Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 304

Search results for: profession

304 Abuse of Secretarial Profession by Employers of Labour

Authors: Musa Shu'aibu

Abstract:

This paper centered on the abuse of secretarial profession by employers of labour. The paper further explains vividly the meaning of secretarial profession and that of a secretary. The paper also makes an attempt to explain the training of a secretary, duties and business attributes of a secretary. It further highlighted the personal attributes of a secretary, prospects of secretaries/secretarial profession and some abuses of the secretarial profession were discussed. It concluded that the rapid advancement in technology has changed today's offices which resulted in changing in the requirement of today's secretarial posts. Finally, recommendations were provided.

Keywords: abuse, employers, labour, profession

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
303 What are Parents of Teacher Candidates’ Belief Towards Teaching as a Profession?

Authors: Chua Lee Chuan

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This study was conducted to explore parents’ beliefs towards the teaching profession. This survey was conducted on 51 parents of teacher candidates in a teacher training institute. A research instrument, using questionnaires, adapted from FIT-Choice scale developed by Richardson and Watt (2006) was used to collect data from the population. The findings showed that parents, in general, have positive attitudes towards the teaching profession. They perceived teaching as a career highly valued by the society. Though the teaching job was viewed as difficult and requiring high expertise, the salary received commensurate their hard work and heavy workload. In terms of gender, male and female parents did not differ in their beliefs about the teaching profession. However, results indicated that educational attainment and income level had significant effect on parents’ beliefs on teaching as a profession. Implications and recommendations in relation to the findings are also included.

Keywords: beliefs, teaching profession, parents, teacher candidates

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
302 Implications of Private Military Security Companies on Stewardship of the Profession of Arms

Authors: Kevin Krupski

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Private Military Security Companies have grown to become a major force contributor to nations in military operations. Scholars have debated the implications of this in relation to control and efficiency related to the privatization of violence, but there has been little discussion on how these companies affect the profession of arms. Specifically, this paper seeks to address how the privatization of violence influences the military’s stewardship, whether private military security companies are capable of stewardship of the military profession, and whether there are aspects of stewardship of the military profession that private military security companies are capable of emulating. This paper reviews literature on stewardship, the relationship of the military to the state, and private military security companies in order to identify overlap between uniformed military services and the private sector. Then, it offers a typology for determining under what conditions an organization would act as a steward. Ultimately, there are insufficient reasons for private military security companies to act as stewards of the profession of arms.

Keywords: stewardship, military profession, civil-military, security

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
301 Need, Relevancy and Impact of Ethics Education in Accounting Profession

Authors: Mrigakshi Das

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The ethics of a business is currently a high profile issue owing to sensational corporate scandals that had taken place in many countries causing extensive damages to the economy and society. These corporate scandals question the morality of businessmen in general and accountants in particular. It is argued that the accountants have been the main contributors to the decline in ethical standards of a business. This researcher has reviewed the need and impact of ethics education in accounting profession. Despite of ethical interventions, the rate of accounting scandals are increasing and have left the public questioning that has the profession become really less ethical?

Keywords: accounting, ethics education and intervention in accounting, accounting education, accounting profession, moral reasoning and development, ethics education

Procedia PDF Downloads 466
300 Investigation of Various Variabilities of Attitudes toward Teaching as a Profession Levels of Physical Education and Sports School Students

Authors: Turan Cetinkaya, Abdurrahman Kırtepe

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The aim of this study is to determine the relation of the level attitudes toward teaching as a profession to various variables of the students in physical education and sports departments. 277 students who are studying at the departments of physical education and sports teaching, sports management and coaching in Ahi Evran University, College of Physical Education and Sports participated to the research. Personal information tool and teaching profession scale consisting 34 items were used as data collection tool in the research. Distribution, frequency, t test and anova test were used in comparison of the related data. As a result of statistical analysis, attitudes toward teaching as a profession levels do not differ according to gender, but significant differences were detected in the exercise regularly and department.

Keywords: teaching profession, attitude, physical education and sports students, university students

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
299 Reasons for Choosing Nursing Profession and Nursing Image Perceptions of Nursing Students: A Survey Study

Authors: Esengül Elibol, Arzu Kader Harmancı Seren

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Individuals' reasons to choose a profession, profession image perceptions and future plans related to that profession affect their success in their future work lives. For nursing profession, this situation at the same time is important in terms of the health and safety of patients. The purpose of this study is to determine why medical vocational high school students in İstanbul choose nursing profession, their nursing image perceptions and future plans related to the profession. Descriptive and cross-sectional design are used. The study was carried out in four medical vocational high school in İstanbul. All third and fourth grade students who are attending to nursing programs and voluntary for participation were included in the study. In collecting data, two questionnaires that aim to learn about socio-demographic characteristics, profession choice reasons and future plans of nursing students and ‘Nursing Image Scale’ were used. Scale consisted of 28 items including individuals' opinions on nursing profession image and three sub-categories ‘General View,’ ‘Communication,’ and ‘Vocational-Educational Qualities.’ Analyzing profession choice reasons and future plans of participants, it is determined that majority chose nursing for easily finding a job (46.9%) and that majority had a dream profession other than nursing (65.8%). Analyzing nursing image perception of participants, it is determined that average of general view sub-category total scores was 9.75±2.27, average of communication sub-category total scores was8.68±2.86, and average of vocational-educational qualities sub-category total score was 21.18±3.96. In the perception score averages, meaningful differences were found according to independent variables. In conclusion, it was determined that majority of the participant students chose nursing for easily finding a job, perceived profession image negatively, and had a dream profession other than nursing.

Keywords: nursing image, medical vocational health school, perception, profession, student nurse

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298 Status and Image of the Nurse as Perceived by the Public

Authors: Salam Hadid, Mohammad Khatib

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The International Council of Nurses-ICN defined nursing as a sphere integrating autonomous and collaborative care intended for the individual, family and community within and outside of the care setting. Nursing as a care profession has developed broadly over recent decades in terms of its essentials, expertise and primarily academically. Despite the impressive growth of the profession, there is still extreme diversity in the public’s perceptions and opinions of the profession and its professionals and in the knowledge on the fundamentals of its true function and spheres of engagement. The current study examines the existing knowledge among the general population regarding the nursing profession. The population consisted of 498 respondents, 236 women and 262 men, age 18-81. The respondents noted that nursing focuses on the technical, and the emotional aspects and promotion of health for the patient are not the nurse’s responsibility. Most of the respondents saw nurses working mainly in hospital and community-based clinic settings. They considered nursing to be a high prestige profession in general, but less prestigious among respondents exposed to healthcare provision. Most of the respondents considered nursing to be a humane profession but without independence and with no need for academic studies. The findings are incompatible with the definition of nursing and its spheres of action as defined in the ICN Code of Ethics. Two suggestions are to work through nursing schools addressing the student nurses, as ambassadors for the profession. The second is using the healthcare encounter between the nursing staff and the public to improve the image of nurses.

Keywords: ethics, nurse image, public, nursing

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
297 Factors Motivating Experienced Secondary Teachers to Remain in the Teaching Profession

Authors: Joselito Castro Gutierrez, Herbert Orteza, Jervie Boligon, Kenneth Esteves, Edrick Kevin Ferrer, Mark Kevin Torres, Patrick Vergara

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Teaching is a noble profession that involves an effective imparting of holistic learning. Consequently, it requires a driving force called motivation. This research aims to determine the motivating factors, problems encountered, solutions made by experienced secondary school teachers to remain in the teaching profession. A mixed unstructured/structured questionnaire was used for gathering data among public secondary school teachers. The researchers have arrived to a conclusion that the dominant motivating factors of teachers to stay in the profession are altruism, extrinsic factors, and self-efficacy. Meanwhile, the prevalent problems these experienced secondary teachers experienced are mutual dilemma, work overload, and personal issues. Teachers have varied methods on solving the problem which are: a) Direct Solution; b) Indirect Solution; and c) Pseudo-Solutions. Lastly, the factors, problems, and solutions, have influential effects on how long a teacher would sustain in teaching which would manifest as positive, negative and neutral effects.

Keywords: motivation, common problems of teachers, strategies in solving problems, teaching profession

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296 Market Driven Unsustainability: Tragedy of Indigenous Professionals

Authors: Sitaram Dahal

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Sustainable Development, a universal need for the present generation and the future generation, is an accepted way to assure intra and inter-generational equity. International movements like Rio Earth Summit 1992, Stockholm Conference 1972, Kyoto Protocol, Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) proclaim the need of sustainable globe. The socio- economic disparity prevailing in the society shows that the indigenous peoples are living life far below poverty line. These indigenous people, aboriginal social groups sharing common cultural values and with a unique identity, are away from development being merely focused on the growth. Though studies suggest that most of the indigenous practices are often environment-friendly, alert about the plunging trend of the practices. This study explores the trend of intergenerational transmission of indigenous profession of pottery making of Kumal community (Meghauli Village Development Committee of Chitwan district) and factors affecting the trend. The SD indicators - contribution of IP to well-being of pottery makers had been query in the study. The study reveals that the pottery making profession can stand sustainable in terms of environment and socio-economic capital compared to modern technologies. However, the number of practitioners has been decreasing and youths hardly show interest to continue their indigenous profession. The new generations are not in a stage of accepting pottery in complete profession, that challenges the social and cultural sustainability of the profession. Indigenous profession demand people investments over modern technology and innovations. The relative investment of human labour is dramatically high with the indigenous profession. In addition, the fashion and innovations of market rule challenge the sustainability of the pottery making profession. The practice is limited to small cluster as a show piece at present. The study illustrates the market driven unsustainability of indigenous profession of Kumal community.

Keywords: professional unsustainability, pottery making, Kumal Community, Indigenous Professoin

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
295 Teacher Education: Exploring the Challenges of the Teaching Profession in Nigeria for Sustainable National Development

Authors: Ugabi John Ibak, Odey Boniface Ugbem

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Education is considered the bedrock of any meaningful developments and teacher education plays a critical role in this direction. Teacher education is the master keys that can alleviate poverty, promote peace, conserve the environment, improve the quality of life for all and help achieve all round sustain enable development in Nigeria and the world over. This paper X-rays the nature and character of the teaching profession, historical background to teacher education in Nigeria, national policy on education, problems of teacher education in Nigeria and prospects of teacher education for sustainable national development. The study shows that the misfortunes of the teacher education owes much to it historical antecedent. Also majorly, is the failure of government to adequately fund education at the various levels in the country. It was discovered that in the history of the nation no government has budgeted 13% of its annual budget (half of 26% UNESCO minimum) to education. This has resulted to poor infrastructure, inadequate equipment and poorly motivated personnel in all the nations public schools at all levels. Hence, the paper concludes that in spite of these overwhelming challenges, teachers have a lot of prospects both in the teaching profession and outside teaching.

Keywords: teacher education, teaching profession, sustainable national development, education, development

Procedia PDF Downloads 442
294 Identification Social Impact of Tourism for Society in Batu, East Java, Indonesia Which Is Included the Transition of Their Main Job Caused by Tourism Development

Authors: Muhammad Denny Abdillah, Mochammad Rasyid Poedjijanto

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Batu, East Java, Indonesia is located in highland about 680-1,200 meters above ocean surface and has temperature 15-19 degree Celsius. With this condition, so the main profession of people around is a farmer. But, along with era’s developing, now Batu is started to improve their development in tourism sector and show up them as an icon of tourism in Indonesia. Such as: playground, museum, and paralayang’s summit. That is made Batu in nowadays well known as the one of recommended city to visit. The change of the development from farming sector to tourism sector make people around prefer doing job in trade than engage in farming. That’s make authors want to observe about this social phenomenon which is happening in Batu, whereas from the beginning the primary profession is a farmer, now changed to be a trader around the tourism place.

Keywords: development, profession, tourism, Batu

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
293 Dilemma between the Education-Area and the Working-Area in Socialization of Teaching Profession: Scrutiny on the Beginning Teachers through the Relationality of the Regulations and Institutions in Turkey Case

Authors: Dilek Dede

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This study aims at scrutinized the dilemma between education place and working place with professional socialization dimension over the beginning teachers in Turkey is to be found the solution for the dilemma in Turkey. The research question is that how can be explained the gap between education place and working place for beginning teachers in Turkey. That expected to contribute to literature with the solutions for shorting the gap between working area and education area of the teaching profession in Turkey case. The study is constructed in two section. Firstly, socialization of the teaching profession and teaching modules have been discussed through the profession, education, working place indicators. In the second section, Secondly, two educational specialists from Turkey has been interviewed about their observation on trainee teachers compelling to participate the class for candidate teachers after university grade. Then, the dilemma between education area and working area of the teaching profession has been detected by of semi-structured and in-depth interviews, the literature on the relationality of institutions and regulation is discussed. The following outcomes have been accessed in accordance with the data set and literature linkage axis: Firstly, teachers coming from the distinctive programmes as an educational background. Hence, teachers who pertain to distinctive cultures work in the same environment. That cause cultural conflicts and complication of socialization of profession. Secondly, the insufficient partnership between schools and universities besides, the education classes lead to a struggle of culture among these two institutions. Thirdly, the education classes are designed as bureaucratic form instead of coalescence between head teachers and trainee teachers around a common culture. That become deep the dilemma. In conclusion, on condition that applied-oriented education that advocates in-service learning is promoted and this programme is supported with well-structured the in-service training through the partnership of universities and schools, the gap between the working-area and education-area might be shortened.

Keywords: beginning teachers, construction of a common, social mobilization in the teaching profession, teacher training institution, the relationality of the regulations and institutions

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
292 The Use of Manipulative Strategies: Machiavellianism among the University Students

Authors: Karla Hrbackova, Anna Petr Safrankova, Jakub Hladik

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Machiavellianism as social phenomenon reveals certain methods of communication that man puts in contact with other people in both personal and working life (and work with clients). Especially at the helping-profession students is honesty, openness or low motivation for personal benefit important part of the profession. The aim of a study is to expose intercultural differences influence of Machiavellianism between Czech and Slovak university students and to determine whether these differences manifest themselves differently among students focusing on management and social profession (by helping degrees). The research involved 1120 university students from the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic. The measurement of Machiavellianism used a test Mach IV. The test contained 20 statements divided into four central dimensions of Machiavellianism: flattery, deception and falsehood, immorality and cynicism. We found out, that Czech and Slovak's student expressed a similar attitude toward Machiavellianism as a means of manipulation in the interpersonal relationship, but this is not true in all dimensions. Czech and Slovak's students perceive differently flattery, deception and falsehood and cynicism too. In addition to specific features of cultural conditionality, we found out differences depending on the helping profession. Students focusing on managerial occupation (lower level of helping) tend towards greater acceptance of the use flattery as a means of communication than students specializing in the social profession (high-grade assisting). If they are an intercultural and interdisciplinary influences combined and effect on the perception of Machiavellianism together, then their significant importance for the perception of flattery and cynicism. The result will help us to reveal certain specific traits that students apply communication and with whom we can continue to work during their training.

Keywords: use of manipulative strategies, Machiavellianism, helping-profession students, professional training of students

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291 The Difficulties Male Nurses Facing up Due to the Nurse Degree which has the Meaning of ‘Sister’ in Turkish

Authors: Hacer Erdöl, Merve Aydın, Hacer Kobya Bulut, Kıymet Yeşilçiçek Çalık

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Like all occupations, nursing is significantly influenced by the society which it serves and it also affects it. Social structure affects attitudes of nurses, nursing practice, society's attitudes towards nursing and those who have chosen nursing as a profession. People who choose nursing schools take the views of the society’s they live in on nursing to nursing school. Until the 1960s, many nursing schools had not accepted men as students and women had received nursing education and profession had been carried out by women. In our country, in 2007 an amendment to article eight of Nursing Law was passed and with these changes men also began to be able to choose the nursing as a profession. In Turkish, nurse means 'sister'. Hence, in this study to determine the problems that male nursing students likely encounter at the clinic, non-clinical environment and in their private life regarding the title of nurse, among qualitative research methods phenomenological research design was used. Using purpose sampling method, a total of 18 voluntary male students-13 in third grade and 5 in fourth grade at nursing school- were taken to the study. Data were collected through interviews and by the ethical principles much attention was paid to ensure the confidentiality and to protect participants’ identity. During the interviews lasting 30-40 minutes on average, nine pre-configured standard questions were asked and when necessary free questions were also used in order to ensure the clarity of the responses. With pre- configured standard questions, the reasons why students chose the profession, the problems they had in clinical and non-clinical environment and the potential problems they might encounter in their private lives regarding the title of nurse were questioned. Content analysis was performed on data collected and three main themes were obtained. According to the findings of the evaluation of data, it was found that almost all the students preferred the profession due to possible work opportunities, there were students who did not bother nurse title as well as the ones who did bother and as the most important problem they might encounter in their private lives was to feel worried if their kids had to answer "What does your father" question as "my dad is a nurse" and being ridiculed afterwards. The results of this study show that studies should be done to change the social judgment stemmed from the recognition of nursing as a female profession and take advantage of media through creating public spotlight to accomplish this.

Keywords: choice of profession, the title of the profession, title problems, nursing

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
290 Upon Further Reflection: More on the History, Tripartite Role, and Challenges of the Professoriate

Authors: Jeffrey R. Mueller

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This paper expands on the role of the professor by detailing the origins of the profession, adding some of the unique contributions of North American Universities, as well as some of the best practice recommendations, to the unique tripartite role of the professor. It describes current challenges to the profession including the ever-controversial student rating of professors. It continues with the significance of empowerment to the role of the professor. It concludes with a predictive prescription for the future of the professoriate and the role of the university-level educational administrator toward that end.

Keywords: professoriate history, tripartite role, challenges, empowerment, shared governance, administratization

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
289 Before Decision: Career Motivation of Teacher Candidates

Authors: Pál Iván Szontagh

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We suppose that today, the motivation for the career of a pedagogue (including its existential, organizational and infrastructural conditions) is different from the level of commitment to the profession of an educator (which can be experienced informally, or outside of the public education system). In our research, we made efforts to address the widest possible range of student elementary teachers, and to interpret their responses using different filters. In the first phase of our study, we analyzed first-year kindergarten teacher students’ career motivation and commitment to the profession, and in the second phase, that of final-year kindergarten teacher candidates. In the third phase, we conducted surveys to explore students’ motivation for the profession and the career path of a pedagogue in four countries of the Carpathian Basin (Hungary, Slovakia, Romania and Serbia). The surveys were conducted in 17 campuses of 11 Hungarian teacher’s training colleges and universities. Finally, we extended the survey to practicing graduates preparing for their on-the-job rating examination. Based on our results, in all breakdowns, regardless of age group, training institute or - in part - geographical location and nationality, it is proven that lack of social- and financial esteem of the profession poses serious risks for recruitment and retention of teachers. As a summary, we searched for significant differences between the professional- and career motivations of the three respondent groups (kindergarten teacher students, elementary teacher students and practicing teachers), i.e. the motivation factors that change the most with education and/or with the time spent on the job. Based on our results, in all breakdowns, regardless of age group, training institute or - in part - geographical location and nationality, it is proven that lack of social- and financial esteem of the profession poses serious risks for recruitment and retention of teachers.

Keywords: career motivation, career socialization, professional motivation, teacher training

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288 The Future of the Architect's Profession in France with the Emergence of Building Information Modelling

Authors: L. Mercier, D. Beladjine, K. Beddiar

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The digital transition of building in France brings many changes which some have been able to face very quickly, while others are struggling to find their place and the interest that BIM can bring in their profession. BIM today is already adopted or initiated by construction professionals. However, this change, which can be drastic for some, prevents them from integrating it definitively. This is the case with architects. The profession is shared on the practice of BIM in its exercise. The risk of not adopting this new working method now and of not wanting to switch to its new digital tools leads us to question the future of the profession in view of the gap that is likely to be created within project management. In order to deal with the subject efficiently, our work was based on a documentary watch on BIM and then on the profession of architect, which allowed us to establish links on these two subjects. The observation of the economic model towards which the agencies tend and the trend of the sought after profiles made it possible to develop the opportunities and the brakes likely to impact the future of the profession of architect. The centralization of research directs work towards the conclusion that the model implemented by companies does not allow to integrate BIM within their structure. A solution hypothesis was then issued, focusing on the development of agencies through the diversity of profiles, skills to be integrated internally with the aim of diversifying their skills, and their business practices. In order to address this hypothesis of a multidisciplinary agency model, we conducted a survey of architectural firms. It is built on the model of Anglo-Saxon countries, which do not have the same functioning in comparison to the French model. The results obtained showed a risk of gradual disappearance on the market from small agencies in favor of those who will have and could take this BIM working method. This is why the architectural profession must, first of all, look at what is happening within its training before absolutely wanting to diversify the profiles to integrate into its structure. This directs the study on the training of architects. The schools of French architects are generally behind schedule if we allow the comparison to the schools of engineers. The latter is currently experiencing a slight improvement with the emergence of masters and BIM options during the university course. If the training of architects develops towards learning BIM and the agencies have the desire to integrate different but complementary profiles, then they will develop their skills internally and therefore open their profession to new functions. The place of BIM Management on projects will allow the architect to remain in control of the project because of their overall vision of the project. In addition, the integration of BIM and more generally of the life cycle analysis of the structure will make it possible to guarantee eco-design or eco-construction by approaching the constraints of sustainable development omnipresent on the planet.

Keywords: building information modelling, BIM, BIM management, BIM manager, BIM architect

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
287 Professional Ambitions of Students of Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University in the Context of Teaching Profession

Authors: Malgorzata Bartoszewicz, Grzegorz Krzysko

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Chemistry students plan a career path based on their interests, predispositions, and preferences. This study aims to determine what percentage of all chemistry students selected teaching as a career. There is a lack of science teachers (especially physics and chemistry) in Poland, and there is limited research on students' choices and professional preferences. At the Faculty of Chemistry of the Adam Mickiewicz University in the academic year 2019/2020, changes were introduced to the study program resulting from legal regulations and as part of the funds raised from the project "Teacher - competent practitioner, supervisor, expert", No. POWR.03.01.00-00-KN40/18. The aim of the study was to determine how many first-cycle and second-cycle studies students declare the teaching profession as a career. In the case of first-cycle studies students, 9.5% of respondents choose the teaching profession and 9.2% of second-cycle studies students. It was found that the number of students who chose the teacher preparation programme at Faculty of Chemistry of the Adam Mickiewicz University has decreased since 5 years.

Keywords: faculty of chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, professional ambitions, students, teacher

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286 A Theoretical Analysis on the Controversial Issue of Teaching Professional in the Institutionalized Perspective

Authors: Tien-Hui Chiang, Q. Zhou

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For structural-functionalism, one set of the common traits of traditional professionals, such as medical practitioners and engineers, can be viewed as the criteria for evaluating whether a given occupation has the right of claiming its professional status or not. Under the influence of this professionalism, teaching practitioners have devoted themselves to acquiring this right as evidenced by the fact that initial training has been extended to even the level of postgraduate. However, for interactionalists, professionalism adopts a predetermined assumption so that it ignores the dynamic nature of social development, which is able to regulate the professional status of a given occupation. Such an interactive approach highlights the concept of professionalization. Furthermore, Marxists argue that structural-functionalists have ignored the impact of proletarianization on the white collar. While professionals gradually lose their control over their practices, the title of profession functions as a self-regulated icon that prevents them from collaborating with the working class and, in turn, creates the ideology of de-politicization sustaining the interests of the ruling class. This article adopts a theoretical analysis on these contradictory arguments. It argues that these criticisms neglect the influence of the institutionalized value system on social operation, which is the core element in sustaining the notion of the profession.

Keywords: teaching profession, professionalism, professionalization, proletarianialization, institutionalized value system

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
285 Auditor with the Javanese Characters: Revealing the Relationship towards Its Client

Authors: Krisna Damayanti

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Negative issue about the relationship between auditors and clients often heard. It arises in view of the rise of a variety of phenomena resulting from the audit practice of greed and do not appreciate the independence of the audit profession and professional code of ethics. It is a logical consequence of the practice of capitalism in accounting. The purpose of this paper would like to uncover the existing auditing practices in Indonesia, especially Java, which is associated with a strong influence of Javanese culture with reluctant/"shy", politely, "legowo", "ngemong" friendly, "not mentholo", "tepo seliro", "ngajeni", "acquiescent". The method used by interpretive approach that emphasizes the role of language, interpret and understand and see social reality as something other than a label, name or concept. Auditing practices in each country has a culture that will affect the standard set by those regulatory standards although there has been an adaptation of IAS. In Indonesia the majority of parties dominated by Javanesse racial regulators, so Java culture is embedded in every audit practices thus conditions in Java requires auditors to behave like that, sometimes interfere with standard Java code of conduct that must be executed by an auditor. Auditors who live in Java have the characters of Javanese culture that is hard to avoid in the audit practice. However, in practice, the auditor still are relevant in their profession.

Keywords: auditors, java, character, profession, code of ethics, client

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284 Heading for Modern Construction Management: Recommendation for Employers

Authors: Robin Becker, Maike Eilers, Nane Roetmann, Manfred Helmus

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The shortage of junior staff in the construction industry is a problem that will be further exacerbated in the coming years by the retirement of the baby-boom generations (1955-1969) from employment. In addition, the current working conditions in the field of construction management are not attractive for young professionals. A survey of students revealed a desire for an increase in flexibility and an improved work-life balance in everyday working life. Students of civil engineering and architecture are basically interested in a career in construction management but have reservations due to the image of the profession and the current working conditions. A survey among experts from the construction industry shows that the profession can become more attractive. This report provides recommendations for action in the form of working modules to improve the working conditions of employees. If these are taken into account, graduates can be attracted to the profession of construction management, and existing staff can be retained more effectively. The aim of this report is to show incentives for employers to respond to the wishes and needs of their current and future employees to the extent that can be implemented.

Keywords: modern construction management, construction industry, work modules, shortage of junior staff, sustainable personnel management, making construction management more attractive, working time model

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283 Investigation of Engineers` and Student Engineers` University Choices Effect over Professional Expectations

Authors: Alev Erenler, Yeliz Yazici

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It is undoubtful that the development in the technology has been increasing the importance of engineering day by day along with the interest of the profession also. Like in any other genre, the success in engineering career is directly related to the amount of the satisfaction from the profession. Having satisfaction is an important factor for both having psychological health and efficiency. In this concept, the engineers from all steps, like students from different grades, working in related professions and the candidates of engineering have been included in order to define the expectations of the profession and the levels if professional satisfaction. In the concept of the study, the factors such as; the graduated university, the university which has been attending at, the grades of the participants, the reasons behind the choosing the university, the order of the choices and demographic values have planned to examine. It is thought that these factors have a meaningful effect on the professional expectations. It is also aimed to find the similar participants from the working life, and the data is to be compared to candidates of engineering in terms if differentiation of expectations. The related data will be gathered by the help of the scale prepared and developed by the researchers special for this study, titled as ' the professional expectation scale for engineers'. The data is to be analyzed in SPSS program, and the results will be interpreted in relation with the literature.

Keywords: engineering education, engineers' professional expectations, engineering students' professional expectations, students’ university choices

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
282 A Review of Lortie’s Schoolteacher

Authors: Tsai-Hsiu Lin

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Dan C. Lortie’s Schoolteacher: A sociological study is one of the best works on the sociology of teaching since W. Waller’s classic study. It is a book worthy of review. Following the tradition of symbolic interactionists, Lortie demonstrated the qualities who studied the occupation of teaching. Using several methods to gather effective data, Lortie has portrayed the ethos of the teaching profession. Therefore, the work is an important book on the teaching profession and teacher culture. Though outstanding, Lortie’s work is also flawed in that his perspectives and methodology were adopted largely from symbolic interactionism. First, Lortie in his work analyzed many points regarding teacher culture; for example, he was interested in exploring “sentiment,” “cathexis,” and “ethos.” Thus, he was more a psychologist than a sociologist. Second, symbolic interactionism led him to discern the teacher culture from a micro view, thereby missing the structural aspects. For example, he did not fully discuss the issue of gender and he ignored the issue of race. Finally, following the qualitative sociological tradition, Lortie employed many qualitative methods to gather data but only foucused on obtaining and presenting interview data. Moreover, he used measurement methods that were too simplistic for analyzing quantitative data fully.

Keywords: education reform, teacher culture, teaching profession, Lortie’s Schoolteacher

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281 Information Technology and the Challenges Facing the Legal Profession in Nigeria

Authors: Odoh Ben Uruchi

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Information Technology is an outcome of the nexus between the computer technology and the communication technology which has grown as silver fiber in Nigeria. Information Technology represents the fourth generation of human communication after sight, oral and written communications. The internet, as with all path-breaking technological developments gives us all the ample privileges to act as a global community; advertise and operate across all frontiers; over boarders and beyond the control of any government. The security concerns, computer abuse and the side effects of this technology have moved to the forefront of the consciousness of law enforcement agencies. Unfortunately, Nigeria is one of the very few countries in the world to have not legislated Cyber Laws, although several unsuccessful attempts have been made in recent times at providing the legal framework for regulating the activities in Nigerian cyberspace. Traditional legal systems have led to great difficulty in keeping pace with the rapid growth of the internet and its impact throughout Nigeria. The only existing legal frameworks are constantly being challenged by technological advancement. This has created a need to constantly update and adapt the way in which we organize ourselves as Legal Practitioners in order to maintain overall control of its domestic and national interests. This paper seeks to appraise the challenges facing the legal profession in Nigeria because of want of Cyber Laws. In doing this, the paper shall highlight the loopholes in the existing laws and recommends the way forward.

Keywords: information technology, challenges, legal profession, Nigeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 456
280 The Psychological Specification of Motivation of Managerial Activity

Authors: Laura Petrosyan

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The high and persistent working results are possible when people are interested in the results of the work. Motivation of working may be present as a psychological complicated phenomena, which determines person's behavior in working process. Researchers point out that working motivation is displayed in three correlated conditions. These are interest in outcomes of work, satisfaction with the work, and the third, is the level of devotion of employee. Solution of the problem of effective staff management depends on the development of workers' skills. Despite, above mentioned problem could be solved by the process of finding methods to induce the employees to the effective work. Motivation of the managerial activity aroused not only during the working process, but also before it starts. During education the future manager obtains many professional skills. However, the experience shows, that only professional skills are not enough for the effective work. Presently, one of the global educational problems is the development of motivation in professions. In psychological literature the fact is mentioned, that the motivation can be inside and outside. Outside motivation is active only at short time. Instead, inside motivation can be active during all process of the professional development. Hence, the motivation of managerial activity might be developed during the education. The future manager choose the profession being under some impression of personal qualities. Detection of future manager’s motivation will influence on the development of syllabuses. Moreover, use of the psychological methods could be evolved for preparing motivated managers. Conducted research has been done in the Public Administration Academy of the RA. The aim of research was to discover students' motivation of profession. 102 master students took part in the research from Public Administration Academy. In the research were used the following methods: method of identifying a person's motivation to succeed (T. Elers) and method of studying students’ motivation (T.E. Ilyin). First of the methods designed to explore a person's motivational orientation to get success represented by Hackhausen. The method gives the opportunity to reveal the level of motivation to success. In the second method separated three scales: i) Knowledge achievements, ii) Knowledge of the profession, iii) Get a diploma. The data obtained from these tests gave quantitative data. Aanalyses of our survey results exposes that within master students the high level have the average rates of knowledge achievements. The average rates of knowledge of the profession and geting a diploma not in high level. Furthermore, there are almost equal to each other. In the educational process The student acquiring skills not synthesize with the wield profession. Results show that specialists really view about profession not formulated yet.

Keywords: managerial activity, motivation, psychological complicated phenomena, working process, education the future manager

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279 Legal Responsibility of the External Auditor Qualitative Case Study of Libyan Environment

Authors: Bubaker F. Shareia

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to determine a general frame of the auditor's legal responsibilities in Libya which were implied in professional codes and rules, these codes and rules were concerned with the auditor's rights and duties in conducting his professional duties. This will provide a background for the Libyan accounting profession, and the challenges in tailoring Auditors to meet third party's needs. Being informed of the kinds of legal responsibilities which the external auditors could face during conducting their duties. The study is based on a literature review and archival research, reinforced by a qualitative case study comprised of interviews, questionnaire and a study of internal documents. To reach such an understanding, the researcher designed two questionnaires for collecting the data. One questionnaire was distributed among the certified public accountant firms in Libya and the second was distributed among a group of randomly selected lawyers and judges in the same country. Most auditors agreed upon the determination of their responsibilities toward the state and they emphasized that their responsibilities toward their clients were limited to the accepted standards of auditing. Moreover, all auditors who were surveyed emphasized that there has never been any juridical claims against them, and as a consequence they have never paid any legal fines. This study focuses on one country, which does limit its generalisability. However, it also suggests fruitful research areas in considering the impact and challenge of the historic factors in the accounting profession in emerging economies.

Keywords: accounting, external auditor, legal responsibilities, libyan accounting profession

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278 Professional Reciprocal Altruism in Education: Aligning Core Values and the Community of Practice for Today’s Educational Practitioners

Authors: Jessica Bogunovich, Kimberly Greene

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As a grounded theory, Professional Reciprocal Altruism in Education (PRAE) offers an empowering means of understanding how the predominant motivator of those entering the teaching profession, altruism, serves as a shared value to inspire the individual’s personal practice beyond a siloed experience and into one of authentic engagement within the Community of Practice (CoP) of professional educators. The process of aligning one’s personal values, attitudes, and preconceived cultural constructs with those of the CoP, affords the alignment of the authentic and professional self; thus, continuously fostering one’s intrinsic motivation to remain engaged in their individual continuous process of growth and development for their students, community, profession, and themselves.

Keywords: altruism, Community of Practice. cultural constructs, teacher attrition, reciprocal altruism, value congruence

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277 History, Challenges and Solutions for Social Work Education and Recognition in Vietnam

Authors: Thuy Bui Anh, Ngan Nguyen Thi Thanh

Abstract:

Currently, social work in Vietnam is entering the first step in the development process to become a true profession with a strong position in society. However, Spirit of helping and sharing of social work has already existed in the daily life of Vietnamese people for a very long time, becoming a precious heritage passed down from ancestors to the next generations while expanding the territory, building and defending for the country. Following the stream of history, charity work in Vietnam has gradually transformed itself towards a more professional work, especially in the last 2 decades. Accordingly, more than 50 universities and educational institutions in Vietnam have been licensed to train social work, ensuring a stronger foundation on human resources working in this field. Despite the strong growth, social work profession, social work education and the recognition of the role of the social workers still need to be fueled to develop, responded to the increasing demand of Vietnam society.

Keywords: education, history, recognition, social work, Vietnam

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276 Slovenian Spatial Legislation over Time and Its Issues

Authors: Andreja Benko

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Article presents a short overview of the architects’ profession over time with outlined work of the architectural theoreticians. In the continuation is described a former affiliation of Slovenia as well as the spatial planning documents that were in use until the Slovenia joint Yugoslavia (last part in 1919). This legislation from former Austro-Hungarian monarchy was valid almost until 1950 in some parts of Yugoslavia even longer. Upon that will be mentioned some valid Slovenian spatial documents which will be compared with the German legislation. Analysed will be the number of architect and spatial planners in Slovenia and also their number upon certain region in Slovenia. Based on that will be given also the number from statistical office of Slovenia of the number of buildings between years 2007 and 2012, and described also the collapse of the major construction companies in Slovenia and consequences of that. At the end will be outlined the morality and ethics by spatial interventions and lack of the architectural law in Slovenia as well as the problematic of minimal collaboration between the Ministry of infrastructure and spatial planning with the profession.

Keywords: architect, history, legislation, Slovenia

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275 Women in Teaching Profession: Impacts and Challenges

Authors: A. M. Sultana, Norhirdawati Binti Mhd Zahir, Norzalan Hadi Yaacob

Abstract:

Recently in Malaysia, women's participation in teaching profession has increased. The increasing trend of women’s participation in the teaching profession poses challenges in families, especially in the developing countries like Malaysia. One of these challenges, concerns in balancing their role between family and job responsibility that faced by many women teachers. The purpose of this study is to discover how women teachers' impact on family happiness and the challenges faced by them in balancing their role between family and job responsibility. The findings presented in this study are based on survey research in a secondary school Dato’ Bijaya Setia in the district of Gugusan Manjoi which is located in Kedah, Malaysia. The study found that employment of women in economic activity has several beneficial impacts of improving the economic condition of the family. The results also revealed that in low income earning families, both husbands and wives’ employment contribute to the family income that less likely to experience of family poverty. The study also showed despite women's teachers’ significant role towards the overall development of the family, the majority of women teachers encountered a number of difficulties in balancing their role between family and job responsibility especially when they need to work more than the normal working time. Therefore, it is common for the majority of women suffering from psychological stress when they are unable to complete the task at a fixed time. The present study also suggests implication of family friendly policy and its appropriate practice to support the women teachers who are significantly contributing to family, community and the country.

Keywords: emotional exhaustion, family friendly policy, work family conflict, women teacher

Procedia PDF Downloads 352