Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 404

Search results for: voluntary disclosure

404 The Determinants of Voluntary Disclosure in Croatia

Authors: Zeljana Aljinovic Barac, Marina Granic, Tina Vuko

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Study investigates the level and extent of voluntary disclosure practice in Croatia. The research was conducted on the sample of 130 medium and large companies. Findings indicate that two thirds of the companies analysed disclose below-average number of additional information. The explanatory analyses has shown that firm size, listing status and industrial sector significantly and positively affect the level and extent of voluntary disclosure in the annual report of Croatian companies. On the other hand, profitability and ownership structure were found statistically insignificant. Unlike previous studies, this paper deals with level of voluntary disclosure of medium and large companies, as well as companies whose shares are not listed on the organized capital market, which can be found as our contribution. Also, the research makes contribution by providing the insights into voluntary disclosure practices in Croatia, as a case of macro-oriented accounting system economy, i.e. bank oriented economy with an emerging capital market.

Keywords: annual report, Croatian companies, disclosure index, voluntary disclosure

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403 Factors Influencing the Voluntary Disclosure of Vietnamese Listed Companies

Authors: Pham Duc Hieu, Do Thi Huong Lan

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The aim of this paper is to investigate the factors affecting the extent of voluntary disclosure by examining the annual reports of 205 industrial and manufacturing companies listing on Ho Chi Minh Stock Exchange (HSX) and Hanoi Stock Exchange (HNX) for the year end of 2012. Those factors include company size, profitability, leverage, state ownership, managerial ownership, and foreign ownership, board independence, role duality and type of external auditors. Evidence from this study suggests two main findings. (1) Companies with high foreign ownership have a high level of voluntary disclosure. (2) The company size is an important factor related to the increased level of voluntary disclosure in annual reports made by Vietnamese listed companies. The larger the company, the higher the information is disclosed. However, no significant associations are found between profitability, leverage, state ownership, managerial ownership, board independence, role duality and type of external auditors as hypothesized in this study.

Keywords: voluntary disclosure, Vietnamese listed companies, voluntary, duality

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402 How Markets React to Corporate Disclosure: An Analysis Using a SEM Model

Authors: Helena Susana Afonso Alves, Natália Maria Rafael Canadas, Ana Maria Rodrigues

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We examined the impact of governance rules on information asymmetry, using the turnover ratio and the bid-ask spread as proxies for the information asymmetry. We used a SEM model and analyzed the indirect relations through the voluntary disclosure of information and the organizational performance. We built a voluntary disclosure index based on the information firms provided in their annual reports and divided the governance characteristics in two constructs: directors’ and supervisors’ structures and ownership structure. We concluded that the ownership structure exerts a direct influence on share price and share liquidity, Otherwise, the directors’ and supervisors’ structures exert an indirect influence, through the organizational performance and the voluntary disclosure of information. The results also show that for firms with high levels of disclosure the bid-ask spread is lower. However, in firms with a high ownership concentration investors tend to increase the bid-ask spreads and trade less, which, in this case, reduces the liquidity of the stock. The failure to find the relationship between voluntary disclosure of information and the turnover ratio shows us that the liquidity of shares is more related to the greater or lesser concentration of shareholders, with the performance of their companies than with the access to information. Moreover, it is clear that the role that information disclosure plays is mainly at the level of price formation.

Keywords: corporate governance, information asymmetry, voluntary disclosure, structural equation modelling, SEM

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401 Corporate Voluntary Greenhouse Gas Emission Reporting in United Kingdom: Insights from Institutional and Upper Echelons Theories

Authors: Lyton Chithambo

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This paper reports the results of an investigation into the extent to which various stakeholder pressures influence voluntary disclosure of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions in the United Kingdom (UK). The study, which is grounded on institutional theory, also borrows from the insights of upper echelons theory and examines whether specific managerial (chief executive officer) characteristics explain and moderates various stakeholder pressures in explaining GHG voluntary disclosure. Data were obtained from the 2011 annual and sustainability reports of a sample of 216 UK companies on the FTSE350 index listed on the London Stock Exchange. Generally the results suggest that there is no substantial shareholder and employee pressure on a firm to disclose GHG information but there is significant positive pressure from the market status of a firm with those firms with more market share disclosing more GHG information. Consistent with the predictions of institutional theory, we found evidence that coercive pressure i.e. regulatory pressure and mimetic pressures emanating in some industries notably industrials and consumer services have a significant positive influence on firms’ GHG disclosure decisions. Besides, creditor pressure also had a significant negative relationship with GHG disclosure. While CEO age had a direct negative effect on GHG voluntary disclosure, its moderation effect on stakeholder pressure influence on GHG disclosure was only significant on regulatory pressure. The results have important implications for both policy makers and company boards strategizing to reign in their GHG emissions.

Keywords: greenhouse gases, voluntary disclosure, upper echelons theory, institution theory

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400 The Impact of Voluntary Disclosure Level on the Cost of Equity Capital in Tunisian's Listed Firms

Authors: Nouha Ben Salah, Mohamed Ali Omri

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This paper treats the association between disclosure level and the cost of equity capital in Tunisian’slisted firms. This relation is tested by using two models. The first is used for testing this relation directly by regressing firm specific estimates of cost of equity capital on market beta, firm size and a measure of disclosure level. The second model is used for testing this relation by introducing information asymmetry as mediator variable. This model is suggested by Baron and Kenny (1986) to demonstrate the role of mediator variable in general. Based on a sample of 21 non-financial Tunisian’s listed firms over a period from 2000 to 2004, the results prove that greater disclosure is associated with a lower cost of equity capital. However, the results of indirect relationship indicate a significant positive association between the level of voluntary disclosure and information asymmetry and a significant negative association between information asymmetry and cost of equity capital in contradiction with our previsions. Perhaps this result is due to the biases of measure of information asymmetry.

Keywords: cost of equity capital, voluntary disclosure, information asymmetry, and Tunisian’s listed non-financial firms

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399 Two-Sided Information Dissemination in Takeovers: Disclosure and Media

Authors: Eda Orhun

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Purpose: This paper analyzes a target firm’s decision to voluntarily disclose information during a takeover event and the effect of such disclosures on the outcome of the takeover. Such voluntary disclosures especially in the form of earnings forecasts made around takeover events may affect shareholders’ decisions about the target firm’s value and in return takeover result. This study aims to shed light on this question. Design/methodology/approach: The paper tries to understand the role of voluntary disclosures by target firms during a takeover event in the likelihood of takeover success both theoretically and empirically. A game-theoretical model is set up to analyze the voluntary disclosure decision of a target firm to inform the shareholders about its real worth. The empirical implication of model is tested by employing binary outcome models where the disclosure variable is obtained by identifying the target firms in the sample that provide positive news by issuing increasing management earnings forecasts. Findings: The model predicts that a voluntary disclosure of positive information by the target decreases the likelihood that the takeover succeeds. The empirical analysis confirms this prediction by showing that positive earnings forecasts by target firms during takeover events increase the probability of takeover failure. Overall, it is shown that information dissemination through voluntary disclosures by target firms is an important factor affecting takeover outcomes. Originality/Value: This study is the first to the author's knowledge that studies the impact of voluntary disclosures by the target firm during a takeover event on the likelihood of takeover success. The results contribute to information economics, corporate finance and M&As literatures.

Keywords: takeovers, target firm, voluntary disclosures, earnings forecasts, takeover success

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398 Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure, Tax Aggressiveness and Sustainability Report Assurance: Evidence from Thailand

Authors: Eko Budi Santoso, Kazia Laturette, Stanislaus Adnanto Mastan

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This study aims to examine the association between disclosure of social responsibility and tax aggressiveness in developing countries, namely Thailand. This is due to the increasing trend of disclosure of social responsibility in developing countries, even though this disclosure of information is still voluntary. On the other hand, developing countries have low taxation rate and investor protection infrastructures that allow the disclosure of social responsibility to be used opportunistically as a tool to fool the attainment of interests. This study also examines the role of assurance on the association between corporate social responsibility disclosure and tax aggressiveness. The assurance aims to provide confidence that the disclosure of social responsibility by the company is valid. This research builds an index to measure the disclosure of social responsibility based on the rules issued by the innovative Global Reporting. The results of the study are based on a sample of publicly traded companies in Thailand, which showed a positive association between disclosure of corporate social responsibility and tax aggressiveness, but it was further discovered that these results were mitigated by the existence of assurance against disclosure of corporate social responsibility. The results of this study indicate that the disclosure of corporate social responsibility can show that the company cares about the issue of social responsibility but does not automatically make the company as one that holds ethical values ​​in its business practices.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility disclosure, tax aggressiveness, sustainability assurance, business ethics

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397 Current Environmental Accounting Disclosure Requirements and Compliance by Nigerian Oil Companies

Authors: Amina Jibrin Ahmed

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The environment is mankind's natural habitat. Industrial activities over time have taken their toll on it in the form of deterioration and degradation. The petroleum industry is particularly notorious for its negative impact on its host environments. The realization that this poses a threat to sustainability led to the increased awareness and subsequent recognition of the importance of environmental disclosure in financial statements. This paper examines the laws and regulations put in place by the Nigerian Government to mitigate this impact, and the level of compliance by Shell Nigeria, the pioneer and largest oil company in the country. Based on the disclosure made, this paper finds there is indeed a high level of compliance by that company, and voluntary disclosure moreover.

Keywords: environmental accounting, legitimacy theory, environmental impact assessment, environmental disclosure, host communities

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396 Voluntary Information of Intellectual Capital Disclosed Online by Public Spanish Universities

Authors: Yolanda Ramírez, Ángel Tejada, Agustín Baidez

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The purpose of this paper is to examine the quality of voluntary intellectual capital disclosure by public Spanish universities on their websites. To this end, a content analysis was used to analyze the websites of 50 public Spanish universities i 2016. The results of this study show that human capital was the most disclosed category with relational capital being the least frequently disclosed in Spain. However, the quality of structural capital disclosures was higher than relational and human capital. Finally, most IC disclosures were narrative in nature.

Keywords: intellectual capital, quality disclosure, websites, universities, Spain

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395 The Relationship between Corporate Governance and Intellectual Capital Disclosure: Malaysian Evidence

Authors: Rabiaal Adawiyah Shazali, Corina Joseph

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The disclosure of Intellectual Capital (IC) information is getting more vital in today’s era of a knowledge-based economy. Companies are advised by accounting bodies to enhance IC disclosure which complements the conventional financial disclosures. There are no accounting standards for Intellectual Capital Disclosure (ICD), therefore the disclosure is entirely voluntary. Hence, this study aims to investigate the extent of ICD and to examine the relationship between corporate governance and ICD in Malaysia. This study employed content analysis of 100 annual reports by the top 100 public listed companies in Malaysia during 2012. The uniqueness of this study lies on its underpinning theory used where it applies the institutional isomorphism theory to support the effect of the attributes of corporate governance towards ICD. In order to achieve the stated objective, multiple regression analysis were employed to conduct this study. From the descriptive statistics, it was concluded that public listed companies in Malaysia have increased their awareness towards the importance of ICD. Furthermore, results from the multiple regression analysis confirmed that corporate governance affects the company’s ICD where the frequency of audit committee meetings and the board size has positively influenced the level of ICD in companies. Findings from this study would provide an incentive for companies in Malaysia to enhance the disclosure of IC. In addition, this study would assist Bursa Malaysia and other regulatory bodies to come up with a proper guideline for the disclosure of IC.

Keywords: annual report, content analysis, corporate governance, intellectual capital disclosure

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394 Self-Disclosure and Suicide

Authors: Netta Horesh Reinman

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The inability to communicate feelings and thoughts to people close to oneself may be an important risk factor for suicidal behavior. This inability has been operationalized in the concept of “self-disclosure.” The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the correlation of self-disclosure with suicidal behavior in adolescents. Eighty consecutive admissions to an adolescent psychiatric inpatient unit were evaluated. Thirty-four were suicide attempters, 18 were suicidal ideators, and 18 were non-suicidal. Assessment measures included the Child Suicide Potential Scale, the Suicide Intent Scale, the Suicide Ideation Scale, and the Self-Disclosure Scale. The results show that low self-disclosure levels are associated with suicidal thinking, suicide attempts and suicidal attitudes. Thus, low self-disclosure may well be a risk factor worthy of further evaluation in the attempt to understand adolescent suicidal behavior.

Keywords: self disclosure, suicide, adolescents, treatment

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393 Accounting Legislation, Corporate Governance Codes and Disclosure in Jordan

Authors: Ayman Haddad, Wafaa Sbeiti, Amr Qasem

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The main aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the most influential economic changes and accounting legislation affecting financial reporting and disclosure practices in Jordan. It also provides an overview of disclosure studies conducted in Jordan covering the year(s) between 1986 and 2014. The economic changes in Jordan required conducting economic reform and revising/issuing new regulations and financial market reforms that led to an improvement in disclosure practices. The issuance of Temporary Securities Law and its Directives of Disclosure in 1997, which came into effect in 1998, is considered as the turning point in the improvement of disclosure practice in Jordan. Based on a review of prior disclosure studies, we conclude that disclosure practices have improved overtime. We also observe that that firm size as a factor has always affected the level of disclosure in Jordan and followed by external auditing while liquidity was found to have the least effect. The paper also addresses the disclosure items required in Corporate Governance Codes that exist for listed shareholding companies, banks, and insurance companies. Finally, the paper discusses the quality of accounting education in Jordan since prior studies noted its impact on accounting practice.

Keywords: accounting legislation, corporate governance, disclosure practice, Jordan

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392 The Association between Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure, Assurance, and Tax Aggressiveness: Evidence from Indonesia

Authors: Eko Budi Santoso

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There is a growing interest in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) issues in developing countries such as Indonesia. Firms disclose their CSR activities, and some provide assurance to gain recognition as socially responsible firms. However, several of those socially responsible firms involve in tax scandals and raise a question of whether CSR disclosure is used to disguise firm misconduct or as a reflection of socially responsible firms. Specifically, whether firms engage in CSR disclosure and its assurance also responsible for their tax matters. This study examines the association between CSR disclosure and tax aggressiveness and the role of sustainability reporting assurance to the association. This research develops a modified index according to global reporting initiatives to measure CSR disclosure and various measurement for tax aggressiveness. Using a sample of Indonesian go public companies issued CSR disclosure, the empirical result shows that there is an association between CSR disclosure and tax aggressiveness. In addition, results also indicate sustainability reporting assurance moderate those association. The findings suggest that stakeholder in developing countries should examine carefully firms with active CSR disclosure before label it as socially responsible firms. JEL Classification: M14

Keywords: CSR disclosure, tax aggressiveness, assurance, business ethics

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391 Sharia Non-Compliant Transactions and Disclosure by Islamic Banks: Content Analysis of Annual Reports

Authors: Mehriban Ahmadova

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Country of origin has been found to be an important determinant of the level of corporate social disclosure. The purpose of this study is to investigate the differences of corporate social disclosure, including sharia non-compliant information, by Islamic banks. The study applies content analysis approach of annual reports of fully-fledged Islamic banks from 24 countries. International differences are found in terms of level, methods and location of disclosure.

Keywords: Content analysis, Corporate social disclosure, Islamic banks, Sharia non-compliant disclosure

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390 The Determinants of Financial Ratio Disclosures and Quality: Evidence from an Emerging Market

Authors: Ben Kwame Agyei-Mensah

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This study investigated the influence of firm-specific characteristics which include proportion of Non-Executive Directors, ownership concentration, firm size, profitability, debt equity ratio, liquidity and leverage on the extent and quality of financial ratios disclosed by firms listed on the Ghana Stock Exchange. The research was conducted through detailed analysis of the 2012 financial statements of the listed firms. Descriptive analysis was performed to provide the background statistics of the variables examined. This was followed by regression analysis which forms the main data analysis. The results of the extent of financial ratio disclosure level, mean of 62.78%, indicate that most of the firms listed on the Ghana Stock Exchange did not overwhelmingly disclose such ratios in their annual reports. The results of the low quality of financial ratio disclosure mean of 6.64% indicate that the disclosures failed woefully to meet the International Accounting Standards Board's qualitative characteristics of relevance, reliability, comparability and understandability. The results of the multiple regression analysis show that leverage (gearing ratio) and return on investment (dividend per share) are associated on a statistically significant level as far as the extent of financial ratio disclosure is concerned. Board ownership concentration and proportion of (independent) non-executive directors, on the other hand were found to be statistically associated with the quality of financial ratio disclosed. There is a significant negative relationship between ownership concentration and the quality of financial ratio disclosure. This means that under a higher level of ownership concentration less quality financial ratios are disclosed. The findings also show that there is a significant positive relationship between board composition (proportion of non-executive directors) and the quality of financial ratio disclosure.

Keywords: voluntary disclosure, firm-specific characteristics, financial reporting, financial ratio disclosure, Ghana stock exchange

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389 Corporate Governance and Disclosure Quality: Taxonomy of Tunisian Listed Firms Using the Decision Tree Method Based Approach

Authors: Wided Khiari, Adel Karaa

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This study aims to establish a typology of Tunisian listed firms according to their corporate governance characteristics and disclosure quality. The paper uses disclosed scores to examine corporate governance practices of Tunisian listed firms. A content analysis of 46 Tunisian listed firms from 2001 to 2010 has been carried out and a disclosure index developed to determine the level of disclosure of the companies. The disclosure quality is appreciated through the quantity and also through the nature (type) of information disclosed. Applying the decision tree method, the obtained tree diagrams provide ways to know the characteristics of a particular firm regardless of its level of disclosure. Obtained results show that the characteristics of corporate governance to achieve good quality of disclosure are not unique for all firms. These structures are not necessarily all of the recommendations of best practices, but converge towards the best combination. Indeed, in practice, there are companies which have a good quality of disclosure, but are not well-governed. However, we hope that by improving their governance system their level of disclosure may be better. These findings show, in a general way, a convergence towards the standards of corporate governance with a few exceptions related to the specificity of Tunisian listed firms and show the need for the adoption of a code for each context. These findings shed the light on corporate governance features that enhance incentives for good disclosure. It allows identifying, for each firm and in any date, corporate governance determinants of disclosure quality. More specifically, and all being equal, obtained tree makes a rule of decision for the company to know the level of disclosure based on certain characteristics of the governance strategy adopted by the latter.

Keywords: corporate governance, disclosure, decision tree, economics

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388 The Effect of Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) Disclosure on Firms’ Credit Rating and Capital Structure

Authors: Heba Abdelmotaal

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This paper explores the impact of the extent of a company's environmental, social, and governance (ESG) disclosure on credit rating and capital structure. The analysis is based on a sample of 202 firms from the 350 FTSE firms over the period of 2008-2013. ESG disclosure score is measured using Proprietary Bloomberg score based on the extent of a company's Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) disclosure. The credit rating is measured by The QuiScore, which is a measure of the likelihood that a company will become bankrupt in the twelve months following the date of calculation. The Capital Structure is measured by long term debt ratio. Two hypotheses are test using panel data regression. The results suggested that the higher degree of ESG disclosure leads to better credit rating. There is significant negative relationship between ESG disclosure and the long term debit percentage. The paper includes implications for the transparency which is resulting of the ESG disclosure could support the Monitoring Function. The monitoring role of disclosure is the increasing in the transparency of the credit rating agencies, also it could affect on managers’ actions. This study provides empirical evidence on the material of ESG disclosure on credit ratings changes and the firms’ capital decision making.

Keywords: capital structure, credit rating agencies, ESG disclosure, panel data regression

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387 Intellectual Capital Disclosure: A Study of Australia and Sri Lanka

Authors: Puwanenthiren Pratheepkanth

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This study considers whether national development level influences a firm’s voluntary intellectual capital disclosure (ICD) provided by a sample of 100 Australian and 100 Sri Lankan firms in terms of a two-years during 2015-16. This two-nation study uses a content analysis and literature-review analysis to provide an understanding of the underlying forces and issues. It was found that Australian firms tend to rely heavily on external structure disclosures (with particular attention to brands, customer loyalty, and research collaborations), but Sri Lankan relatively larger firms prefer intellectual property disclosures and the smaller firms tend to be as adept at external structure as their Australian counterparts. It was also found that the nature of a firm tends to trump the nurture of the development level of the country in which the firm is embedded. While a wider diffusion of better ICD methodology under International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS) could improve the cost-effectiveness of financial reporting and generally increase efficiency, this is unlikely to occur until competition is more of a spur.

Keywords: developed countries, developing countries, content analysis, intellectual capital disclosure

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386 Self-Disclosure of Location: Influences of Personality Traits, Intrinsic Motivations and Extrinsic Motivations

Authors: Chechen Liao, Sheng Yi Lin

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With the popularity of smartphone usage and the flourish of social networks, many people began to use the 'check-in' functions to share their location information and days of live and self-disclosure. In order to increase exposure and awareness, some stores provide discounts and other benefits to attract consumers to 'check-in' in their stores. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether personality traits, intrinsic motivations, extrinsic motivations, and privacy concerns would affect self-disclosure of location for consumers. Research data were collected from 407 individuals that have used Facebook check-in in Taiwan. This study used SmartPLS 2.0 structural equation modeling to validate the model. The results show that information sharing, information storage, enjoyment, self-presentation, get a feedback, economic reward, and keep up with trends had significant positive effects on self-disclosure. While extroversion and openness to use have significant positive effects on self-disclosure, conscientiousness and privacy concerns have significant negative effects on self-disclosure. The results of the study provide academic and practical implications for the future growth of location-based self-disclosure.

Keywords: check-in, extrinsic motivation, intrinsic motivation, personality trait, self-disclosure

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385 Empirical Analysis of the Relationship between Voluntary Accounting Disclosures and Mongolian Stock Exchange Listed Companies’ Characteristics

Authors: Ernest Nweke

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Mongolia has made giant strides in the development of its auditing and accounting system from Soviet-style to a market-oriented system. High levels of domestic and foreign investment desired by the Mongolian government require that better and improved quality of corporate information and disclosure consistent with international standards be made available to investors. However, the Mongolian Certified Public Accountants (CPA) profession is still developing, and the quality of services provided by accounting firms in most cases do not comply with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) framework approved by the government for use in financial reporting. Against this backdrop, Accounting and audit reforms, liberalization and deregulation, establishment of an efficient and effective professional monitoring and supervision regime are policy necessities. These will further enhance the Mongolian business environment, eliminate incompetence in the system, make the economy more attractive to investors and ultimately lift reporting standards and bring about improved accounting, auditing and disclosure practices among Mongolian firms. This paper examines the fundamental issues in the accounting and auditing environment in Mongolia and investigates the relationship between selected characteristics of Mongolian Stock Exchange (MSE) listed firms (profitability, leverage, firm size, firm auditor size, firm listing age, board size and proportion of independent directors) and voluntary accounting disclosures in their annual reports and accounts. The selected sample of firms for the research purpose consists of the top 20 indexes of the MSE, representing over 95% of the market capitalization. An empirical analysis of the hypothesized relationship was carried out using multiple regression in EViews analytical software. Research results lend credence to the fact that only a few of the company attributes positively impact voluntary accounting disclosures in Mongolian Stock Exchange-listed firms. The research is motivated by the absence of empirical evidence on the correlation between the quality of voluntary accounting disclosures made by listed companies in Mongolia and company characteristics and the findings thereof significantly useful to both firms and regulatory authorities. The concluding part of the paper precisely consists of useful research-based recommendations for listed firms and regulatory agencies on measures to put in place in order to enhance the quality of corporate financial reporting and disclosures in Mongolia.

Keywords: accounting, auditing, corporate disclosure, listed firms

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384 Shari'ah Supervisory Board's Performance: The Influence to Quality of Disclosure in Islamic Banks

Authors: Dian Andari

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In several decades, Islamic Banks (IBs) has proliferated internationally. To ensure IBs’ accountability to all stakeholders, a governance system is established. Similar to conventional banks (CBs), IBs create corporate governance system. In addition, IBs have Shari’ah Supervisory Board (SSB) as part of Shari’ah governance formed purposively to ensure IBs innovative operations comply to the Shari’ah. Thus, all boards in IBs must actively participate in good corporate as well as Shari’ah governance. The research will analyze SSB’s performance and quality of disclosure by observing 10 IBs annual report from 2011 to 2015 in Gulf countries. The content analysis will be done to see the relationship between SSB’s performance and quality of disclosure in the annual report. The analysis found that event all aspects of disclosure have been meet, financial disclosure still dominates the annual report. This can indicate that the SSB’s focus is on the interest of capital providers.

Keywords: Islamic banks, Shari'ah supervisory board, accountability, quality of disclosure

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383 Strategy, Intellectual Capital Disclosure, Competition, and Market Performance

Authors: Agnes Utari Widyaningdyah

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This study investigates the relationship between strategy, intellectual capital (IC) disclosure, and the firm’s performance by considering business competition as a moderating variable. The secondary sectors manufacturing firms in the Jakarta Stock Industrial Classification as sample because this group represents a knowledge-intensive firm according to the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) criteria. Using path analysis, this study reveals that there is a significant influence of strategy toward IC disclosure. Firms with differentiation strategy tend to withhold its strategic information included IC because of afraid in losing their competitive advantage. The results also indicate that firms are more likely to withhold information about IC if they perceive that current or potential competition is strong. However, firms should consider that IC disclosure is a positive signal to the investor.

Keywords: strategy, IC disclosure, market performance, business competition

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382 Impact on Cost of Equity of Accounting and Disclosures

Authors: Abhishek Ranga

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The study examined the effect of accounting choice and level of disclosure on the firm’s implied cost of equity in Indian environment. For the study accounting choice was classified as aggressive or conservative depending upon the firm’s choice of accounting methods, accounting policies and accounting estimates. Level of disclosure is the quantum of financial and non-financial information disclosed in firm’s annual report, essentially in note to accounts section, schedules forming part of financial statements and Management Discussion and Analysis report. Regression models were developed with cost of equity as a dependent variable and accounting choice, level of disclosure as an independent variable along with selected control variables. Cost of equity was measured using Edward-Bell-Ohlson (EBO) valuation model, to measure accounting choice Modified-Jones-Model (MJM) was used and level of disclosure was measured using a disclosure index essentially drawn from Botosan study. Results indicated a negative association between the implied cost of equity and conservative accounting choice and also between level of disclosure and cost of equity.

Keywords: aggressive accounting choice, conservative accounting choice, disclosure, implied cost of equity

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381 The Level of Disclosure of Intellectual Capital at Jordanian Development Banks

Authors: Firas A. N. Al-Dalabih

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This study aims at identifying the level of disclosure of intellectual capital at the Jordanian development banks. The study sample composed of (100) individuals working at the National Bank to Finance Small Projects around the different governorates of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. A questionnaire has been prepared and distributed over the study sample. (95) Questionnaires have been retrieved; valid for the statistical analysis purposes with a percentage of (95%). The study results showed that the level of disclosure of intellectual capital with all its dimensions (human capital, customer capital and structural capital) at the Jordanian development banks was of a high level. The results also showed that there is a high level of awareness performed by the Jordanian development banks’ employees in regard to the necessity and importance of the intellectual capital’s disclosure. The study was concluded with a number of recommendations among which were that the Jordanian development banks shall take notice toward increasing their workers’ awareness regarding the importance of intellectual capital’s disclosure, as well as applying this study over commercial and Islamic banks for the purposes of carrying out a comparison between them and the development banks.

Keywords: intellectual capital, Jordanian development banks, the level of disclosure

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380 Development of a Risk Disclosure Index and Examination of Its Determinants: An Empirical Study in Indian Context

Authors: M. V. Shivaani, P. K. Jain, Surendra S. Yadav

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Worldwide regulators, practitioners and researchers view risk-disclosure as one of the most important steps that will promote corporate accountability and transparency. Recognizing this growing significance of risk disclosures, the paper first develops a risk disclosure index. Covering 69 risk items/themes, this index is developed by employing thematic content analysis and encompasses three attributes of disclosure: namely, nature (qualitative or quantitative), time horizon (backward-looking or forward-looking) and tone (no impact, positive impact or negative impact). As the focus of study is on substantive rather than symbolic disclosure, content analysis has been carried out manually. The study is based on non-financial companies of Nifty500 index and covers a ten year period from April 1, 2005 to March 31, 2015, thus yielding 3,872 annual reports for analysis. The analysis reveals that (on an average) only about 14% of risk items (i.e. about 10 out 69 risk items studied) are being disclosed by Indian companies. Risk items that are frequently disclosed are mostly macroeconomic in nature and their disclosures tend to be qualitative, forward-looking and conveying both positive and negative aspects of the concerned risk. The second objective of the paper is to gauge the factors that affect the level of disclosures in annual reports. Given the panel nature of data, and possible endogeneity amongst variables, Diff-GMM regression has been applied. The results indicate that age and size of firms have a significant positive impact on disclosure quality, whereas growth rate does not have a significant impact. Further, post-recession period (2009-2015) has witnessed significant improvement in quality of disclosures. In terms of corporate governance variables, board size, board independence, CEO duality, presence of CRO and constitution of risk management committee appear to be significant factors in determining the quality of risk disclosures. It is noteworthy that the study contributes to literature by putting forth a variant to existing disclosure indices that not only captures the quantity but also the quality of disclosures (in terms of semantic attributes). Also, the study is a first of its kind attempt in a prominent emerging market i.e. India. Therefore, this study is expected to facilitate regulators in mandating and regulating risk disclosures and companies in their endeavor to reduce information asymmetry.

Keywords: risk disclosure, voluntary disclosures, corporate governance, Diff-GMM

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379 Legal Disputes of Disclosure and Transparency under Kuwaiti Capital Market Authority Law

Authors: Mohammad A. R. S. Almutairi

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This study will provide the introduction that constitutes the problem cornerstone of legal disputes of disclosure and transparency under Kuwaiti Capital market authority Law No. 7 of 2010. It also will discuss the reasons for the emergence of corporate governance and its purposes in the Capital Market Authority Law in Kuwait. In addition, it will show the legal disputes resulting from the unclear concept of disclosure and interest and will discuss the main reasons in support of the possible solution. In addition, this study will argue why the Capital Market Authority Law in Kuwait needs a clear concept and a straight structure of disclosure under section 100. This study will demonstrate why a clear disclosure is led to a better application of the law. This study will demonstrate the fairness in applying the law regarding the punishment against individual, companies and securities market. Furthermore, it will discuss added confidence between investors and the stock market with a clear concept under section 100. Finally, it will summarize arises problem and possible solution.

Keywords: corporate governors, disclosure, transparency, fairness

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378 Other-Generated Disclosure: A Challenge to Privacy on Social Network Sites

Authors: Tharntip Tawnie Chutikulrungsee, Oliver Kisalay Burmeister, Maumita Bhattacharya, Dragana Calic

Abstract:

Sharing on social network sites (SNSs) has rapidly emerged as a new social norm and has become a global phenomenon. Billions of users reveal not only their own information (self disclosure) but also information about others (other-generated disclosure), resulting in a risk and a serious threat to either personal or informational privacy. Self-disclosure (SD) has been extensively researched in the literature, particularly regarding control of individual and existing privacy management. However, far too little attention has been paid to other-generated disclosure (OGD), especially by insiders. OGD has a strong influence on self-presentation, self-image, and electronic word of mouth (eWOM). Moreover, OGD is more credible and less likely manipulated than SD, but lacks privacy control and legal protection to some extent. This article examines OGD in depth, ranging from motivation to both online and offline impacts, based upon lived experiences from both ‘the disclosed’ and ‘the discloser’. Using purposive sampling, this phenomenological study involves an online survey and in-depth interviews. The findings report the influence of peer disclosure as well as users’ strategies to mitigate privacy issues. This article also calls attention to the challenge of OGD privacy and inadequacies in the law related to privacy protection in the digital domain.

Keywords: facebook, online privacy, other-generated disclosure, social networks sites (SNSs)

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
377 Identifying Self-Disclosure in Indonesian Reality Show: A Comprehensive Study

Authors: Dwi Ashari

Abstract:

This study attempts to disclose people’s privacy in Indonesian media. Many television (henceforth: TV) programs have shown the exposure of people’s privacy. People, not only celebrities, who appear in TV program often, share their life to the participants to get very intimate self-disclosure with them. Indonesia, as one of the countries with highest population, has many people who watch television everyday. This can be the major factor for some TV stations to create a program to get people’s attention to gain more profit. This study examines some factors of Indonesia TV programs that share the people’s privacy. The relation of privacy in Indonesia TV programs will be related to the concept of self-disclosure and intimacy between the people who share and watch the programs.

Keywords: Indonesia, media, privacy, self-disclosure

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
376 Critical Accounting Estimates and Transparency in Financial Reporting: An Observation Financial Reporting under US GAAP

Authors: Ahmed Shaik

Abstract:

Estimates are very critical in accounting and Financial Reporting cannot be complete without these estimates. There is a long list of accounting estimates that are required to be made to compute Net Income and to determine the value of assets and liabilities. To name a few, valuation of inventory, depreciation, valuation of goodwill, provision for bad debts and estimated warranties, etc. require the use of different valuation models and forecasts. Different business entities under the same industry may use different approaches to measure the value of financial items being reported in Income Statement and Balance Sheet. The disclosure notes do not provide enough details of the approach used by a business entity to arrive at the value of a financial item. Lack of details in the disclosure notes makes it difficult to compare the financial performance of one business entity with the other in the same industry. This paper is an attempt to identify the lack of enough information about accounting estimates in disclosure notes, the impact of the absence of details of accounting estimates on the comparability of financial data and financial analysis. An attempt is made to suggest the detailed disclosure while taking care of the cost and benefit of making such disclosure.

Keywords: accounting estimates, disclosure notes, financial reporting, transparency

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
375 Disclosure Extension of Oil and Gas Reserve Quantum

Authors: Ali Alsawayeh, Ibrahim Eldanfour

Abstract:

This paper examines the extent of disclosure of oil and gas reserve quantum in annual reports of international oil and gas exploration and production companies, particularly companies in untested international markets, such as Canada, the UK and the US, and seeks to determine the underlying factors that affect the level of disclosure on oil reserve quantum. The study is concerned with the usefulness of disclosure of oil and gas reserves quantum to investors and other users. Given the primacy of the annual report (10-k) as a source of supplemental reserves data about the company and as the channel through which companies disseminate information about their performance, the annual reports for one year (2009) were the central focus of the study. This comparative study seeks to establish whether differences exist between the sample companies, based on new disclosure requirements by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in respect of reserves classification and definition. The extent of disclosure of reserve is provided and compared among the selected companies. Statistical analysis is performed to determine whether any differences exist in the extent of disclosure of reserve under the determinant variables. This study shows that some factors would affect the extent of disclosure of reserve quantum in the above-mentioned countries, namely: company’s size, leverage and quality of auditor. Companies that provide reserves quantum in detail appear to display higher size. The findings also show that the level of leverage has affected companies’ reserves quantum disclosure. Indeed, companies that provide detailed reserves quantum disclosure tend to employ a ‘high-quality auditor’. In addition, the study found significant independent variable such as Profit Sharing Contracts (PSC). This factor could explain variations in the level of disclosure of oil reserve quantum between the contractor and host governments. The implementation of SEC oil and gas reporting requirements do not enhance companies’ valuation because the new rules are based only on past and present reserves information (proven reserves); hence, future valuation of oil and gas companies is missing for the market.

Keywords: comparison, company characteristics, disclosure, reserve quantum, regulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 289