Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: Fali Leyla

17 Linear Semi Active Controller of Magneto-Rheological Damper for Seismic Vibration Attenuation

Authors: Zizouni Khaled, Fali Leyla, Sadek Younes, Bousserhane Ismail Khalil

Abstract:

In structural vibration caused principally by an earthquake excitation, the most vibration’s attenuation system used recently is the semi active control with a Magneto Rheological Damper device. This control was a subject of many researches and works in the last years. The big challenges of searchers in this case is to propose an adequate controller with a robust algorithm of current or tension adjustment. In this present paper, a linear controller is proposed to control the MR damper using to reduce a vibrations of three story structure exposed to El Centro’s 1940 and Boumerdès 2003 earthquakes. In this example, the MR damper is installed in the first floor of the structure. The numerical simulations results of the proposed linear control with a feedback law based on clipped optimal algorithm showed the feasibility of the semi active control to protecting civil structures. The comparison of the controlled structure and uncontrolled structures responses illustrate clearly the performance and the effectiveness of the simple proposed approach.

Keywords: MR damper, seismic vibration, semi-active control

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16 Mechanical and Hydraulic Behavior of Arid Zone Soils Treated with Lime: Case of Abadla, Bechar Clays, South of Algeria

Authors: Sadek Younes, Fali Leyla, Rikioui Tayeb, Zizouni Khaled

Abstract:

Stabilization of clay with lime as bearing stratum is an alternative to replacement of original soil. By adding lime to clay soil, the soil workability is improved due to the combination of calcium ions to the clay minerals, which means, modified soil properties. The paper investigates the effect of hydrated lime on the behaviour of lime treated, arid zones clay (Abadla Clay). A number of mechanical and hydraulic tests were performed to identify the effect of lime dosage and compaction water content on the compressibility, permeability, and shear strength parameters of the soil. Test results show that the soil parameters can be improved through additives such as lime. Overall, the addition percentages of 6% and 9% lime give the best desired results. Also, results revealed that the compressibility behavior of lime-treated soil strongly affected by lime content. The results are presented in terms of modern interpretation of the behaviour of treated soils, in comparison with the parameters of the untreated soil.

Keywords: arid zones, compressibility, lime, soil behaviour, soil stabilization, unsaturated soil

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15 Analysis of the Internationalisation of Spanish Enterprises in Colombia through Cooperation Agreements

Authors: Sandoval H. Leyla Angélica, Casani Fernando

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to analyse how enterprises in developed countries use cooperation agreements to expand into developing countries. Starting from the literature review, seven theoretical prepositions were derived. The qualitative methodology used includes case study, through interviews conducted with eight enterprises from Spain and Colombia. Results show that the cooperation agreements have provided a quick and solid connection that facilitates internationalization, bearing in mind aspects such as: strategic factors, partners, network, technology, experience, communication methods, social benefit and the connection between these aspects and allied enterprises.

Keywords: internationalisation, firms, cooperation agreement, case study, Spain, Colombia

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14 The Efficacy of Motivation Management Training for Students’ Academic Achievement and Self-Concept

Authors: Ramazan Hasanzadeh, Leyla Vatandoust

Abstract:

This study examined the efficacy of motivation management training for students’ academic achievement and self-concept. The pretest–posttest quasi-experimental study used a cluster random sampling method to select subjects for the experimental (20 subjects) and control (20 subjects) groups. posttest was conducted with both groups to determine the effect of the training. An academic achievement and academic self-concept questionnaire (grade point average requirement) was used for the pretest and posttest. The results showed that the motivation management training increased academic self-concept and academic achievement.

Keywords: motivation management, academic self-concept, academic achievement, students

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13 An Algorithm for Determining the Arrival Behavior of a Secondary User to a Base Station in Cognitive Radio Networks

Authors: Danilo López, Edwin Rivas, Leyla López

Abstract:

This paper presents the development of an algorithm that predicts the arrival of a secondary user (SU) to a base station (BS) in a cognitive network based on infrastructure, requesting a Best Effort (BE) or Real Time (RT) type of service with a determined bandwidth (BW) implementing neural networks. The algorithm dynamically uses a neural network construction technique using the geometric pyramid topology and trains a Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks (MLPNN) based on the historical arrival of an SU to estimate future applications. This will allow efficiently managing the information in the BS, since it precedes the arrival of the SUs in the stage of selection of the best channel in CRN. As a result, the software application determines the probability of arrival at a future time point and calculates the performance metrics to measure the effectiveness of the predictions made.

Keywords: cognitive radio, base station, best effort, MLPNN, prediction, real time

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12 Highly-Sensitive Nanopore-Based Sensors for Point-Of-Care Medical Diagnostics

Authors: Leyla Esfandiari

Abstract:

Rapid, sensitive detection of nucleic acid (NA) molecules of specific sequence is of interest for a range of diverse health-related applications such as screening for genetic diseases, detecting pathogenic microbes in food and water, and identifying biological warfare agents in homeland security. Sequence-specific nucleic acid detection platforms rely on base pairing interaction between two complementary single stranded NAs, which can be detected by the optical, mechanical, or electrochemical readout. However, many of the existing platforms require amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), fluorescent or enzymatic labels, and expensive or bulky instrumentation. In an effort to address these shortcomings, our research is focused on utilizing the cutting edge nanotechnology and microfluidics along with resistive pulse electrical measurements to design and develop a cost-effective, handheld and highly-sensitive nanopore-based sensor for point-of-care medical diagnostics.

Keywords: diagnostics, nanopore, nucleic acids, sensor

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11 Scenario Based Reaction Time Analysis for Seafarers

Authors: Umut Tac, Leyla Tavacioglu, Pelin Bolat

Abstract:

Human factor has been one of the elements that cause vulnerabilities which can be resulted with accidents in maritime transportation. When the roots of human factor based accidents are analyzed, gaps in performing cognitive abilities (reaction time, attention, memory…) are faced as the main reasons for the vulnerabilities in complex environment of maritime systems. Thus cognitive processes in maritime systems have arisen important subject that should be investigated comprehensively. At this point, neurocognitive tests such as reaction time analysis tests have been used as coherent tools that enable us to make valid assessments for cognitive status. In this respect, the aim of this study is to evaluate the reaction time (response time or latency) of seafarers due to their occupational experience and age. For this study, reaction time for different maneuverers has been taken while the participants were performing a sea voyage through a simulator which was run up with a certain scenario. After collecting the data for reaction time, a statistical analyze has been done to understand the relation between occupational experience and cognitive abilities.

Keywords: cognitive abilities, human factor, neurocognitive test battery, reaction time

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10 Provision of Slope Stability with Barette Piles: A Case Analysis

Authors: Leyla Yesilbas, M. Sukru Ozcoban, M. Ergenekon Selcuk

Abstract:

From past to present, there is a constant need for engineering structures such as high-rise buildings, wide-span bridges, airports and stadiums, business towers due to technological developments and increasing population. Because of the large loads transferred from the superstructure to the ground layers in these types of structures, the bearing strength and seating problems usually occur on the floors. In order to solve these problems, piled foundations are used by passing the weak soil layers and transferring the loads from the superstructure to the solid soil layers. Considering the factors such as the characteristics of the building to be constructed, the purpose and location of the building, the basic cost of the pile should be at normal levels. When these requirements are taken into consideration, a new basic system called 'Barette Foundation' has been developed. In this thesis, an application made to provide slope stability with 'Baret Piles' was investigated. In addition, the ground parameters obtained from the field and laboratory experiments were numerically modeled using a PLAXİS 2D finite element software and barette piles. The effects of barette piles on slope stability were investigated by numerical analysis, and the results of inclinometer measurements in the field were compared with numerical analysis results.

Keywords: barette pile, PLAXİS 2D, slope, soil

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9 The Effect of Temperature and Salinity on the Growth and Carotenogenesis of Three Dunaliella Species (Dunaliella sp. Lake Isolate, D. salina CCAP 19/18, and D. bardawil LB 2538) Cultivated under Laboratory Conditions

Authors: Imen Hamed, Burcu Ak, Oya Işık, Leyla Uslu, Kubilay Kazım Vursavuş

Abstract:

In this study, 3 species of Dunaliella (Dunaliella sp. Salt Lake isoalte (Tuz Gölü), Dunaliella salina CCAP19/18, and Dunaliella bardawil LB 2538) and their optical density, dry matter, chlorophyll a, total carotenoids, and β-carotene production were investigated in a batch system. The aim of this research was to compare carotenoids, and β-carotene production were investigated in a batch those 3 species. Therefore 2 stress factors were used: 2 different temperatures (20°C and 30°C) and 2 different salinities (30‰, and 60‰) were tested over a 17-day study. The highest growth and chlorophyll a was reported for Dunaliella sp. under 20°C/30‰ and 20°C/60‰ conditions respectively followed by D. bardawil and D. salina. Significant differences were noticed (p<0.05) for the other 3 species. The growth decreased as temperature and salinity increased since the lowest growth was noticed for the 30°C/60‰ group. The chlorophyll a content decreased also as temperature increased however when the NaCl concentration increased an augmentation of the content was noticed . In the 17th day of experiment the highest carotenoids concentration was reported for D. bardawil 20°C/30‰ (65,639±0,400 μg.mL1) and the most important β carotene concentration was for D. salina 20°C/60‰ (8,98E-07±0,013 mol/L).

Keywords: Dunaliella sp., Dunaliella salina, Dunaliella bardawil, growth, pigments, stress factors

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8 A Research on the Benefits of Drone Usage in Industry by Determining Companies Using Drone in the World

Authors: Ahmet Akdemir, Güzide Karakuş, Leyla Polat

Abstract:

Aviation that has been arisen in accordance with flying request that is existing inside of people, has not only made life easier by making a great contribution to humanity; it has also accelerated globalization by reducing distances between countries. It is seen that the growth rate of aviation industry has reached the undreamed level when it is looked back on. Today, the last point in aviation is unmanned aerial vehicles that are self-ventilating and move in desired coordinates without any onboard pilot. For those vehicles, there are two different control systems are developed. In the first type of control, an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) moves according to instructions of a remote control. UAV that moves with a remote control is named as drone; it can be used personally. In the second one, there is a flight plan that is programmed and placed inside of UAV before flight. Recently, drones have started to be used in unimagined areas and utilize specific, important benefits for any industry. Within this framework, this study answers the question that is drone usage would be beneficial for businesses or not. To answer this question, applied basic methodologies are determining businesses using drone in the world, their purposes to use drone, and then, comparing their economy as before drone and after drone. In the end of this study, it is seen that many companies in different business areas use drone in logistics support, and it makes their work easier than before. This paper has contributed to academic literature about this subject, and it has introduced the benefits of drone usage for businesses. In addition, it has encouraged businesses that they keep pace with this technological age by following the developments about drones.

Keywords: aviation, drone, drone in business, unmanned aerial vehicle

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7 Hospitality and Migration within the Canadian Social Fabric: Guest and Host Factors in Manitoba

Authors: Nathalie Piquemal, Faiçal Zellama, Bathélemy Bolivar, Leyla Sall

Abstract:

Canada defines itself as a country of immigration and a multicultural nation, ideologically, politically and programmatically (in terms of its integration practices). As such, principles of hospitality may seem, at first glance, incontestable, given the convergence of the views of the majority of Canadian politicians on the need to welcome, each year, a significant number of immigrants and to offer them the hospitality that facilitates their transition to Canadian citizenship. However, immigrants are welcomed in a Canadian societal context in which power and resources are unevenly distributed, resulting in complex social relationships between hosts and newcomers. Qualitative data obtained from newcomers in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, focuses on experiences of hospitality, with special attention to host-guest social and power dynamics, contested policies on foreign credential and micro spaces of belongingin a multicultural context. The act of welcoming a newcomer is inherently shaped by both macropolitical structures and everyday relational practices that can lead to experiences of belonging, marginalisation, empowerment and/or disempowerment depending on economic agenda, humanitarian and humanistic orientations. We first explore the extent to which immigrants experience hospitality in relation to unequal distribution of power and resources as well as cultural discontinuities. We then examine ways in which immigrants have been able to find sanctuaries of hospitality within their own ethnocultural communities. Finally, we discuss the complexity of hospitality in a multicultural context and offer critical insights on host factors that may produce, develop and nurture hospitable environments.

Keywords: migration, hospitality, diversity, culture, race

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6 Marker Assisted Breeding for Grain Quality Improvement in Durum Wheat

Authors: Özlem Ateş Sönmezoğlu, Begüm Terzi, Ahmet Yıldırım, Leyla Gündüz

Abstract:

Durum wheat quality is defined as its suitability for pasta processing, that is pasta making quality. Another factor that determines the quality of durum wheat is the nutritional value of wheat or its final products. Wheat is a basic source of calories, proteins and minerals for humans in many countries of the world. For this reason, improvement of wheat nutritional value is of great importance. In recent years, deficiencies in protein and micronutrients, particularly in iron and zinc, have seriously increased. Therefore, basic foods such as wheat must be improved for micronutrient content. The effects of some major genes for grain quality established. Gpc-B1 locus is one of the genes increased protein and micronutrients content, and used in improvement studies of durum wheat nutritional value. The aim of this study was to increase the protein content and the micronutrient (Fe, Zn ve Mn) contents of an advanced durum wheat line (TMB 1) that was previously improved for its protein quality. For this purpose, TMB1 advanced durum wheat line were used as the recurrent parent and also, UC1113-Gpc-B1 line containing the Gpc-B1 gene was used as the gene source. In all of the generations, backcrossed plants carrying the targeted gene region were selected by marker assisted selection (MAS). BC4F1 plants MAS method was employed in combination with embryo culture and rapid plant growth in a controlled greenhouse conditions in order to shorten the duration of the transition between generations in backcross breeding. The Gpc-B1 gene was selected specific molecular markers. Since Yr-36 gene associated with Gpc-B1 allele, it was also transferred to the Gpc-B1 transferred lines. Thus, the backcrossed plants selected by MAS are resistance to yellow rust disease. This research has been financially supported by TÜBİTAK (112T910).

Keywords: Durum wheat, Gpc-B1, MAS, Triticum durum, Yr-36

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5 Investigation of Enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus in Kitchen of Catering

Authors: Çiğdem Sezer, Aksem Aksoy, Leyla Vatansever

Abstract:

This study has been done for the purpose of evaluation of public health and identifying of enterotoxigenic Staphyloccocus aureus in kitchen of catering. In the kitchen of catering, samples have been taken by swabs from surface of equipments which are in the salad section, meat section and bakery section. Samples have been investigated with classical cultural methods in terms of Staphyloccocus aureus. Therefore, as a 10x10 cm area was identified (salad, cutting and chopping surfaces, knives, meat grinder, meat chopping surface) samples have been taken with sterile swabs with helping FTS from this area. In total, 50 samples were obtained. In aseptic conditions, Baird-Parker agar (with egg yolk tellurite) surface was seeded with swabs. After 24-48 hours of incubation at 37°C, the black colonies with 1-1.5 mm diameter and which are surrounded by a zone indicating lecithinase activity were identified as S. aureus after applying Gram staining, catalase, coagulase, glucose and mannitol fermentation and termonuclease tests. Genotypic characterization (Staphylococcus genus and S.aureus species spesific) of isolates was performed by PCR. The ELISA test was applied to the isolates for the identification of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SET) A, B, C, D, E in bacterial cultures. Measurements were taken at 450 nm in an ELISA reader using an Ridascreen-Total set ELISA test kit (r-biopharm R4105-Enterotoxin A, B, C, D, E). The results were calculated according to the manufacturer’s instructions. A total of 50 samples of 97 S. aureus was isolated. This number has been identified as 60 with PCR analysis. According to ELISA test, only 1 of 60 isolates were found to be enterotoxigenic. Enterotoxigenic strains were identified from the surface of salad chopping and cutting. In the kitchen of catering, S. aureus identification indicates a significant source of contamination. Especially, in raw consumed salad preparation phase of contamination is very important. This food can be a potential source of food-borne poisoning their terms, and they pose a significant risk to consumers have been identified.

Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, enterotoxin, catering, kitchen, health

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4 The Effect of Two Methods of Upper and Lower Resistance Exercise Training on C-Reactive Protein, Interleukin-6 and Intracellular Adhesion Molecule-1 in Healthy Untrained Women

Authors: Leyla Sattarzadeh, Maghsoud Peeri, Mohammadali Azarbaijani, Hasan Matin Homaee

Abstract:

Inflammation by various mechanisms may cause atherosclerosis. Systemic circulating inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP), pro-inflammatory cytokines such as Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and adhesion molecules like Intracellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1) are the predictors of cardiovascular diseases. Regarding the conflicting results about the effect of resistance exercise training on these inflammatory markers, the present study aimed to examine the effect of eight week different patterns of resistance exercise training on CRP, IL-6 and ICAM-1 levels in healthy untrained women. 40 volunteered and healthy untrained female university students (aged: 21+ 3 yr., Body Mass Index: 21.5+ 3.5 kg/m2) were selected purposefully and divided into three groups. At the end of training protocol and after subjects drop during the protocol in upper body exercise training (n=11), lower body (n=12) completed the eight week of training period although the control group (n=7) did anything. Blood samples gathered pre and post experimental period and CRP, IL-6 and ICAM-1 levels were evaluated using special laboratory kits, then the difference of pre and post values of each indices analyzed using one way Analysis of Variance (α < 0.05). The results of one way ANOVA for difference of pre and post values of CRP and ICAM-1 showed no significant changes due to the exercise training. But there were significant differences between groups about IL-6. Tukey post- hoc test indicated that there is significant difference between the differences of pre and post values of IL-6 between lower body exercise training group and control group, and eight weeks of lower body exercise training lead to significant changes in IL-6 values. There were no changes in anthropometric indices. The findings show that the different patterns of upper and lower body exercise training by involving the different amount of muscles altered the IL-6 values in lower body exercise training group probably because of engaging the bigger amount of muscles, but showed any significant changes about CRP and ICAM-1 probably due to intensity and duration of exercise or the lower levels of these markers at baseline of healthy people.

Keywords: C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, intracellular adhesion molecule-1, resistance training

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3 Psychoanalytical Foreshadowing: The Application of a Literary Device in Quranic Narratology

Authors: Fateme Montazeri

Abstract:

Literary approaches towards the text of the Quran predate the modern period. Suyuti (d.1505)’s encyclopedia of Quranic sciences, Al-Itqan, provides a notable example. In the modern era, the study of the Quranic rhetorics received particular attention in the second half of the twentieth century by Egyptian scholars. Amin Al-Khouli (d. 1966), who might be considered the first to argue for the necessity of applying a literary-rhetorical lens toward the tafseer, Islamic exegesis, and his students championed the literary analysis as the most effective approach to the comprehension of the holy text. Western scholars continued the literary criticism of the Islamic scripture by applying to the Quran similar methodologies used in biblical studies. In the history of the literary examination of the Quran, the scope of the critical methods applied to the Quranic text has been limited. For, the rhetorical approaches to the Quran, in the premodern as well as the modern period, concerned almost exclusively with the lexical layer of the text, leaving the narratological dimensions insufficiently examined. Recent contributions, by Leyla Ozgur Alhassen, for instance, attempt to fill this lacunae. This paper aims at advancing the studies of the Quranic narratives by investigating the application of a literary device whose role in the Quranic stories remains unstudied, that is, “foreshadowing.” This paper shall focus on Chapter 12, “Surah al-Yusuf,” as its case study. Chapter 12, the single chapter that includes the story of Joseph in one piece, contains several instances in which the events of the story are foreshadowed. As shall be discussed, foreshadowing occurs either through a monolog or dialogue whereby one or more of the characters allude to the future happenings or through the manner in which the setting is described. Through a close reading of the text, it will be demonstrated that the usage of the rhetorical tool of foreshadowing meets a dual purpose: on the one hand, foreshadowing prepares the reader/audience for the upcoming events in the plot, and on the other hand, it highlights the psychological dimensions of the characters, their thoughts, intentions, and disposition. In analyzing the story, this study shall draw on psychoanalytical criticism to explore the layers of meanings embedded in the Quranic narrative that are unfolded through foreshadowing.

Keywords: foreshadowing, quranic narrative, literary criticism, surah yusuf

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2 The Effect of Different Patterns of Upper, Lower and Whole Body Resistance Exercise Training on Systemic and Vascular Inflammatory Factors in Healthy Untrained Women

Authors: Leyla Sattarzadeh, Shahin Fathi Molk Kian, Maghsoud Peeri, Mohammadali Azarbaijani, Hasan Matin Homaee

Abstract:

Inflammation by various mechanisms may cause atherosclerosis. Systemic circulating inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP), pro-inflammatory cytokines such as Interleukin-6 (IL-6), vascular inflammatory markers as adhesion molecules like Intracellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1) are the predictors of cardiovascular diseases. Regarding the conflicting results about the effect of different patterns of resistance exercise training on these inflammatory markers, present study aimed to examine the effect of different patterns of eight week resistance exercise training on CRP, IL-6, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 levels in healthy untrained women. 56 healthy volunteered untrained female university students (aged: 21 ± 3 yr., Body Mass Index: 21.5 ± 3.5 kg/m²) were selected purposefully and divided into four groups. At the end of training protocol and after subject drop during the protocol, upper body exercise training (n=11), lower body (n=12) and whole body resistance exercise training group (n=11) completed the eight weeks of training period although the control group (n=7) did anything. Blood samples gathered pre and post-experimental period and CRP, IL-6, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 levels were evaluated using special laboratory kits, then the difference of pre and post values of each indices analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (α < 0.05). The results of one way ANOVA for difference of pre and post values of CRP, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 showed no significant changes due to the exercise training, but there were significant differences between groups about IL-6. Tukey post- hoc test indicated that there is significant difference between the differences of pre and post values of IL-6 between lower body exercise training group and control group, and eight weeks of lower body exercise training lead to significant changes in IL-6 values. There were no changes in anthropometric indices. The findings show that the different patterns of upper, lower and whole body exercise training by involving the different amounts of muscles altered the IL-6 values in lower body exercise training group probably because of engaging the bigger amount of muscles, but showed any significant changes about CRP, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 probably due to intensity and duration of exercise or the lower levels of these markers at baseline of healthy people.

Keywords: resistance training, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, intracellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1

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1 Sustainability from Ecocity to Ecocampus: An Exploratory Study on Spanish Universities' Water Management

Authors: Leyla A. Sandoval Hamón, Fernando Casani

Abstract:

Sustainability has been integrated into the cities’ agenda due to the impact that they generate. The dimensions of greater proliferation of sustainability, which are taken as a reference, are economic, social and environmental. Thus, the decisions of management of the sustainable cities search a balance between these dimensions in order to provide environment-friendly alternatives. In this context, urban models (where water consumption, energy consumption, waste production, among others) that have emerged in harmony with the environment, are known as Ecocity. A similar model, but on a smaller scale, is ‘Ecocampus’ that is developed in universities (considered ‘small cities’ due to its complex structure). So, sustainable practices are being implemented in the management of university campus activities, following different relevant lines of work. The universities have a strategic role in society, and their activities can strengthen policies, strategies, and measures of sustainability, both internal and external to the organization. Because of their mission in knowledge creation and transfer, these institutions can promote and disseminate more advanced activities in sustainability. This model replica also implies challenges in the sustainable management of water, energy, waste, transportation, among others, inside the campus. The challenge that this paper focuses on is the water management, taking into account that the universities consume big amounts of this resource. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the sustainability experience, with emphasis on water management, of two different campuses belonging to two different Spanish universities - one urban campus in a historic city and the other a suburban campus in the outskirts of a large city. Both universities are in the top hundred of international rankings of sustainable universities. The methodology adopts a qualitative method based on the technique of in-depth interviews and focus-group discussions with administrative and academic staff of the ‘Ecocampus’ offices, the organizational units for sustainability management, from the two Spanish universities. The hypotheses indicate that sustainable policies in terms of water management are best in campuses without big green spaces and where the buildings are built or rebuilt with modern style. The sustainability efforts of the university are independent of the kind of (urban – suburban) campus but an important aspect to improve is the degree of awareness of the university community about water scarcity. In general, the paper suggests that higher institutions adapt their sustainability policies depending on the location and features of the campus and their engagement with the water conservation. Many Spanish universities have proposed policies, good practices, and measures of sustainability. In fact, some offices or centers of Ecocampus have been founded. The originality of this study is to learn from the different experiences of sustainability policies of universities.

Keywords: ecocampus, ecocity, sustainability, water management

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