Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Search results for: pyro-technic

3 Evaluation of Zr/NH₄ClO₄ and Zr/KClO₄ Compositions for Development of Igniter for Ammonium Perchlorate and Hydroxyl-Terminated Polybutadiene Based Base Bleed System

Authors: Amir Mukhtar, Habib Nasir

Abstract:

To achieve an enhanced range of large calibre artillery a base bleed unit equipped with ammonium perchlorate and hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (AP/HTPB) based composite propellant grain is installed at the bottom of a projectile which produces jet of hot gasses and reduces base drag during flight of the projectile. Upon leaving the muzzle at very high muzzle velocity, due to sudden pressure drop, the propellant grain gets quenched. Therefore, base-bleed unit is equipped with an igniter to ensure ignition as well as reignition of the propellant grain. Pyrotechnic compositions based on Zr/NH₄ClO₄ and Zr/KClO₄ mixtures have been studied for the effect of fuel/oxidizer ratio and oxidizer type on ballistic properties. Calorific values of mixtures were investigated by bomb calorimeter, the average burning rate was measured by fuse wire technique at ambient conditions, and high-pressure closed vessel was used to record pressure-time profile, maximum pressure achieved (Pmax), time to achieve Pmax and differential pressure (dP/dt). It was observed that the 30, 40, 50 and 60 wt.% of Zr has a very significant effect on ballistic properties of mixtures. Compositions with NH₄ClO₄ produced higher values of Pmax, dP/dt and Calorific value as compared to Zr/KClO₄ based mixtures. Composition containing KClO₄ comparatively produced higher burning rate and maximum burning rate was recorded at 8.30 mm/s with 60 wt.% Zr in Zr/KClO₄ pyrotechnic mixture. Zr/KClO₄ with 50 wt. % of Zr was tests fired in igniter assembly by electric initiation method. Igniter assembly was test fired several times and average burning time of 3.5 sec with igniter mass burning rate of 6.85 g/sec was recorded. Igniter was finally fired on static and dynamic level with base bleed unit which gave successful ignition to the base bleed grain and extended range was achieved with 155 mm artillery projectile.

Keywords: base bleed, closed vessel, igniter, zirconium

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
2 Determination of Friction and Damping Coefficients of Folded Cover Mechanism Deployed by Torsion Springs

Authors: I. Yilmaz, O. Taga, F. Kosar, O. Keles

Abstract:

In this study, friction and damping coefficients of folded cover mechanism were obtained in accordance with experimental studies and data. Friction and damping coefficients are the most important inputs to accomplish a mechanism analysis. Friction and damping are two objects that change the time of deployment of mechanisms and their dynamic behaviors. Though recommended friction coefficient values exist in literature, damping is differentiating feature according to mechanic systems. So the damping coefficient should be obtained from mechanism test outputs. In this study, the folded cover mechanism use torsion springs for deploying covers that are formerly close folded position. Torsion springs provide folded covers with desirable deploying time according to variable environmental conditions. To verify all design revisions with system tests will be so costly so that some decisions are taken in accordance with numerical methods. In this study, there are two folded covers required to deploy simultaneously. Scotch-yoke and crank-rod mechanisms were combined to deploy folded covers simultaneously. The mechanism was unlocked with a pyrotechnic bolt onto scotch-yoke disc. When pyrotechnic bolt was exploded, torsion springs provided rotational movement for mechanism. Quick motion camera was recording dynamic behaviors of system during deployment case. Dynamic model of mechanism was modeled as rigid body with Adams MBD (multi body dynamics) then torque values provided by torsion springs were used as an input. A well-advised range of friction and damping coefficients were defined in Adams DOE (design of experiment) then a large number of analyses were performed until deployment time of folded covers run in with test data observed in record of quick motion camera, thus the deployment time of mechanism and dynamic behaviors were obtained. Same mechanism was tested with different torsion springs and torque values then outputs were compared with numerical models. According to comparison, it was understood that friction and damping coefficients obtained in this study can be used safely when studying on folded objects required to deploy simultaneously. In addition to model generated with Adams as rigid body the finite element model of folded mechanism was generated with Abaqus then the outputs of rigid body model and finite element model was compared. Finally, the reasonable solutions were suggested about different outputs of these solution methods.

Keywords: damping, friction, pyro-technic, scotch-yoke

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
1 Experimental Investigation of Hybrid Rocket Motor: Ignition, Throttling and Re-Ignition Phenomena

Authors: A. El-S. Makled, M. K. Al-Tamimi

Abstract:

Ignition phenomena are of great interest area over the past many years, and it has a direct impact on many propulsion and combustion applications. The direct goal of the paper is to realize and evaluate a functioning ignition method, shut-off, throttling and re-start operations for the hybrid rocket motor. A small-scale hybrid rocket motor (SSHRM) is designed, manufactured, demonstrated at various operating conditions and finally equipped for laboratory firing tests with high level of safety. Various solid fuel grains as Polymethyle-methacrylate (PMMA) and Polyethylene (PE) are selected, and it is decided to use the commercial gaseous oxygen (GO2) for its availability and low cost. Examine different types of ignition methods, pyrotechnic charge, fuse wire, heat wire and finally hot oxidizer method by using the heat exchanger, which are proposed as very safe ignition methods. Finally; recognize phenomena of throttling and re-start operations. Ignition by hot GO2 impingement is proved to be a very attractive ignition method for laboratory SSHRM, for its high safety, reliability and acceptable delay time. Finally; the throttling and re-start operations are demonstrated several times and can be carried out more easily with hot air ignition method.

Keywords: hybrid rocket motor, ignition system, re-start phenomena, throttling

Procedia PDF Downloads 219