Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1074

Search results for: arid zones

1074 Mechanical and Hydraulic Behavior of Arid Zone Soils Treated with Lime: Case of Abadla, Bechar Clays, South of Algeria

Authors: Sadek Younes, Fali Leyla, Rikioui Tayeb, Zizouni Khaled

Abstract:

Stabilization of clay with lime as bearing stratum is an alternative to replacement of original soil. By adding lime to clay soil, the soil workability is improved due to the combination of calcium ions to the clay minerals, which means, modified soil properties. The paper investigates the effect of hydrated lime on the behaviour of lime treated, arid zones clay (Abadla Clay). A number of mechanical and hydraulic tests were performed to identify the effect of lime dosage and compaction water content on the compressibility, permeability, and shear strength parameters of the soil. Test results show that the soil parameters can be improved through additives such as lime. Overall, the addition percentages of 6% and 9% lime give the best desired results. Also, results revealed that the compressibility behavior of lime-treated soil strongly affected by lime content. The results are presented in terms of modern interpretation of the behaviour of treated soils, in comparison with the parameters of the untreated soil.

Keywords: arid zones, compressibility, lime, soil behaviour, soil stabilization, unsaturated soil

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1073 Modeling and Performance Analysis of an Air-Cooled Absorption Chiller

Authors: A. Roukbi, B. Draoui

Abstract:

Due to the high cost and the environmental problems caused by the conventional air-conditioning systems, various researches are being increasingly focused on thermal comfort in the building sector integrating renewable energy sources, particularly solar energy. For that purpose, this study aims to present a modeling and performance analysis of a direct air-cooled Water/LiBr absorption chiller. The chiller is considered to be coupled to a small residential building at an arid zone situated in south Algeria. The system is modeled with TRNSYS simulation program. The main objective is to study the feasibility of the chosen system in arid zones and to apply a simplified method to predict the performance of the system by mean of the characteristic equation approach tacking in account the influence of the climatic conditions of the considered site, the collector area and storage volume of the hot water tank on the performance of the installation. First, the results of the system modeling are compared with an experimental data from the open literature and the developed model is then validated. In another hand, a parametric study is performed to analyze the performance of the direct air-cooled absorption chiller at the operating conditions of interest for the present study. Thus, the obtained results has shown that the studied system can present a good alternative for cooling systems in arid zones since the cooling load is roughly in phase with solar availability.

Keywords: absorption chiller, air-cooled, arid zone, thermal comfort

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1072 Performance of Exclosure in Restoring Arid Degraded Steppes of Algeria

Authors: Kadi-Hanifi Halima, Amghar Fateh

Abstract:

Steppes of arid Mediterranean zones are deeply threatened by desertification. To stop or alleviate ecological and economic problems associated with this desertification, management actions have been implemented since the last three decades. The struggle against desertification has become a national priority in many countries. In Algeria, several management techniques have been used to cope with desertification. This study aims at investigating the effect of exclosure on floristic diversity and chemical soil properties after four years of implementation. 167 phyto-ecological samples have been studied, 122 inside the exclosure and 45 outside. Results showed that plant diversity, composition, vegetation cover, pastoral value and soil fertility were significantly higher in protected areas.

Keywords: desertification, arid, pastoral management, plant community soil fertility, gestation of environment, Algeria

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1071 Sustainable Traditional Architecture and Urban Planning in Hot-Arid Climate of Iran

Authors: Farnaz Nazem

Abstract:

The aim of sustainable architecture is to design buildings with the least adverse effects on the environment and provide better conditions for people. What building forms make the best use of land? This question was addressed in the late 1960s at the center of Land Use and Built Form Studies in Cambridge. This led to a number of influential papers which had a great influence on the practice of urban design. This paper concentrates on the results of sustainability caused by climatic conditions in Iranian traditional architecture in hot-arid regions. As people spent a significant amount of their time in houses, it was very important to have such houses to fulfill their needs physically and spiritually as well as satisfying their cultural and religious aspects of their lifestyles. In a vast country such as Iran with different climatic zones, traditional builders have presented series of logical solutions for human comfort. These solutions have been able to response to the environmental problems for a long period of time. As a result, by considering the experience in traditional architecture of hot–arid climate in Iran, it is possible to attain sustainable architecture.

Keywords: hot-arid climate, Iran, sustainable traditional architecture, urban planning

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1070 Restoration of Steppes in Algeria: Case of the Stipa tenacissima L. Steppe

Authors: H. Kadi-Hanifi, F. Amghar

Abstract:

Steppes of arid Mediterranean zones are deeply threatened by desertification. To stop or alleviate ecological and economic problems associated with this desertification, management actions have been implemented since the last three decades. The struggle against desertification has become a national priority in many countries. In Algeria, several management techniques have been used to cope with desertification. This study aims at investigating the effect of exclosure on floristic diversity and chemical soil proprieties after four years of implementation. 167 phyto-ecological samples have been studied, 122 inside the exclosure and 45 outside. Results showed that plant diversity, composition, vegetation cover, pastoral value and soil fertility were significantly higher in protected areas.

Keywords: Algeria, arid, desertification, pastoral management, soil fertility

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1069 The Flavonoids for a Plant Grows in the Arid and Semi-Arid Zone of the Northern Sahara of Algeria - Atriplex halimus L.

Authors: O. Smara, H. Dendougui, B. Legseir

Abstract:

Atriplex halimus L. is particularly well adapted to arid and salt-affected areas. In this species, salinity resistance is often attributed to the presence of vesiculated hairs covering leaf surface and containing a large amount of salt. Atriplex halimus L. (Chenopodiaceae) is a perennial shrub native to the Mediterranean basin with excellent tolerance to drought and salinity. The species is present in semiarid to subhumid areas of the north Mediterranean and in arid zones from North Africa and the eastern Mediterranean. The main aim of this study was to identify a medicinal plant used in the Ouargla (Est-southern Algeria) for the treatment of several human pathologies. This plant is an important source for livestock in nitrogenous matter, it is an effective and relatively inexpensive tool in the fight against erosion and desertification and rehabilitation of degraded lands. Phytochemical investigation is applied to the majority of extracts of the powder of the aerial parts of Atriplex halimus L. Different chromatographic methods after liquid-liquid extraction are used; it is the thin layer chromatography (TLC) and paper using multiple systems and chemical revelations. This study followed by an evaluation by the phenol assay the Folin-Ciocalteu method, using gallic acid as a reference for phenols and quercetin for flavonols. Some polar extracts showed an interesting result better than the less polar extracts.

Keywords: Atriples halimus L., chenopodiaceae, flavonoids, phenols

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1068 Study and Modeling of Flood Watershed in Arid and Semi Arid Regions of Algeria

Authors: Belagoune Fares, Boutoutaou Djamel

Abstract:

The study on floods in Algeria established by the National Agency of Water Resources (ANRH) shows that the country is confronted with the phenomenon of very destructive floods and floods especially in arid and semiarid regions. Flooding of rivers in these areas is less known. They are characterized by their sudden duration (rain showers, thunderstorm).The duration of the flood is of the order of minutes to hours. The human and material damage caused by these floods were still high. The study area encompasses three watersheds in semi-arid and arid south and Algeria. THERE are pools of Chott-Melghir (68,751 km2), highland Constantine-07 (9578 km2) and El Hodna-05 basin (25,843 km2). The total area of this zone is about 104,500km2.Studies of protection against floods and design studies of hydraulic structures (spillway, storm basin, etc.) require the raw data which is often unknown in several places particularly at ungauged wadis of these areas. This makes it very difficult to schedules and managers working in the field of hydraulic studies. The objective of this study and propose a methodology for determining flows in the absence of observations in the semi-arid and arid south eastern Algeria. The objective of the study is to propose a methodology for these areas of flood calculation for ungauged rivers.

Keywords: flood, watershed, specific flow, coefficient of variation, arid

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1067 Concerted Strategies for Sustainable Water Resource Management in Semi-Arid Rajasthan State of India

Authors: S. K. Maanju, K. Saha, Sonam Yadav

Abstract:

Rapid urbanization growth and multi-faceted regional level industrialization is posing serious threat to natural groundwater resource in State of Rajasthan which constitute major semi-arid part of India. The groundwater resources of the State are limited and cannot withstand the present rate of exploitation for quite a long time. Recharging of groundwater particularly in the western part, where annual precipitation does not exceed a few centimeters, is extremely slow and cannot replenish the exploited quantum. Hence, groundwater in most of the parts of this region has become an exhausting resource. In major parts water table is lowering down rapidly and continuously. The human beings of this semi-arid region are used to suffering from extreme climatic conditions of arid to semi-arid nature and acute shortage of water. The quality of groundwater too in many areas of this region is not up to the standards prescribed by the health organizations like WHO and BIS. This semi-arid region is one of the highly fluoride contaminated area of India as well as have excess, nitrates, sulphates, chlorides and total dissolved solids at various locations. Therefore, concerted efforts are needed towards sustainable development of groundwater in this State of India.

Keywords: Rajasthan, water, exploitation, sustainable, development and resource

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1066 Feasibility of Small Autonomous Solar-Powered Water Desalination Units for Arid Regions

Authors: Mohamed Ahmed M. Azab

Abstract:

The shortage of fresh water is a major problem in several areas of the world such as arid regions and coastal zones in several countries of Arabian Gulf. Fortunately, arid regions are exposed to high levels of solar irradiation most the year, which makes the utilization of solar energy a promising solution to such problem with zero harmful emission (Green System). The main objective of this work is to conduct a feasibility study of utilizing small autonomous water desalination units powered by photovoltaic modules as a green renewable energy resource to be employed in different isolated zones as a source of drinking water for some scattered societies where the installation of huge desalination stations are discarded owing to the unavailability of electric grid. Yanbu City is chosen as a case study where the Renewable Energy Center exists and equipped with all sensors to assess the availability of solar energy all over the year. The study included two types of available water: the first type is brackish well water and the second type is seawater of coastal regions. In the case of well water, two versions of desalination units are involved in the study: the first version is based on day operation only. While the second version takes into consideration night operation also, which requires energy storage system as batteries to provide the necessary electric power at night. According to the feasibility study results, it is found that utilization of small autonomous desalinations unit is applicable and economically accepted in the case of brackish well water. While in the case of seawater the capital costs are extremely high and the cost of desalinated water will not be economically feasible unless governmental subsidies are provided. In addition, the study indicated that, for the same water production, the utilization of energy storage version (day-night) adds additional capital cost for batteries, and extra running cost for their replacement, which makes the unit price not only incompetent with day-only unit but also with conventional units powered by diesel generator (fossil fuel) owing to the low prices of fuel in the kingdom. However, the cost analysis shows that the price of the produced water per cubic meter of day-night unit is similar to that produced from the day-only unit provided that the day-night unit operates theoretically for a longer period of 50%.

Keywords: solar energy, water desalination, reverse osmosis, arid regions

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1065 Geographic Information System and Dynamic Segmentation of Very High Resolution Images for the Semi-Automatic Extraction of Sandy Accumulation

Authors: A. Bensaid, T. Mostephaoui, R. Nedjai

Abstract:

A considerable area of Algerian lands is threatened by the phenomenon of wind erosion. For a long time, wind erosion and its associated harmful effects on the natural environment have posed a serious threat, especially in the arid regions of the country. In recent years, as a result of increases in the irrational exploitation of natural resources (fodder) and extensive land clearing, wind erosion has particularly accentuated. The extent of degradation in the arid region of the Algerian Mecheria department generated a new situation characterized by the reduction of vegetation cover, the decrease of land productivity, as well as sand encroachment on urban development zones. In this study, we attempt to investigate the potential of remote sensing and geographic information systems for detecting the spatial dynamics of the ancient dune cords based on the numerical processing of LANDSAT images (5, 7, and 8) of three scenes 197/37, 198/36 and 198/37 for the year 2020. As a second step, we prospect the use of geospatial techniques to monitor the progression of sand dunes on developed (urban) lands as well as on the formation of sandy accumulations (dune, dunes fields, nebkha, barkhane, etc.). For this purpose, this study made use of the semi-automatic processing method for the dynamic segmentation of images with very high spatial resolution (SENTINEL-2 and Google Earth). This study was able to demonstrate that urban lands under current conditions are located in sand transit zones that are mobilized by the winds from the northwest and southwest directions.

Keywords: land development, GIS, segmentation, remote sensing

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1064 Toward Sustainable Building Design in Hot and Arid Climate with Reference to Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia

Authors: M. Alwetaishi

Abstract:

One of the most common and traditional strategies in architecture is to design buildings passively. This is a way to ensure low building energy reliance with respect to specific micro-building locations. There are so many ways where buildings can be designed passively, some of which are applying thermal insulation, thermal mass, courtyard and glazing to wall ratio. This research investigates the impact of each of these aspects with respect to the hot and dry climate of the capital of Riyadh. Thermal Analysis Simulation (TAS) will be utilized which is powered by Environmental Design Simulation Limited company (EDSL). It is considered as one of the most powerful tools to predict energy performance in buildings. There are three primary building designs and methods which are using courtyard, thermal mass and thermal insulation. The same building size and fabrication properties have been applied to all designs. Riyadh city which is the capital of the country was taken as a case study of the research. The research has taken into account various zone directions within the building as it has a large contribution to indoor energy and thermal performance. It is revealed that it is possible to achieve nearly zero carbon building in the hot and dry region in winter with minimum reliance on energy loads for building zones facing south, west and east. Moreover, using courtyard is more beneficial than applying construction materials into building envelope. Glazing to wall ratio is recommended to be 10% and not exceeding 30% in all directions in hot and arid regions.

Keywords: sustainable buildings, hot and arid climates, passive building design, Saudi Arabia

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1063 Change Detection and Analysis of Desertification Processes in Semi Arid Land in Algeria Using Landsat Data

Authors: Zegrar Ahmed, Ghabi Mohamed

Abstract:

The degradation of arid and semi-arid ecosystems in Algeria has become a palpable fact that only hinders progress and rural development. In these exceptionally fragile environments, the decline of vegetation is done according to an alarming increase and wind erosion dominates. The ecosystem is subjected to a long hot dry season and low annual average rainfall. The urgency of the fight against desertification is imposed by the very nature of the process that tends to self-accelerate, resulting when human intervention is not forthcoming the irreversibility situations, preventing any possibility of restoration state of these zones. These phenomena have led to different degradation processes, such as the destruction of vegetation, soil erosion, and deterioration of the physical environment. In this study, the work is mainly based on the criteria for classification and identification of physical parameters for spatial analysis and multi-sources to determine the vulnerability of major steppe formations and their impact on desertification. we used Landsat data with two different dates March 2010 and November 2014 in order to determine the changes in land cover, sand moving and land degradation for the diagnosis of the desertification Phenomenon. The application, through specific processes, including the supervised classification was used to characterize the main steppe formations. An analysis of the vulnerability of plant communities was conducted to assign weights and identify areas most susceptible to desertification. Vegetation indices are used to characterize the steppe formations to determine changes in land use.

Keywords: remote sensing, SIG, ecosystem, degradation, desertification

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1062 Comparative Analysis between Different Proposed Responsive Facade Designs for Reducing the Solar Radiation on the West Facade in the Hot Arid Region

Authors: Merna Ibrahim

Abstract:

Designing buildings which are sustainable and can control and reduce the solar radiation penetrated from the building facades is such an architectural turn. One of the most important methods of saving energy in a building is carefully designing its facade. Building’s facade is one of the most significant contributors to the energy budget as well as the comfort parameters of a building. Responsive architecture adapts to the surrounding environment causing alteration in the envelope configuration to perform in a more effective way. One of the objectives of the responsive facades is to protect the building’s users from the external environment and to achieve a comfortable indoor environment. Solar radiation is one of the aspects that affects the comfortable indoor environment, as well as affects the energy consumption consumed by the HVAC systems for maintaining the indoor comfortable conditions. The aim of the paper is introducing and comparing between four different proposed responsive facade designs in terms of solar radiation reduction on the west facade of a building located in the hot arid region. In addition, the paper highlights the reducing amount of solar radiation for each proposed responsive facade on the west facade. At the end of the paper, a proposal is introduced which combines the four different axis of movements which reduces the solar radiation the most. Moreover, the paper highlights the definition and aim of the responsive architecture, as well as the focusing on the solar radiation aspect in the hot arid zones. Besides, the paper analyzes an international responsive façade building in Essen, Germany, focusing on the type of responsive facades, angle of rotation, mechanism of movement and the effect of the responsive facades on the building’s performance.

Keywords: kinetic facades, mechanism of movement, responsive architecture, solar radiation

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1061 Establishment of Air Quality Zones in Italy

Authors: M. G. Dirodi, G. Gugliotta, C. Leonardi

Abstract:

The member states shall establish zones and agglomerations throughout their territory to assess and manage air quality in order to comply with European directives. In Italy decree 155/2010, transposing Directive 2008/50/EC on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe, merged into a single act the previous provisions on ambient air quality assessment and management, including those resulting from the implementation of Directive 2004/107/EC relating to arsenic, cadmium, nickel, mercury, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air. Decree 155/2010 introduced stricter rules for identifying zones on the basis of the characteristics of the territory in spite of considering pollution levels, as it was in the past. The implementation of such new criteria has reduced the great variability of the previous zoning, leading to a significant reduction of the total number of zones and to a complete and uniform ambient air quality assessment and management throughout the Country. The present document is related to the new zones definition in Italy according to Decree 155/2010. In particular, the paper contains the description and the analysis of the outcome of zoning and classification.

Keywords: zones, agglomerations, air quality assessment, classification

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1060 3D Dynamic Modeling of Transition Zones

Authors: Edina Koch, Péter Hudacsek

Abstract:

In railways transition zone is present at the boundaries of zones with different stiffness. When a train rides from an embankment onto a stiff structure, such as a bridge, tunnel or culvert, an abrupt change in the support stiffness occurs possibly inducing differential settlements. This in long term can yield to the degradation of the tracks and foundations in the transition zones. A number of techniques have been proposed or implemented to provide gradual stiffness transition at the problem zones, such as methods to ensure gradually changing pad stiffness, application of long sleepers or installation of auxiliary rails in the transition zone. Aim of the research presented in this paper is to analyze the 3D and the dynamic effects induced by the passing train over an area where significant difference in the support stiffness exists. The effects were analyzed for different arrangements associated with certain differential settlement mitigation strategies of the transition zones.

Keywords: culvert, dynamic load, HS small model, railway transition zone

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1059 A Centralized Architecture for Cooperative Air-Sea Vehicles Using UAV-USV

Authors: Salima Bella, Assia Belbachir, Ghalem Belalem

Abstract:

This paper deals with the problem of monitoring and cleaning dirty zones of oceans using unmanned vehicles. We present a centralized cooperative architecture for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to monitor ocean regions and clean dirty zones with the help of unmanned surface vehicles (USVs). Due to the rapid deployment of these unmanned vehicles, it is convenient to use them in oceanic regions where the water pollution zones are generally unknown. In order to optimize this process, our solution aims to detect and reduce the pollution level of the ocean zones while taking into account the problem of fault tolerance related to these vehicles.

Keywords: centralized architecture, fault tolerance, UAV, USV

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1058 Status, Habitat Use, and Behaviour of Wintering Greater Flamingos Phoenicopterus roseus in Semi-Arid and Saharan Wetlands of Algeria

Authors: E. Bensaci, M. Saheb, Y. Nouidjem, A. Zoubiri, A. Bouzegag, M. Houhamdi

Abstract:

The Greater flamingo is considered the flagship species of wetlands across semi-arid and Saharan regions of Africa, especially Chotts and Sebkhas, which also concentrate significant numbers of bird species. Flamingos have different status (wintering and breeder) which vary between sites in different parts of Algeria. We conducted surveys and recorded banded flamingos across distinct regions within two climatic belts: semi-arid (Hauts Plateaux) and arid (Sahara), showing the importance of these sites in the migratory flyways particularly the relation between West Mediterranean and West Africa populations. The distribution of Greater flamingos varied between sites and seasons, where the concentrations mainly were in the wide, lees deep and salt lakes. Many of the sites (17) in the surveyed area were regularly supporting at least 1% of the regional population during winter. The analysis of Greater flamingos behaviour in different climatic regions in relation showed that the feeding is the dominant diurnal activity with rates exceeding 60% of the time. While feeding varies between seasons, and showed a negative relationship with the degree of disturbance.

Keywords: Algeria, greater flamingo, Phoenicopterus roseus, Sahara, semi-arid

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1057 The Use of Optical-Radar Remotely-Sensed Data for Characterizing Geomorphic, Structural and Hydrologic Features and Modeling Groundwater Prospective Zones in Arid Zones

Authors: Mohamed Abdelkareem

Abstract:

Remote sensing data contributed on predicting the prospective areas of water resources. Integration of microwave and multispectral data along with climatic, hydrologic, and geological data has been used here. In this article, Sentinel-2, Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI), Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), and Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array Type L‐band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) data were utilized to identify the geological, hydrologic and structural features of Wadi Asyuti which represents a defunct tributary of the Nile basin, in the eastern Sahara. The image transformation of Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 data allowed characterizing the different varieties of rock units. Integration of microwave remotely-sensed data and GIS techniques provided information on physical characteristics of catchments and rainfall zones that are of a crucial role for mapping groundwater prospective zones. A fused Landsat-8 OLI and ALOS/PALSAR data improved the structural elements that difficult to reveal using optical data. Lineament extraction and interpretation indicated that the area is clearly shaped by the NE-SW graben that is cut by NW-SE trend. Such structures allowed the accumulation of thick sediments in the downstream area. Processing of recent OLI data acquired on March 15, 2014, verified the flood potential maps and offered the opportunity to extract the extent of the flooding zone of the recent flash flood event (March 9, 2014), as well as revealed infiltration characteristics. Several layers including geology, slope, topography, drainage density, lineament density, soil characteristics, rainfall, and morphometric characteristics were combined after assigning a weight for each using a GIS-based knowledge-driven approach. The results revealed that the predicted groundwater potential zones (GPZs) can be arranged into six distinctive groups, depending on their probability for groundwater, namely very low, low, moderate, high very, high, and excellent. Field and well data validated the delineated zones.

Keywords: GIS, remote sensing, groundwater, Egypt

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1056 A GIS Based Approach in District Peshawar, Pakistan for Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment Using DRASTIC Model

Authors: Syed Adnan, Javed Iqbal

Abstract:

In urban and rural areas groundwater is the most economic natural source of drinking. Groundwater resources of Pakistan are degraded due to high population growth and increased industrial development. A study was conducted in district Peshawar to assess groundwater vulnerable zones using GIS based DRASTIC model. Six input parameters (groundwater depth, groundwater recharge, aquifer material, soil type, slope and hydraulic conductivity) were used in the DRASTIC model to generate the groundwater vulnerable zones. Each parameter was divided into different ranges or media types and a subjective rating from 1-10 was assigned to each factor where 1 represented very low impact on pollution potential and 10 represented very high impact. Weight multiplier from 1-5 was used to balance and enhance the importance of each factor. The DRASTIC model scores obtained varied from 47 to 147. Using quantile classification scheme these values were reclassified into three zones i.e. low, moderate and high vulnerable zones. The areas of these zones were calculated. The final result indicated that about 400 km2, 506 km2, and 375 km2 were classified as low, moderate, and high vulnerable areas, respectively. It is recommended that the most vulnerable zones should be treated on first priority to facilitate the inhabitants for drinking purposes.

Keywords: DRASTIC model, groundwater vulnerability, GIS in groundwater, drinking sources

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1055 Unification of Indonesia Time Zones Encourages People to Be on Time for Facing ASEAN Economic Community

Authors: Hasrullah Hasrullah

Abstract:

Since December 2015, the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) is officially declared in the 27th Summit Conference of ASEAN and Indonesia is one of country are listed in the ASEAN members. Per January 1st, 2016 the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) came into effect. However, its implementation in Indonesia is still weighing the pros and cons because Indonesia is considered too late to prepare for the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC). In other words, rubber time of Indonesian people has been occurring in the AEC. This paper reviews how Indonesia language influences people’s attitude to be rubber time culture and how time zones of Indonesia influence people’s attitude through media on television to be rubber time culture. The author addresses this research question empirically by collecting data from various sources of data those are relevant and compare among the unification of Indonesia time zones. The result demonstrates that unification of Indonesia time zones to be Standard Indonesia Time is a solution to encourage people to be ready on time for facing ASEAN Economic Community (AEC).

Keywords: unification time zones, Indonesia Language, Rubber Time, AEC

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1054 Effect of Inclusions on the Shape and Size of Crack Tip Plastic Zones by Element Free Galerkin Method

Authors: A. Jameel, G. A. Harmain, Y. Anand, J. H. Masoodi, F. A. Najar

Abstract:

The present study investigates the effect of inclusions on the shape and size of crack tip plastic zones in engineering materials subjected to static loads by employing the element free Galerkin method (EFGM). The modeling of the discontinuities produced by cracks and inclusions becomes independent of the grid chosen for analysis. The standard displacement approximation is modified by adding additional enrichment functions, which introduce the effects of different discontinuities into the formulation. The level set method has been used to represent different discontinuities present in the domain. The effect of inclusions on the extent of crack tip plastic zones is investigated by solving some numerical problems by the EFGM.

Keywords: EFGM, stress intensity factors, crack tip plastic zones, inclusions

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1053 Wastewater Treatment by Floating Macrophytes (Salvinia natans) under Algerian Semi-Arid Climate

Authors: Laabassi Ayache, Boudehane Asma

Abstract:

Macrophyte pond has developed strongly in the field of wastewater treatment for irrigation in rural areas and small communities. Their association allows, in some cases, to increase the hydraulic capacity while maintaining the highest level of quality. The present work is devoted to the treatment of domestic wastewater under climatic conditions of Algeria (semi-arid) through a system using two tanks planted with Salvinia natans. The performance study and treatment efficiency of the system overall shows that the latter provides a significant removal of nitrogen pollution: total Kjeldahl nitrogen NTK (85.2%), Ammonium NH₄⁺-N (79%), Nitrite NO₂⁻-N (40%) also, a major meaningful reduction of biochemical oxygen demand BOD₅ was observed at the output of the system (96.9 %). As BOD₅, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was higher than 95% at the exit of the two tanks. A moderately low yield of phosphate-phosphorus (PO₄³-P) was achieved with values not exceeding 37%. In general, the quality of treated effluent meets the Algerian standard of discharge and which allows us to select a suitable species in constructed wetland treatment systems under semi-arid climate.

Keywords: nutrient removal, Salvinia natans, semi-arid climate, wastewater treatment

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1052 Vertical Structure and Frequencies of Deep Convection during Active Periods of the West African Monsoon Season

Authors: Balogun R. Ayodeji, Adefisan E. Adesanya, Adeyewa Z. Debo, E. C. Okogbue

Abstract:

Deep convective systems during active periods of the West African monsoon season have not been properly investigated over better temporal and spatial resolution in West Africa. Deep convective systems are investigated over seven climatic zones of the West African sub-region, which are; west-coast rainforest, dry rainforest, Nigeria-Cameroon rainforest, Nigeria savannah, Central African and South Sudan (CASS) Savannah, Sudano-Sahel, and Sahel, using data from Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Feature (PF) database. The vertical structure of the convective systems indicated by the presence of at least one 40 dBZ and reaching (attaining) at least 1km in the atmosphere showed strong core (highest frequency (%)) of reflectivity values around 2 km which is below the freezing level (4-5km) for all the zones. Echoes are detected above the 15km altitude much more frequently in the rainforest and Savannah zones than the Sudano and Sahel zones during active periods in March-May (MAM), whereas during active periods in June-September (JJAS) the savannahs, Sudano and Sahel zones convections tend to reach higher altitude more frequently than the rainforest zones. The percentage frequencies of deep convection indicated that the occurrences of the systems are within the range of 2.3-2.8% during both March-May (MAM) and June-September (JJAS) active periods in the rainforest and savannah zones. On the contrary, the percentage frequencies were found to be less than 2% in the Sudano and Sahel zones, except during the active-JJAS period in the Sudano zone.

Keywords: active periods, convective system, frequency, reflectivity

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1051 The Study of the Socio-Economic and Environmental Impact on the Semi-Arid Environments Using GIS in the Eastern Aurès, Algeria

Authors: Benmessaoud Hassen

Abstract:

We propose in this study to address the impact of socio-economic and environmental impact on the physical environment, especially their spatiotemporal dynamics in semi-arid and arid eastern Aurès. Including 11 municipalities, the study area spreads out over a relatively large surface area of about 60.000 ha. The hindsight is quite important and is determined by 03 days of analysis of environmental variation spread over thirty years (between 1987 and 2007). The multi-source data acquired in this context are integrated into a geographic information system (GIS).This allows, among other indices to calculate areas and classes for each thematic layer of the 4 layers previously defined by a method inspired MEDALUS (Mediterranean Desertification and Land Use).The database created is composed of four layers of information (population, livestock, farming and land use). His analysis in space and time has been supplemented by a validation of the ground truth. Once the database has corrected it used to develop the comprehensive map with the calculation of the index of socio-economic and environmental (ISCE). The map supports and the resulting information does not consist only of figures on the present situation but could be used to forecast future trends.

Keywords: impact of socio-economic and environmental, spatiotemporal dynamics, semi-arid environments, GIS, Eastern Aurès

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1050 Water Self Sufficient: Creating a Sustainable Water System Based on Urban Harvest Approach in La Serena, Chile

Authors: Zulfikar Dinar Wahidayat Putra

Abstract:

Water scarcity become a major challenge in an arid area. One of the arid areas is La Serena city in the Northern Chile which become a case study of this paper. Based on that, this paper tries to identify a sustainable water system by using urban harvest approach as a method to achieve water self-sufficiency for a neighborhood area in the La Serena city. By using the method, it is possible to create sustainable water system in the neighborhood area by reducing up to 38% of water demand and 94% of wastewater production even though water self-sufficient cannot be fully achieved, because of its dependency to the drinking water supply from water treatment plant of La Serena city.

Keywords: arid area, sustainable water system, urban harvest approach, self-sufficiency

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1049 Relationship of Trace Minerals Nutritional Status of Camel (Camelus dromedarius) to Their Contents in Egyptian Feedstuff

Authors: Maha Mohamed Hady Ali, M. A. El-Sayed

Abstract:

Camel (Camelus dromedarius) is very important animal in many arid and semi-arid zones of tropical and subtropical regions as it serves as dual purpose providing meat and milk for human and as draft animal. Camel, like other animal must receive all essential nutrients despite the hostile environment. A study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional status of some micro-minerals of camel under Egyptian environmental condition. Forty five blood samples were collected from apparently healthy male camels with an average age between 2-6 years at the slaughter house in Cairo province, Egypt. The animals were fed mainly on berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum) or concentrate with straw before slaughtering. The collected serum and feedstuff samples were subjected to copper, iron, selenium and zinc analysis using Atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The data showed variation in the level of copper, iron, selenium and zinc in the serum of the dromedary camel as well as in the feedstuffs. Furthermore, the results indicated that the micro- minerals status of feeds may not always reflected as such in camel blood suggesting some role of bioavailability. The main reason for the lack of such reflection seems to be the wide diversity exists in the surrounding environment (forages and plants) as well as the bioavailability of such minerals. Since the requirement of micro-minerals have not been established for camel, more researches must be focused on this topic.

Keywords: camel, copper, egypt, feed stuff, iron, selenium, zinc

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1048 Effect of Organic Fertilizers on the Improvement of Soil Microbiological Functioning under Saline Conditions of Arid Regions: Impact on Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization

Authors: Oustani Mabrouka, Halilat Md Tahar, Hannachi Slimane

Abstract:

This study was conducted on representative and contrasting soils of arid regions. It focuses on the compared influence of two organic fertilizers: poultry manure (PM) and bovine manure (BM) on improving the microbial functioning of non-saline (SS) and saline (SSS) soils, in particularly, the process of mineralization of nitrogen and carbon. The microbiological activity was estimated by respirometric test (CO2–C emissions) and the extraction of two forms of mineral nitrogen (NH4+-N and NO3--N). Thus, after 56 days of incubation under controlled conditions (28 degrees and 80 per cent of the field capacity), the two types of manures showed that the mineralization activity varies according to type of soil and the organic substrate itself. However, the highest cumulative quantities of CO2–C, NH4+–N and NO3-–N obtained at the end of incubation were recorded in non-saline (SS) soil treated with poultry manure with 1173.4, 4.26 and 8.40 mg/100 g of dry soil, respectively. The reductions in rates of release of CO2–C and of nitrification under saline conditions were 21 and 36, 78 %, respectively. The influence of organic substratum on the microbial density shows a stimulating effect on all microbial groups studied. The whole results show the usefulness of two types of manures for the improvement of the microbiological functioning of arid soils.

Keywords: Salinity, Organic matter, Microorganisms, Mineralization, Nitrogen, Carbon, Arid regions

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1047 Ecological Evaluation and Conservation Strategies of Economically Important Plants in Indian Arid Zone

Authors: Sher Mohammed, Purushottam Lal, Pawan K. Kasera

Abstract:

The Thar Desert of Rajasthan covers a wide geographical area spreading between 23.3° to 30.12°, North latitude and 69.3◦ to 76◦ Eastern latitudes; having a unique spectrum of arid zone vegetation. This desert is spreading over 12 districts having a rich source of economically important/threatened plant diversity interacting and growing with adverse climatic conditions of the area. Due to variable geological, physiographic, climatic, edaphic and biotic factors, the arid zone medicinal flora exhibit a wide collection of angiosperm families. The herbal diversity of this arid region is medicinally important in household remedies among tribal communities as well as in traditional systems. The on-going increasing disturbances in natural ecosystems are due to climatic and biological, including anthropogenic factors. The unique flora and subsequently dependent faunal diversity of the desert ecosystem is losing its biotic potential. A large number of plants have no future unless immediate steps are taken to arrest the causes, leading to their biological improvement. At present the potential loss in ecological amplitude of various genera and species is making several plant species as red listed plants of arid zone vegetation such as Commmiphora wightii, Tribulus rajasthanensis, Calligonum polygonoides, Ephedra foliata, Leptadenia reticulata, Tecomella undulata, Blepharis sindica, Peganum harmala, Sarcostoma vinimale, etc. Mostly arid zone species are under serious pressure against prevailing ecosystem factors to continuation their life cycles. Genetic, molecular, cytological, biochemical, metabolic, reproductive, germination etc. are the several points where the floral diversity of the arid zone area is facing severe ecological influences. So, there is an urgent need to conserve them. There are several opportunities in the field to carry out remarkable work at particular levels to protect the native plants in their natural habitat instead of only their in vitro multiplication.

Keywords: ecology, evaluation, xerophytes, economically, threatened plants, conservation

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
1046 Modelling Interactions between Saturated and Unsaturated Zones by Hydrus 1D, Plain of Kairouan, Central Tunisia

Authors: Mariem Saadi, Sabri Kanzari, Adel Zghibi

Abstract:

In semi-arid areas like the Kairouan region, the constant irrigation with saline water and the overuse of groundwater resources, soils and aquifers salinization has become an increasing concern. In this study, a methodology has been developed to evaluate the groundwater contamination risk based on the unsaturated zone hydraulic properties. Two soil profiles with different ranges of salinity, one located in the north of the plain and another one in the south of plain (each 30 m deep) and both characterized by direct recharge of the aquifer were chosen. Simulations were conducted with Hydrus-1D code using measured precipitation data for the period 1998-2003 and calculated evapotranspiration for both chosen profiles. Four combinations of initial conditions of water content and salt concentration were used for the simulation process in order to find the best match between simulated and measured values. The success of the calibration of Hydrus-1D allowed the investigation of some scenarios in order to assess the contamination risk under different natural conditions. The aquifer risk contamination is related to the natural conditions where it increased while facing climate change and temperature increase and decreased in the presence of a clay layer in the unsaturated zone. Hydrus-1D was a useful tool to predict the groundwater level and quality in the case of a direct recharge and in the absence of any information related to the soil layers except for the texture.

Keywords: Hydrus-1D, Kairouan, salinization, semi-arid region, solute transport, unsaturated zone

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1045 Grading Fourteen Zones of Isfahan in Terms of the Impact of Globalization on the Urban Fabric of the City, Using the TOPSIS Model

Authors: A. Zahedi Yeganeh, A. Khademolhosseini, R. Mokhtari Malekabadi

Abstract:

Undoubtedly one of the most far-reaching and controversial topics considered in the past few decades, has been globalization. Globalization lies in the essence of the modern culture. It is a complex and rapidly expanding network of links and mutual interdependence that is an aspect of modern life; though some argue that this link existed since the beginning of human history. If we consider globalization as a dynamic social process in which the geographical constraints governing the political, economic, social and cultural relationships have been undermined, it might not be possible to simply describe its impact on the urban fabric. But since in this phenomenon the increase in communications of societies (while preserving the main cultural - regional characteristics) with one another and the increase in the possibility of influencing other societies are discussed, the need for more studies will be felt. The main objective of this study is to grade based on some globalization factors on urban fabric applying the TOPSIS model. The research method is descriptive - analytical and survey. For data analysis, the TOPSIS model and SPSS software were used and the results of GIS software with fourteen cities are shown on the map. The results show that the process of being influenced by the globalization of the urban fabric of fourteen zones of Isfahan was not similar and there have been large differences in this respect between city zones; the most affected areas are zones 5, 6 and 9 of the municipality and the least impact has been on the zones 4 and 3 and 2.

Keywords: grading, globalization, urban fabric, 14 zones of Isfahan, TOPSIS model

Procedia PDF Downloads 223