Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 391

Search results for: anaerobic digestion

301 Biogas Production from Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) Processing Waste

Authors: İ. Çelik, Goksel Demirer


Turkey is the third largest producer of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) after Iran and United States. Harvested pistachio nuts are covered with organic hull which is removed by de-hulling process. Most of the pistachio by-products which are produced during de-hulling process are considered as agricultural waste and often mixed with soil, to a lesser extent are used as feedstuff by local livestock farmers and a small portion is used as herbal medicine. Due to its high organic and phenolic content as well as high solids concentration, pistachio processing wastes create significant waste management problems unless they are properly managed. However, there is not a well-established waste management method compensating the waste generated during the processing of pistachios. This study investigated the anaerobic treatability and biogas generation potential of pistachio hull waste. The effect of pre-treatment on biogas generation potential was investigated. For this purpose, Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) Assays were conducted for two Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) concentrations of 22 and 33 g tCOD l-1 at the absence and presence of chemical and thermal pre-treatment methods. The results revealed anaerobic digestion of the pistachio de-hulling wastes and subsequent biogas production as a renewable energy source are possible. The observed percent COD removal and methane yield values of the pre-treated pistachio de-hulling waste samples were significantly higher than the raw pistachio de-hulling waste. The highest methane yield was observed as 213.4 ml CH4/g COD.

Keywords: pistachio de-hulling waste, biogas, renewable energy, pre-treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
300 Production of Biogas from Organic Wastes Using Plastic Biodigesternoura

Authors: Oladipo Oluwaseun Peter


Daily consumption of crude oil is alarming as a result of increasing demand for energy. Waste generation tends to rise with the level of economic advancement of a nation. Hence, this project work researches how wastes which could pose toxic if left unattended to can be processed through biodigestion in order to generate biofuel which could serve as a good substitute for petroleum, a non renewable energy source, so as to reduce over-dependence on petroleum and to prevent environmental pollution. Anaerobic digestion was carried out on organic wastes comprising brewery spent grains, rice husks and poultry droppings in a plastic biodigester of 1000 liters volume using the poultry droppings as a natural inoculums source. The feed composition in ratio 5:3:2, spent grain, rice husks and poultry droppings were mixed with water in the ratio 1:6. Thus, 600 Kg of water was used to prepare the slurry with 100 Kg of feed materials. A plastic biodigester was successfully constructed, and the problem of corrosion and rusting were completely overcome as a result of the use of non-corroding materials of construction. A reasonable quantity of biogas, 33.63m3, was generated over a period of 60 days of biodigestion. The bioslurry was processed through two different process routes; evaporation and filteration. Evaporation process of analysis shows high values of 0.64%, 2.11% and 0.034% for nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium respectively, while filteration process gives 00.61%, 1.93% and 0.026% for nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium respectively.

Keywords: biodigestion, biofuel, digestion, slurry, biogas

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
299 High Rate Bio-Methane Generation from Petrochemical Wastewater Using Improved CSTR

Authors: Md. Nurul Islam Siddique, A. W. Zularisam


The effect of gradual increase in organic loading rate (OLR) and temperature on biomethanation from petrochemical wastewater treatment was investigated using CSTR. The digester performance was measured at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4 to 2d, and start up procedure of the reactor was monitored for 60 days via chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, biogas and methane production. By enhancing the temperature from 30 to 55 ˚C Thermophilic condition was attained, and pH was adjusted at 7 ± 0.5 during the experiment. Supreme COD removal competence was 98±0.5% (r = 0.84) at an OLR of 7.5 g-COD/Ld and 4d HRT. Biogas and methane yield were logged to an extreme of 0.80 L/g-CODremoved d (r = 0.81), 0.60 L/g-CODremoved d (r = 0.83), and mean methane content of biogas was 65.49%. The full acclimatization was established at 55 ˚C with high COD removal efficiency and biogas production. An OLR of 7.5 g-COD/L d and HRT of 4 days were apposite for petrochemical wastewater treatment.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, petrochemical wastewater, CSTR, methane

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
298 Typification and Determination of Antibiotic Susceptibility Profiles with E Test Methods of Anaerobic Gram Negative Bacilli Isolated from Various Clinical Specimen

Authors: Cengiz Demir, Recep Keşli, Gülşah Aşık


Objective: This study was carried out with the purpose of defining by using the E test method and determining the antibiotic resistance profiles of Gram-negative anaerobic bacilli isolated from various clinical specimens obtained from patients with suspected anaerobic infections and referred to Medical Microbiology Laboratory of Afyon Kocatepe University, ANS Application and Research Hospital. Methods: Two hundred and seventy eight clinical specimens were examined for isolation of the anaerobic bacteria in Medical Microbiology Laboratory between the 1st November 2014 and 30th October 2015. Specimens were cultivated by using Scheadler agar that 5% defibrinated sheep blood added, and Scheadler broth. The isolated anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli were identified conventional methods and Vitek 2 (ANC ID Card, bioMerieux, France) cards. Antibiotic resistance rates against to penicillin G, clindamycin, cefoxitin, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, imipenem, meropenem, ertapenem and doripenem were determined with E-test method for each isolate. Results: Of the isolated twenty-eight anaerobic gram negative bacilli fourteen were identified as the B. fragilis group, 9 were Prevotella group, and 5 were Fusobacterium group. The highest resistance rate was found against penicillin (78.5%) and resistance rates against clindamycin and cefoxitin were found as 17.8% and 21.4%, respectively. Against to the; metronidazole, moxifloxacin, imipenem, meropenem, ertapenem and doripenem, no resistance was found. Conclusion: Since high rate resistance has been detected against to penicillin in the study penicillin should not be preferred in empirical treatment. Cefoxitin can be preferred in empirical treatment; however, carrying out the antibiotic sensitivity testing will be more proper and beneficial. No resistance was observed against carbapenem group antibiotics and metronidazole; so that reason, these antibiotics should be reserved for treatment of infectious caused by resistant strains in the future.

Keywords: anaerobic gram-negative bacilli, anaerobe, antibiotics and resistance profiles, e-test method

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297 The Effect of Supercritical Fluid on the Extraction Efficiency of Heavy Metal from Soil

Authors: Haifa El-Sadi, Maria Elektorowicz, Reed Rushing, Ammar Badawieh, Asif Chaudry


Clay soils have particular properties that affect the assessment and remediation of contaminated sites. In clay soils, electro-kinetic transport of heavy metals has been carried out. The transport of these metals is predicated on maintaining a low pH throughout the cell, which, in turn, keeps the metals in the pore water phase where they are accessible to electro-kinetic transport. Supercritical fluid extraction and acid digestion were used for the analysis of heavy metals concentrations after the completion of electro-kinetic experimentation. Supercritical fluid (carbon dioxide) extraction is a new technique used to extract the heavy metal (lead, nickel, calcium and potassium) from clayey soil. The comparison between supercritical extraction and acid digestion of different metals was carried out. Supercritical fluid extraction, using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as a modifier, proved to be efficient and a safer technique than acid digestion technique in extracting metals from clayey soil. Mixing time of soil with EDTA before extracting heavy metals from clayey soil was investigated. The optimum and most practical shaking time for the extraction of lead, nickel, calcium and potassium was two hours.

Keywords: clay soil, heavy metals, supercritical fluid extraction, acid digestion

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296 The Effect of Porous Alkali Activated Material Composition on Buffer Capacity in Bioreactors

Authors: Girts Bumanis, Diana Bajare


With demand for primary energy continuously growing, search for renewable and efficient energy sources has been high on agenda of our society. One of the most promising energy sources is biogas technology. Residues coming from dairy industry and milk processing could be used in biogas production; however, low efficiency and high cost impede wide application of such technology. One of the main problems is management and conversion of organic residues through the anaerobic digestion process which is characterized by acidic environment due to the low whey pH (<6) whereas additional pH control system is required. Low buffering capacity of whey is responsible for the rapid acidification in biological treatments; therefore alkali activated material is a promising solution of this problem. Alkali activated material is formed using SiO2 and Al2O3 rich materials under highly alkaline solution. After material structure forming process is completed, free alkalis remain in the structure of materials which are available for leaching and could provide buffer capacity potential. In this research porous alkali activated material was investigated. Highly porous material structure ensures gradual leaching of alkalis during time which is important in biogas digestion process. Research of mixture composition and SiO2/Na2O and SiO2/Al2O ratio was studied to test the buffer capacity potential of alkali activated material. This research has proved that by changing molar ratio of components it is possible to obtain a material with different buffer capacity, and this novel material was seen to have considerable potential for using it in processes where buffer capacity and pH control is vitally important.

Keywords: alkaline material, buffer capacity, biogas production, bioreactors

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295 Treatment of Poultry Slaughterhouse Wastewater by Mesophilic Static Granular Bed Reactor (SGBR) Coupled with UF Membrane

Authors: Moses Basitere, Marshal Sherene Sheldon, Seteno Karabo Obed Ntwampe, Debbie Dejager


In South Africa, Poultry slaughterhouses consume largest amount of freshwater and discharges high strength wastewater, which can be treated successfully at low cost using anaerobic digesters. In this study, the performance of bench-scale mesophilic Static Granular Bed Reactor (SGBR) containing fully anaerobic granules coupled with ultra-filtration (UF) membrane as a post-treatment for poultry slaughterhouse wastewater was investigated. The poultry slaughterhouse was characterized by chemical oxygen demand (COD) range between 2000 and 6000 mg/l, average biological oxygen demand (BOD) of 2375 mg/l and average fats, oil and grease (FOG) of 554 mg/l. A continuous SGBR anaerobic reactor was operated for 6 weeks at different hydraulic retention time (HRT) and an Organic loading rate. The results showed an average COD removal was greater than 90% for both the SGBR anaerobic digester and ultrafiltration membrane. The total suspended solids and fats oil and grease (FOG) removal was greater than 95%. The SGBR reactor coupled with UF membrane showed a greater potential to treat poultry slaughterhouse wastewater.

Keywords: chemical oxygen demand, poultry slaughterhouse wastewater, static granular bed reactor, ultrafiltration, wastewater

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294 Scaling-Down an Agricultural Waste Biogas Plant Fermenter

Authors: Matheus Pessoa, Matthias Kraume


Scale-Down rules in process engineering help us to improve and develop Industrial scale parameters into lab scale. Several scale-down rules available in the literature like Impeller Power Number, Agitation device Power Input, Substrate Tip Speed, Reynolds Number and Cavern Development were investigated in order to stipulate the rotational speed to operate an 11 L working volume lab-scale bioreactor within industrial process parameters. Herein, xanthan gum was used as a fluid with a representative viscosity of a hypothetical biogas plant, with H/D = 1 and central agitation, fermentation broth using sewage sludge and sugar beet pulp as substrate. The results showed that the cavern development strategy was the best method for establishing a rotational speed for the bioreactor operation, while the other rules presented values out of reality for this article proposes.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, cavern development, scale down rules, xanthan gum

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293 Stability of Total Phenolic Concentration and Antioxidant Capacity of Extracts from Pomegranate Co-Products Subjected to In vitro Digestion

Authors: Olaniyi Fawole, Umezuruike Opara


Co-products obtained from pomegranate juice processing contain high levels of polyphenols with potential high added values. From value-addition viewpoint, the aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of polyphenolic concentrations in pomegranate fruit co-products in different solvent extracts and assess the effect on the total antioxidant capacity using the FRAP, DPPH˙ and ABTS˙+ assays during simulated in vitro digestion. Pomegranate juice, marc and peel were extracted in water, 50% ethanol (50%EtOH) and absolute ethanol (100%EtOH) and analysed for total phenolic concentration (TPC), total flavonoids concentration (TFC) and total antioxidant capacity in DPPH˙, ABST˙+ and FRAP assays before and after in vitro digestion. Total phenolic concentration (TPC) and total flavonoid concentration (TFC) were in the order of peel > marc > juice throughout the in vitro digestion irrespective of the extraction solvents used. However, 50% ethanol extracted 1.1 to 12-fold more polyphenols than water and ethanol solvents depending on co-products. TPC and TFC increased significantly in gastric digests. In contrast, after the duodenal, polyphenolic concentrations decreased significantly (p < 0.05) compared to those obtained in gastric digests. Undigested samples and gastric digests showed strong and positive relationships between polyphenols and the antioxidant activities measured in DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays, with correlation coefficients (r2) ranging between 0.930 – 0.990 whereas, the correlation between polyphenols (TPC and TFC) and radical cation scavenging activity (in ABTS) were moderately positive in duodenal digests. Findings from this study also showed that the concentration of pomegranate polyphenols and antioxidant thereof during in vitro gastro-intestinal digestion may not reflect the pre-digested phenolic concentration. Thus, this study highlights the need to provide biologically relevant information on antioxidants by providing data reflecting their stability and activity after in vitro digestion.

Keywords: by-product, DPPH, polyphenols, value addition

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292 Investigating the Efficiency of Granular Sludge for Recovery of Phosphate from Wastewater

Authors: Sara Salehi, Ka Yu Cheng, Anna Heitz, Maneesha Ginige


This study investigated the efficiency of granular sludge for phosphorous (P) recovery from wastewater. A laboratory scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated under alternating aerobic/anaerobic conditions to enrich a P accumulating granular biomass. This study showed that an overall 45-fold increase in P concentration could be achieved by reducing the volume of the P capturing liquor by 5-fold in the anaerobic P release phase. Moreover, different fractions of the granular biomass have different individual contributions towards generating a concentrated stream of P.

Keywords: granular sludge, PAOs, P recovery, SBR

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291 Identifying Dominant Anaerobic Microorganisms for Degradation of Benzene

Authors: Jian Peng, Wenhui Xiong, Zheng Lu


An optimal recipe of amendment (nutrients and electron acceptors) was developed and dominant indigenous benzene-degrading microorganisms were characterized in this study. Lessons were learnt from the development of the optimal amendment recipe: (1) salinity and substantial initial concentration of benzene were detrimental for benzene biodegradation; (2) large dose of amendments can shorten the lag time for benzene biodegradation occurrence; (3) toluene was an essential co-substance for promoting benzene degradation activity. The stable isotope probing study identified incorporation 13C from 13C-benzene into microorganisms, which can be considered as a direct evidence of the occurrence of benzene biodegradation. The dominant mechanism for benzene removal was identified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis to be nitrate reduction. Microbial analyses (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S ribosomal RNA) demonstrated that members of genus Dokdonella spp., Pusillimonas spp., and Advenella spp. were predominant within the microbial community and involved in the anaerobic benzene bioremediation.

Keywords: benzene, enhanced anaerobic bioremediation, stable isotope probing, biosep biotrap

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290 Degradation of Commercial Polychlorinated Biphenyl Mixture by Naturally Occurring Facultative Microorganisms via Anaerobic Dechlorination and Aerobic Oxidation

Authors: P. M. G. Pathiraja, P. Egodawatta, A. Goonetilleke, V. S. J. Te'o


The production and use of Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a group of synthetic halogenated hydrocarbons have been restricted worldwide due to its toxicity and categorized as one of the twelve priority persistent organic pollutants (POP) by the Stockholm Convention. Low reactivity and high chemical stability of PCBs have made them highly persistent in the environment and bio-concentration and bio-magnification along the food chain contribute to multiple health impacts in humans and animals. Remediating environments contaminated with PCBs is a challenging task for decades. Use of microorganisms for remediation of PCB contaminated soils and sediments have been widely investigated due to the potential of breakdown these complex contaminants with minimum environmental impacts. To achieve an effective bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contaminated environments, microbes were sourced from environmental samples and tested for their ability to hydrolyze PCBs under different conditions. Comparison of PCB degradation efficiencies of four naturally occurring facultative bacterial cultures isolated through selective enrichment under aerobic and anaerobic conditions were simultaneously investigated in minimal salt medium using 50 mg/L Aroclor 1260, a commonly used commercial PCB mixture as the sole source of carbon. The results of a six-week study demonstrated that all the tested facultative Achromobacter, Ochrobactrum, Lysinibacillus and Pseudomonas strains are capable of degrading PCBs under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions while assisting hydrophobic PCBs to make solubilize in the aqueous minimal medium. Overall, the results suggest that some facultative bacteria are capable of effective in degrading PCBs under anaerobic conditions through reductive dechlorination and under aerobic conditions through oxidation. Therefore, use of suitable facultative microorganisms under combined anaerobic-aerobic conditions and combination of such strains capable of solubilization and breakdown of PCBs has high potential in achieving higher PCB removal rates.

Keywords: bioremediation, combined anaerobic-aerobic degradation, facultative microorganisms, polychlorinated biphenyls

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289 Industrial Wastewater from Paper Mills Used for Biofuel Production and Soil Improvement

Authors: Karin M. Granstrom


Paper mills produce wastewater with a high content of organic substances. Treatment usually consists of sedimentation, biological treatment of activated sludge basins, and chemical precipitation. The resulting sludges are currently a waste problem, deposited in landfills or used as low-grade fuels for incineration. There is a growing awareness of the need for energy efficiency and environmentally sound management of sludge. A resource-efficient method would be to digest the wastewater sludges anaerobically to produce biogas, refine the biogas to biomethane for use in the transportation sector, and utilize the resulting digestate for soil improvement. The biomethane yield of pulp and paper wastewater sludge is comparable to that of straw or manure. As a bonus, the digestate has an improved dewaterability compared to the feedstock biosludge. Limitations of this process are predominantly a weak economic viability - necessitating both sufficiently large-scale paper production for the necessary large amounts of produced wastewater sludge, and the resolving of remaining questions on the certifiability of the digestate and thus its sales price. A way to improve the practical and economical feasibility of using paper mill wastewater for biomethane production and soil improvement is to co-digest it with other feedstocks. In this study, pulp and paper sludge were co-digested with (1) silage and manure, (2) municipal sewage sludge, (3) food waste, or (4) microalgae. Biomethane yield analysis was performed in 500 ml batch reactors, using an Automatic Methane Potential Test System at thermophilic temperature, with a 20 days test duration. The results show that (1) the harvesting season of grass silage and manure collection was an important factor for methane production, with spring feedstocks producing much more than autumn feedstock, and pulp mill sludge benefitting the most from co-digestion; (2) pulp and paper mill sludge is a suitable co-substrate to add when a high nitrogen content cause impaired biogas production due to ammonia inhibition; (3) the combination of food waste and paper sludge gave higher methane yield than either of the substrates digested separately; (4) pure microalgae gave the highest methane yield. In conclusion, although pulp and paper mills are an almost untapped resource for biomethane production, their wastewater is a suitable feedstock for such a process. Furthermore, through co-digestion, the pulp and paper mill wastewater and mill sludges can aid biogas production from more nutrient-rich waste streams from other industries. Such co-digestion also enhances the soil improvement properties of the residue digestate.

Keywords: anaerobic, biogas, biomethane, paper, sludge, soil

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288 Dehalogenation of Aromatic Compounds in Wastewater by Bacterial Cultures

Authors: Anne Elain, Magali Le Fellic


Halogenated Aromatic Compounds (HAC) are major organic pollutants that are detected in several environmental compartments as a result of their widespread use as solvents, pesticides and other industrial chemicals. The degradation of HAC simultaneously at low temperature and under saline conditions would be useful for remediation of polluted sites. Hence, microbial processes based on the metabolic activities of anaerobic bacteria are especially attractive from an economic and environmental point of view. Metabolites are generally less toxic, less likely to bioaccumulate and more susceptible for further degradation. Studies on biological reductive dehalogenation have largely been restricted to chlorinated compounds while relatively few have focussed on other HAC i.e., fluorinated, brominated or iodinated compounds. The objectives of the present work were to investigate the biodegradation of a mixture of triiodoaromatic molecules in industrial wastewater by an enriched bacterial consortium. Biodegradation of the mixture was studied during batch experiments in an anaerobic reactor. The degree of mineralization and recovery of halogen were monitored by HPLC-UV, TOC analysis and potentiometric titration. Providing ethanol as an electron donor was found to stimulate anaerobic reductive dehalogenation of HAC with a deiodination rate up to 12.4 mg.L-1 per day. Sodium chloride even at high concentration (10 mM) was found to have no influence on the degradation rates nor on the microbial viability. An analysis of the 16S rDNA (MicroSeq®) revealed that at least 6 bacteria were predominant in the enrichment, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas monteilii, Kocuria rhizophila, Ochrobacterium anthropi, Ralstonia pickettii and Rhizobium rhizogenes.

Keywords: halogenated aromatics, anaerobic biodegradation, deiodination, bacterial consortium

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287 Effects of Elastic, Plyometric and Strength Training on Selected Anaerobic Factors in Sanandaj Elite Volleyball Players

Authors: Majed Zobairy, Fardin Kalvandi, Kamal Azizbaigi


This research was carried out for evaluation of elastic, plyometric and resistance training on selected anaerobic factors in men volleyball players. For these reason 30 elite volleyball players of Sanandaj city randomly divided into 3 groups as follow: elastic training, plyometric training and resistance training. Pre-exercise tests which include vertical jumping, 50 yard speed running and scat test were done and data were recorded. Specific exercise protocol regimen was done for each group and then post-exercise tests again were done. Data analysis showed that there were significant increases in exercise test in each group. One way ANOVA analysis showed that increases in speed records in elastic group were significantly higher than the other groups (p<0/05),based on research data it seems that elastic training can be a useful method and new approach in improving functional test and training regimen.

Keywords: elastic training, plyometric training, strength training, anaerobic power

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286 The Effects of in vitro Digestion on Cheese Bioactivity; Comparing Adult and Elderly Simulated in vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion Models

Authors: A. M. Plante, F. O’Halloran, A. L. McCarthy


By 2050 it is projected that 2 billion of the global population will be more than 60 years old. Older adults have unique dietary requirements and aging is associated with physiological changes that affect appetite, sensory perception, metabolism, and digestion. Therefore, it is essential that foods recommended and designed for older adults promote healthy aging. To assess cheese as a functional food for the elderly, a range of commercial cheese products were selected and compared for their antioxidant properties. Cheese from various milk sources (bovine, goats, sheep) with different textures and fat content, including cheddar, feta, goats, brie, roquefort, halloumi, wensleydale and gouda, were initially digested with two different simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion (SGID) models. One SGID model represented a validated in vitro adult digestion system and the second model, an elderly SGID, was designed to consider the physiological changes associated with aging. The antioxidant potential of all cheese digestates was investigated using in vitro chemical-based antioxidant assays, (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total phenolic content (TPC)). All adult model digestates had high antioxidant activity across both DPPH ( > 70%) and FRAP ( > 700 µM Fe²⁺/kg.fw) assays. Following in vitro digestion using the elderly SGID model, full-fat red cheddar, low-fat white cheddar, roquefort, halloumi, wensleydale, and gouda digestates had significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) DPPH radical scavenging properties compared to the adult model digestates. Full-fat white cheddar had higher DPPH radical scavenging activity following elderly SGID digestion compared to the adult model digestate, but the difference was not significant. All other cheese digestates from the elderly model were comparable to the digestates from the adult model in terms of radical scavenging activity. The FRAP of all elderly digestates were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) compared to the adult digestates. Goats cheese was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) in FRAP (718 µM Fe²/kg.fw) compared to all other digestates in the elderly model. TPC levels in the soft cheeses (feta, goats) and low-fat cheeses (red cheddar, white cheddar) were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) in the elderly digestates compared to the adult digestates. There was no significant difference in TPC levels, between the elderly and adult model for full-fat cheddar (red, white), roquefort, wensleydale, gouda, and brie digestates. Halloumi cheese was the only cheese that was significantly higher in TPC levels following elderly digestion compared to adult digestates. Low fat red cheddar had significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) TPC levels compared to all other digestates for both adult and elderly digestive systems. Findings from this study demonstrate that aging has an impact on the bioactivity of cheese, as antioxidant activity and TPC levels were lower, following in vitro elderly digestion compared to the adult model. For older adults, soft cheese, particularly goats cheese, was associated with high radical scavenging and reducing power, while roquefort cheese had low antioxidant activity. Also, elderly digestates of halloumi and low-fat red cheddar were associated with high TPC levels. Cheese has potential as a functional food for the elderly, however, bioactivity can vary depending on the cheese matrix. Funding for this research was provided by the RISAM Scholarship Scheme, Cork Institute of Technology, Ireland.

Keywords: antioxidants, cheese, in-vitro digestion, older adults

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285 Investigation of Biogas from Slaughterhouse and Dairy Farm Waste

Authors: Saadelnour Abdueljabbar Adam


Wastes from slaughterhouses in most towns in Sudan are often poorly managed and sometimes discharged into adjoining streams due to poor implementation of standards, thus causing environmental and public health hazards and also there is a large amount of manure from dairy farms. This paper presents a solution of organic waste from cow dairy farms and slaughterhouse. We present the findings of experimental investigation of biogas production using cow manure, blood and rumen content were mixed at three proportions :72.3%, 61%, 39% manure, 6%, 8.5%, 22% blood; and 21.7%, 30.5%, 39% rumen content in volume for bio-digester 1,2,3 respectively. This paper analyses the quantitative and qualitative composition of biogas: gas content, and the concentration of methane. The highest biogas output 0.116L/g dry matter from bio-digester1 together with a high-quality biogas of 85% methane Was from the mixture of cow manure with blood and rumen content were mixed at 72.3%manure, 6%blood and 21.7%rumen content which is useful for combustion and energy production. While bio-digester 2 and 3 gave 0.012L/g dry matter and 0.013L/g dry matter respectively with the weak concentration of methane (50%).

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, bio-digester, blood, cow manure, rumen content

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284 The Effects of Menstrual Phase on Upper and Lower Body Anaerobic Performance in College-Aged Women

Authors: Kelsey Scanlon


Introduction: With the rate of female collegiate and professional athletes on the rise in recent decades, fluctuations in physical performance in relation to the menstrual cycle is an important area of study. PURPOSE: The purpose of this research was to compare differences in upper and lower body maximal anaerobic capacities across a single menstrual cycle. Methode: Participants (n=11) met a total of four times; once for familiarization and again on day 1 of menses (follicular phase), day 14 (ovulation), and day 21 (luteal phase) respectively. Upper body power was assessed using a bench press weight of ~50% of the participant’s predetermined 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) on a ballistic measurement system and variables included peak force (N), mean force (N), peak power (W), mean power (W), and peak velocity (m/s). Lower body power output was collected using a standard Wingate test. The variables of interest were anaerobic capacity (w/kg), peak power (W), mean power (W), fatigue index (W/s), and total work (J). Result: Statistical significance was not observed (p > 0.05) in any of the aforementioned variables after completing multiple one ways of analyses of variances (ANOVAs) with repeated measures on time. Conclusion: Within the parameters of this research, neither female upper nor lower body power output differed across the menstrual cycle when analyzed using 50% of one repetition (1RM) maximal bench press and the 30-second maximal effort cycle ergometer Wingate test. Therefore, researchers should not alter their subject populations due to the incorrect assumption that power output may be influenced by the menstrual cycle.

Keywords: anaerobic, athlete, female, power

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283 Moving Towards Zero Waste in a UK Local Authority Area: Challenges to the Introduction of Separate Food Waste Collections

Authors: C. Cole, M. Osmani, A. Wheatley, M. Quddus


EU and UK Government targets for minimising and recycling household waste has led the responsible authorities to research the alternatives to landfill. In the work reported here the local waste collection authority (Charnwood Borough Council) has adopted the aspirational strategy of becoming a “Zero Waste Borough” to lead the drive for public participation. The work concludes that the separate collection of food waste would be needed to meet the two regulatory standards on recycling and biologically active wastes. An analysis of a neighbouring Authority (Newcastle-Under-Lyne Borough Council (NBC), a similar sized local authority that has a successful weekly food waste collection service was undertaken. Results indicate that the main challenges for Charnwood Borough Council would be gaining householder co-operation, the extra costs of collection and organising alternative treatment. The analysis also demonstrated that there was potential offset value via anaerobic digestion for CBC to overcome these difficulties and improve its recycling performance.

Keywords: England, food waste collections, household waste, local authority

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
282 Life Cycle Assessment of Biogas Energy Production from a Small-Scale Wastewater Treatment Plant in Central Mexico

Authors: Joel Bonales, Venecia Solorzano, Carlos Garcia


A great percentage of the wastewater generated in developing countries don’t receive any treatment, which leads to numerous environmental impacts. In response to this, a paradigm change in the current wastewater treatment model based on large scale plants towards a small and medium scale based model has been proposed. Nevertheless, small scale wastewater treatment (SS-WTTP) with novel technologies such as anaerobic digesters, as well as the utilization of derivative co-products such as biogas, still presents diverse environmental impacts which must be assessed. This study consisted in a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) performed to a SS-WWTP which treats wastewater from a small commercial block in the city of Morelia, Mexico. The treatment performed in the SS-WWTP consists in anaerobic and aerobic digesters with a daily capacity of 5,040 L. Two different scenarios were analyzed: the current plant conditions and a hypothetical energy use of biogas obtained in situ. Furthermore, two different allocation criteria were applied: full impact allocation to the system’s main product (treated water) and substitution credits for replacing Mexican grid electricity (biogas) and clean water pumping (treated water). The results showed that the analyzed plant had bigger impacts than what has been reported in the bibliography in the basis of wastewater volume treated, which may imply that this plant is currently operating inefficiently. The evaluated impacts appeared to be focused in the aerobic digestion and electric generation phases due to the plant’s particular configuration. Additional findings prove that the allocation criteria applied is crucial for the interpretation of impacts and that that the energy use of the biogas obtained in this plant can help mitigate associated climate change impacts. It is concluded that SS-WTTP is a environmentally sound alternative for wastewater treatment from a systemic perspective. However, this type of studies must be careful in the selection of the allocation criteria and replaced products, since these factors have a great influence in the results of the assessment.

Keywords: biogas, life cycle assessment, small scale treatment, wastewater treatment

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281 Reduced Glycaemic Impact by Kiwifruit-Based Carbohydrate Exchanges Depends on Both Available Carbohydrate and Non-Digestible Fruit Residue

Authors: S. Mishra, J. Monro, H. Edwards, J. Podd


When a fruit such as kiwifruit is consumed its tissues are released from the physical /anatomical constraints existing in the fruit. During digestion they may expand several-fold to achieve a hydrated solids volume far greater than the original fruit, and occupy the available space in the gut, where they surround and interact with other food components. Within the cell wall dispersion, in vitro digestion of co-consumed carbohydrate, diffusion of digestion products, and mixing responsible for mass transfer of nutrients to the gut wall for absorption, were all retarded. All of the foregoing processes may be involved in the glycaemic response to carbohydrate foods consumed with kiwifruit, such as breakfast cereal. To examine their combined role in reducing the glycaemic response to wheat cereal consumed with kiwifruit we formulated diets containing equal amounts of breakfast cereal, with the addition of either kiwifruit, or sugars of the same composition and quantity as in kiwifruit. Therefore, the only difference between the diets was the presence of non-digestible fruit residues. The diet containing the entire disperse kiwifruit significantly reduced the glycaemic response amplitude and the area under the 0-120 min incremental blood glucose response curve (IAUC), compared with the equicarbohydrate diet containing the added kiwifruit sugars. It also slightly but significantly increased the 120-180 min IAUC by preventing a postprandial overcompensation, indicating improved homeostatic blood glucose control. In a subsequent study in which we used kiwifruit in a carbohydrate exchange format, in which the kiwifruit carbohydrate partially replaced breakfast cereal in equal carbohydrate meals, the blood glucose was further reduced without a loss of satiety, and with a reduction in insulin demand. The results show that kiwifruit may be a valuable component in low glycaemic impact diets.

Keywords: carbohydrate, digestion, glycaemic response, kiwifruit

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280 The Impact of Ultrasonic Field to Increase the Biodegradability of Leachate from The Landfill

Authors: Kwarciak-Kozlowska A., Slawik-Dembiczak L., Galwa-Widera M.


Complex and variable during operation of the landfill leachate composition prevents the use of a single universal method of their purification. Due to the presence of difficult biodegradable these substances in the wastewater, cleaning of them often requires the use of biological methods (activated sludge or anaerobic digestion), also often supporting by physicochemical processes. Currently, more attention is paid to the development of unconventional methods of disposal of sewage ultleniania advanced methods including the use of ultrasonic waves. It was assumed that the ultrasonic waves induce change in the structure of organic compounds and contribute to the acceleration of biodegradability, including refractive substances in the leachate, so that will increase the effectiveness of their treatment in biological processes. We observed a marked increase in BOD leachate when subjected to the action of utradźwięowego. Ratio BOD / COD was 27% higher compared to the value of this ratio for leachate nienadźwiękawianych. It was found that the process of sonification leachate clearly influenced the formation and release of aliphatic compounds. These changes suggest a possible violation of the chemical structure of organic compounds in the leachate thereby give compounds of the chemical structure more susceptible to biodegradation.

Keywords: IR spectra, landfill leachate, organic pollutants, ultrasound

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279 Kinetic Modeling Study and Scale-Up of Niogas Generation Using Garden Grass and Cattle Dung as Feedstock

Authors: Tumisang Seodigeng, Hilary Rutto


In this study we investigate the use of a laboratory batch digester to derive kinetic parameters for anaerobic digestion of garden grass and cattle dung. Laboratory experimental data from a 5 liter batch digester operating at mesophilic temperature of 32 C is used to derive parameters for Michaelis-Menten kinetic model. These fitted kinetics are further used to predict the scale-up parameters of a batch digester using DynoChem modeling and scale-up software. The scale-up model results are compared with performance data from 20 liter, 50 liter, and 200 liter batch digesters. Michaelis-Menten kinetic model shows to be a very good and easy to use model for kinetic parameter fitting on DynoChem and can accurately predict scale-up performance of 20 liter and 50 liter batch reactor based on parameters fitted on a 5 liter batch reactor.

Keywords: Biogas, kinetics, DynoChem Scale-up, Michaelis-Menten

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278 The Contribution of the PCR-Enzymatic Digestion in the Positive Diagnosis of Proximal Spinal Muscular Atrophy in the Moroccan Population

Authors: H. Merhni, A. Sbiti, I. Ratbi, A. Sefiani


The proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a group of neuromuscular disorders characterized by progressive muscle weakness due to the degeneration and loss of anterior motor neurons of the spinal cord. Depending on the age of onset of symptoms and their evolution, four types of SMA, varying in severity, result in a mutations of the SMN gene (survival of Motor neuron). We have analyzed the DNA of 295 patients referred to our genetic counseling; since January 1996 until October 2014; for suspected SMA. The homozygous deletion of exon 7 of the SMN gene was found in 133 patients; of which, 40.6% were born to consanguineous parents. In countries like Morocco, where the frequency of heterozygotes for SMA is high, genetic testing should be offered as first-line and, after careful clinical assessment, especially in newborns and infants with congenital hypotonia unexplained and prognosis compromise. The molecular diagnosis of SMA allows a quick and certainly diagnosis, provide adequate genetic counseling for families at risk and suggest, for couples who want prenatal diagnosis. The analysis of the SMN gene is a perfect example of genetic testing with an excellent cost/benefit ratio that can be of great interest in public health, especially in low-income countries. We emphasize in this work for the benefit of the generalization of molecular diagnosis of SMA by the technique of PCR-enzymatic digestion in other centers in Morocco.

Keywords: Exon7, PCR-digestion, SMA, SMN gene

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277 Plackett-Burman Design to Evaluate the Influence of Operating Parameters on Anaerobic Orthophosphate Release from Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal Sludge

Authors: Reza Salehi, Peter L. Dold, Yves Comeau


The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a total of 6 operating parameters including pH (X1), temperature (X2), stirring speed (X3), chemical oxygen demand (COD) (X4), volatile suspended solids (VSS) (X5) and time (X6) on anaerobic orthophosphate release from enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) sludge. An 8-run Plackett Burman design was applied and the statistical analysis of the experimental data was performed using Minitab16.2.4 software package. The Analysis of variance (ANOVA) results revealed that temperature, COD, VSS and time had a significant effect with p-values of less than 0.05 whereas pH and stirring speed were identified as non-significant parameters, but influenced orthophosphate release from the EBPR sludge. The mathematic expression obtained by the first-order multiple linear regression model between orthophosphate release from the EBPR sludge (Y) and the operating parameters (X1-X6) was Y=18.59+1.16X1-3.11X2-0.81X3+3.79X4+9.89X5+4.01X6. The model p-value and coefficient of determination (R2) value were 0.026 and of 99.87%, respectively, which indicates the model is significant and the predicted values of orthophosphate release from the EBPR sludge have been excellently correlated with the observed values.

Keywords: anaerobic, operating parameters, orthophosphate release, Plackett-Burman design

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276 A Kinetic Study on Recovery of High-Purity Rutile TiO₂ Nanoparticles from Titanium Slag Using Sulfuric Acid under Sonochemical Procedure

Authors: Alireza Bahramian


High-purity TiO₂ nanoparticles (NPs) with size ranging between 50 nm and 100 nm are synthesized from titanium slag through sulphate route under sonochemical procedure. The effect of dissolution parameters such as the sulfuric acid/slag weight ratio, caustic soda concentration, digestion temperature and time, and initial particle size of the dried slag on the extraction efficiency of TiO₂ and removal of iron are examined. By optimizing the digestion conditions, a rutile TiO₂ powder with surface area of 42 m²/g and mean pore diameter of 22.4 nm were prepared. A thermo-kinetic analysis showed that the digestion temperature has an important effect, while the acid/slag weight ratio and initial size of the slag has a moderate effect on the dissolution rate. The shrinking-core model including both chemical surface reaction and surface diffusion is used to describe the leaching process. A low value of activation energy, 38.12 kJ/mol, indicates the surface chemical reaction model is a rate-controlling step. The kinetic analysis suggested a first order reaction mechanism with respect to the acid concentrations.

Keywords: TiO₂ nanoparticles, titanium slag, dissolution rate, sonochemical method, thermo-kinetic study

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275 Performance of an Anaerobic Osmotic Membrane Bioreactor Hybrid System for Wastewater Treatment and Phosphorus Recovery

Authors: Ming-Yeh Lu, Shiao-Shing Chen, Saikat Sinha Ray, Hung-Te Hsu


The submerged anaerobic osmotic membrane bioreactor (AnOMBR) integrated with periodic microfiltration (MF) extraction for simultaneous phosphorus and clean water recovery from wastewater was evaluated. A laboratory-scale AnOMBR used cellulose triacetate (CTA) membranes with effective membrane area of 130 cm² was fully submerged into a 5 L bioreactor at 30-35 ℃. Active layer was orientated to feed stream for minimizing membrane fouling and scaling. Additionally, a peristaltic pump was used to circulate magnesium sulphate (MgSO₄) solution applied as draw solution (DS). Microfiltration membrane periodically extracted about 1 L solution when the TDS reaches to 5 g/L to recover phosphorus and simultaneously control the salt accumulation in the bioreactor. During experiment progress, the average water flux was around 1.6 LMH. The AnOMBR process showed greater than 95% removal of soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), nearly 100% of total phosphorous whereas only partial of ammonia was removed. On the other hand, the average methane production of 0.22 L/g sCOD was obtained. Subsequently, the overall performance demonstrates that a novel submerged AnOMBR system is potential for simultaneous wastewater treatment and resource recovery from wastewater. Therefore, the new concept of this system can be used to replace for the conventional AnMBR in the future.

Keywords: anaerobic treatment, forward osmosis, phosphorus recovery, membrane bioreactor

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274 Comparison of Bactec plus Blood Culture Media to BacT/Alert FAN plus Blood Culture Media for Identification of Bacterial Pathogens in Clinical Samples Containing Antibiotics

Authors: Recep Kesli, Huseyin Bilgin, Ela Tasdogan, Ercan Kurtipek


Aim: The aim of this study was to compare resin based Bactec plus aerobic/anaerobic blood culture bottles (Becton Dickinson, MD, USA) and polymeric beads based BacT/Alert FA/FN plus blood culture bottles (bioMerieux, NC, USA) in terms of microorganisms recovery rates and time to detection (TTD) in the patients receiving antibiotic treatment. Method: Blood culture samples were taken from the patients who admitted to the intensive care unit and received antibiotic treatment. Forty milliliters of blood from patients were equally distributed into four types of bottles: Bactec Plus aerobic, Bactec Plus anaerobic, BacT/Alert FA Plus, BacT/Alert FN Plus. Bactec Plus and BacT/Alert Plus media were compared to culture recovery rates and TTD. Results: Blood culture samples were collected from 382 patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit and 245 patients who were diagnosed as having bloodstream infections were included in the study. A total of 1528 Bactec Plus aerobic, Bactec Plus anaerobic, BacT/Alert FA Plus, BacT/Alert FN Plus blood culture bottles analyzed and 176, 144, 154, 126 bacteria or fungi were isolated, respectively. Gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria were significantly more frequently isolated in the resin-based Bactec Plus bottles than in the polymeric beads based BacT/Alert Plus bottles. The Bactec Plus and BacT/Alert Plus media recovery rates were similar for fungi and anaerobic bacteria. The mean TTDs in the Bactec Plus bottles were shorter than those in the BacT/Alert Plus bottles regardless of the microorganisms. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that resin-containing media is a reliable and time-saving tool for patients who are receiving antibiotic treatment due to sepsis in the intensive care unit.

Keywords: Bactec Plus, BacT/Alert Plus, blood culture, antibiotic

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273 Investigation of the Effect of Anaerobic Digestate on Antifungal Activity and in Different Parameters of Maize

Authors: Nazia Zaffar, Alam Khan, Abdul Haq, Malik Badshah


Pakistan is an agricultural country. The increasing population leads to an increase in demand for food. A large number of crops are infected by different microbes, and nutrient deficiency of soil adversely affects the yield of crops. Furthermore, the use of chemical fertilizers like Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium (NPK) Urea, and Diammonium phosphate (DAP) and pesticides have environmental consequences. Therefore, there is an urgent need to explore alternative renewable and sustainable biofertilizers. Maize is one of the top growing crops in Pakistan, but it has low yield compared to other countries due to deficiency of organic matter, widespread nutrients deficiency (phosphorus and nitrogen), unbalanced use of fertilizers and various fungal diseases. In order to get rid of all these disadvantages, Digestate emerged as a win-win opportunity for the control of a few plant diseases and a replacement for the chemical fertilizers. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of Anerobic digestate on Antifungal Activity and in different parameters of Maize. The antifungal activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) against selected phytopathogens (Colletotrichum coccodis, Pythium ultimum, Phytophthora capsci, Rhizoctonia solani, Bipolaris oryzae and Fusarium Fujikuroi) were determined by microtiter plate method. The effect of various fertilizers in different growth parameters height, diameter, chlorophyll, leaf area, biomass, and yield were studied in field experiments. The extracts from anaerobic digestate have shown antifungal activity against selected phytopathogens, the highest activity was noted against P. ultimum, the MIC activity was high in case of P. ultimum and B. oryzae. The present study concludes that anaerobic digestate have a positive effect on maize growth and yield as well as an antifungal activity which can be potentially a good biofertilizer.

Keywords: anaerobic digestate, antifungal activity, MIC, phytopathogens

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272 Effects of Different Food Matrices on Viscosity and Protein Degradation during in vitro Digestion

Authors: Gulay Oncu Ince, Sibel Karakaya


Food is a worldwide concern. Among the factors that have influences on human health, food, nutrition and life style have been regarded as the most important factors since they can be intervened. While some parts of the world has been faced with food shortages and hence, chronic metabolic diseases, the other part of the world have been emerged from over consumption of food. Both situations can result in shorter life expectancy and represent a major global health problem. Hunger, satiety and appetite sensation form a balance ensures the operation of feeding behavior between food intake and energy consumption. Satiety is one of the approaches that is effective in ensuring weight control and avoid eating more in the postprandial period. By manipulating the microstructure of food macro and micronutrient bioavailability may be increased or reduced. For the food industry appearance, texture, taste structural properties as well as the gastrointestinal tract behavior of the food after the consumption is becoming increasingly important. Also, this behavior has been the subject of several researches in recent years by the scientific community. Numerous studies have been published about changing the food matrix in order to increase expected impacts. In this study, yogurts were enriched with caseinomacropeptide (CMP), whey protein (WP), CMP and sodium alginate (SA), and WP + SA in order to produce goat yogurts having different food matrices. SDS Page profiles of the samples after in vitro digestion and viscosities of the stomach digesta at different share rates were determined. Energy values were 62.11kcal/100 g, 70.27 kcal/100 g, 70.61 kcal/100 g, 71.20 kcal/100 g and 71.67 kcal/100 g for control, CMP added WP added, WP + SA added, and CMP + SA added yogurts respectively. The results of viscosity analysis showed that control yogurt had the lowest viscosity value and this was followed by CMP added, WP added, CMP + SA added and WP + SA added yogurts, respectively. Protein contents of the stomach and duedonal digests of the samples after subjected to two different in vitro digestion methods were changed between 5.34-5.91 mg protein / g sample and 16.93-19.75 mg protein /g of sample, respectively. Viscosity measurements of the stomach digests showed that CMP + SA added yogurt displayed the highest viscosity value in both in vitro digestion methods. There were differences between the protein profiles of the stomach and duedonal digests obtained by two different in vitro digestion methods (p<0.05).

Keywords: caseinomacropeptide, protein profile, whey protein, yogurt

Procedia PDF Downloads 363