Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 506

Search results for: alkaline springs

506 Distribution and Characterization of Thermal Springs in Northern Oman

Authors: Fahad Al Shidi, Reginald Victor

Abstract:

This study was conducted in Northern Oman to assess the physical and chemical characteristics of 40 thermal springs distributed in Al Hajar Mountains in northern Oman. Physical measurements of water samples were carried out in two main seasons in Oman (winter and summer 2019). Studied springs were classified into three groups based on water temperature, four groups based on water pH values and two groups based on conductivity. Ten thermal alkaline springs that originated in Ophiolite (Samail Napp) were dominated by high pH (> 11), elevated concentration of Cl- and Na+ ions, relatively low temperature and discharge ratio. Other springs in the Hajar Super Group massif recorded high concentrations of Ca2+ and SO2-4 ions controlled by rock dominance, geochemistry processes, and mineralization. There was only one spring which has brackish water with very high conductivity (5500 µs/cm) and Total Dissolved Solids and it is not suitable for irrigation purposes because of the high abundance of Na+, Cl−, and Ca2+ ions.

Keywords: alkaline springs, geothermal, HSG, ophiolite

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
505 Composite 'C' Springs for Anti-Seismic Building Suspension: Positioning 'Virtual Center of Pendulation above Gravity Center'

Authors: Max Sardou, Patricia Sardou

Abstract:

Now that weight saving is mandatory, to author best knowledge composite springs, that we have invented, are best choice for automotive suspensions, against steel. So, we have created a Joint Ventures called S.ARA, in order to mass produce composite coils springs. Start of Production of composite coils springs was in 2014 for AUDI. As we have demonstrated, on the road, that composite springs are not a sweet dream. The present paper describes all the benefits of ‘C’ springs and ‘S’ springs for high performance vehicles suspension, for rocket stage separation, and for satellite injection into orbit. Developing rocket stage separation, we have developed for CNES (Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales) the following concept. If we call ‘line of action’ a line going from one end of a spring to the other. Our concept is to use for instance two springs inclined. In such a way that their line of action cross together and create at this crossing point a virtual center well above the springs. This virtual center, is pulling from above the top stage and is offering a guidance, perfectly stable and straight. About buildings, our solution is to transfer this rocket technology, creating a ‘virtual center’ of pendulation positioned above the building center of gravity. This is achieved by using tilted composite springs benches oriented in such a way that their line of action converges creating the ‘virtual center’. Thanks to the ‘virtual center’ position, the building behaves as a pendulum, hanged from above. When earthquake happen then the building will oscillate around its ‘virtual center’ and will go back safely to equilibrium after the tremor. ‘C’ springs, offering anti-rust, anti-settlement, fail-safe suspension, plus virtual center solution is the must for long-lasting, perfect protection of buildings against earthquakes.

Keywords: virtual center of tilt, composite springs, fail safe springs, antiseismic suspention

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
504 A Passive Reaction Force Compensation for a Linear Motor Motion Stage Using Pre-Compressed Springs

Authors: Kim Duc Hoang, Hyeong Joon Ahn

Abstract:

Residual vibration of the system base due to a high-acceleration motion of a stage may reduce life and productivity of the manufacturing device. Although a passive RFC can reduce vibration of the system base, spring or dummy mass should be replaced to tune performance of the RFC. In this paper, we develop a novel concept of the passive RFC mechanism for a linear motor motion stage using pre-compressed springs. Dynamic characteristic of the passive RFC can be adjusted by pre-compression of the spring without exchanging the spring or dummy mass. First, we build a linear motor motion stage with pre-compressed springs. Then, the effect of the pre-compressed spring on the passive RFC is investigated by changing both pre-compressions and stiffness of springs. Finally, the effectiveness of the passive RFC using pre-compressed springs was verified with both simulations and experiments.

Keywords: linear motor motion stage, residual vibration, passive RFC, pre-compressed spring

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
503 Nonlinear Impact Responses for a Damped Frame Supported by Nonlinear Springs with Hysteresis Using Fast FEA

Authors: T. Yamaguchi, M. Watanabe, M. Sasajima, C. Yuan, S. Maruyama, T. B. Ibrahim, H. Tomita

Abstract:

This paper deals with nonlinear vibration analysis using finite element method for frame structures consisting of elastic and viscoelastic damping layers supported by multiple nonlinear concentrated springs with hysteresis damping. The frame is supported by four nonlinear concentrated springs near the four corners. The restoring forces of the springs have cubic non-linearity and linear component of the nonlinear springs has complex quantity to represent linear hysteresis damping. The damping layer of the frame structures has complex modulus of elasticity. Further, the discretized equations in physical coordinate are transformed into the nonlinear ordinary coupled differential equations using normal coordinate corresponding to linear natural modes. Comparing shares of strain energy of the elastic frame, the damping layer and the springs, we evaluate the influences of the damping couplings on the linear and nonlinear impact responses. We also investigate influences of damping changed by stiffness of the elastic frame on the nonlinear coupling in the damped impact responses.

Keywords: dynamic response, nonlinear impact response, finite element analysis, numerical analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
502 Elasto-Plastic Analysis of Structures Using Adaptive Gaussian Springs Based Applied Element Method

Authors: Mai Abdul Latif, Yuntian Feng

Abstract:

Applied Element Method (AEM) is a method that was developed to aid in the analysis of the collapse of structures. Current available methods cannot deal with structural collapse accurately; however, AEM can simulate the behavior of a structure from an initial state of no loading until collapse of the structure. The elements in AEM are connected with sets of normal and shear springs along the edges of the elements, that represent the stresses and strains of the element in that region. The elements are rigid, and the material properties are introduced through the spring stiffness. Nonlinear dynamic analysis has been widely modelled using the finite element method for analysis of progressive collapse of structures; however, difficulties in the analysis were found at the presence of excessively deformed elements with cracking or crushing, as well as having a high computational cost, and difficulties on choosing the appropriate material models for analysis. The Applied Element method is developed and coded to significantly improve the accuracy and also reduce the computational costs of the method. The scheme works for both linear elastic, and nonlinear cases, including elasto-plastic materials. This paper will focus on elastic and elasto-plastic material behaviour, where the number of springs required for an accurate analysis is tested. A steel cantilever beam is used as the structural element for the analysis. The first modification of the method is based on the Gaussian Quadrature to distribute the springs. Usually, the springs are equally distributed along the face of the element, but it was found that using Gaussian springs, only up to 2 springs were required for perfectly elastic cases, while with equal springs at least 5 springs were required. The method runs on a Newton-Raphson iteration scheme, and quadratic convergence was obtained. The second modification is based on adapting the number of springs required depending on the elasticity of the material. After the first Newton Raphson iteration, Von Mises stress conditions were used to calculate the stresses in the springs, and the springs are classified as elastic or plastic. Then transition springs, springs located exactly between the elastic and plastic region, are interpolated between regions to strictly identify the elastic and plastic regions in the cross section. Since a rectangular cross-section was analyzed, there were two plastic regions (top and bottom), and one elastic region (middle). The results of the present study show that elasto-plastic cases require only 2 springs for the elastic region, and 2 springs for the plastic region. This showed to improve the computational cost, reducing the minimum number of springs in elasto-plastic cases to only 6 springs. All the work is done using MATLAB and the results will be compared to models of structural elements using the finite element method in ANSYS.

Keywords: applied element method, elasto-plastic, Gaussian springs, nonlinear

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
501 Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Properties of Arenga pinnata Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Composite: Effects of Alkaline Treatment

Authors: Abdul Hakim Abdullah, Mohamad Syafiq Abdul Khadir

Abstract:

In present investigations, thermal behaviours of Arenga pinnata fibres prior and after alkaline treatment were studied. The alkaline treatments were applied on the Arenga pinnata fibres by immersing in the alkaline solution, 6% sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Using hand lay-out technique, composites were fabricated at 20% and 40% by Arenga pinnata fibres weight contents. The thermal behaviours of both untreated and treated composites were determined by employing Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA). The results show that the TAP owned better results of Storage Modulus (E’), Loss Modulus (E”) and Tan Delta temperatures ranges from 0°C to 60°C.

Keywords: composites, Arenga pinnata fibre, alkaline treatment, dynamic mechanical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
500 Compressive Strength and Microstructure of Hybrid Alkaline Cements

Authors: Z. Abdollahnejad, P. Torgal, J. Barroso Aguiar

Abstract:

Publications on the field of alkali-activated binders, state that this new material is likely to have high potential to become an alternative to Portland cement. Classical alkali-activated cements could be made more eco-efficient if the use of sodium silicate is avoided. Besides, most alkali-activated cements suffer from severe efflorescence originated by the fact that alkaline and/or soluble silicates that are added during processing cannot be totally consumed. This paper presents experimental results on hybrid alkaline cements. Compressive strength results and efflorescence’s observations show that the new mixes already analyzed are promising. SEM results show that no traditional porous ITZ was detected in these binders.

Keywords: hybrid alkaline cements, compressive strength, efflorescence, SEM, ITZ

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
499 Zn, Sb, Pb (Au) Mineralization of Hammam N’bails, NE of Algeria

Authors: Brahim Merdas, Abdelhak Boutaleb

Abstract:

Polymetallic mineralizations with Zn, Sb, Pb boxed in miopliocene limestones of Hammam N’bails’s basin are regarded as the youngest mineralizations of North East of Algeria and are characterized by the presence of rather rare mineral phases throughout the world such as nadorite and flajolotite. Mineralization seems to have a bond with thermal springs emergent within the basin and with the faults which limit the basin. The comparison between mineralizations and similar ore deposits known in the world and which are characterized by the presence of the noble metals such as gold and the discovery of traces of this metal (1.4g/t) enables us to start again the problems of the noble metals of the type “low sulfidation” related to the thermal springs in the area in particular and in all Algerian North generally.

Keywords: Nadorite, galana, gold, dolomitisation, epigenétic, hot springs, , miopliocene, Hammam N’bails, algeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
498 Lentil Protein Fortification in Cranberry Squash

Authors: Sandhya Devi A

Abstract:

The protein content of the cranberry squash (protein: 0g) may be increased by extracting protein from the lentils (9 g), which is particularly linked to a lower risk of developing heart disease. Using the technique of alkaline extraction from the lentils flour, protein may be extracted. Alkaline extraction of protein from lentil flour was optimized utilizing response surface approach in order to maximize both protein content and yield. Cranberry squash may be taken if a protein fortification syrup is prepared and processed into the squash.

Keywords: alkaline extraction, cranberry squash, protein fortification, response surface methodology

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497 One-Pot Facile Synthesis of N-Doped Graphene Synthesized from Paraphenylenediamine as Metal-Free Catalysts for the Oxygen Reduction Used for Alkaline Fuel Cells

Authors: Leila Samiee, Amir Yadegari, Saeedeh Tasharrofi

Abstract:

In the work presented here, nitrogen-doped graphene materials were synthesized and used as metal-free electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) under alkaline conditions. Paraphenylenediamine was used as N precursor. The N-doped graphene was synthesized under hydrothermal treatment at 200°C. All the materials have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS). Moreover, for electrochemical evaluation of samples, Rotating Disk electrode (RDE) and Cyclic Voltammetry techniques (CV) were employed. The resulting material exhibits an outstanding catalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) as well as excellent resistance towards methanol crossover effects, indicating their promising potential as ORR electrocatalysts for alkaline fuel cells.

Keywords: alkaline fuel cell, graphene, metal-free catalyst, paraphenylen diamine

Procedia PDF Downloads 380
496 Approximate Spring Balancing for Swimming Pool Lift Mechanism to Reduce Actuator Torque

Authors: Apurva Patil, Sujatha Srinivasan

Abstract:

Reducing actuator loads is important for applications in which human effort is required for actuation. The potential benefit of applying spring balancing to rehabilitation devices which work against gravity on a nonhorizontal plane is well recognized, but practical applications have been elusive. Although existing methods provide exact spring balance, they require additional masses or auxiliary links, or all the springs used originate from the ground, which makes the resulting device bulky and space-inefficient. This paper uses a method of static balancing of mechanisms with conservative loads such as gravity and spring loads using non-zero-free-length springs and no auxiliary links. Application of this method to a manually operated swimming pool lift mechanism which lowers and raises the physically challenged users into or out of the swimming pool is presented here. Various possible configurations using extension and compression springs as well as gas spring in the mechanism are compared. This work involves approximate spring balancing of the mechanism using minimization of potential energy variance. It uses the approach of flattening the potential energy distribution over the workspace and fuses it with numerical optimization. The results show the considerable reduction in actuator torque requirement with practical spring design and arrangement. Although the method provides only an approximate balancing, it is versatile, flexible in choosing appropriate control variables that are relevant to the design problem and easy to implement. The true potential of this technique lies in the fact that it uses a very simple optimization to find the spring constant, free length of the spring and the optimal attachment points subject to the optimization constraints. Also, it uses physically realizable non-zero-free-length springs directly, thereby reducing the complexity involved in simulating zero-free-length springs from non-zero-free-length springs. This method allows springs to be attached inside the mechanism, which makes the implementation of spring balancing practical. Because auxiliary linkages can be avoided, the resultant swimming pool lift mechanism is compact. The cost benefits and reduced complexity can be significant advantages in the development of this user-actuated swimming pool lift for developing countries.

Keywords: gas spring, rehabilitation device, spring balancing, swimming pool lift

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
495 Preserving the Cultural Values of the Mararoa River and Waipuna–Freshwater Springs, Southland New Zealand: An Integration of Traditional and Scientific Knowledge

Authors: Erine van Niekerk, Jason Holland

Abstract:

In Māori culture water is considered to be the foundation of all life and has its own mana (spiritual power) and mauri (life force). Water classification for cultural values therefore includes categories like waitapu (sacred water), waimanawa-whenua (water from under the land), waipuna (freshwater springs), the relationship between water quantity and quality and the relationship between surface and groundwater. Particular rivers and lakes have special significance to iwi and hapu for their rohe (tribal areas). The Mararoa River, including its freshwater springs and wetlands, is an example of such an area. There is currently little information available about the sources, characteristics and behavior of these important water resources and this study on the water quality of the Mararoa River and adjacent freshwater springs will provide valuable information to be used in informed decisions about water management. The regional council of Southland, Environment Southland, is required to make changes under their water quality policy in order to comply with the requirements for the New National Standards for Freshwater to consult with Maori to determine strategies for decision making. This requires an approach that includes traditional knowledge combined with scientific knowledge in the decision-making process. This study provided the scientific data that can be used in future for decision making on fresh water springs combined with traditional values for this particular area. Several parameters have been tested in situ as well as in a laboratory. Parameters such as temperature, salinity, electrical conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids, Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen, Total Phosphorus, Total Suspended Solids, and Escherichia coli among others show that recorded values of all test parameters fall within recommended ANZECC guidelines and Environment Southland standards and do not raise any concerns for the water quality of the springs and the river at the moment. However, the destruction of natural areas, particularly due to changes in farming practices, and the changes to water quality by the introduction of Didymosphenia geminate (Didymo) means Māori have already lost many of their traditional mahinga kai (food sources). There is a major change from land use such as sheep farming to dairying in Southland which puts freshwater resources under pressure. It is, therefore, important to draw on traditional knowledge and spirituality alongside scientific knowledge to protect the waters of the Mararoa River and waipuna. This study hopes to contribute to scientific knowledge to preserve the cultural values of these significant waters.

Keywords: cultural values, freshwater springs, Maori, water quality

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494 Effect on Nutritional and Antioxidant Properties of Yellow Alkaline Noodles Substituted with Different Levels of Mangosteen (Garcinia Mangostana) Pericarp Powder

Authors: Mardiana Ahamad Zabidi, Nurain Abdul Karim, Nur Shazrinna Sazali

Abstract:

Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) pericarp is considered as agricultural waste and not fully utilized in food products. It is widely reported that mangosteen pericarp contains high antioxidant properties. The objective of this study is to develop novel yellow alkaline noodle (YAN) substituted with different levels of mangosteen pericarp powder (MPP). YAN formulation was substituted with different levels of MPP (0%, 5%, 10% and 15%). The effect on nutritional and antioxidant properties were evaluated. Higher substitution levels of MPP resulted in significant increase (p < 0.05) of ash, fibre, specific mineral elements, and antioxidant properties (total phenolic, total flavonoid, anthocyanin and DPPH) than control sample.

Keywords: antioxidant properties, Mangosteen pericarp, proximate composition, yellow alkaline noodle

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
493 Experimental Study on Stabilisation of a Soft Soil by Alkaline Activation of Industrial By-Products

Authors: Mohammadjavad Yaghoubi, Arul Arulrajah, Mahdi M. Disfani, Suksun Horpibulsuk, Myint W. Bo, Stephen P. Darmawan

Abstract:

Utilising waste materials, such as fly ash (FA) and slag (S) stockpiled in landfills, has drawn the attention of researchers and engineers in the recent years. There is a great potential for usage of these wastes in ground improvement projects, especially where deep deposits of soft compressible soils exist. This paper investigates the changes in the strength development of a high water content soft soil stabilised with alkaline activated FA and S, termed as geopolymer binder, to use in deep soil mixing technology. The strength improvement and the changes in the microstructure of the mixtures have been studied. The results show that using FA and S-based geopolymers can increases the strength significantly. Furthermore, utilising FA and S in ground improvement projects, where large amounts of binders are required, can be a solution to the disposal of these wastes.

Keywords: alkaline activation, fly ash, geopolymer, slag, strength development

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
492 Approximate Spring Balancing for the Arm of a Humanoid Robot to Reduce Actuator Torque

Authors: Apurva Patil, Ashay Aswale, Akshay Kulkarni, Shubham Bharadiya

Abstract:

The potential benefit of gravity compensation of linkages in mechanisms using springs to reduce actuator requirements is well recognized, but practical applications have been elusive. Although existing methods provide exact spring balance, they require additional masses or auxiliary links, or all the springs used originate from the ground, which makes the resulting device bulky and space-inefficient. This paper uses a method of static balancing of mechanisms with conservative loads such as gravity and spring loads using non-zero-free-length springs with child–parent connections and no auxiliary links. Application of this method to the developed arm of a humanoid robot is presented here. Spring balancing is particularly important in this case because the serial chain of linkages has to work against gravity.This work involves approximate spring balancing of the open-loop chain of linkages using minimization of potential energy variance. It uses the approach of flattening the potential energy distribution over the workspace and fuses it with numerical optimization. The results show the considerable reduction in actuator torque requirement with practical spring design and arrangement. Reduced actuator torque facilitates the use of lower end actuators which are generally smaller in weight and volume thereby lowering the space requirements and the total weight of the arm. This is particularly important for humanoid robots where the parent actuator has to handle the weight of the subsequent actuators as well. Actuators with lower actuation requirements are more energy efficient, thereby reduce the energy consumption of the mechanism. Lower end actuators are lower in cost and facilitate the development of low-cost devices. Although the method provides only an approximate balancing, it is versatile, flexible in choosing appropriate control variables that are relevant to the design problem and easy to implement. The true potential of this technique lies in the fact that it uses a very simple optimization to find the spring constant, free-length of the spring and the optimal attachment points subject to the optimization constraints. Also, it uses physically realizable non-zero-free-length springs directly, thereby reducing the complexity involved in simulating zero-free-length springs from non-zero-free-length springs. This method allows springs to be attached to the preceding parent link, which makes the implementation of spring balancing practical. Because auxiliary linkages can be avoided, the resultant arm of the humanoid robot is compact. The cost benefits and reduced complexity can be significant advantages in the development of this arm of the humanoid robot.

Keywords: actuator torque, child-parent connections, spring balancing, the arm of a humanoid robot

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
491 A Comparative Study of Standard, Casted, and Riveted Eye Design of a Mono Leaf Spring Using CAE Tools

Authors: Gian Bhushan, Vinkel Arora, M. L. Aggarwal

Abstract:

The objective of the present study is to determine better eye end design of a mono leaf spring used in light motor vehicle. A conventional 65Si7 spring steel leaf spring model with standard eye, casted and riveted eye end are considered. The CAD model of the leaf springs is prepared in CATIA and analyzed using ANSYS. The standard eye, casted, and riveted eye leaf springs are subjected to similar loading conditions. The CAE analysis of the leaf spring is performed for various parameters like deflection and Von-Mises stress. Mass reduction of 62.9% is achieved in case of riveted eye mono leaf spring as compared to standard eye mono leaf spring for the same loading conditions.

Keywords: CAE, leaf spring, standard, casted, riveted eye

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490 Candida antarctica Lipase-B Catalyzed Alkaline-Hydrolysis of Some Aryl-Alkyl Acetate in Non-Aqueous Media

Authors: M. Merabet-Khelassi, Z. Houiene, L. Aribi-Zouioueche, O. Riant

Abstract:

Lipases (EC.3.1.1.3) are efficient biotools widely used for their remarkable chemo-, regio- and enantio-selectivity, especially, in kinetic resolution of racemates. They offer access to a large panel of enantiopure building blocks, such as secondary benzylic alcohols, commonly used as synthetic intermediates in pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries. Due to the stability of lipases in both water and organic solvents poor in water, they are able to catalyze both transesterifications of arylalkylcarbinols and hydrolysis of their corresponding acetates. The use of enzymatic hydrolysis in aqueous media still limited. In this presentation, we expose a practical methodology for the preparation of optically enriched acetates using a Candida antarctica lipase B-catalyzed hydrolysis in non-aqueous media in the presence of alkaline carbonate salts. The influence of several parameters which can intervene on the enzymatic efficiency such as the impact of the introduction of the carbonates salts, its amount and the nature of the alkaline earth metal are discussed. The obtained results show that the use of sodium carbonate with CAL-B enhances drastically both reactivity and selectivity of this immobilized lipase. In all cases, the resulting alcohols and remaining acetates are obtained in high ee values (up to > 99 %), and the selectivities reach (E > 500).

Keywords: alkaline-hydrolysis, enzymatic kinetic resolution, lipases, arylalkylcarbinol, non-aqueous media

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489 An Investigation of Passivation Technology in Stainless Steel Alloy

Authors: Feng-Tsai Weng, Rick Wang, Yan-Cong Liao

Abstract:

Passivation is a kind of surface treatment for material to reinforce the corrosion resistance specially the stainless alloy. Passive film, is to getting more potential compared to their status before passivation. An oxidation film can be formed on the surface of stainless steel, which has a strong corrosion resistance ability after passivation treatment. In this research, a new passivation technology is proposed for a special stainless alloy which contains a 12-14% Chromium. This method includes the A-A-A (alkaline-acid-alkaline) process basically, which was developed by Carpenter that can neutralize trapped acid. Besides, a corrosion resistant coating layer was obtained by immersing the parts in a water bath of mineral oil at high temperature. Salt spray test ASTM B368 was conducted to investigated performance of corrosion resistant of the passivated stainless steel alloy parts. Results show much better corrosion resistant that followed a coating process after A-A-A Passivation process, than only using A-A-A process. The passivation time is with more than 380 hours of salt spray test ASTM B368, which is equal to 3000 hours of Salt spray test ASTM B117. Proposed passivation method of stainless steel can be completed in about 3 hours.

Keywords: passivation, alkaline-acid-alkaline, stainless steel, salt spray test

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488 Stabilisation of a Soft Soil by Alkaline Activation

Authors: Mohammadjavad Yaghoubi, Arul Arulrajah, Mahdi M. Disfani, Suksun Horpibulsuk, Myint W. Bo, Stephen P. Darmawan

Abstract:

This paper investigates the changes in the strength development of a high water content soft soil stabilised with alkaline activation of fly ash (FA) to use in deep soil mixing (DSM) technology. The content of FA was 20% by dry mass of soil, and the alkaline activator was sodium silicate (Na2SiO3). Samples were cured for 3, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days to evaluate the effect of curing time on strength development. To study the effect of adding slag (S) to the mixture on the strength development, 5% S was replaced with FA. In addition, the effect of the initial unit weight of samples on strength development was studied by preparing specimens with two different static compaction stresses. This was to replicate the field conditions where during implementing the DSM technique, the pressure on the soil while being mixed, increases with depth. Unconfined compression strength (UCS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) tests were conducted on the specimens. The results show that adding S to the FA based geopolymer activated by Na2SiO3 decreases the strength. Furthermore, samples prepared at a higher unit weight demonstrate greater strengths. Moreover, samples prepared at lower unit weight reached their final strength at about 14 days of curing, whereas the strength development continues to 56 days for specimens prepared at a higher unit weight.

Keywords: alkaline activation, curing time, fly ash, geopolymer, slag

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487 Effect of the pH on the Degradation Kinetics of Biodegradable Mg-0.8Ca Orthopedic Implants

Authors: A. Mohamed, A. El-Aziz

Abstract:

The pH of the body plays a great role in the degradation kinetics of biodegradable Mg-Ca orthopedic implants. At the location of fracture, the pH of the body becomes no longer neutral which draws the attention towards studying a range of different pH values of the body fluid. In this study, the pH of Hank’s balanced salt solution (HBSS) was modified by phosphate buffers into an aggressive acidic pH 1.8, a slightly acidic pH 5.3 and an alkaline pH 8.1. The biodegradation of Mg-0.8Ca implant was tested in those three different media using immersion test and electrochemical polarization means. It was proposed that the degradation rate has increased with decreasing the pH of HBSS. The immersion test revealed weight gain for all the samples followed by weight loss as the immersion time increased. The highest weight gain was pronounced for the acidic pH 1.8 and the least weight gain was observed for the alkaline pH 8.1. This was in agreement with the electrochemical polarization test results where the degradation rate was found to be high (7.29 ± 2.2 mm/year) in the aggressive acidic solution of pH 1.8 and relatively minimum (0.31 ± 0.06 mm/year) in the alkaline medium of pH 8.1. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the pH of HBSS has reached a steady state of an alkaline pH (~pH 11) at the end of the two-month immersion period regardless of the initial pH of the solution. Finally, the corrosion products formed on the samples’ surface were investigated by SEM, EDX and XRD analyses that revealed the formation of magnesium and calcium phosphates with different morphologies according to the pH.

Keywords: biodegradable, electrochemical polarization means, orthopedics, immersion test, simulated body fluid

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486 Phenolic-Based Chemical Production from Catalytic Depolymerization of Alkaline Lignin over Fumed Silica Catalyst

Authors: S. Totong, P. Daorattanachai, N. Laosiripojana

Abstract:

Lignin depolymerization into phenolic-based chemicals is an interesting process for utilizing and upgrading a benefit and value of lignin. In this study, the depolymerization reaction was performed to convert alkaline lignin into smaller molecule compounds. Fumed SiO₂ was used as a catalyst to improve catalytic activity in lignin decomposition. The important parameters in depolymerization process (i.e., reaction temperature, reaction time, etc.) were also investigated. In addition, gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), flame-ironized detector (GC-FID), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were used to analyze and characterize the lignin products. It was found that fumed SiO₂ catalyst led the good catalytic activity in lignin depolymerization. The main products from catalytic depolymerization were guaiacol, syringol, vanillin, and phenols. Additionally, metal supported on fumed SiO₂ such as Cu/SiO₂ and Ni/SiO₂ increased the catalyst activity in terms of phenolic products yield.

Keywords: alkaline lignin, catalytic, depolymerization, fumed SiO₂, phenolic-based chemicals

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485 Determination of Friction and Damping Coefficients of Folded Cover Mechanism Deployed by Torsion Springs

Authors: I. Yilmaz, O. Taga, F. Kosar, O. Keles

Abstract:

In this study, friction and damping coefficients of folded cover mechanism were obtained in accordance with experimental studies and data. Friction and damping coefficients are the most important inputs to accomplish a mechanism analysis. Friction and damping are two objects that change the time of deployment of mechanisms and their dynamic behaviors. Though recommended friction coefficient values exist in literature, damping is differentiating feature according to mechanic systems. So the damping coefficient should be obtained from mechanism test outputs. In this study, the folded cover mechanism use torsion springs for deploying covers that are formerly close folded position. Torsion springs provide folded covers with desirable deploying time according to variable environmental conditions. To verify all design revisions with system tests will be so costly so that some decisions are taken in accordance with numerical methods. In this study, there are two folded covers required to deploy simultaneously. Scotch-yoke and crank-rod mechanisms were combined to deploy folded covers simultaneously. The mechanism was unlocked with a pyrotechnic bolt onto scotch-yoke disc. When pyrotechnic bolt was exploded, torsion springs provided rotational movement for mechanism. Quick motion camera was recording dynamic behaviors of system during deployment case. Dynamic model of mechanism was modeled as rigid body with Adams MBD (multi body dynamics) then torque values provided by torsion springs were used as an input. A well-advised range of friction and damping coefficients were defined in Adams DOE (design of experiment) then a large number of analyses were performed until deployment time of folded covers run in with test data observed in record of quick motion camera, thus the deployment time of mechanism and dynamic behaviors were obtained. Same mechanism was tested with different torsion springs and torque values then outputs were compared with numerical models. According to comparison, it was understood that friction and damping coefficients obtained in this study can be used safely when studying on folded objects required to deploy simultaneously. In addition to model generated with Adams as rigid body the finite element model of folded mechanism was generated with Abaqus then the outputs of rigid body model and finite element model was compared. Finally, the reasonable solutions were suggested about different outputs of these solution methods.

Keywords: damping, friction, pyro-technic, scotch-yoke

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484 The Effect of Simultaneous Doping of Silicate Bioglass with Alkaline and Alkaline-Earth Elements on Biological Behavior

Authors: Tannaz Alimardani, Amirhossein Moghanian, Morteza Elsa

Abstract:

Bioactive glasses (BGs) are a group of surface-reactive biomaterials used in clinical applications as implants or filler materials in the human body to repair and replace diseased or damaged bone. Sol-gel technique was employed to prepare a SiO₂-CaO-P₂O₅ glass with a nominal composition of 58S BG with the addition of Sr and Li modifiers which imparts special properties to the BG. The effect of simultaneous addition of Sr and Li on bioactivity and biocompatibility, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of osteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1 and antibacterial property against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria were examined. BGs were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy before and after soaking the samples in the simulated body fluid (SBF) for different time intervals to characterize the formation of hydroxyapatite (HA) formed on the surface of BGs. Structural characterization indicated that the simultaneous presence of 5% Sr and 5% Li in 58S-BG composition not only did not retard HA formation because of the opposite effect of Sr and Li of the dissolution of BG in the SBF, but also stimulated the differentiation and proliferation of MC3T3-E1s. Moreover, the presence of Sr and Li on the dissolution of the ions resulted in an increase in the mean number of DAPI-labeled nuclei which was in good agreement with the live/dead assay. The result of antibacterial tests revealed that Sr and Li-substituted 58S bioactive glass exhibited a potential antibacterial effect against MRSA bacteria. Because of optimal proliferation and ALP activity of MC3T3-E1cells, proper bioactivity and high antibacterial potential against MRSA, BG-5/5 is suggested as a multifunctional candidate for bone tissue engineering.

Keywords: alkaline, alkaline earth, bioglass, co-doping, ion release

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483 Lanthanide-Mediated Aggregation of Glutathione-Capped Gold Nanoclusters Exhibiting Strong Luminescence and Fluorescence Turn-on for Sensing Alkaline Phosphatase

Authors: Jyun-Guo You, Wei-Lung Tseng

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Herein, this study represents a synthetic route for producing highly luminescent AuNCs based on the integration of two concepts, including thiol-induced luminescence enhancement of ligand-insufficient GSH-AuNCs and Ce3+-induced aggregation of GSH-AuNCs. The synthesis of GSH-AuNCs was conducted by modifying the previously reported procedure. To produce more Au(I)-GSH complexes on the surface of ligand-insufficient GSH-AuNCs, the extra GSH is added to attach onto the AuNC surface. The formed ligand-sufficient GSH-AuNCs (LS-GSH-AuNCs) emit relatively strong luminescence. The luminescence of LS-GSH-AuNCs is further enhanced by the coordination of two carboxylic groups (pKa1 = 2 and pKa2 = 3.5) of GSH and lanthanide ions, which induce the self-assembly of LS-GSH-AuNCs. As a result, the quantum yield of the self-assembled LS-GSH-AuNCs (SA-AuNCs) was improved to be 13%. Interestingly, the SA-AuNCs were dissembled into LS-GSH-AuNCs in the presence of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) because of the formation of the ATP- lanthanide ion complexes. Our assay was employed to detect alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity over the range of 0.1−10 U/mL with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.03 U/mL.

Keywords: self-assembly, lanthanide ion, adenosine triphosphate, alkaline phosphatase

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482 Structural-Geotechnical Effects of the Foundation of a Medium-Height Structure

Authors: Valentina Rodas, Luis Almache

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The interaction effects between the existing soil and the substructure of a 5-story building with an underground one were evaluated in such a way that the structural-geotechnical concepts were validated through the method of impedance factors with a program based on the method of the finite elements. The continuous wall-type foundation had a constant thickness and followed inclined and orthogonal directions, while the ground had homogeneous and medium-type characteristics. The soil considered was type C according to the Ecuadorian Construction Standard (NEC) and the corresponding foundation comprised a depth of 4.00 meters and a basement wall thickness of 40 centimeters. This project is part of a mid-rise building in the city of Azogues (Ecuador). The hypotheses raised responded to the objectives in such a way that the model implemented with springs had a variation with respect to the embedded base, obtaining conservative results.

Keywords: interaction, soil, substructure, springs, effects, modeling , embedment

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481 Improving Enhanced Oil Recovery by Using Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Injection and Nanotechnology

Authors: Amir Gerayeli, Babak Moradi

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The continuously declining oil reservoirs and reservoirs aging have created a huge demand for utilization of Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) methods recently. Primary and secondary oil recovery methods have various limitations and are not practical for all reservoirs. Therefore, it is necessary to use chemical methods to improve oil recovery efficiency by reducing oil and water surface tension, increasing sweeping efficiency, and reducing displacer phase viscosity. One of the well-known methods of oil recovery is Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer (ASP) flooding that shown to have significant impact on enhancing oil recovery. As some of the biggest oil reservoirs including those of Iran’s are fractional reservoirs with substantial amount of trapped oil in their fractures, the use of Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer (ASP) flooding method is increasingly growing, the method in which the impact of several parameters including type and concentration of the Alkaline, Surfactant, and polymer are particularly important. This study investigated the use of Nano particles to improve Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). The study methodology included performing several laboratory tests on drill cores extracted from Karanj Oil field Asmary Formation in Khuzestan, Iran. In the experiments performed, Sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate (SDBS) and 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C12mim] [Cl])) were used as surfactant, hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) and guar gum were used as polymer, Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as alkaline, and Silicon dioxide (SiO2) and Magnesium oxide (MgO) were used as Nano particles. The experiment findings suggest that water viscosity increased from 1 centipoise to 5 centipoise when hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) and guar gum were used as polymer. The surface tension between oil and water was initially measured as 25.808 (mN/m). The optimum surfactant concentration was found to be 500 p, at which the oil and water tension surface was measured to be 2.90 (mN/m) when [C12mim] [Cl] was used, and 3.28 (mN/m) when SDBS was used. The Nano particles concentration ranged from 100 ppm to 1500 ppm in this study. The optimum Nano particle concentration was found to be 1000 ppm for MgO and 500 ppm for SiO2.

Keywords: alkaline-surfactant-polymer, ionic liquids, relative permeability, reduced surface tension, tertiary enhanced oil recovery, wettability change

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480 Calcium Complexing Properties of Isosaccharinate Ion in Highly Alkaline Environment

Authors: Csilla Dudás, Éva Böszörményi, Bence Kutus, István Pálinkó, Pál Sipos

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In this study the behavior of alpha-D-isosaccharinate (2-hydroxymethyl-3-deoxy-D-erythro-pentonate, ISA−) in alkaline medium in the presence of calcium was studied. At first the Ca–ISA system was studied by Ca-ion selective electrode (Ca-ISE) in neutral medium at T = 25 °C and I = 1 M NaCl to determine the formation constant of the CaISA+ monocomplex, which was found to be logK = 1.01 ± 0.01 for the reaction of Ca2+ + ISA– = CaISA+. In alkaline medium pH potentiometric titrations were carried out to determine the composition and stability constant of the complex(es) formed. It was found that in these systems above pH = 12.5 the predominant species is the CaISAOH complex. Its formation constant was found to be logK = 3.04 ± 0.05 for the reaction of Ca2+ + ISA– + H2O = CaISAOH + H+ at T = 25 °C and I = 1 M NaCl. Solubility measurements resulted in data consistent with those of the potentiometric titrations. Temperature dependent NMR spectra showed that the slow exchange range between the complex and the free ligand is below 5 °C. It was also showed that ISA– acts as a multidentate ligand forming macrochelate Ca-complexes. The structure of the complexes was determined by using ab initio quantum chemical calculations.

Keywords: Ca-ISE potentiometry, calcium complexes, isosaccharinate ion, NMR spectroscopy, pH potentiometry

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479 A Method for Modeling Flexible Manipulators: Transfer Matrix Method with Finite Segments

Authors: Haijie Li, Xuping Zhang

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This paper presents a computationally efficient method for the modeling of robot manipulators with flexible links and joints. This approach combines the Discrete Time Transfer Matrix Method with the Finite Segment Method, in which the flexible links are discretized by a number of rigid segments connected by torsion springs; and the flexibility of joints are modeled by torsion springs. The proposed method avoids the global dynamics and has the advantage of modeling non-uniform manipulators. Experiments and simulations of a single-link flexible manipulator are conducted for verifying the proposed methodologies. The simulations of a three-link robot arm with links and joints flexibility are also performed.

Keywords: flexible manipulator, transfer matrix method, linearization, finite segment method

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478 The Relationship between the Epithermal Mineralization, Thermalism, and Basement Faults in the Region of Guelma: NE of Algeria

Authors: B. Merdas

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The Guelma region constitutes a vast geothermal field whose local geothermal gradient is very high. Indeed, various thermal and thermo sources emerging in the region, including some at relatively high temperatures. In the mio Pliocene Hammam N'bails, basin emerges a hot spring that leaves develop a thick series of thermal travertine linked to it. Near the thermal emergences has settled a very special mineralization antimony and zinc and lead. The results of analyses of the thermal waters of the source of Hammam N'bails and the associated travertine, show abnormal values in Pb, Sb, Zn, As, and other metals, demonstrating the genetic link between those waters and mineralization. Hammam N'bails mineralizations by their mineral assembling represented and their association with the hot springs, are very similar to epithermal deposits with precious metals (gold and silver) like Senator mine in Turkey or ‘Carlin-type’ in Nevada (USA).

Keywords: hot springs, mineralization; basement faults, Guelma, NE Algeria

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477 Reconnaissance Investigation of Thermal Springs in the Middle Benue Trough, Nigeria by Remote Sensing

Authors: N. Tochukwu, M. Mukhopadhyay, A. Mohamed

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It is no new that Nigeria faces a continual power shortage problem due to its vast population power demand and heavy reliance on nonrenewable forms of energy such as thermal power or fossil fuel. Many researchers have recommended using geothermal energy as an alternative; however, Past studies focus on the geophysical & geochemical investigation of this energy in the sedimentary and basement complex; only a few studies incorporated the remote sensing methods. Therefore, in this study, the preliminary examination of geothermal resources in the Middle Benue was carried out using satellite imagery in ArcMap. Landsat 8 scene (TIR, NIR, Red spectral bands) was used to estimate the Land Surface Temperature (LST). The Maximum Likelihood Classification (MLC) technique was used to classify sites with very low, low, moderate, and high LST. The intermediate and high classification happens to be possible geothermal zones, and they occupy 49% of the study area (38077km2). Riverline were superimposed on the LST layer, and the identification tool was used to locate high temperate sites. Streams that overlap on the selected sites were regarded as geothermal springs as. Surprisingly, the LST results show lower temperatures (<36°C) at the famous thermal springs (Awe & Wukari) than some unknown rivers/streams found in Kwande (38°C), Ussa, (38°C), Gwer East (37°C), Yola Cross & Ogoja (36°C). Studies have revealed that temperature increases with depth. However, this result shows excellent geothermal resources potential as it is expected to exceed the minimum geothermal gradient of 25.47 with an increase in depth. Therefore, further investigation is required to estimate the depth of the causative body, geothermal gradients, and the sustainability of the reservoirs by geophysical and field exploration. This method has proven to be cost-effective in locating geothermal resources in the study area. Consequently, the same procedure is recommended to be applied in other regions of the Precambrian basement complex and the sedimentary basins in Nigeria to save a preliminary field survey cost.

Keywords: ArcMap, geothermal resources, Landsat 8, LST, thermal springs, MLC

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