Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18411

Search results for: battery production system

18411 Reducing Change-Related Costs in Assembly of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Electric Cars by Mechanical Decoupling

Authors: Achim Kampker, Heiner Hans Heimes, Mathias Ordung, Nemanja Sarovic


A key component of the drive train of electric vehicles is the lithium-ion battery system. Among various other components, such as the battery management system or the thermal management system, the battery system mostly consists of several cells which are integrated mechanically as well as electrically. Due to different vehicle concepts with regards to space, energy and power specifications, there is a variety of different battery systems. The corresponding assembly lines are specially designed for each battery concept. Minor changes to certain characteristics of the battery have a disproportionally high effect on the set-up effort in the form of high change-related costs. This paper will focus on battery systems which are made out of battery cells with a prismatic format. The product architecture and the assembly process will be analyzed in detail based on battery concepts of existing electric cars and key variety-causing drivers will be identified. On this basis, several measures will be presented and discussed on how to change the product architecture and the assembly process in order to reduce change-related costs.

Keywords: assembly, automotive industry, battery system, battery concept

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
18410 A Study on Long Life Hybrid Battery System Consists of Ni-63 Betavoltaic Battery and All Solid Battery

Authors: Bosung Kim, Youngmok Yun, Sungho Lee, Chanseok Park


There is a limitation to power supply and operation by the chemical or physical battery in the space environment. Therefore, research for utilizing nuclear energy in the universe has been in progress since the 1950s, around the major industrialized countries. In this study, the self-rechargeable battery having a long life relative to the half-life of the radioisotope is suggested. The hybrid system is composed of betavoltaic battery, all solid battery and energy harvesting board. Betavoltaic battery can produce electrical power at least 10 years over using the radioisotope from Ni-63 and the silicon-based semiconductor. The electrical power generated from the betavoltaic battery is stored in the all-solid battery and stored power is used if necessary. The hybrid system board is composed of input terminals, boost circuit, charging terminals and output terminals. Betavoltaic and all solid batteries are connected to the input and output terminal, respectively. The electric current of 10 µA is applied to the system board by using the high-resolution power simulator. The system efficiencies are measured from a boost up voltage of 1.8 V, 2.4 V and 3 V, respectively. As a result, the efficiency of system board is about 75% after boosting up the voltage from 1V to 3V.

Keywords: isotope, betavoltaic, nuclear, battery, energy harvesting

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
18409 Renewable Integration Algorithm to Compensate Photovoltaic Power Using Battery Energy Storage System

Authors: Hyung Joo Lee, Jin Young Choi, Gun Soo Park, Kyo Sun Oh, Dong Jun Won


The fluctuation of the output of the renewable generator caused by weather conditions must be mitigated because it imposes strain on the system and adversely affects power quality. In this paper, we focus on mitigating the output fluctuation of the photovoltaic (PV) using battery energy storage system (BESS). To satisfy tight conditions of system, proposed algorithm is developed. This algorithm focuses on adjusting the integrated output curve considering state of capacity (SOC) of the battery. In this paper, the simulation model is PSCAD / EMTDC software. SOC of the battery and the overall output curve are shown using the simulation results. We also considered losses and battery efficiency.

Keywords: photovoltaic generation, battery energy storage system, renewable integration, power smoothing

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
18408 Internet of Things Based Battery Management System

Authors: Pakhil Singh, Rahul Singh, Mohammad Saad Alam, Yasser Rafat


The battery management system is an essential package/system which ensures optimum performance and safety of a battery by monitoring the key essential parameters of the battery like the voltage, current, temperature, state of charge, state of health during charging and discharging. This can be accomplished using outputs of various sensors employed to serve the purpose. The increasing demand for electricity generation from renewable energy sources requires proper storage and hence a proper monitoring system as well. A battery management system is required in wide applications ranging from renewable energy storage systems, off-grid solar PV applications to electric vehicles. The aim of this paper is to study the parameters used in monitoring various battery operating conditions and proposes the usage of the internet of things (IoT) to implement a reliable battery management system.

Keywords: electric vehicles, internet of things, sensors, state of charge, state of health

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
18407 A Concept for Flexible Battery Cell Manufacturing from Low to Medium Volumes

Authors: Tim Giesen, Raphael Adamietz, Pablo Mayer, Philipp Stiefel, Patrick Alle, Dirk Schlenker


The competitiveness and success of new electrical energy storages such as battery cells are significantly dependent on a short time-to-market. Producers who decide to supply new battery cells to the market need to be easily adaptable in manufacturing with respect to the early customers’ needs in terms of cell size, materials, delivery time and quantity. In the initial state, the required output rates do not yet allow the producers to have a fully automated manufacturing line nor to supply handmade battery cells. Yet there was no solution for manufacturing battery cells in low to medium volumes in a reproducible way. Thus, in terms of cell format and output quantity, a concept for the flexible assembly of battery cells was developed by the Fraunhofer-Institute for Manufacturing Engineering and Automation. Based on clustered processes, the modular system platform can be modified, enlarged or retrofitted in a short time frame according to the ordered product. The paper shows the analysis of the production steps from a conventional battery cell assembly line. Process solutions were found by using I/O-analysis, functional structures, and morphological boxes. The identified elementary functions were subsequently clustered by functional coherences for automation solutions and thus the single process cluster was generated. The result presented in this paper enables to manufacture different cell products on the same production system using seven process clusters. The paper shows the solution for a batch-wise flexible battery cell production using advanced process control. Further, the performed tests and benefits by using the process clusters as cyber-physical systems for an integrated production and value chain are discussed. The solution lowers the hurdles for SMEs to launch innovative cell products on the global market.

Keywords: automation, battery production, carrier, advanced process control, cyber-physical system

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
18406 Adaptive Discharge Time Control for Battery Operation Time Enhancement

Authors: Jong-Bae Lee, Seongsoo Lee


This paper proposes an adaptive discharge time control method to balance cell voltages in alternating battery cell discharging method. In the alternating battery cell discharging method, battery cells are periodically discharged in turn. Recovery effect increases battery output voltage while the given battery cell rests without discharging, thus battery operation time of target system increases. However, voltage mismatch between cells leads two problems. First, voltage difference between cells induces inter-cell current with wasted power. Second, it degrades battery operation time, since system stops when any cell reaches to the minimum system operation voltage. To solve this problem, the proposed method adaptively controls cell discharge time to equalize both cell voltages. In the proposed method, battery operation time increases about 19%, while alternating battery cell discharging method shows about 7% improvement.

Keywords: battery, recovery effect, low-power, alternating battery cell discharging, adaptive discharge time control

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
18405 Battery Grading Algorithm in 2nd-Life Repurposing LI-Ion Battery System

Authors: Ya L. V., Benjamin Ong Wei Lin, Wanli Niu, Benjamin Seah Chin Tat


This article introduces a methodology that improves reliability and cyclability of 2nd-life Li-ion battery system repurposed as an energy storage system (ESS). Most of the 2nd-life retired battery systems in the market have module/pack-level state-of-health (SOH) indicator, which is utilized for guiding appropriate depth-of-discharge (DOD) in the application of ESS. Due to the lack of cell-level SOH indication, the different degrading behaviors among various cells cannot be identified upon reaching retired status; in the end, considering end-of-life (EOL) loss and pack-level DOD, the repurposed ESS has to be oversized by > 1.5 times to complement the application requirement of reliability and cyclability. This proposed battery grading algorithm, using non-invasive methodology, is able to detect outlier cells based on historical voltage data and calculate cell-level historical maximum temperature data using semi-analytic methodology. In this way, the individual battery cell in the 2nd-life battery system can be graded in terms of SOH on basis of the historical voltage fluctuation and estimated historical maximum temperature variation. These grades will have corresponding DOD grades in the application of the repurposed ESS to enhance system reliability and cyclability. In all, this introduced battery grading algorithm is non-invasive, compatible with all kinds of retired Li-ion battery systems which lack of cell-level SOH indication, as well as potentially being embedded into battery management software for preventive maintenance and real-time cyclability optimization.

Keywords: battery grading algorithm, 2nd-life repurposing battery system, semi-analytic methodology, reliability and cyclability

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
18404 Fuzzy Availability Analysis of a Battery Production System

Authors: Merve Uzuner Sahin, Kumru D. Atalay, Berna Dengiz


In today’s competitive market, there are many alternative products that can be used in similar manner and purpose. Therefore, the utility of the product is an important issue for the preferability of the brand. This utility could be measured in terms of its functionality, durability, reliability. These all are affected by the system capabilities. Reliability is an important system design criteria for the manufacturers to be able to have high availability. Availability is the probability that a system (or a component) is operating properly to its function at a specific point in time or a specific period of times. System availability provides valuable input to estimate the production rate for the company to realize the production plan. When considering only the corrective maintenance downtime of the system, mean time between failure (MTBF) and mean time to repair (MTTR) are used to obtain system availability. Also, the MTBF and MTTR values are important measures to improve system performance by adopting suitable maintenance strategies for reliability engineers and practitioners working in a system. Failure and repair time probability distributions of each component in the system should be known for the conventional availability analysis. However, generally, companies do not have statistics or quality control departments to store such a large amount of data. Real events or situations are defined deterministically instead of using stochastic data for the complete description of real systems. A fuzzy set is an alternative theory which is used to analyze the uncertainty and vagueness in real systems. The aim of this study is to present a novel approach to compute system availability using representation of MTBF and MTTR in fuzzy numbers. Based on the experience in the system, it is decided to choose 3 different spread of MTBF and MTTR such as 15%, 20% and 25% to obtain lower and upper limits of the fuzzy numbers. To the best of our knowledge, the proposed method is the first application that is used fuzzy MTBF and fuzzy MTTR for fuzzy system availability estimation. This method is easy to apply in any repairable production system by practitioners working in industry. It is provided that the reliability engineers/managers/practitioners could analyze the system performance in a more consistent and logical manner based on fuzzy availability. This paper presents a real case study of a repairable multi-stage production line in lead-acid battery production factory in Turkey. The following is focusing on the considered wet-charging battery process which has a higher production level than the other types of battery. In this system, system components could exist only in two states, working or failed, and it is assumed that when a component in the system fails, it becomes as good as new after repair. Instead of classical methods, using fuzzy set theory and obtaining intervals for these measures would be very useful for system managers, practitioners to analyze system qualifications to find better results for their working conditions. Thus, much more detailed information about system characteristics is obtained.

Keywords: availability analysis, battery production system, fuzzy sets, triangular fuzzy numbers (TFNs)

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18403 Product Architecture and Production Process of Battery Modules from Prismatic Lithium-Ion-Battery Cells

Authors: Achim Kampker, Heiner Hans Heimes, Nemanja Sarovic, Jan-Philip Ganser, Saskia Wessel, Christoph Lienemann


The electrification of the power train is a fundamental technical transition in the automotive industry and poses a major challenge for established car companies. Providing the traction energy, requiring an ever greater amount of space within the car and having a high share of value-add the lithium-ion battery is a central component of the electric power train and a completely new component to car manufacturers at the same time. Being relatively new to the automotive industry, the current design of the product architecture and production process (including manufacturing and assembling processes) of lithium-ion battery modules do not allow for an easy and cost-efficient disassembly or product design change. Yet these two requirements will increase in importance with rising sales volumes of electric cars in the near future and need to be addressed for the electric car to be competitive with conventional power train systems. This paper focuses on the current product architecture and production process of common automotive battery modules from prismatic lithium-ion battery cells to derive impacts for a remanufacturing concept. The information necessary for this purpose were gathered by literature research, patent inquiries, industry expert interviews and first-hand experiences of the authors. On the basis of these results, the underlying causes for the design´s lack of remanufacturability and flexibility with regards to product design changes are examined. In all, this paper gives an extensive and detailed overview of the state of the art of the product architecture and production process of lithium-ion battery modules from prismatic battery cells, identifies its deficiencies and derives improvement measures.

Keywords: battery module, prismatic lithium-ion battery cell, product architecture, production process, remanufacturing, flexibility

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18402 Customized Cow’s Urine Battery Using MnO2 Depolarizer

Authors: Raj Kumar Rajak, Bharat Mishra


Bio-battery represents an entirely new long term, reasonable, reachable and ecofriendly approach to production of sustainable energy. Types of batteries have been developed using MnO2 in various ways. MnO2 is suitable with physical, chemical, electrochemical, and catalytic properties, serving as an effective cathodic depolarizer and may be considered as being the life blood of the battery systems. In the present experimental work, we have studied the effect of generation of power by bio-battery using different concentrations of MnO2. The tests show that it is possible to generate electricity using cow’s urine as an electrolyte. After ascertaining the optimum concentration of MnO2, various battery parameters and performance indicates that cow urine solely produces power of 695 mW, while a combination with MnO2 (40%) enhances power of bio-battery, i.e. 1377 mW. On adding more and more MnO2 to the electrolyte, the power suppressed because inflation of internal resistance. The analysis of the data produced from experiment shows that MnO2 is quite suitable to energize the bio-battery.

Keywords: bio-batteries, cow’s urine, manganese dioxide, non-conventional

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18401 Development of PSS/E Dynamic Model for Controlling Battery Output to Improve Frequency Stability in Power Systems

Authors: Dae-Hee Son, Soon-Ryul Nam


The power system frequency falls when disturbance such as rapid increase of system load or loss of a generating unit occurs in power systems. Especially, increase in the number of renewable generating units has a bad influence on the power system because of loss of generating unit depending on the circumstance. Conventional technologies use frequency droop control battery output for the frequency regulation and balance between supply and demand. If power is supplied using the fast output characteristic of the battery, power system stability can be further more improved. To improve the power system stability, we propose battery output control using ROCOF (Rate of Change of Frequency) in this paper. The bigger the power difference between the supply and the demand, the bigger the ROCOF drops. Battery output is controlled proportionally to the magnitude of the ROCOF, allowing for faster response to power imbalances. To simulate the control method of battery output system, we develop the user defined model using PSS/E and confirm that power system stability is improved by comparing with frequency droop control.

Keywords: PSS/E user defined model, power deviation, frequency droop control, ROCOF (rate of change of frequency)

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
18400 An Equivalent Circuit Model Approach for Battery Pack Simulation in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle System Powertrain

Authors: Suchitra Sivakumar, Hajime Shingyouchi, Toshinori Okajima, Kyohei Yamaguchi, Jin Kusaka


The progressing need for powertrain electrification calls for more accurate and reliable simulation models. A battery pack serves as the most vital component for energy storage in an electrified powertrain. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) do not behave the same way as they age, and there are several environmental factors that account for the degradation of the battery on a system level. Therefore, in this work, a battery model was proposed to study the state of charge (SOC) variation and the internal dynamic changes that contribute to aging and performance degradation in HEV batteries. An equivalent circuit battery model (ECM) is built using MATLAB Simulink to investigate the output characteristics of the lithium-ion battery. The ECM comprises of circuit elements like a voltage source, a series resistor and a parallel RC network connected in series. A parameter estimation study is conducted on the ECM to study the dependencies of the circuit elements with the state of charge (SOC) and the terminal voltage of the battery. The battery model is extended to simulate the temperature dependence of the individual battery cell and the battery pack with the environment. The temperature dependence model accounts for the heat loss due to internal resistance build up in the battery pack during charging, discharging, and due to atmospheric temperature. The model was validated for a lithium-ion battery pack with an independent drive cycle showing a voltage accuracy of 4% and SOC accuracy of about 2%.

Keywords: battery model, hybrid electric vehicle, lithium-ion battery, thermal model

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18399 Design and Implementation of Embedded FM Transmission Control SW for Low Power Battery System

Authors: Young-Su Ryu, Kyung-Won Park, Jae-Hoon Song, Ki-Won Kwon


In this paper, an embedded frequency modulation (FM) transmission control software (SW) for a low power battery system is designed and implemented. The simultaneous translation systems for various languages are needed as so many international conferences and festivals are held in world wide. Especially in portable transmitting and receiving systems, the ability of long operation life is used for a measure of value. This paper proposes an embedded FM transmission control SW for low power battery system and shows the results of the SW implemented on a portable FM transmission system.

Keywords: FM transmission, simultaneous translation system, portable transmitting and receiving systems, low power embedded control SW

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
18398 Reuse of Spent Lithium Battery for the Production of Environmental Catalysts

Authors: Jyh-Cherng Chen, Chih-Shiang You, Jie-Shian Cheng


This study aims to recycle and reuse of spent lithium-cobalt battery and lithium-iron battery in the production of environmental catalysts. The characteristics and catalytic activities of synthesized catalysts for different air pollutants are analyzed and tested. The results show that the major metals in spent lithium-cobalt batteries are lithium 5%, cobalt 50%, nickel 3%, manganese 3% and the major metals in spent lithium-iron batteries are lithium 4%, iron 27%, and copper 4%. The catalytic activities of metal powders in the anode of spent lithium batteries are bad. With using the precipitation-oxidation method to prepare the lithium-cobalt catalysts from spent lithium-cobalt batteries, their catalytic activities for propane decomposition, CO oxidation, and NO reduction are well improved and excellent. The conversion efficiencies of the regenerated lithium-cobalt catalysts for those three gas pollutants are all above 99% even at low temperatures 200-300 °C. However, the catalytic activities of regenerated lithium-iron catalysts from spent lithium-iron batteries are unsatisfied.

Keywords: catalyst, lithium-cobalt battery, lithium-iron battery, recycle and reuse

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18397 Lithium-Ion Battery State of Charge Estimation Using One State Hysteresis Model with Nonlinear Estimation Strategies

Authors: Mohammed Farag, Mina Attari, S. Andrew Gadsden, Saeid R. Habibi


Battery state of charge (SOC) estimation is an important parameter as it measures the total amount of electrical energy stored at a current time. The SOC percentage acts as a fuel gauge if it is compared with a conventional vehicle. Estimating the SOC is, therefore, essential for monitoring the amount of useful life remaining in the battery system. This paper looks at the implementation of three nonlinear estimation strategies for Li-Ion battery SOC estimation. One of the most common behavioral battery models is the one state hysteresis (OSH) model. The extended Kalman filter (EKF), the smooth variable structure filter (SVSF), and the time-varying smoothing boundary layer SVSF are applied on this model, and the results are compared.

Keywords: state of charge estimation, battery modeling, one-state hysteresis, filtering and estimation

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
18396 New Series Input Parallel Output LLC DC/DC Converter with the Input Voltage Balancing Capacitor for the Electric System of Electric Vehicles

Authors: Kang Hyun Yi


This paper presents a new parallel output LLC DC/DC converter for electric vehicle. The electric vehicle has two batteries. One is a high voltage battery for the powertrain of the vehicle and the other is a low voltage battery for the vehicle electric system. The low voltage is charged from the high voltage battery and the high voltage input and the high current output DC/DC converter is needed. Therefore, the new LLC converter with the input voltage compensation is proposed for the high voltage input and the low voltage output DC/DC converter. The proposed circuit has two LLC converters with the series input voltage from the battery for the powertrain and the parallel output low battery voltage for the vehicle electric system because the battery voltage for the powertrain and the electric power for the vehicle become high. Also, the input series voltage compensation capacitor is used for balancing the input current in the two LLC converters. The proposed converter has an equal electric stress of the semiconductor parts and the reactive components, high efficiency and good heat dissipation.

Keywords: electric vehicle, LLC DC/DC converter, input voltage balancing, parallel output

Procedia PDF Downloads 470
18395 Electric Propulsion System Development for High Floor Trolley Bus

Authors: Asep Andi Suryandi, Katri Yulianto, Dewi Rianti Mandasari


The development of environmentally friendly vehicles increasingly attracted the attention of almost all countries in the world, including Indonesia. There are various types of environmentally friendly vehicles, such as: electric vehicles, hybrid, and fuel gas. The Electric vehicle has been developed in Indonesia, a private or public vehicle. But many electric vehicles had been developed using the battery as a power source, while the battery technology for electric vehicles still constraints in capacity, dimensions of the battery itself and charging system. Trolley bus is one of the electric buses with the main power source of the network catenary / overhead line with trolley pole as the point of contact. This paper will discuss the design and manufacture electrical system in Trolleybus.

Keywords: trolley bus, electric propulsion system, design, manufacture, electric vehicle

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
18394 Packaging Improvement for Unit Cell Vanadium Redox Flow Battery (V-RFB)

Authors: A. C. Khor, M. R. Mohamed, M. H. Sulaiman, M. R. Daud


Packaging for vanadium redox flow battery is one of the key elements for successful implementation of flow battery in the electrical energy storage system. Usually the bulky battery size and low energy densities make this technology not available for mobility application. Therefore RFB with improved packaging size and energy capacity are highly desirable. This paper focuses on the study of packaging improvement for unit cell V-RFB to the application on Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle. Two different designs of 25 cm2 and 100 cm2 unit cell V-RFB at same current density are used for the sample in this investigation. Further suggestions on packaging improvement are highlighted.

Keywords: electric vehicle, redox flow battery, packaging, vanadium

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
18393 Energy Management System with Temperature Rise Prevention on Hybrid Ships

Authors: Asser S. Abdelwahab, Nabil H. Abbasy, Ragi A. Hamdy


Marine shipping has now become one of the major worldwide contributors to pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. Hybrid ships technology based on multiple energy sources has taken a great scope of research to get rid of ship emissions and cut down fuel expenses. Insufficiency between power generated and the demand load to withstand the transient behavior on ships during severe climate conditions will lead to a blackout. Thus, an efficient energy management system (EMS) is a mandatory scope for achieving higher system efficiency while enhancing the lifetime of the onboard storage systems is another salient EMS scope. Considering energy storage system conditions, both the battery state of charge (SOC) and temperature represent important parameters to prevent any malfunction of the storage system that eventually degrades the whole system. In this paper, a two battery packs ratio fuzzy logic control model is proposed. The overall aim is to control the charging/discharging current while including both the battery SOC and temperature in the energy management system. The full designs of the proposed controllers are described and simulated using Matlab. The results prove the successfulness of the proposed controller in stabilizing the system voltage during both loading and unloading while keeping the energy storage system in a healthy condition.

Keywords: energy storage system, power shipboard, hybrid ship, thermal runaway

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
18392 Modelling of Relocation and Battery Autonomy Problem on Electric Cars Sharing Dynamic by Using Discrete Event Simulation and Petri Net

Authors: Taha Benarbia, Kay W. Axhausen, Anugrah Ilahi


Electric car sharing system as ecologic transportation increasing in the world. The complexity of managing electric car sharing systems, especially one-way trips and battery autonomy have direct influence to on supply and demand of system. One must be able to precisely model the demand and supply of these systems to better operate electric car sharing and estimate its effect on mobility management and the accessibility that it provides in urban areas. In this context, our work focus to develop performances optimization model of the system based on discrete event simulation and stochastic Petri net. The objective is to search optimal decisions and management parameters of the system in order to fulfil at best demand while minimizing undesirable situations. In this paper, we present new model of electric cars sharing with relocation based on monitoring system. The proposed approach also help to precise the influence of battery charging level on the behaviour of system as important decision parameter of this complex and dynamical system.

Keywords: electric car-sharing systems, smart mobility, Petri nets modelling, discrete event simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
18391 Removal of Lead (Pb) by the Microorganism Isolated from the Effluent of Lead Acid Battery Scrap

Authors: Harikrishna Yadav Nanganuru, Narasimhulu Korrapati


The demand for the lead (Pb) in the battery industry has been growing for last twenty years. On an average about 2.35 million tons of lead is used in the battery industry. According to the survey of supply and demand battery industry is using 75% of lead produced every year. Due to the increase in battery scrap, secondary lead production has been increasing in this decade. Europe and USA together account for 75% of the world’s secondary lead production. The effluent from used battery scrap consists of high concentrations of lead. Unauthorized disposal of spent batteries, which contain intolerable concentration of lead, into landfills or municipal water canals causes release of Pb into the environment. Lead is one of the toxic heavy metals that have large damaging effects on the human health. Due to its persistence and toxicity, the presence of Pb in drinking water is considered as a special concern. Accumulation of Pb in the human body for long period of time can result in the malfunctioning of some organs. Many technologies have been developed for the removal of lead using microorganisms. In this paper, effluent was taken from the spent battery scrap and was characterized by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer. Microorganisms play an important role in removal of lead from the contaminated sites. So, the bacteria were isolated from the effluent. Optimum conditions for the microbial growth and applied for the lead removal. These bacterial cells were immobilized and used for the removal of Pb from the known concentration of metal solution. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies were shown that the Pb was efficiently adsorbed by the immobilized bacteria. From the results of Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS), 83.40 percentage of Pb was removed in a batch culture.

Keywords: adsorption, effluent, immobilization, lead (Pb)

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
18390 Sizing Residential Solar Power Systems Based on Site-Specific Energy Statistics

Authors: Maria Arechavaleta, Mark Halpin


In the United States, costs of solar energy systems have declined to the point that they are viable options for most consumers. However, there are no consistent procedures for specifying sufficient systems. The factors that must be considered are energy consumption, potential solar energy production, and cost. The traditional method of specifying solar energy systems is based on assumed daily levels of available solar energy and average amounts of daily energy consumption. The mismatches between energy production and consumption are usually mitigated using battery energy storage systems, and energy use is curtailed when necessary. The main consumer decision question that drives the total system cost is how much unserved (or curtailed) energy is acceptable? Of course additional solar conversion equipment can be installed to provide greater peak energy production and extra energy storage capability can be added to mitigate longer lasting low solar energy production periods. Each option increases total cost and provides a benefit which is difficult to quantify accurately. An approach to quantify the cost-benefit of adding additional resources, either production or storage or both, based on the statistical concepts of loss-of-energy probability and expected unserved energy, is presented in this paper. Relatively simple calculations, based on site-specific energy availability and consumption data, can be used to show the value of each additional increment of production or storage. With this incremental benefit-cost information, consumers can select the best overall performance combination for their application at a cost they are comfortable paying. The approach is based on a statistical analysis of energy consumption and production characteristics over time. The characteristics are in the forms of curves with each point on the curve representing an energy consumption or production value over a period of time; a one-minute period is used for the work in this paper. These curves are measured at the consumer location under the conditions that exist at the site and the duration of the measurements is a minimum of one week. While greater accuracy could be obtained with longer recording periods, the examples in this paper are based on a single week for demonstration purposes. The weekly consumption and production curves are overlaid on each other and the mismatches are used to size the battery energy storage system. Loss-of-energy probability and expected unserved energy indices are calculated in addition to the total system cost. These indices allow the consumer to recognize and quantify the benefit (probably a reduction in energy consumption curtailment) available for a given increase in cost. Consumers can then make informed decisions that are accurate for their location and conditions and which are consistent with their available funds.

Keywords: battery energy storage systems, loss of load probability, residential renewable energy, solar energy systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
18389 Voltage and Frequency Regulation Using the Third-Party Mid-Size Battery

Authors: Roghieh A. Biroon, Zoleikha Abdollahi


The recent growth of renewables, e.g., solar panels, batteries, and electric vehicles (EVs) in residential and small commercial sectors, has potential impacts on the stability and operation of power grids. Considering approximately 50 percent share of the residential and the commercial sectors in the electricity demand market, the significance of these impacts, and the necessity of addressing them are more highlighted. Utilities and power system operators should manage the renewable electricity sources integration with power systems in such a way to extract the most possible advantages for the power systems. The most common effect of high penetration level of the renewables is the reverse power flow in the distribution feeders when the customers generate more power than their needs. The reverse power flow causes voltage rise and thermal issues in the power grids. To overcome the voltage rise issues in the distribution system, several techniques have been proposed including reducing transformers short circuit resistance and feeder impedance, installing autotransformers/voltage regulators along the line, absorbing the reactive power by distributed generators (DGs), and limiting the PV and battery sizes. In this study, we consider a medium-scale battery energy storage to manage the power energy and address the aforementioned issues on voltage deviation and power loss increase. We propose an optimization algorithm to find the optimum size and location for the battery. The optimization for the battery location and size is so that the battery maintains the feeder voltage deviation and power loss at a certain desired level. Moreover, the proposed optimization algorithm controls the charging/discharging profile of the battery to absorb the negative power flow from residential and commercial customers in the feeder during the peak time and sell the power back to the system during the off-peak time. The proposed battery regulates the voltage problem in the distribution system while it also can play frequency regulation role in islanded microgrids. This battery can be regulated and controlled by the utilities or a third-party ancillary service provider for the utilities to reduce the power system loss and regulate the distribution feeder voltage and frequency in standard level.

Keywords: ancillary services, battery, distribution system and optimization

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18388 Performance of Flat Plate Loop Heat Pipe for Thermal Management of Lithium-Ion Battery in Electric Vehicle Application

Authors: Bambang Ariantara, Nandy Putra, Rangga Aji Pamungkas


The development of electric vehicle batteries has resulted in very high energy density lithium-ion batteries. However, this progress is accompanied by the risk of thermal runaway, which can result in serious accidents. Heat pipes are heat exchangers that are suitable to be applied in electric vehicle battery thermal management for their lightweight, compact size and do not require external power supply. This paper aims to examine experimentally a flat plate loop heat pipe (FPLHP) performance as a heat exchanger in the thermal management system of the lithium-ion battery for electric vehicle application. The heat generation of the battery was simulated using a cartridge heater. Stainless steel screen mesh was used as the capillary wick. Distilled water, alcohol and acetone were used as working fluids with a filling ratio of 60%. It was found that acetone gives the best performance that produces the thermal resistance of 0.22 W/°C with 50 °C evaporator temperature at heat flux load of 1.61 W/cm2.

Keywords: electric vehicle, flat-plate loop heat pipe, lithium-ion battery, thermal management system

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18387 Optimal Energy Management System for Electrical Vehicles to Further Extend the Range

Authors: M. R. Rouhi, S. Shafiei, A. Taghavipour, H. Adibi-Asl, A. Doosthoseini


This research targets at alleviating the problem of range anxiety associated with the battery electric vehicles (BEVs) by considering mechanical and control aspects of the powertrain. In this way, all the energy consuming components and their effect on reducing the range of the BEV and battery life index are identified. On the other hand, an appropriate control strategy is designed to guarantee the performance of the BEV and the extended electric range which is evaluated by an extensive simulation procedure and a real-world driving schedule.

Keywords: battery, electric vehicles, ultra-capacitor, model predictive control

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18386 Optimal MPPT Charging Battery System for Photovoltaic Standalone Applications

Authors: Kelaiaia Mounia Samira, Labar Hocine, Mesbah Tarek, Kelaiaia samia


The photovoltaic panel produces green power, and because of its availability across the globe, it can supply isolated loads (site away of the electrical network or difficult of access). Unfortunately this energy remains very expensive. The most application of these types of power needs storage devices, the Lithium batteries are commonly used because of its powerful storage capability. Using a solar panel or an array of panels without a controller that can perform MPPT will often result in wasted power, which results in the need to install more panels for the same power requirement. For devices that have the battery connected directly to the panel, this will also result in premature battery failure or capacity loss. In this paper it is proposed a modified P&O algorithm for the MPPT which takes in account the battery’s internal resistance vs temperature and stage of charging. Of course the temperature variation and irradiation of the PV panel are also introduced.

Keywords: modeling, battery, MPPT, charging, PV Panel

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18385 Analysing the Stability of Electrical Grid for Increased Renewable Energy Penetration by Focussing on LI-Ion Battery Storage Technology

Authors: Hemendra Singh Rathod


Frequency is, among other factors, one of the governing parameters for maintaining electrical grid stability. The quality of an electrical transmission and supply system is mainly described by the stability of the grid frequency. Over the past few decades, energy generation by intermittent sustainable sources like wind and solar has seen a significant increase globally. Consequently, controlling the associated deviations in grid frequency within safe limits has been gaining momentum so that the balance between demand and supply can be maintained. Lithium-ion battery energy storage system (Li-Ion BESS) has been a promising technology to tackle the challenges associated with grid instability. BESS is, therefore, an effective response to the ongoing debate whether it is feasible to have an electrical grid constantly functioning on a hundred percent renewable power in the near future. In recent years, large-scale manufacturing and capital investment into battery production processes have made the Li-ion battery systems cost-effective and increasingly efficient. The Li-ion systems require very low maintenance and are also independent of geographical constraints while being easily scalable. The paper highlights the use of stationary and moving BESS for balancing electrical energy, thereby maintaining grid frequency at a rapid rate. Moving BESS technology, as implemented in the selected railway network in Germany, is here considered as an exemplary concept for demonstrating the same functionality in the electrical grid system. Further, using certain applications of Li-ion batteries, such as self-consumption of wind and solar parks or their ancillary services, wind and solar energy storage during low demand, black start, island operation, residential home storage, etc. offers a solution to effectively integrate the renewables and support Europe’s future smart grid. EMT software tool DIgSILENT PowerFactory has been utilised to model an electrical transmission system with 100% renewable energy penetration. The stability of such a transmission system has been evaluated together with BESS within a defined frequency band. The transmission system operators (TSO) have the superordinate responsibility for system stability and must also coordinate with the other European transmission system operators. Frequency control is implemented by TSO by maintaining a balance between electricity generation and consumption. Li-ion battery systems are here seen as flexible, controllable loads and flexible, controllable generation for balancing energy pools. Thus using Li-ion battery storage solution, frequency-dependent load shedding, i.e., automatic gradual disconnection of loads from the grid, and frequency-dependent electricity generation, i.e., automatic gradual connection of BESS to the grid, is used as a perfect security measure to maintain grid stability in any case scenario. The paper emphasizes the use of stationary and moving Li-ion battery storage for meeting the demands of maintaining grid frequency and stability for near future operations.

Keywords: frequency control, grid stability, li-ion battery storage, smart grid

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18384 Designing Ecologically and Economically Optimal Electric Vehicle Charging Stations

Authors: Y. Ghiassi-Farrokhfal


The number of electric vehicles (EVs) is increasing worldwide. Replacing gas fueled cars with EVs reduces carbon emission. However, the extensive energy consumption of EVs stresses the energy systems, requiring non-green sources of energy (such as gas turbines) to compensate for the new energy demand caused by EVs in the energy systems. To make EVs even a greener solution for the future energy systems, new EV charging stations are equipped with solar PV panels and batteries. This will help serve the energy demand of EVs through the green energy of solar panels. To ensure energy availability, solar panels are combined with batteries. The energy surplus at any point is stored in batteries and is used when there is not enough solar energy to serve the demand. While EV charging stations equipped with solar panels and batteries are green and ecologically optimal, they might not be financially viable solutions, due to battery prices. To make the system viable, we should size the battery economically and operate the system optimally. This is, in general, a challenging problem because of the stochastic nature of the EV arrivals at the charging station, the available solar energy, and the battery operating system. In this work, we provide a mathematical model for this problem and we compute the return on investment (ROI) of such a system, which is designed to be ecologically and financially optimal. We also quantify the minimum required investment in terms of battery and solar panels along with the operating strategy to ensure that a charging station has enough energy to serve its EV demand at any time.

Keywords: solar energy, battery storage, electric vehicle, charging stations

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18383 Thin and Flexible Zn-Air Battery by Inexpensive Screen Printing Technique

Authors: Sira Suren, Soorathep Kheawhom


This work focuses the development of thin and flexible zinc-air battery. The battery with an overall thickness of about 300 μm was fabricated by an inexpensive screen-printing technique. Commercial nano-silver ink was used as both current collectors and catalyst layer. Carbon black ink was used to fabricate cathode electrode. Polypropylene membrane was used as the cathode substrate and separator. 9 M KOH was used as the electrolyte. A mixture of Zn powder and ZnO was used to prepare the anode electrode. Types of conductive materials (Bi2O3, Na2O3Si and carbon black) for the anode and its concentration were investigated. Results showed that the battery using 29% carbon black showed the best performance. The open-circuit voltage and energy density observed were 1.6 V and 694 Wh/kg, respectively. When the battery was discharged at 10 mA/cm2, the potential voltage observed was 1.35 V. Furthermore, the battery was tested for its flexibility. Upon bending, no significant loss in performance was observed.

Keywords: flexible, Gel Electrolyte, screen printing, thin battery, Zn-Air battery

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18382 Wireless Battery Charger with Adaptive Rapid-Charging Algorithm

Authors: Byoung-Hee Lee


Wireless battery charger with adaptive rapid charging algorithm is proposed. The proposed wireless charger adopts voltage regulation technique to reduce the number of power conversion steps. Moreover, based on battery models, an adaptive rapid charging algorithm for Li-ion batteries is obtained. Rapid-charging performance with the proposed wireless battery charger and the proposed rapid charging algorithm has been experimentally verified to show more than 70% charging time reduction compared to conventional constant-current constant-voltage (CC-CV) charging without the degradation of battery lifetime.

Keywords: wireless, battery charger, adaptive, rapid-charging

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