Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12478

Search results for: nonlinear impact response

12478 Nonlinear Impact Responses for a Damped Frame Supported by Nonlinear Springs with Hysteresis Using Fast FEA

Authors: T. Yamaguchi, M. Watanabe, M. Sasajima, C. Yuan, S. Maruyama, T. B. Ibrahim, H. Tomita

Abstract:

This paper deals with nonlinear vibration analysis using finite element method for frame structures consisting of elastic and viscoelastic damping layers supported by multiple nonlinear concentrated springs with hysteresis damping. The frame is supported by four nonlinear concentrated springs near the four corners. The restoring forces of the springs have cubic non-linearity and linear component of the nonlinear springs has complex quantity to represent linear hysteresis damping. The damping layer of the frame structures has complex modulus of elasticity. Further, the discretized equations in physical coordinate are transformed into the nonlinear ordinary coupled differential equations using normal coordinate corresponding to linear natural modes. Comparing shares of strain energy of the elastic frame, the damping layer and the springs, we evaluate the influences of the damping couplings on the linear and nonlinear impact responses. We also investigate influences of damping changed by stiffness of the elastic frame on the nonlinear coupling in the damped impact responses.

Keywords: dynamic response, nonlinear impact response, finite element analysis, numerical analysis

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12477 Seismic Soil-Pile Interaction Considering Nonlinear Soil Column Behavior in Saturated and Dry Soil Conditions

Authors: Mohammad Moeini, Mehrdad Ghyabi, Kiarash Mohtasham Dolatshahi

Abstract:

This paper investigates seismic soil-pile interaction using the Beam on Nonlinear Winkler Foundation (BNWF) approach. Three soil types are considered to cover all the possible responses, as well as nonlinear site response analysis using finite element method in OpenSees platform. Excitations at each elevation that are output of the site response analysis are used as the input excitation to the soil pile system implementing multi-support excitation method. Spectral intensities of acceleration show that the extent of the response in sand is more severe than that of clay, in addition, increasing the PGA of ground strong motion will affect the sandy soil more, in comparison with clayey medium, which is an indicator of the sensitivity of soil-pile systems in sandy soil.

Keywords: BNWF method, multi-support excitation, nonlinear site response analysis, seismic soil-pile interaction

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12476 Prediction of Heavy-Weight Impact Noise and Vibration of Floating Floor Using Modified Impact Spectrum

Authors: Ju-Hyung Kim, Dae-Ho Mun, Hong-Gun Park

Abstract:

When an impact is applied to a floating floor, noise and vibration response of high-frequency range is reduced effectively, while amplifies the response at low-frequency range. This means floating floor can make worse noise condition when heavy-weight impact is applied. The amplified response is the result of interaction between finishing layer (mortar plate) and concrete slab. Because an impact force is not directly delivered to concrete slab, the impact force waveform or spectrum can be changed. In this paper, the changed impact spectrum was derived from several floating floor vibration tests. Based on the measured data, numerical modeling can describe the floating floor response, especially at low-frequency range. As a result, heavy-weight impact noise can be predicted using modified impact spectrum.

Keywords: floating floor, heavy-weight impact, prediction, vibration

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12475 Frequency Response of Complex Systems with Localized Nonlinearities

Authors: E. Menga, S. Hernandez

Abstract:

Finite Element Models (FEMs) are widely used in order to study and predict the dynamic properties of structures and usually, the prediction can be obtained with much more accuracy in the case of a single component than in the case of assemblies. Especially for structural dynamics studies, in the low and middle frequency range, most complex FEMs can be seen as assemblies made by linear components joined together at interfaces. From a modelling and computational point of view, these types of joints can be seen as localized sources of stiffness and damping and can be modelled as lumped spring/damper elements, most of time, characterized by nonlinear constitutive laws. On the other side, most of FE programs are able to run nonlinear analysis in time-domain. They treat the whole structure as nonlinear, even if there is one nonlinear degree of freedom (DOF) out of thousands of linear ones, making the analysis unnecessarily expensive from a computational point of view. In this work, a methodology in order to obtain the nonlinear frequency response of structures, whose nonlinearities can be considered as localized sources, is presented. The work extends the well-known Structural Dynamic Modification Method (SDMM) to a nonlinear set of modifications, and allows getting the Nonlinear Frequency Response Functions (NLFRFs), through an ‘updating’ process of the Linear Frequency Response Functions (LFRFs). A brief summary of the analytical concepts is given, starting from the linear formulation and understanding what the implications of the nonlinear one, are. The response of the system is formulated in both: time and frequency domain. First the Modal Database is extracted and the linear response is calculated. Secondly the nonlinear response is obtained thru the NL SDMM, by updating the underlying linear behavior of the system. The methodology, implemented in MATLAB, has been successfully applied to estimate the nonlinear frequency response of two systems. The first one is a two DOFs spring-mass-damper system, and the second example takes into account a full aircraft FE Model. In spite of the different levels of complexity, both examples show the reliability and effectiveness of the method. The results highlight a feasible and robust procedure, which allows a quick estimation of the effect of localized nonlinearities on the dynamic behavior. The method is particularly powerful when most of the FE Model can be considered as acting linearly and the nonlinear behavior is restricted to few degrees of freedom. The procedure is very attractive from a computational point of view because the FEM needs to be run just once, which allows faster nonlinear sensitivity analysis and easier implementation of optimization procedures for the calibration of nonlinear models.

Keywords: frequency response, nonlinear dynamics, structural dynamic modification, softening effect, rubber

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12474 Response Regimes and Vibration Mitigation in Equivalent Mechanical Model of Strongly Nonlinear Liquid Sloshing

Authors: Maor Farid, Oleg Gendelman

Abstract:

Equivalent mechanical model of liquid sloshing in partially-filled cylindrical vessel is treated in the cases of free oscillations and of horizontal base excitation. The model is designed to cover both the linear and essentially nonlinear sloshing regimes. The latter fluid behaviour might involve hydraulic impacts interacting with the inner walls of the tank. These impulsive interactions are often modeled by high-power potential and dissipation functions. For the sake of analytical description, we use the traditional approach by modeling the impacts with velocity-dependent restitution coefficient. This modelling is similar to vibro-impact nonlinear energy sink (VI NES) which was recently explored for its vibration mitigation performances and nonlinear response regimes. Steady-state periodic regimes and chaotic strongly modulated responses (CSMR) are detected. Those dynamical regimes were described by the system's slow motion on the slow invariant manifold (SIM). There is a good agreement between the analytical results and numerical simulations. Subsequently, Finite-Element (FE) method is used to determine and verify the model parameters and to identify dominant dynamical regimes, natural modes and frequencies. The tank failure modes are identified and critical locations are identified. Mathematical relation is found between degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) motion and the mechanical stress applied in the tank critical section. This is the prior attempt to take under consideration large-amplitude nonlinear sloshing and tank structure elasticity effects for design, regulation definition and resistance analysis purposes. Both linear (tuned mass damper, TMD) and nonlinear (nonlinear energy sink, NES) passive energy absorbers contribution to the overall system mitigation is firstly examined, in terms of both stress reduction and time for vibration decay.

Keywords: nonlinear energy sink (NES), reduced-order modelling, liquid sloshing, vibration mitigation, vibro-impact dynamics

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12473 Speeding up Nonlinear Time History Analysis of Base-Isolated Structures Using a Nonlinear Exponential Model

Authors: Nicolò Vaiana, Giorgio Serino

Abstract:

The nonlinear time history analysis of seismically base-isolated structures can require a significant computational effort when the behavior of each seismic isolator is predicted by adopting the widely used differential equation Bouc-Wen model. In this paper, a nonlinear exponential model, able to simulate the response of seismic isolation bearings within a relatively large displacements range, is described and adopted in order to reduce the numerical computations and speed up the nonlinear dynamic analysis. Compared to the Bouc-Wen model, the proposed one does not require the numerical solution of a nonlinear differential equation for each time step of the analysis. The seismic response of a 3d base-isolated structure with a lead rubber bearing system subjected to harmonic earthquake excitation is simulated by modeling each isolator using the proposed analytical model. The comparison of the numerical results and computational time with those obtained by modeling the lead rubber bearings using the Bouc-Wen model demonstrates the good accuracy of the proposed model and its capability to reduce significantly the computational effort of the analysis.

Keywords: base isolation, computational efficiency, nonlinear exponential model, nonlinear time history analysis

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12472 X-Ray Dynamical Diffraction 'Third Order Nonlinear Renninger Effect'

Authors: Minas Balyan

Abstract:

Nowadays X-ray nonlinear diffraction and nonlinear effects are investigated due to the presence of the third generation synchrotron sources and XFELs. X-ray third order nonlinear dynamical diffraction is considered as well. Using the nonlinear model of the usual visible light optics the third-order nonlinear Takagi’s equations for monochromatic waves and the third-order nonlinear time-dependent dynamical diffraction equations for X-ray pulses are obtained by the author in previous papers. The obtained equations show, that even if the Fourier-coefficients of the linear and the third order nonlinear susceptibilities are zero (forbidden reflection), the dynamical diffraction in the nonlinear case is related to the presence in the nonlinear equations the terms proportional to the zero order and the second order nonzero Fourier coefficients of the third order nonlinear susceptibility. Thus, in the third order nonlinear Bragg diffraction case a nonlinear analogue of the well-known Renninger effect takes place. In this work, the 'third order nonlinear Renninger effect' is considered theoretically.

Keywords: Bragg diffraction, nonlinear Takagi’s equations, nonlinear Renninger effect, third order nonlinearity

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12471 Shock Response Analysis of Soil-Structure Systems Induced by Near-Fault Pulses

Authors: H. Masaeli, R. Ziaei, F. Khoshnoudian

Abstract:

Shock response analysis of the soil–structure systems induced by near–fault pulses is investigated. Vibration transmissibility of the soil–structure systems is evaluated by Shock Response Spectra (SRS). Medium–to–high rise buildings with different aspect ratios located on different soil types as well as different foundations with respect to vertical load bearing safety factors are studied. Two types of mathematical near–fault pulses, i.e. forward directivity and fling step, with different pulse periods as well as pulse amplitudes are selected as incident ground shock. Linear versus nonlinear Soil–Structure Interaction (SSI) condition are considered alternatively and the corresponding results are compared. The results show that nonlinear SSI is likely to amplify the acceleration responses when subjected to long–period incident pulses with normalized period exceeding a threshold. It is also shown that this threshold correlates with soil type, so that increased shear–wave velocity of the underlying soil makes the threshold period decrease.

Keywords: nonlinear soil–structure interaction, shock response spectrum, near–fault ground shock, rocking isolation

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
12470 Power Series Solution to Sliding Velocity in Three-Dimensional Multibody Systems with Impact and Friction

Authors: Hesham A. Elkaranshawy, Amr M. Abdelrazek, Hosam M. Ezzat

Abstract:

The system of ordinary nonlinear differential equations describing sliding velocity during impact with friction for a three-dimensional rigid-multibody system is developed. No analytical solutions have been obtained before for this highly nonlinear system. Hence, a power series solution is proposed. Since the validity of this solution is limited to its convergence zone, a suitable time step is chosen and at the end of it a new series solution is constructed. For a case study, the trajectory of the sliding velocity using the proposed method is built using 6 time steps, which coincides with a Runge-Kutta solution using 38 time steps.

Keywords: impact with friction, nonlinear ordinary differential equations, power series solutions, rough collision

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12469 X-Bracing Configuration and Seismic Response

Authors: Saeed Rahjoo, Babak H. Mamaqani

Abstract:

Concentric bracing systems have been in practice for many years because of their effectiveness in reducing seismic response. Depending on concept, seismic design codes provide various response modification factors (R), which itself consists of different terms, for different types of lateral load bearing systems but configuration of these systems are often ignored in the proposed values. This study aims at considering the effect of different x-bracing diagonal configuration on values of ductility dependent term in R computation. 51 models were created and nonlinear push over analysis has been performed. The main variables of this study were the suitable location of X–bracing diagonal configurations, which establishes better nonlinear behavior in concentric braced steel frames. Results show that some x-bracing diagonal configurations improve the seismic performance of CBF significantly and explicit consideration of lateral load bearing systems seems necessary.

Keywords: bracing configuration, concentrically braced frame (CBF), push over analyses, response reduction factor

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12468 Investigation of Overstrength of Dual System by Non-Linear Static and Dynamic Analyses

Authors: Nina Øystad-Larsen, Miran Cemalovic, Amir M. Kaynia

Abstract:

The nonlinear static and dynamic analysis procedures presented in EN 1998-1 for the structural response of a RC wall-frame building are assessed. The structure is designed according to the guidelines for high ductility (DCH) in 1998-1. The finite element packages SeismoStruct and OpenSees are utilized and evaluated. The structural response remains nearly in the elastic range even though the building was designed for high ductility. The overstrength is a result of oversized and heavily reinforced members, with emphasis on the lower storey walls. Nonlinear response history analysis in the software packages give virtually identical results for displacements.

Keywords: behaviour factor, dual system, OpenSEES, overstrength, seismostruct

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12467 Estimation of Fragility Curves Using Proposed Ground Motion Selection and Scaling Procedure

Authors: Esra Zengin, Sinan Akkar

Abstract:

Reliable and accurate prediction of nonlinear structural response requires specification of appropriate earthquake ground motions to be used in nonlinear time history analysis. The current research has mainly focused on selection and manipulation of real earthquake records that can be seen as the most critical step in the performance based seismic design and assessment of the structures. Utilizing amplitude scaled ground motions that matches with the target spectra is commonly used technique for the estimation of nonlinear structural response. Representative ground motion ensembles are selected to match target spectrum such as scenario-based spectrum derived from ground motion prediction equations, Uniform Hazard Spectrum (UHS), Conditional Mean Spectrum (CMS) or Conditional Spectrum (CS). Different sets of criteria exist among those developed methodologies to select and scale ground motions with the objective of obtaining robust estimation of the structural performance. This study presents ground motion selection and scaling procedure that considers the spectral variability at target demand with the level of ground motion dispersion. The proposed methodology provides a set of ground motions whose response spectra match target median and corresponding variance within a specified period interval. The efficient and simple algorithm is used to assemble the ground motion sets. The scaling stage is based on the minimization of the error between scaled median and the target spectra where the dispersion of the earthquake shaking is preserved along the period interval. The impact of the spectral variability on nonlinear response distribution is investigated at the level of inelastic single degree of freedom systems. In order to see the effect of different selection and scaling methodologies on fragility curve estimations, results are compared with those obtained by CMS-based scaling methodology. The variability in fragility curves due to the consideration of dispersion in ground motion selection process is also examined.

Keywords: ground motion selection, scaling, uncertainty, fragility curve

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12466 Cyclostationary Gaussian Linearization for Analyzing Nonlinear System Response Under Sinusoidal Signal and White Noise Excitation

Authors: R. J. Chang

Abstract:

A cyclostationary Gaussian linearization method is formulated for investigating the time average response of nonlinear system under sinusoidal signal and white noise excitation. The quantitative measure of cyclostationary mean, variance, spectrum of mean amplitude, and mean power spectral density of noise is analyzed. The qualitative response behavior of stochastic jump and bifurcation are investigated. The validity of the present approach in predicting the quantitative and qualitative statistical responses is supported by utilizing Monte Carlo simulations. The present analysis without imposing restrictive analytical conditions can be directly derived by solving non-linear algebraic equations. The analytical solution gives reliable quantitative and qualitative prediction of mean and noise response for the Duffing system subjected to both sinusoidal signal and white noise excitation.

Keywords: cyclostationary, duffing system, Gaussian linearization, sinusoidal, white noise

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12465 The Role of the Elastic Foundation Having Nonlinear Stiffness Properties in the Vibration of Structures

Authors: E. Feulefack Songong, A. Zingoni

Abstract:

A vibration is a mechanical phenomenon whereby oscillations occur about an equilibrium point. Although vibrations can be linear or nonlinear depending on the basic components of the system, the interest is mostly pointed towards nonlinear vibrations. This is because most structures around us are to some extent nonlinear and also because we need more accurate values in an analysis. The goal of this research is the integration of nonlinearities in the development and validation of structural models and to ameliorate the resistance of structures when subjected to loads. Although there exist many types of nonlinearities, this thesis will mostly focus on the vibration of free and undamped systems incorporating nonlinearity due to stiffness. Nonlinear stiffness has been a concern to many engineers in general and Civil engineers in particular because it is an important factor that can bring a good modification and amelioration to the response of structures when subjected to loads. The analysis of systems will be done analytically and then numerically to validate the analytical results. We will first show the benefit and importance of stiffness nonlinearity when it is implemented in the structure. Secondly, We will show how its integration in the structure can improve not only the structure’s performance but also its response when subjected to loads. The results of this study will be valuable to practicing engineers as well as industry practitioners in developing better designs and tools for their structures and mechanical devices. They will also serve to engineers to design lighter and stronger structures and to give good predictions as for the behavior of structures when subjected to external loads.

Keywords: elastic foundation, nonlinear, plates, stiffness, structures, vibration

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12464 Designing an Agent-Based Model of SMEs to Assess Flood Response Strategies and Resilience

Authors: C. Li, G. Coates, N. Johnson, M. Mc Guinness

Abstract:

In the UK, flooding is responsible for significant losses to the economy due to the impact on businesses, the vast majority of which are Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). Businesses of this nature tend to lack formal plans to aid their response to and recovery from disruptive events such as flooding. This paper reports on work on how an agent-based model (ABM) is being developed based on interview data gathered from SMEs at-risk of flooding and/or have direct experience of flooding. The ABM will enable simulations to be performed allowing investigations of different response strategies which SMEs may employ to lessen the impact of flooding, thus strengthening their resilience.

Keywords: ABM, flood response, SMEs, business continuity

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12463 Nonlinear Dynamic Response of Helical Gear with Torque-Limiter

Authors: Ahmed Guerine, Ali El Hafidi, Bruno Martin, Philippe Leclaire

Abstract:

This paper investigates the nonlinear dynamic response of a mechanical torque limiter which is used to protect drive parts from overload (helical transmission gears). The system is driven by four excitations: two external excitations (aerodynamics torque and force) and two internal excitations (two mesh stiffness fluctuations). In this work, we develop a dynamic model with lumped components and 28 degrees of freedom. We use the Runge Kutta step-by-step time integration numerical algorithm to solve the equations of motion obtained by Lagrange formalism. The numerical results have allowed us to identify the sources of vibration in the wind turbine. Also, they are useful to help the designer to make the right design and correctly choose the times for maintenance.

Keywords: two-stage helical gear, lumped model, dynamic response, torque-limiter

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12462 Self-Action of Pyroelectric Spatial Soliton in Undoped Lithium Niobate Samples with Pyroelectric Mechanism of Nonlinear Response

Authors: Anton S. Perin, Vladimir M. Shandarov

Abstract:

Compensation for the nonlinear diffraction of narrow laser beams with wavelength of 532 and the formation of photonic waveguides and waveguide circuits due to the contribution of pyroelectric effect to the nonlinear response of lithium niobate crystal have been experimentally demonstrated. Complete compensation for the linear and nonlinear diffraction broadening of light beams is obtained upon uniform heating of an undoped sample from room temperature to 55 degrees Celsius. An analysis of the light-field distribution patterns and the corresponding intensity distribution profiles allowed us to estimate the spacing for the channel waveguides. The observed behavior of bright soliton beams may be caused by their coherent interaction, which manifests itself in repulsion for anti-phase light fields and in attraction for in-phase light fields. The experimental results of this study showed a fundamental possibility of forming optically complex waveguide structures in lithium niobate crystals with pyroelectric mechanism of nonlinear response. The topology of these structures is determined by the light field distribution on the input face of crystalline sample. The optical induction of channel waveguide elements by interacting spatial solitons makes it possible to design optical systems with a more complex topology and a possibility of their dynamic reconfiguration.

Keywords: self-action, soliton, lithium niobate, piroliton, photorefractive effect, pyroelectric effect

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12461 Response of Solar Updraft Power Plants Incorporating Material Nonlinearity

Authors: Areeg Shermaddo

Abstract:

Solar updraft power plants (SUPP) provide a great potential for green and environmentally friendly renewable power generation. An up to 1000 m high chimney represents one of the major parts of each SUPP, which consist of the main shell structure and the stiffening rings. Including the nonlinear material behavior in a simulation of the chimney is computationally a demanding task. However, allowing the formation of cracking in concrete leads to a more economical design of the structure. In this work, an FE model of a SUPP is presented incorporating the nonlinear material behavior. The effect of wind loading intensity on the structural response is explored. Furthermore, the influence of the stiffness of the ring beams on the global behavior is as well investigated. The obtained results indicate that the minimum reinforcement is capable of carrying the tensile stresses provided that the ring beams are rather stiff.

Keywords: ABAQUS, nonlinear analysis, ring beams, SUPP

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12460 Model Order Reduction for Frequency Response and Effect of Order of Method for Matching Condition

Authors: Aref Ghafouri, Mohammad javad Mollakazemi, Farhad Asadi

Abstract:

In this paper, model order reduction method is used for approximation in linear and nonlinearity aspects in some experimental data. This method can be used for obtaining offline reduced model for approximation of experimental data and can produce and follow the data and order of system and also it can match to experimental data in some frequency ratios. In this study, the method is compared in different experimental data and influence of choosing of order of the model reduction for obtaining the best and sufficient matching condition for following the data is investigated in format of imaginary and reality part of the frequency response curve and finally the effect and important parameter of number of order reduction in nonlinear experimental data is explained further.

Keywords: frequency response, order of model reduction, frequency matching condition, nonlinear experimental data

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12459 Sliding Velocity in Impact with Friction in Three-Dimensional Multibody Systems

Authors: Hesham A. Elkaranshawy, Amr Abdelrazek, Hosam Ezzat

Abstract:

This paper analyzes a single point rough collision in three dimensional rigid-multibody systems. A set of nonlinear different equations describing the progress and outcome of the impact are obtained. Specifically in case of the tangential, referred to as sliding, component of impact velocity is of great importance. Numerical methods are used to solve this problem. In this work, all these possible sliding behaviors during impact are identified, conditions leading to each behavior are specified, and an appropriate numerical procedure is suggested. A case of a four-degrees-of-freedom spatial robot that collides with its environment is investigated. The phase portrait of the tangential velocity, which presents the flow trajectories for different initial conditions, is calculated. Using the coefficient of friction as a control parameter, few phase portraits are drawn, each for a specific value of this coefficient. In addition, the bifurcation associated with the variation of this coefficient will be investigated.

Keywords: friction impact, three-dimensional rigid multibody systems, sliding velocity, nonlinear ordinary differential equations, phase portrait

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12458 Response Reduction Factor for Earthquake Resistant Design of Special Moment Resisting Frames

Authors: Rohan V. Ambekar, Shrirang N. Tande

Abstract:

The present study estimates the seismic response reduction factor (R) of reinforced concrete special moment resisting frame (SMRF) with and without shear wall using static nonlinear (pushover) analysis. Calculation of response reduction factor (R) is done as per the new formulation of response reduction factor (R) given by Applied Technology Council (ATC)-19 which is the product of strength factor (Rs), ductility factor (Rµ) and redundancy factor (RR). The analysis revealed that these three factors affect the actual value of response reduction factor (R) and therefore they must be taken into consideration while determining the appropriate response reduction factor to be used during the seismic design process. The actual values required for determination of response reduction factor (R) is worked out on the basis of pushover curve which is a plot of base shear verses roof displacement. Finally, the calculated values of response reduction factor (R) of reinforced concrete special moment resisting frame (SMRF) with and without shear wall are compared with the codal values.

Keywords: response reduction factor, ductility ratio, base shear, special moment resisting frames

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12457 Seismic Response of Moment Resisting Steel Frame with Hysteresis Envelope Model of Joints

Authors: Krolo Paulina

Abstract:

The seismic response of moment-resisting steel frames depends on the behavior of the joints, especially when they are considered as ductile zones. The aim of this research is to provide a realistic assessment of the moment-resisting steel frame behavior under seismic loading using nonlinear static pushover analysis (N2 method). The hysteresis behavior of the joints in the frame model was described using a new hysteresis envelope model. The obtained seismic response was compared with the results of the seismic analysis obtained for the same steel frame that takes into account the monotonic model of the joints.

Keywords: beam-to-column joints, hysteresis envelope model, moment-resisting frame, nonlinear static pushover analysis, N2 method

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12456 Three Dimensional Numerical Analysis for Longitudinal Seismic Response of Tunnels under Asynchronous Earthquake

Authors: Peng Li, Er-xiang Song

Abstract:

Numerical analysis of longitudinal tunnel seismic response due to spatial variation of earthquake ground motion is an important issue that cannot be ignored in the design and safety evaluation of tunnel structures. In this paper, numerical methods for analysis of tunnel longitudinal response under asynchronous seismic wave is extensively studied, including the improvement of the 1D time-domain finite element method, three dimensional numerical simulation technique for the site asynchronous earthquake response as well as the 3-D soil-tunnel structure interaction analysis. The study outcome will be beneficial to aid further research on the nonlinear meticulous numerical analysis and seismic response mechanism of tunnel structures under asynchronous earthquake motion.

Keywords: asynchronous input, longitudinal seismic response, tunnel structure, numerical simulation, traveling wave effect

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12455 Seismic Evaluation of Multi-Plastic Hinge Design Approach on RC Shear Wall-Moment Frame Systems against Near-Field Earthquakes

Authors: Mohsen Tehranizadeh, Mahboobe Forghani

Abstract:

The impact of higher modes on the seismic response of dual structural system consist of concrete moment-resisting frame and with RC shear walls is investigated against near-field earthquakes in this paper. a 20 stories reinforced concrete shear wall-special moment frame structure is designed in accordance with ASCE7 requirements and The nonlinear model of the structure was performed on OpenSees platform. Nonlinear time history dynamic analysis with 3 near-field records are performed on them. In order to further understand the structural collapse behavior in the near field, the response of the structure at the moment of collapse especially the formation of plastic hinges is explored. The results revealed that the amplification of moment at top of the wall due to higher modes, the plastic hinge can form in the upper part of wall, even when designed and detailed for plastic hinging at the base only (according to ACI code).on the other hand, shear forces in excess of capacity design values can develop due to the contribution of the higher modes of vibration to dynamic response due to the near field can cause brittle shear or sliding failure modes. The past investigation on shear walls clearly shows the dual-hinge design concept is effective at reducing the effects of the second mode of response. An advantage of the concept is that, when combined with capacity design, it can result in relaxation of special reinforcing detailing in large portions of the wall. In this study, to investigate the implications of multi-design approach, 4 models with varies arrangement of hinge plastics at the base and height of the shear wall are considered. results base on time history analysis showed that the dual or multi plastic hinges approach can be useful in order to control the high moment and shear demand of higher mode effect.

Keywords: higher mode effect, Near-field earthquake, nonlinear time history analysis, multi plastic hinge design

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12454 Simplified Analysis Procedure for Seismic Evaluation of Tall Building at Structure and Component Level

Authors: Tahir Mehmood, Pennung Warnitchai

Abstract:

Simplified static analysis procedures such Nonlinear Static Procedure (NSP) are gaining popularity for the seismic evaluation of buildings. However, these simplified procedures accounts only for the seismic responses of the fundamental vibration mode of the structure. Some other procedures which can take into account the higher modes of vibration, lack in accuracy to determine the component responses. Hence, such procedures are not suitable for evaluating the structures where many vibration modes may participate significantly or where component responses are needed to be evaluated. Moreover, these procedures were found to either computationally expensive or tedious to obtain individual component responses. In this paper, a simplified but accurate procedure is studied. It is called the Uncoupled Modal Response History Analysis (UMRHA) procedure. In this procedure, the nonlinear response of each vibration mode is first computed, and they are later on combined into the total response of the structure. The responses of four tall buildings are computed by this simplified UMRHA procedure and compared with those obtained from the NLRHA procedure. The comparison shows that the UMRHA procedure is able to accurately compute the global responses, i.e., story shears and story overturning moments, floor accelerations and inter-story drifts as well as the component level responses of these tall buildings with heights varying from 20 to 44 stories. The required computational effort is also extremely low compared to that of the Nonlinear Response History Analysis (NLRHA) procedure.

Keywords: higher mode effects, seismic evaluation procedure, tall buildings, component responses

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12453 Nonlinear Analysis of Shear Deformable Deep Beam Resting on Nonlinear Two-Parameter Random Soil

Authors: M. Seguini, D. Nedjar

Abstract:

In this paper, the nonlinear analysis of Timoshenko beam undergoing moderate large deflections and resting on nonlinear two-parameter random foundation is presented, taking into account the effects of shear deformation, beam’s properties variation and the spatial variability of soil characteristics. The finite element probabilistic analysis has been performed by using Timoshenko beam theory with the Von Kàrmàn nonlinear strain-displacement relationships combined to Vanmarcke theory and Monte Carlo simulations, which is implemented in a Matlab program. Numerical examples of the newly developed model is conducted to confirm the efficiency and accuracy of this later and the importance of accounting for the foundation second parameter (Winkler-Pasternak). Thus, the results obtained from the developed model are presented and compared with those available in the literature to examine how the consideration of the shear and spatial variability of soil’s characteristics affects the response of the system.

Keywords: nonlinear analysis, soil-structure interaction, large deflection, Timoshenko beam, Euler-Bernoulli beam, Winkler foundation, Pasternak foundation, spatial variability

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12452 Stress Solitary Waves Generated by a Second-Order Polynomial Constitutive Equation

Authors: Tsun-Hui Huang, Shyue-Cheng Yang, Chiou-Fen Shieha

Abstract:

In this paper, a nonlinear constitutive law and a curve fitting, two relationships between the stress-strain and the shear stress-strain for sandstone material were used to obtain a second-order polynomial constitutive equation. Based on the established polynomial constitutive equations and Newton’s second law, a mathematical model of the non-homogeneous nonlinear wave equation under an external pressure was derived. The external pressure can be assumed as an impulse function to simulate a real earthquake source. A displacement response under nonlinear two-dimensional wave equation was determined by a numerical method and computer-aided software. The results show that a suit pressure in the sandstone generates the phenomenon of stress solitary waves.

Keywords: polynomial constitutive equation, solitary, stress solitary waves, nonlinear constitutive law

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12451 Time Effective Structural Frequency Response Testing with Oblique Impact

Authors: Khoo Shin Yee, Lian Yee Cheng, Ong Zhi Chao, Zubaidah Ismail, Siamak Noroozi

Abstract:

Structural frequency response testing is accurate in identifying the dynamic characteristic of a machinery structure. In practical perspective, conventional structural frequency response testing such as experimental modal analysis with impulse technique (also known as “impulse testing”) has limitation especially on its long acquisition time. The high acquisition time is mainly due to the redundancy procedure where the engineer has to repeatedly perform the test in 3 directions, namely the axial-, horizontal- and vertical-axis, in order to comprehensively define the dynamic behavior of a 3D structure. This is unfavorable to numerous industries where the downtime cost is high. This study proposes to reduce the testing time by using oblique impact. Theoretically, a single oblique impact can induce significant vibration responses and vibration modes in all the 3 directions. Hence, the acquisition time with the implementation of the oblique impulse technique can be reduced by a factor of three (i.e. for a 3D dynamic system). This study initiates an experimental investigation of impulse testing with oblique excitation. A motor-driven test rig has been used for the testing purpose. Its dynamic characteristic has been identified using the impulse testing with the conventional normal impact and the proposed oblique impact respectively. The results show that the proposed oblique impulse testing is able to obtain all the desired natural frequencies in all 3 directions and thus providing a feasible solution for a fast and time effective way of conducting the impulse testing.

Keywords: frequency response function, impact testing, modal analysis, oblique angle, oblique impact

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12450 Effect of Unbound Granular Materials Nonlinear Resilient Behaviour on Pavement Response and Performance of Low Volume Roads

Authors: Khaled Sandjak, Boualem Tiliouine

Abstract:

Structural analysis of flexible pavements has been and still is currently performed using multi-layer elastic theory. However, for thinly surfaced pavements subjected to low to medium volumes of traffics, the importance of non-linear stress-strain behaviour of unbound granular materials (UGM) requires the use of more sophisticated numerical models for structural design and performance of such pavements. In the present work, nonlinear unbound aggregates constitutive model is implemented within an axisymmetric finite element code developed to simulate the nonlinear behaviour of pavement structures including two local aggregates of different mineralogical nature, typically used in Algerian pavements. The performance of the mechanical model is examined about its capability of representing adequately, under various conditions, the granular material non-linearity in pavement analysis. In addition, deflection data collected by falling weight deflectometer (FWD) are incorporated into the analysis in order to assess the sensitivity of critical pavement design criteria and pavement design life to the constitutive model. Finally, conclusions of engineering significance are formulated.

Keywords: FWD backcalculations, finite element simulations, Nonlinear resilient behaviour, pavement response and performance, RLT test results, unbound granular materials

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12449 Soil-Structure Interaction in Stiffness and Strength Degrading Systems

Authors: Enrique Bazan-Zurita, Sittipong Jarernprasert, Jacobo Bielak

Abstract:

We study the effects of soil-structure interaction (SSI) on the inelastic seismic response of a single-degree-of-freedom system whose hysteretic behaviour exhibits stiffness and/or strength degrading characteristics. Two sets of accelerograms are used as seismic input: the first comprising 87 record from stiff to medium stiff sites in California, and the second comprising 66 records from the soft lakebed of Mexico City. This study focuses in three seismic response parameters: ductility demand, inter-story drift, and total lateral displacement. The results allow quantitative estimates of changes in such parameters in an SSI system in comparison with those corresponding to the associated fixed-base system. We found that degrading features affect significantly both the response of fixed-base structures and the impact of soil-structure interaction. We propose a procedure to incorporate the results of this and similar studies in seismic design regulations for SSI system with anticipated nonlinear degrading behaviour.

Keywords: inelastic, seismic, building, foundation, interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 207