decision among accounting students. The suggestion model proposes that student ethical judgement is influenced by their ethical sensitivity and their religiosity. Nonetheless, the influence of religiosity on ethical judgement is expected to be via ethical sensitivity.

Keywords: asccounting students, ethical sensitivity, religiosity, ethical judgement

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35 An Investigation into Fraud Detection in Financial Reporting Using Sugeno Fuzzy Classification

Authors: Mohammad Sarchami, Mohsen Zeinalkhani

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Always, financial reporting system faces some problems to win public ear. The increase in the number of fraud and representation, often combined with the bankruptcy of large companies, has raised concerns about the quality of financial statements. So, investors, legislators, managers, and auditors have focused on significant fraud detection or prevention in financial statements. This article aims to investigate the Sugeno fuzzy classification to consider fraud detection in financial reporting of accepted firms by Tehran stock exchange. The hypothesis is: Sugeno fuzzy classification may detect fraud in financial reporting by financial ratio. Hypothesis was tested using Matlab software. Accuracy average was 81/80 in Sugeno fuzzy classification; so the hypothesis was confirmed.

Keywords: fraud, financial reporting, Sugeno fuzzy classification, firm

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34 The Communication of Audit Report: Key Audit Matters in United Kingdom

Authors: L. Sierra, N. Gambetta, M. A. Garcia-Benau, M. Orta

Abstract:

Financial scandals and financial crisis have led to an international debate on the value of auditing. In recent years there have been significant legislative reforms aiming to increase markets’ confidence in audit services. In particular, there has been a significant debate on the need to improve the communication of auditors with audit reports users as a way to improve its informative value and thus, to improve audit quality. The International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board (IAASB) has proposed changes to the audit report standards. The International Standard on Auditing 701, Communicating Key Audit Matters (KAM) in the Independent Auditor's Report, has introduced new concepts that go beyond the auditor's opinion and requires to disclose the risks that, from the auditor's point of view, are more significant in the audited company information. Focusing on the companies included in the Financial Times Stock Exchange 100 index, this study aims to focus on the analysis of the determinants of the number of KAM disclosed by the auditor in the audit report and moreover, the analysis of the determinants of the different type of KAM reported during the period 2013-2015. To test the hypotheses in the empirical research, two different models have been used. The first one is a linear regression model to identify the client’s characteristics, industry sector and auditor’s characteristics that are related to the number of KAM disclosed in the audit report. Secondly, a logistic regression model is used to identify the determinants of the number of each KAM type disclosed in the audit report; in line with the risk-based approach to auditing financial statements, we categorized the KAM in 2 groups: Entity-level KAM and Accounting-level KAM. Regarding the auditor’s characteristics impact on the KAM disclosure, the results show that PwC tends to report a larger number of KAM while KPMG tends to report less KAM in the audit report. Further, PwC reports a larger number of entity-level risk KAM while KPMG reports less account-level risk KAM. The results also show that companies paying higher fees tend to have more entity-level risk KAM and less account-level risk KAM. The materiality level is positively related to the number of account-level risk KAM. Additionally, these study results show that the relationship between client’s characteristics and number of KAM is more evident in account-level risk KAM than in entity-level risk KAM. A highly leveraged company carries a great deal of risk, but due to this, they are usually subject to strong capital providers monitoring resulting in less account-level risk KAM. The results reveal that the number of account-level risk KAM is strongly related to the industry sector in which the company operates assets. This study helps to understand the UK audit market, provides information to auditors and finally, it opens new research avenues in the academia.

Keywords: FTSE 100, IAS 701, key audit matters, auditor’s characteristics, client’s characteristics

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33 Developing an IT Management Policy: A Proposal

Authors: Robert Gilliland

Abstract:

In any organization, a potential issue can arise and become a problem when management deviates from the standard norms set in the system development process of an IT system and the policies that pertain to it. In these instances, cybersecurity is a big challenge that organizations have to face in safeguarding the data that they generate and use. When a new idea, task, or process begins, specific standards must be followed, along with the policies and procedures that ensure the safeguard of data in the information system within the company. A good IT Strategy and Policy should have individuals who are in charge of overseeing the design, development, implementation, and auditing of these policies. Auditors are people who check to make sure that the issue conforms with the plan that is in place. Management has the ability through the role of the manager to potentially abuse power is given and to direct specific ideas, events, projects, and outcomes that are contrary to the vision or goals of the company.

Keywords: strategic policy, policy management, new policy, strategic planning

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32 Family Succession and Cost of Bank Loans: Evidence from China

Authors: Tzu-Ching Weng, Hsin-Yi Chi, Wei-Ren Yao

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of family succession on the cost of bank loan and non-price contractual terms. Using a unique dataset from China, we find that lending banks are more likely to charge higher interest rates and impose tighter contractual terms, such as maturity of loans and collateral requirement for second-generation family firms. This finding indicates that information risk and default risk may arise after subsequent family succession. However, we find that second-generation family firms can reduce their cost of bank loan by hiring top-tier auditors or establishing political connections to enhance the credibility of financial reporting or possible future bailouts from the Chinese government.

Keywords: family succession, cost of bank loan, loan contract terms, family firm

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31 Operations Research Applications in Audit Planning and Scheduling

Authors: Abdel-Aziz M. Mohamed

Abstract:

This paper presents a state-of-the-art survey of the operations research models developed for internal audit planning. Two alternative approaches have been followed in the literature for audit planning: (1) identifying the optimal audit frequency; and (2) determining the optimal audit resource allocation. The first approach identifies the elapsed time between two successive audits, which can be presented as the optimal number of audits in a given planning horizon, or the optimal number of transactions after which an audit should be performed. It also includes the optimal audit schedule. The second approach determines the optimal allocation of audit frequency among all auditable units in the firm. In our review, we discuss both the deterministic and probabilistic models developed for audit planning. In addition, game theory models are reviewed to find the optimal auditing strategy based on the interactions between the auditors and the clients.

Keywords: operations research applications, audit frequency, audit-staff scheduling, audit planning

Procedia PDF Downloads 525