Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 44

Search results for: Fahimeh Nemati Mansur

44 Molecular Detection of Helicobacter Pylori and Its Association with TNFα-308 Polymorphism in Cardiovascular Diseases

Authors: Azar Sharafianpor, Hossein Rassi, Fahimeh Nemati Mansur


Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the most important cause of death in industrialized and developing countries such as Iran. The most important risk factors for the CVD, genetic factors and chronic infectious agents, such as Helicobacter pylori, can be mentioned. The TNFα gene is one of the most important anti-inflammatory cytokines that can affect the sensitivity, efficacy, and ability of the immune response to chronic infections. Some TNF-α gene polymorphisms, including the replacement of the G nucleotide G with A at position 308 in the promoter region of TNF-α, increase the transcription of cytokines in the target cells and thus predispose a person to chronic infections. This study examines the TNF-α 308 polymorphism and its association with Helicobacter pylori infection in this disease. This study was a case-control study in which 154 patients were examined as cases or patients with symptoms of myocardial infarction or angina and 160 as controls or healthy subjects. All of the subjects at different ages were given venous blood and age, BMI, cholesterol, LDL, and HDL were determined. DNA was extracted from the specimens, and the cagA gene from H. pylori and the TNF-α-308 polymorphism were determined by PCR in patients and healthy subjects. Statistical analysis was performed with Epi Info software. The results showed that the frequency of H. pylori infection in the patients and healthy group were 53.23% (82 out of 154) and 47.5% (76 out of 160). There was no significant difference in H. pylori outbreak between the two groups. The frequencies of TNF-α-308 genotype for GG, GA, and AA in patients were 0.17, 0.49, and 0.34, respectively, whereas for controls 0.47, 0.35, and 0.18 for GG, GA, and AA, respectively. The frequency of genotype analysis of TNF-α-308 polymorphisms in both patients and healthy groups showed that there was a significant difference in the frequency of genotypes and the AA genotype was higher in the affected individuals. Also, there was a significant relationship between the genotype and the contamination with H. pylori and changes in cholesterol, LDL, and HDL levels were observed. The results of the study indicate that H. pylori detection in individuals with AA genotype in people under 50 years of age can play an important role in early diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease.

Keywords: Helicobacter pylori, TNFα gene, cardiovascular diseases, TNFα-308 polymorphism

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43 The Role of Sponsorship in Marketing Communication Tools

Authors: Mansur Ahmed Kazaure


The emergence of sponsorship as a new marketing communication tool and a source of competitive advantage in the marketplace has changed the entire marketing communication process. Sponsorship has overtaken other marketing communication tools in terms of growth and expenditure. This paper seeks to evaluate the role of sponsorship in marketing communication tools. The study recommends that proper measures be taken before the company embarks into sponsorship programs. This is necessary because investment in sponsorship does not always guarantee sustainable competitive advantage in the marketplace.

Keywords: sponsorship, marketing communication theories, marketing communication tools

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
42 Modeling of Landslide-Generated Tsunamis in Georgia Strait, Southern British Columbia

Authors: Fatemeh Nemati, Lucinda Leonard, Gwyn Lintern, Richard Thomson


In this study, we will use modern numerical modeling approaches to estimate tsunami risks to the southern coast of British Columbia from landslides. Wave generation is to be simulated using the NHWAVE model, which solves the Navier-Stokes equations due to the more complex behavior of flow near the landslide source; far-field wave propagation will be simulated using the simpler model FUNWAVE_TVD with high-order Boussinesq-type wave equations, with a focus on the accurate simulation of wave propagation and regional- or coastal-scale inundation predictions.

Keywords: FUNWAVE-TVD, landslide-generated tsunami, NHWAVE, tsunami risk

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41 Percentages of Alumina Phase and Different Ph on The Ha- Al2o3 Nano Composite

Authors: S. Tayyebi, F. Mirjalili, H. Samadi, A. Nemati


In this study, hydroxyapatite-Alumina nano composite powder, containing 15,20 and 25% weight percent of reinforced alumina were prepared by chemical precipitation from the reaction between calcium nitrate tetrahydrate and di-ammonium hydrogen phosphate with ratio of Ca / p = 1.67 and different percentage of aluminum nitrate nona hydrate in different pH of 9,10 and 11. The microstructure and thermal stability of samples were measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the presence of reinforced alumina phase reduced the degree of crystallinity of hydroxyapatite phase and increased its decomposition to tricalcium phosphate phase. Microstructural analysis showed that the hydroxyapatite-alumina nano composite powder was obtained with spherical shape and size of less than 100 nm.

Keywords: biomaterial, hydroxyapatite, alumina, nano composite, precipitation method

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40 The Philosophical Basis of Democracy: An Islamic Perspective

Authors: Fahimeh Hooshyar, Seyyed Mojtaba Abtahi


Democracy which is, in its greek roots, consisted of “Demo” (People) and “Kratic” (people) is referring to governing of the people or governing by the people. in its widest definition it refers to a common lifestyle in which all the people has the equal potentials for social participating. But in political perspective, democracy is looking for the equal participation right of the citizens in political decision-making process. in this viewpoint, the democracy is solely a political construct or a social-political style in which all the values are relative. In this definition of the democracy emphasis is on equality of the people based on the governing rule and the natural social and political rights of every member of humankind. This notion of democracy by no means is a self reliant idea and the need of an ideological basis for approaching to this idea is inevitable. In this paper we are trying to define the inter-relations of democracy and its philosophical basis to Islamic fundamental ideas. Our approach to this topic would be a philosophical ideological one.

Keywords: Islam, democracy, democracy’s philosophical basis, secularism, fundamentalism

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39 Road Safety in the Great Britain: An Exploratory Data Analysis

Authors: Jatin Kumar Choudhary, Naren Rayala, Abbas Eslami Kiasari, Fahimeh Jafari


The Great Britain has one of the safest road networks in the world. However, the consequences of any death or serious injury are devastating for loved ones, as well as for those who help the severely injured. This paper aims to analyse the Great Britain's road safety situation and show the response measures for areas where the total damage caused by accidents can be significantly and quickly reduced. In this paper, we do an exploratory data analysis using STATS19 data. For the past 30 years, the UK has had a good record in reducing fatalities. The UK ranked third based on the number of road deaths per million inhabitants. There were around 165,000 accidents reported in the Great Britain in 2009 and it has been decreasing every year until 2019 which is under 120,000. The government continues to scale back road deaths empowering responsible road users by identifying and prosecuting the parameters that make the roads less safe.

Keywords: road safety, data analysis, openstreetmap, feature expanding.

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38 Selective Solvent Extraction of Calcium and Magnesium from Concentrate Nickel Solutions Using Mixtures of Cyanex 272 and D2EHPA

Authors: Alexandre S. Guimarães, Marcelo B. Mansur


The performance of organophosphorus extractants Cyanex 272 and D2EHPA on the purification of concentrate nickel sulfate solutions was evaluated. Batch scale tests were carried out at pH range of 2 to 7 using a laboratory solution simulating concentrate nickel liquors as those typically obtained when sulfate intermediates from nickel laterite are re-leached and treated for the selective removal of cobalt, zinc, manganese and copper with Cyanex 272 ([Ca] = 0.57 g/L, [Mg] = 3.2 g/L, and [Ni] = 88 g/L). The increase on the concentration of D2EHPA favored the calcium extraction. The extraction of magnesium is dependent on the pH and of ratio of extractants D2EHPA and Cyanex 272 in the organic phase. The composition of the investigated organic phase did not affect nickel extraction. The number of stages is dependent on the magnesium extraction. The most favorable operating condition to selectively remove calcium and magnesium was determined.

Keywords: solvent extraction, organophosphorus extractants, alkaline earth metals, nickel

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37 Twitter: The New Marketing Communication Tools

Authors: Mansur Ahmed Kazaure


The emergence of internet-based social media has made it possible for one person to communication with hundreds or even thousands of people about a company goods and services and the companies that provides them. Thus, the impact of customer-to-customer communications has been significantly magnified in the marketplace. Therefore, the essence of this paper is to critically evaluate the literature of social media and their implication for practice, but the author pay attention on twitter as a new marketing communication tools. The author found out that, despite the implication of using social media especially twitter by the companies as part of their marketing communication tool, but still it can enhance the opportunity for the companies to develop and maintain long-term customer relationship. The paper concludes that, using twitter as a marketing communication tool is a market trend and it is the best way for marketers to add value to their customer, however with the Twitter marketers can get a feedback about the performance of their product and its brand in the marketplace. The paper is purely a conceptual discourse based on secondary data.

Keywords: social media, marketing communication, marketing communication tools, Twitter, Facebook

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36 Comparison of Comorbidity of Six Pathological Areas of MMPI and SCL-90-R Tests of Obsessive–Compulsive Patients

Authors: Fahimeh Rafiezadeh, Mehdi Khanbani


Aim:The goal of this research is to compare the comorbidity of mental disorders of obsessive–compulsive patients between multiplasic Minesota Personality Inventory (MMPI)and symptom checklist -90-R(SCL-90-R). Material and Method: In sorting, 50 individuals: 25 male and 25 female who were compulsive, were selected samples. The comparison was made in 6 pathological areas (somatoform, Depression, Anxiety, Paranoid, Phsychotism, and antisocial disorders). Frequencies were analyzed with chi-squre test. Results: results was concluded: In comparison between two sexes, there was a significant difference of frequency in depression disorder. Comparing the two tests, there was a significant difference of frequency between paranoid, depression and psychoticism disorders. Depression disorder had the highest comorbidity and antisocial disorder had the lowest comorbidity among male females and total. Conclusion: The depression has most comorbidity in OCD and is very important in the trapt of this patients.

Keywords: obsessive, compulsive disorder, comorbidity, MMPI test, SCL-90–R test

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35 Investigation of the Perceptional Quality of Nightscape in the Urban Space: A Case Study of Mashhad Koohsangi Axis in Iran

Authors: Fahimeh Khatami, Maryam Ziyaee, Elham Sanagar Darbani


Variety of different factors could influence on the measure urban perception. Both physical and non-physical factors, at least, make the quality of perception through the urban spaces. The value of lighting is one of the important factors which could make the better quality of environmental perception for the user. The perception of urban space in most of the Iranian cities is offer by different factors during the night time which caused to the death of nightlife and social activities. Therefore, this research is an attempt to study on the different of user perception during day and night in the Koohsangi Street. As the case study area in Iran in order to bring out the main influential factors during perception process. To deal with this good we used chi-square test on a sample size made up of on hundred participants. The result shows that for improving the night quality of urban spaces the legibility, navigation, and role stimulation were in important perception factors. Therefore, by focusing on these factors it would be possible to find out more functional solution for improving the activity of night perception.

Keywords: perception, urban space, legibility, imageability, nightscape

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34 Distribution of Laurencia caspica, Enteromorpha intestinalis and Cladophora glomerata along the Southern Parts of the Caspian Sea and Their Relation with Environmental Factors

Authors: Neda Mehdipour, Mohammad Hasan Gerami, Reza Rahnama, Ali Hamzehpour, Hanieh Nemati


Laurencia caspica (red macroalgae) Enteromorpha intestinalis and Cladophora glomerata (green macroalgae) are three major macroalgae that grow along the southern coasts of the Caspian Sea. We investigated spatial and temporal variation of these three macroalgal species on hard substrates and their relation with environmental factors in 2014. Sampling was done seasonally from spring to winter 2014 from eight sites. Results indicated that of these three species had heterogeneity distribution along southern parts of the Caspian Sea. In addition, C. glomerata was dominant taxa in all stations and had maximum contribution in dissimilarities between sampling sites. According to BIO-ENV salinity, pH and Silicate were the best subset variables for explaining changes in the abundance over time of the hard-substrates macroalgae fauna under study. However, the position of species in Redundancy Analysis (RDA) plot revealed that L. caspica associated with temperature, E. intestinalis with pH and C. glomerata associated with phosphate and silicate.

Keywords: macroalgae, distribution, environmental factors, Caspian Sea

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33 The Comparative Effect of Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP), Critical Thinking and a Combination of Both On EFL Learners' Reading Comprehension

Authors: Mona Khabiri, Fahimeh Farahani


The present study was an attempt to investigate the comparative effect of teaching NLP, critical thinking, and a combination of NLP and critical thinking on EFL learners' reading comprehension. To fulfill the purpose of this study, a group of 82 female and male intermediate EFL learners at a Language School in Iran took a piloted sample PET as a proficiency test and 63 of them were selected as homogenous learners and were randomly assigned to three experimental groups. Within a treatment process of 10 sessions the teacher/researcher provided the participants of each group with handouts, explanations, practices, homework, and questionnaires on techniques of NLP, critical thinking, and a combination of both. During these 10 sessions, 10 same reading comprehension texts extracted from the multi-skill course book suggested by the language school where thought to the participants of each experimental group using skills and strategies of NLP, critical thinking, and a combination of both. On the eleventh session, the participants sat for a reading posttest. The results of one-way ANOVA showed no significant difference among the three groups in terms of reading comprehension. Justifications and implications for the findings of the study and suggestions for further research are presented.

Keywords: neuro-linguistic programming (NLP), critical thinking, reading comprehension

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32 Comparison of Mean Monthly Soil Temperature at (5 and 30 cm) Depths at Compton Experimental Site, West Midlands (UK), between 1976-2008

Authors: Aminu Mansur


A comparison of soil temperature at (5 and 30 cm) depths at a research site over the period (1976-2008) was analyzed. Based on the statistical analysis of the database of (12,045) days of individual soil temperature measurements in sandy-loam of the (salwick series) soils, the mean soil temperature revealed a statistically significant increase of about -1.1 to 10.9°C at 5 cm depth in 1976 compared to 2008. Similarly, soil temperature at 30 cm depth increased by -0.1 to 2.1°C in 2008 compared to 1976. Although, rapid increase in soil temperature at all depths was observed during that period, but a thorough assessment of these conditions suggested that the soil temperature at 5 cm depth are progressively increasing over time. A typical example of those increases in soil temperature was provided for agriculture where Miscanthus (elephant) plant that grows within the study area is adversely affected by the mean soil temperature increase. The study concluded that these observations contribute to the growing mass of evidence of global warming and knowledge on secular trends. Therefore, there was statistically significant increase in soil temperature at Compton Experimental Site between 1976-2008.

Keywords: soil temperature, warming trend, environment science, climate and atmospheric sciences

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31 Optimization of Shear Frame Structures Applying Various Forms of Wavelet Transforms

Authors: Seyed Sadegh Naseralavi, Sohrab Nemati, Ehsan Khojastehfar, Sadegh Balaghi


In the present research, various formulations of wavelet transform are applied on acceleration time history of earthquake. The mentioned transforms decompose the strong ground motion into low and high frequency parts. Since the high frequency portion of strong ground motion has a minor effect on dynamic response of structures, the structure is excited by low frequency part. Consequently, the seismic response of structure is predicted consuming one half of computational time, comparing with conventional time history analysis. Towards reducing the computational effort needed in seismic optimization of structure, seismic optimization of a shear frame structure is conducted by applying various forms of mentioned transformation through genetic algorithm.

Keywords: time history analysis, wavelet transform, optimization, earthquake

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
30 Magnetic Solvent Extraction Using Nanoparticles Coated by Oleic Acid

Authors: Natália C. C. Lobato, Ângela M. Ferreira, Marcelo B. Mansur


In solvent extraction operations, large sedimentation areas in the mixer-settler are required when the disengagement of the aqueous and the organic phases is slow and/or difficult. The use of a magnetic organic liquid (also known as ferrofluid), consisting of magnetite nanoparticles coated by oleic acid dispersed in the organic diluent, has proven successful to speed up phase disengagement. The method, however, has never been used industrially; therefore, the aim of this study is to raise its main limitations. Tests were carried out using a ferrofluid containing 30 g/l of magnetite dissolved in commercial aliphatic kerosene Exxsol D80. The efficiency of cobalt extraction ([Co] = 1 g/l) with 10% v/v Cyanex 272 (bis-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid) at changing pH of the aqueous phase (2 to 7) was found unaffected in the conditions studied. However, the chemical resistance of the ferrofluid in contact with deionized water at changing acidity (from 10-7 to 2 mol/l) revealed that the nanoparticles are not resistant when contacted to aqueous solutions with a pH ≤ 2. Such result represents a serious limitation to the applicability of the method mainly to hydrometallurgical systems because solvent extraction operations are normally done in acid conditions, therefore more effective strategies to coat the particles are required.

Keywords: magnetic solvent extraction, oleic acid, magnetite nanoparticles, cyanex 272

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29 Sundarban as a Buffer against Storm Surge Flooding

Authors: Mohiuddin Sakib, Fatin Nihal, Anisul Haque, Munsur Rahman, Mansur Ali


Sundarban, the largest mangrove forest in the world, is known to act as a buffer against the cyclone and storm surge. Theoretically, Sundarban absorbs the initial thrust of the wind and acts to ‘resist’ the storm surge flooding. The role of Sundarban was evident during the cyclone Sidr when the Sundarban solely defended the initial thrust of the cyclonic wind and the resulting storm surge inundation. In doing this, Sundarban sacrificed 30% of its plant habitats. Although no scientific study has yet been conducted, it is generally believed that Sundarban will continuously play its role as a buffer against the cyclone when landfall of the cyclone is at or close to the Sundarban. Considering these facts, the present study mainly focused on a scientific insight into the role of Sundarban as a buffer against the present-day cyclone and storm surge and also its probable role on the impacts of future storms of similar nature but with different landfall locations. The Delft 3D dashboard and flow model are applied to compute the resulting inundation due to cyclone induced storm surge. The results show that Sundarban indeed acts as a buffer against the storm surge inundation when cyclone landfall is at or close to Sundarban.

Keywords: buffer, Mangrove forest, Sidr, landfall, roughness

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28 Computational Analyses of Persian Walnut Genetic Data: Notes on Genetic Diversity and Cultivar Phylogeny

Authors: Masoud Sheidaei, Melica Tabasi, Fahimeh Koohdar, Mona Sheidaei


Juglans regia L. is an economically important species of edible nuts. Iran is known as a center of origin of genetically rich walnut germplasm and expected to be found a large diversity within Iranian walnut populations. A detailed population genetic of local populations is useful for developing an optimal strategy for in situ conservation and can assist the breeders in crop improvement programs. Different phylogenetic studies have been carried out in this genus, but none has been concerned with genetic changes associated with geographical divergence and the identification of adaptive SNPs. Therefore, we carried out the present study to identify discriminating ITS nucleotides among Juglans species and also reveal association between ITS SNPs and geographical variables. We used different computations approaches like DAPC, CCA, and RDA analyses for the above-mentioned tasks. We also performed population genetics analyses for population effective size changes associated with the species expansion. The results obtained suggest that latitudinal distribution has a more profound effect on the species genetic changes. Similarly, multiple analytical approaches utilized for the identification of both discriminating DNA nucleotides/ SNPs almost produced congruent results. The SNPs with different phylogenetic importance were also identified by using a parsimony approach.

Keywords: Persian walnut, adaptive SNPs, data analyses, genetic diversity

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27 Exploring Reading Attitudes among Iranian English Language Teachers

Authors: Narges Nemati, Mohammadreza Fallahpour, Hossein Bozorgian


Reading is one of the receptive skills which has an important role in improving other skills like writing and speaking. Furthermore, language learners can acquire plenty of vocabularies and become more acquainted with written expression through reading. Also, negative attitudes toward reading can cause negligible reading comprehension, which could prompt poor performance in the English language. Considering the fact that reading instruction was discussed as a low priority skill in the field of EFL teacher education, this study attempted to investigate EFL teachers’ attitudes toward reading instruction. Therefore, to serve the purpose of this study, a mixed-method approach was utilized by inviting 100 Iranian EFL teachers who taught at English language institutes of Iran to fill out a validated questionnaire on teachers’ attitude toward reading. Subsequently, 10 participants were randomly selected for further observations and interview sessions to evaluate the differences between their stated attitude and their actual practices. The findings from analyzing questionnaires, observations, and interviews revealed that EFL teachers’ stated attitude toward reading instruction was positive; whereas, due to some reasons like lack of time, scarcity of interesting passages, and lack of interest in reading long passages, teachers did not show positive actual attitude toward teaching reading skill.

Keywords: English as foreign language classroom, English language, reading skill, teachers' attitude

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26 Green Synthesis of Nano Liposomes Containing Berberine Chlorideagainst Leishmania major

Authors: Ali Fattahi Bafghi, Abolghasem Siyadatpanah, Farzaneh Mirzaei, Fahimeh Pournasir, Roghayeh Norouzi, Maria De Lourdes Pereira


Leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major is one of the main infectious diseases that affect populations in developing countries around the world. We assessed the effectiveness of berberine chloride nano-liposome (BcNLs) against L. major promastigotes in vitro. Nano-liposomal berberine chloride was prepared using the thin-film hydration method and characterized based on encapsulation efficiency, size, and zeta potential. Anti-Leishmania effect of different concentrations (0.05-60 µg/ml) of BcNLs as studied in L. major [MRHO/IR/75/ER] at 24, 48, and 72 h using the hemocytometer technique. Berberine chloride was successfully loaded into nano-liposomes with an encapsulation efficiency of 85.54%. The surface charge of nanoparticles is neutral, and the morphology of nano-liposomal berberine chloride is spherical without any agglomeration. Cell viability assay was performed on the HFF cell line to show the biocompatibility of liposome nanoparticles. IC50 of BcNPs at 24, 48, and 72 h against L. major were found to be 7.6, 5.96, and 3.19 µg/ml, respectively. BcNLs showed a significant anti-Leishmania effect and induced a better and more tangible effect on the survival of L. major promastigotes and could be suitable candidates for further investigation. The results showed that the BcNLs agent is effective against L. major promastigotes and may be a promising alternative to current treatments.

Keywords: Leishmania major, berberine chloride, nano-liposomes, cutaneous leishmaniasis

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25 Antimicrobial Activity of Seed Oil of Garlic and Moringa oleifera against Some Food-Borne Microorganisms

Authors: Mansur Abdulrasheed, Ibrahim I. Hussein, Ahmed M. Mubarak, Ahmed F. Umar


This study was aimed at evaluating the phytochemical constituents and the antimicrobial activity of the seed oil of Moringa oleifera and garlic against some selected food-borne microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) using disc diffusion method. The results of the phytochemical screening revealed differences in the presence of the phytochemicals among the extracts. Saponins were detected in both Moringa oleifera and garlic seed oil, while alkaloid and tannins were observed in seed oil of garlic. Furthermore, the antibacterial assay results show that the seed oil of Moringa oleifera was inactive against all the tested organisms, even at 100 % concentration. In contrast, garlic oil was found to be active against all the tested organisms. The highest inhibition was observed in E. coli (12 mm) at 100 % concentration, while at 20 % concentration, Salmonella Sp and P. aeruginosa showed the least inhibiton (6 mm). The antimicrobial activity of the seed oil of garlic may be attributed to its phytochemicals components which were not detected in the seed oil of Moringa oleifera. The results of this study have shown the potentials of the seed oil of garlic as an antimicrobial agent more especially in foods, by inhibiting the growth of the test organisms, which range from food-borne pathogens to food spoilage organisms.

Keywords: antimicrobial, garlic, Moringa oleifera, food borne pathogens

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24 Comparison of Antimicrobial Activity of Seed Oil of Garlic and Moringa oleifera against Some Food-Borne Microorganisms

Authors: Mansur Abdulrasheed, Ibrahim I. Hussein, Ahmed M. Mubarak, Ahmed F. Umar


This study was aimed at evaluating the phytochemical constituents and the antimicrobial activity of the seed oil of Moringa oleifera and garlic against some selected food-borne microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) using disc diffusion method. The results of the phytochemical screening revealed differences in the presence of the phytochemicals among the extracts. Saponins were detected in both Moringa oleifera and garlic seed oil, while alkaloid and tannins were observed in seed oil of garlic. Furthermore, the antibacterial assay results show that the seed oil of Moringa oleifera was inactive against all the tested organisms, even at 100 % concentration. In contrast, garlic oil was found to be active against all the tested organisms. The highest inhibition was observed in E. coli (12 mm)at 100 % concentration, while at 20 % concentration, Salmonella Sp and P. aeruginosa showed the least inhibit on (6 mm). The antimicrobial activity of the seed oil of garlic may be attributed to its phytochemicals components which were not detected in the seed oil of Moringa oleifera. The results of this study have shown the potentials of the seed oil of garlic as an antimicrobial agent more especially in foods, by inhibiting the growth of the test organisms, which range from food-borne pathogens to food spoilage organisms.

Keywords: antimicrobial, garlic, Moringa oleifera, food borne pathogens

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23 An Examination of Internal Control System, Executive Duality and Audit Alarm Committee of Listed Nigerian Companies

Authors: Mansur Lubabah Kwanbo


Existing literatures have demonstrated the importance of executive duality (ED) and audit committee (AC) in the financial growth of companies. To some extent this points to corporate governance mechanism aiming at addressing makers and implementers of company policies to be centered on promoting only company objectives. However, furthering organizational objectives needs an adequate structure of control to realize that. Recent development in the various industries in Nigeria have indicated the internal control system (ICS)has not been able to adequately address most of the activities that results in ills of sustaining growth for these industries. It is from this premise the study has as one of its objective to determine the extent to which ICS significantly relates to ED and AC in listed Nigerian corporation. Data were sourced from 308 financial statements and accounts of the corporations that made the sample of the study. Logistic regression aided the test of the hypothesis formulated for the study. Findings revealed a significant relationship between the study variables. The study concludes that the internal control system (ICS) is effective despite the bifurcation of executive duality (ED) and the presence of the Audit Committee (AC) to the extent of preventing ills that encourage lack of sustainability of company’s growth. Sustaining legitimate policies that translate into huge earnings, and create value to stake holders should be pursued.

Keywords: audit committee (AC), executive duality (ED), internal control system (ICS), Nigeria

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22 Assessment of the Indices in Converting Affect Rural to Urban Settlements Case Study: Torqabe and Shandiz Rural Districts in Iran

Authors: Fahimeh Khatami, Elham Sanagar Darbani, Behnosh Khir Khah, R.Khatami


Rural and ruralism is one of the residential forms that form in special natural areas, and the Interaction between their internal and external forces cause developments and changes that are different in time and space. Over time, historical developments, social and economic changes in the political system cause developments and rapid growth of the rural to urban settlements. However, criteria for recognizing rural settlements to the city are different in every land. One of the problems in modern plan is inattention to indicators and criteria of changing these settlements to the city. The method of this research is a type of applied and compilation research and library and field methods are used in it. And also qualitative and quantitative indicators have been provided while collecting documents and studies from rural districts like Dehnow, Virani, Abardeh, Zoshk, Nowchah, Jaqarq in tourism area of Mashhad. In this research, the used tool is questionnaire and for analyzing quantitative variables by Morris and Mac Granahan examination, the importance of each factor and the development settlements are evaluated, and the rural that can convert to the city was defined. In result, according to Askalvgram curve obtained from analysis, it was found that among the mentioned villages, Virani and Nowchah rural districts have this ability to convert to the city; Zoshk rural district will be converting to the city in future and Dehnow, Abardeh and Jaqarq rural districts won’t be converting.

Keywords: rural settlements, city, indicators, Torqabe and Shandiz rural districts

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21 Examining the Role of Soil pH on the Composition and Abundance of Nitrite Oxidising Bacteria

Authors: Mansur Abdulrasheed, Hussein I. Ibrahim, Ahmed F. Umar


Nitrification, the microbial oxidation of ammonia to nitrate (NO3-) via nitrite (NO2-) is a vital process in the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle and is performed by two distinct functional groups; ammonia oxidisers (comprised of ammonia oxidising bacteria (AOB) and ammonia oxidising archaea (AOA)) and nitrite oxidising bacteria. Autotrophic nitrification is said to occur in acidic soils, even though most laboratory cultures of isolated ammonia and nitrite oxidising bacteria fail to grow below neutral pH. Published studies revealed that soil pH is a major driver for determining the distribution and abundance of AOB and AOA. To determine whether distinct populations of nitrite oxidising bacteria within the lineages of Nitrospira and Nitrobacter are adapted to a particular range of pH as observed in ammonia oxidising organisms, the community structure of Nitrospira-like and Nitrobacter-like NOB were examined across a pH gradient (4.5–7.5) by amplifying nitrite oxido-reductase (nxrA) and 16S rRNA genes followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The community structure of both Nitrospira and Nitrobacter changed with soil pH, with distinct populations observed in acidic and neutral soils. The abundance of Nitrospira-like 16S rRNA and Nitrobacter-like nxrA gene copies contrasted across the pH gradient. Nitrobacter-like nxrA gene abundance decreased with increasing soil pH, whereas Nitrospira-like 16S rRNA gene abundance increased with increasing pH. Findings indicated that abundance and distributions of soil NOB is influence by soil pH.

Keywords: nitrospira, nitrobacter, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, nitrification, pH, soil

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20 Effects of Selected Plant-Derived Nutraceuticals on the Quality and Shelf-Life Stability of Frankfurter Type Sausages during Storage

Authors: Kazem Alirezalu, Javad Hesari, Zabihollah Nemati, Boukaga Farmani


The application of natural plant extracts which are rich in promising antioxidants and antimicrobial ingredients in the production of frankfurter-type sausages addresses consumer demands for healthier, more functional meat products. The effects of olive leaves, green tea and Urtica dioica L. extracts on physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristic of frankfurter-type sausage were investigated during 45 days of storage at 4 °C. The results revealed that pH and phenolic compounds decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in all samples during storage. Sausages containing 500 ppm green tea extract (1.78 mg/kg) showed the lowest TBARS values compared to olive leaves (2.01 mg/kg), Urtica dioica L. (2.26 mg/kg) extracts and control (2.74 mg/kg). Plant extracts significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the count of total mesophilic bacteria, yeast and mold by at least 2 log cycles (CFU/g) than those of control samples. Sensory characteristics of texture showed no difference (P > 0.05) between sausage samples, but sausage containing Urtica dioica L. extract had the highest score regarding flavor, freshness odor, and overall acceptability. Based on the results, sausage containing plant extracts could have a significant impact on antimicrobial activity, antioxidant capacity, sensory score, and shelf life stability of frankfurter-type sausage.

Keywords: antimicrobial, antioxidant, frankfurter-type sausage, green tea, olive oil, shelf life, Urtica dioica L.

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19 On the Significance of Preparing a Professional Literature Review in EFL Context

Authors: Fahimeh Marefat, Marzieh Marefat


The present research is inspired by the comment that “A substantive, thorough, sophisticated literature review is a precondition for doing substantive, thorough, sophisticated research”. This study is a report on an action research to solve my problem of preparing students to write a Literature Review (LR) that is more than mere cut and paste. More specifically, this study was initiated to discover whether there is an impact of equipping students with tools to write LR on the quality of research and on their view on LR significance. The participants were twenty-four Iranian TEFLers at Allameh Tabataba’i University. they were taking their advanced writing course with the lead researcher. We met once a week for 90 minutes for five weeks followed by individual consultations. Working through a process approach, and implementing tasks, the lead researcher ran workshops implementing different controlled assignments and subsequent activities to lead students to practice appropriate source use on multiple drafts: From choosing the topic, finding sources, forming questions, preparing quotation, paraphrase, and summary note cards, to outlining and most importantly introducing them the tools to evaluate prior research and offer their own take of it and finally synthesizing and incorporating the notes into the body of the LR section of their papers. The LR scoring rubric was implemented and a note was emailed to the students asking about their views. It was indicated that awareness raising and detailed explicit instruction improved the LR quality compared to their previous projects. Interestingly enough, they acknowledged how LR shaped all stages of their research, a further support for the notion of “being scholars before researchers”. The key to success is mastery over the literature which translates into extensive reading and critically appraising it.

Keywords: controlled tasks, critical evaluation, review of literature, writing synthesis

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18 Meditation Aided with 40 Hz Binaural Beats Enhances the Cognitive Function and Mood State

Authors: Rubina Shakya, Srijana Dangol, Dil Islam Mansur


The exposure of constant stress stimuli in our daily lives is causing deterioration of neural connectivity in the brain. Interestingly, the improvement in larger-scale neural communication has been argued to rely on brain rhythms, which might be sensitive to binaural beats of particular frequency bands. The theoretical idea behind neural entrainment is that the rhythmic oscillatory activity within and between different brain regions can enhance cognitive function and mood state. So, we aimed to investigate whether the binaural beats of 40 Hz could enhance the cognition and the mood stability of the medical students at Kathmandu University of age 18-25 years old, which possibly, in the long run, might help to enhance their work productivity. The participants were asked to focus on the auditory stimuli of binaural beats with 200 Hz on the right side and 240 Hz on the left side of the headset for 15 minutes, every alternative day of three consecutive weeks. The Stroop’s test and the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS) were applied to assess the cognitive function and the mood state, respectively. The binaural beats significantly decreased the reaction time for the incoherent component of Stroop’s test in both male and female participants. For the mood state, scores of all positive emotions except ‘Calmness’ were significantly increased in the case of males. Whereas, scores of all positive emotions except ‘Vigor’ were significantly increased in the case of females. The results suggested that the meditation aided by binaural beats of 40 Hz helps in improving cognition and mood states to some extent.

Keywords: binaural beats, cognitive function, gamma neural oscillation, mood states

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17 Evaluation of Raw Diatomaceous Earth and Plant Powders in the Control of Callosobruchus subinnotatus (Pic.) on Stored Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) (Verdc.) Seeds

Authors: Ibrahim Nasiru Dole, Audu Abdullahi, Dike Michiel Chidozie, Lawal Mansur


Bambara groundnut is an important grain legume and the seeds in storage suffer infestation by Callosobruchus subinnotatus. Laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of raw diatomaceous earth (RDE) and plant powders (Jatropha curcas (L.), Eucalyptus camaldulensis (Dehnh.) and Melia azedarach (L.) against C. subinnotatus infesting stored bambara groundnut seeds. Rearing of the insects and the experiments were conducted in Agricultural Biology Laboratory of the Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto - Nigeria under ambient conditions (29-33oC and a relative humidity of 44-56%). Four treatments at three levels: RDE at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g while plant powders at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g, standard/check (2.0 g of Actellic dust), and a control. These were separately admixed with 100 g of sterilized seeds in glass jars. Each jar was later infested with thirty, 1-2-days old C. subinnotatus of mixed sexes. Adult mortality was assessed 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours, F1 and F2 progenies, seed damage, weight loss and viability were also assessed after 90 days. Eighty-nine (89%) percent adult mortality was recorded in the highest dose of RDE after 96 hours of exposure. These treatments significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed F1 and F2 progenies emergence in relation to the control. The control suffered significantly (P < 0.05) higher seed damage (51.0 %) and weight loss (40.8%) thereby recording lower seed germination. Therefore, RDE and plant powders could be used against C. subinnotatus on stored bambara groundnut seeds.

Keywords: bambara, callosobruchus subinnotatus, plant powders, raw diatomaceous earth,

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16 Estimation of Effective Radiation Dose Following Computed Tomography Urography at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano Nigeria

Authors: Idris Garba, Aisha Rabiu Abdullahi, Mansur Yahuza, Akintade Dare


Background: CT urography (CTU) is efficient radiological examination for the evaluation of the urinary system disorders. However, patients are exposed to a significant radiation dose which is in a way associated with increased cancer risks. Objectives: To determine Computed Tomography Dose Index following CTU, and to evaluate organs equivalent doses. Materials and Methods: A prospective cohort study was carried at a tertiary institution located in Kano northwestern. Ethical clearance was sought and obtained from the research ethics board of the institution. Demographic, scan parameters and CT radiation dose data were obtained from patients that had CTU procedure. Effective dose, organ equivalent doses, and cancer risks were estimated using SPSS statistical software version 16 and CT dose calculator software. Result: A total of 56 patients were included in the study, consisting of 29 males and 27 females. The common indication for CTU examination was found to be renal cyst seen commonly among young adults (15-44yrs). CT radiation dose values in DLP, CTDI and effective dose for CTU were 2320 mGy cm, CTDIw 9.67 mGy and 35.04 mSv respectively. The probability of cancer risks was estimated to be 600 per a million CTU examinations. Conclusion: In this study, the radiation dose for CTU is considered significantly high, with increase in cancer risks probability. Wide radiation dose variations between patient doses suggest that optimization is not fulfilled yet. Patient radiation dose estimate should be taken into consideration when imaging protocols are established for CT urography.

Keywords: CT urography, cancer risks, effective dose, radiation exposure

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15 Probabilistic Crash Prediction and Prevention of Vehicle Crash

Authors: Lavanya Annadi, Fahimeh Jafari


Transportation brings immense benefits to society, but it also has its costs. Costs include such as the cost of infrastructure, personnel and equipment, but also the loss of life and property in traffic accidents on the road, delays in travel due to traffic congestion and various indirect costs in terms of air transport. More research has been done to identify the various factors that affect road accidents, such as road infrastructure, traffic, sociodemographic characteristics, land use, and the environment. The aim of this research is to predict the probabilistic crash prediction of vehicles using machine learning due to natural and structural reasons by excluding spontaneous reasons like overspeeding etc., in the United States. These factors range from weather factors, like weather conditions, precipitation, visibility, wind speed, wind direction, temperature, pressure, and humidity to human made structures like road structure factors like bump, roundabout, no exit, turning loop, give away, etc. Probabilities are dissected into ten different classes. All the predictions are based on multiclass classification techniques, which are supervised learning. This study considers all crashes that happened in all states collected by the US government. To calculate the probability, multinomial expected value was used and assigned a classification label as the crash probability. We applied three different classification models, including multiclass Logistic Regression, Random Forest and XGBoost. The numerical results show that XGBoost achieved a 75.2% accuracy rate which indicates the part that is being played by natural and structural reasons for the crash. The paper has provided in-deep insights through exploratory data analysis.

Keywords: road safety, crash prediction, exploratory analysis, machine learning

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