Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2596

Search results for: advanced persistent threat

2596 Study on Network-Based Technology for Detecting Potentially Malicious Websites

Authors: Byung-Ik Kim, Hong-Koo Kang, Tae-Jin Lee, Hae-Ryong Park

Abstract:

Cyber terrors against specific enterprises or countries have been increasing recently. Such attacks against specific targets are called advanced persistent threat (APT), and they are giving rise to serious social problems. The malicious behaviors of APT attacks mostly affect websites and penetrate enterprise networks to perform malevolent acts. Although many enterprises invest heavily in security to defend against such APT threats, they recognize the APT attacks only after the latter are already in action. This paper discusses the characteristics of APT attacks at each step as well as the strengths and weaknesses of existing malicious code detection technologies to check their suitability for detecting APT attacks. It then proposes a network-based malicious behavior detection algorithm to protect the enterprise or national networks.

Keywords: Advanced Persistent Threat (APT), malware, network security, network packet, exploit kits

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
2595 An Architectural Model for APT Detection

Authors: Nam-Uk Kim, Sung-Hwan Kim, Tai-Myoung Chung

Abstract:

Typical security management systems are not suitable for detecting APT attack, because they cannot draw the big picture from trivial events of security solutions. Although SIEM solutions have security analysis engine for that, their security analysis mechanisms need to be verified in academic field. Although this paper proposes merely an architectural model for APT detection, we will keep studying on correlation analysis mechanism in the future.

Keywords: advanced persistent threat, anomaly detection, data mining

Procedia PDF Downloads 434
2594 Strategic Workplace Security: The Role of Malware and the Threat of Internal Vulnerability

Authors: Modesta E. Ezema, Christopher C. Ezema, Christian C. Ugwu, Udoka F. Eze, Florence M. Babalola

Abstract:

Some employees knowingly or unknowingly contribute to loss of data and also expose data to threat in the process of getting their jobs done. Many organizations today are faced with the challenges of how to secure their data as cyber criminals constantly devise new ways of attacking the organization’s secret data. However, this paper enlists the latest strategies that must be put in place in order to protect these important data from being attacked in a collaborative work place. It also introduces us to Advanced Persistent Threats (APTs) and how it works. The empirical study was conducted to collect data from the employee in data centers on how data could be protected from malicious codes and cyber criminals and their responses are highly considered to help checkmate the activities of malicious code and cyber criminals in our work places.

Keywords: data, employee, malware, work place

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
2593 Using Social Network Analysis for Cyber Threat Intelligence

Authors: Vasileios Anastopoulos

Abstract:

Cyber threat intelligence assists organizations in understanding the threats they face and helps them make educated decisions on preparing their defenses. Sharing of threat intelligence and threat information is increasingly leveraged by organizations and enterprises, and various software solutions are already available, with the open-source malware information sharing platform (MISP) being a popular one. In this work, a methodology for the production of cyber threat intelligence using the threat information stored in MISP is proposed. The methodology leverages the discipline of social network analysis and the diamond model, a model used for intrusion analysis, to produce cyber threat intelligence. The workings are demonstrated with a case study on a production MISP instance of a real organization. The paper concluded with a discussion on the proposed methodology and possible directions for further research.

Keywords: cyber threat intelligence, diamond model, malware information sharing platform, social network analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
2592 Experimental Analysis of Tools Used for Doxing and Proposed New Transforms to Help Organizations Protect against Doxing Attacks

Authors: Parul Khanna, Pavol Zavarsky, Dale Lindskog

Abstract:

Doxing is a term derived from documents, and hence consists of collecting information on an organization or individual through social media websites, search engines, password cracking methods, social engineering tools and other sources of publicly displayed information. The main purpose of doxing attacks is to threaten, embarrass, harass and humiliate the organization or individual. Various tools are used to perform doxing. Tools such as Maltego visualize organization’s architecture which helps in determining weak links within the organization. This paper discusses limitations of Maltego Chlorine CE 3.6.0 and suggests measures as to how organizations can use these tools to protect themselves from doxing attacks.

Keywords: advanced persistent threat, FOCA, OSINT, PII

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
2591 Active Cyber Defense within the Concept of NATO’s Protection of Critical Infrastructures

Authors: Serkan Yağlı, Selçuk Dal

Abstract:

Cyber-attacks pose a serious threat to all states. Therefore, states constantly seek for various methods to encounter those threats. In addition, recent changes in the nature of cyber-attacks and their more complicated methods have created a new concept: active cyber defence (ACD). This article tries to answer firstly why ACD is important to NATO and find out the viewpoint of NATO towards ACD. Secondly, infrastructure protection is essential to cyber defence. Critical infrastructure protection with ACD means is even more important. It is assumed that by implementing active cyber defence, NATO may not only be able to repel the attacks but also be deterrent. Hence, the use of ACD has a direct positive effect in all international organizations’ future including NATO.

Keywords: active cyber defence, advanced persistent treat, critical infrastructure, NATO

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
2590 Oct to Study Efficacy of Avastin in Recurrent Wet Age Related Macular Degeneration and Persistent Diffuse DME

Authors: Srinivasarao Akuthota, Rajasekhar Pabolu, Bharathi Hepattam

Abstract:

Purpose: To assess the efficacy of intravitreal Avastin in subjects with recurrent wet AMD and persistent diffuse DME on the basis of OCT. Design: Retrospective, non-comparative, observational study,single center study. Conclusion: The study showed that intravitreal Avastin has an equivalent effect on recurrent AMD and in persistent diffuse DME.

Keywords: age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diffuse diabetic retinopathy (DME), intravitreal Avastin (IVA), optical coherence tomography (OCT)

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
2589 Creativity and Stereotype Threat: Analysis of the Impact of Creativity on Eliminating the Stereotype Threat in the Educational Setting

Authors: Aleksandra Gajda

Abstract:

Among students between 12 and 13, the probability of activating the stereotype threat increases noticeably. Girls consider themselves weaker in science, while boys consider themselves weaker in the field of language skills. This phenomenon is disturbing because it may result in wrong choices of the further path of education, not consistent with the actual competences of the students. Meanwhile, negative effects of the stereotype threat, observable in the loss of focus on the task and transferring it to dealing with fear of failure, can be reduced by various factors. The study examined the impact of creativity on eliminating the stereotype threat. The experiment in the form of a 2 (gender: male vs. female) x 3 (traditional gender roles: neutral version vs. nontraditional gender roles) x 2 (creativity: low vs. high) factorial design was conducted. The results showed that a high level of creative abilities may reduce the negative effects of stereotype threat in educational setting.

Keywords: creativity, education, language skills, mathematical skills, stereotype threat

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
2588 Analysis on Cyber Threat Actors Targeting Automated Border Security Systems

Authors: Mirko Sailio

Abstract:

Border crossing automatization reduces required human resources in handling people crossing borders. As technology replaces and augments the work done by border officers, new cyber threats arise to threaten border security. This research analyses the current cyber threat actors and their capabilities. The analysis is conducted by gathering the threat actor data from a wide range of public sources. A model for a general border automatization system is presented, and its most significant cyber-security attributes are then compared to threat actor activity and capabilities in order to predict priorities in securing such systems. Organized crime and nation-state actors present the clearest threat to border cyber-security, and additional focus is given to their motivations and activities.

Keywords: border automation, cyber-security, threat actors, border cyber-security

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
2587 Intervention of Threat and Surveillance on the Obedience of Preschool Children

Authors: Sarah Mhae Diaz, Erika Anna De Leon, Jacklin Alwil Cartagena, Geordan Caruncong, Micah Riezl Gonzales

Abstract:

This study examined the intervention of threat and surveillance on the obedience of 100 preschool children through a task variable experiment replicated from the previous studies of Higbee (1979), and Chua, J., Chua, M., & Pico (1983). Nowadays, obedience among Filipino children to authority is disregarded since they are more outspoken and rebel due to social influences. With this, aside from corporal punishment, threat and surveillance became a mean of inducing obedience. Threat, according to the Dissonance Theory, can give attitudinal change. On the other hand, surveillance, according to the Theory of Social Facilitation, can either contribute to the completion or failure to do a task. Through a 2x2 factorial design, results show; (1) threat (F(1,96) = 12.487, p < 0.05) and (2) surveillance (F(1,96)=9.942, p<.05) had a significant main effect on obedience, suggesting that the Dissonance Theory and Theory of Social Facilitation is respectively true in the study. On the other hand, (3) no interaction (F(1,96)=1.303, p > .05) was seen since threat and surveillance both have a main effect that could be positive or negative, or could be because of their complementary property as supported by the post-hoc results. Also, (4) most effective commanding style is threat and surveillance setting (M = 30.04, SD = 7.971) due to the significant main effect of the two variables. With this, in the Filipino Setting, threat and surveillance has proven to be a very effective strategy to discipline and induce obedience from a child.

Keywords: experimental study, obedience, preschool children, surveillance, threat

Procedia PDF Downloads 408
2586 Support of Syrian Refugees: The Roles of Descriptive and Injunctive Norms, Perception of Threat, and Negative Emotions

Authors: Senay Yitmen

Abstract:

This research investigated individual’s support and helping intentions towards Syrian refugees in Turkey. This is examined in relation to perceived threat and negative emotions, and also to the perceptions of whether one’s intimate social network (family and friends) considers Syrians a threat (descriptive network norm) and whether this network morally supports Syrian refugees (injunctive norms). A questionnaire study was conducted among Turkish participants (n= 565) and the results showed that perception of threat was associated with negative emotions which, in turn, were related to less support of Syrian refugees. Additionally, descriptive norms moderated the relationship between perceived threat and negative emotions towards Syrian refugees. Furthermore, injunctive norms moderated the relationship between negative emotions and support to Syrian refugees. Specifically, the findings indicate that perceived threat is associated with less support of Syrian refugees through negative emotions when descriptive norms are weak and injunctive norms are strong. Injunctive norms appear to trigger a dilemma over the decision to conform or not to conform: when one has negative emotions as a result of perceived threat, it becomes more difficult to conform to the moral obligation of injunctive norms which is associated with less support of Syrian refugees. Hence, these findings demonstrate that both descriptive and injunctive norms are important and play different roles in individual’s support of Syrian refugees.

Keywords: descriptive norms, emotions, injunctive norms, the perception of threat

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
2585 Cybercrime Stage Based Intervention: Through the Eyes of a Cyber Threat Actor

Authors: Jonathan W. Z. Lim, Vrizlynn L. L. Thing

Abstract:

Cybercrimes are on the rise, in part due to technological advancements, as well as increased avenues of exploitation. Sophisticated threat actors are leveraging on such advancements to execute their malicious intentions. The increase in cybercrimes is prevalent, and it seems unlikely that they can be easily eradicated. A more serious concern is that the community may come to accept the notion that this will become the trend. As such, the key question revolves around how we can reduce cybercrime in this evolving landscape. In our paper, we propose to build a systematic framework through the lens of a cyber threat actor. We explore the motivation factors behind the crimes and the crime stages of the threat actors. We then formulate intervention plans so as to discourage the act of committing malicious cyber activities and also aim to integrate ex-cyber offenders back into society.

Keywords: crime motivations, crime prevention, cybercrime, ex-cyber criminals

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
2584 Application of Directed Acyclic Graphs for Threat Identification Based on Ontologies

Authors: Arun Prabhakar

Abstract:

Threat modeling is an important activity carried out in the initial stages of the development lifecycle that helps in building proactive security measures in the product. Though there are many techniques and tools available today, one of the common challenges with the traditional methods is the lack of a systematic approach in identifying security threats. The proposed solution describes an organized model by defining ontologies that help in building patterns to enumerate threats. The concepts of graph theory are applied to build the pattern for discovering threats for any given scenario. This graph-based solution also brings in other benefits, making it a customizable and scalable model.

Keywords: directed acyclic graph, ontology, patterns, threat identification, threat modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
2583 A Comprehensive Review on Health Hazards and Challenges for Microbial Remediation of Persistent Organic Pollutants

Authors: Nisha Gaur, K.Narasimhulu, Pydi Setty Yelamarthy

Abstract:

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have become a great concern due to their toxicity, transformation and bioaccumulation property. Therefore, this review highlights the types, sources, classification health hazards and mobility of organochlorine pesticides, industrial chemicals and their by-products. Moreover, with the signing of Aarhus and Stockholm convention on POPs there is an increased demand to identify and characterise such chemicals from industries and environment which are toxic in nature or to existing biota. Due to long life, persistent nature they enter into body through food and transfer to all tropic levels of ecological unit. In addition, POPs are lipophilic in nature and accumulate in lipid-containing tissues and organs which further indicates the adverse symptoms after the threshold limit. Though, several potential enzymes are reported from various categories of microorganism and their interaction with POPs may break down the complex compounds either through biodegradation, biostimulation or bioaugmentation process, however technological advancement and human activities have also indicated to explore the possibilities for the role of genetically modified organisms and metagenomics and metabolomics. Though many studies have been done to develop low cost, effective and reliable method for detection, determination and removal of ultra-trace concentration of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) but due to insufficient knowledge and non-feasibility of technique, the safe management of POPs is still a global challenge.

Keywords: persistent organic pollutants, bioaccumulation, biostimulation, microbial remediation

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
2582 Assessing the Effectiveness of Machine Learning Algorithms for Cyber Threat Intelligence Discovery from the Darknet

Authors: Azene Zenebe

Abstract:

Deep learning is a subset of machine learning which incorporates techniques for the construction of artificial neural networks and found to be useful for modeling complex problems with large dataset. Deep learning requires a very high power computational and longer time for training. By aggregating computing power, high performance computer (HPC) has emerged as an approach to resolving advanced problems and performing data-driven research activities. Cyber threat intelligence (CIT) is actionable information or insight an organization or individual uses to understand the threats that have, will, or are currently targeting the organization. Results of review of literature will be presented along with results of experimental study that compares the performance of tree-based and function-base machine learning including deep learning algorithms using secondary dataset collected from darknet.

Keywords: deep-learning, cyber security, cyber threat modeling, tree-based machine learning, function-based machine learning, data science

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2581 Group Boundaries against and Due to Identity Threat

Authors: Anna Siegler, Sara Bigazzi, Sara Serdult, Ildiko Bokretas

Abstract:

Social identity emerging from group membership defines the representational processes of our social reality. Based on our theoretical assumption the subjective perception of identity threat leads to an instable identity structure. The need to re-establish the positive identity will lead us to strengthen group boundaries. Prejudice in our perspective offer psychological security those who thinking in exclusive barriers, and we suggest that those who identify highly with their ingroup/national identity and less with superordinate identities take distance from others and this is related to their perception of threat. In our study we used a newly developed questionnaire, the Multiple Threat and Prejudice Questionnaire (MTPQ) which measure identity threat at different dimensions of identification (national, existential, gender, religious) and the distancing of different outgroups, over and above we worked with Social Dominance Orientation (SDO) and Identification with All Humanity Scale (IWAH). We conduct one data collection (N=1482) in a Hungarian sample to examine the connection between national threat and distance-taking, and this survey includes the investigation (N=218) of identification with different group categories. Our findings confirmed that those who feel themselves threatened in their national identity aspects are less likely to identify themselves with superordinate groups and this correlation is much stronger when they think about the nation as a bio-cultural unit, while if nation defined as a social-economy entity this connection is less powerful and has just the opposite direction.

Keywords: group boundaries, identity threat, prejudice, superordinate groups

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
2580 Analysis of Lightweight Register Hardware Threat

Authors: Yang Luo, Beibei Wang

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a design methodology of lightweight register transfer level (RTL) hardware threat implemented based on a MAX II FPGA platform. The dynamic power consumed by the toggling of the various bit of registers as well as the dynamic power consumed per unit of logic circuits were analyzed. The hardware threat was designed taking advantage of the differences in dynamic power consumed per unit of logic circuits to hide the transfer information. The experiment result shows that the register hardware threat was successfully implemented by using different dynamic power consumed per unit of logic circuits to hide the key information of DES encryption module. It needs more than 100000 sample curves to reduce the background noise by comparing the sample space when it completely meets the time alignment requirement. In additional, an external trigger signal is playing a very important role to detect the hardware threat in this experiment.

Keywords: side-channel analysis, hardware Trojan, register transfer level, dynamic power

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
2579 R-Killer: An Email-Based Ransomware Protection Tool

Authors: B. Lokuketagoda, M. Weerakoon, U. Madushan, A. N. Senaratne, K. Y. Abeywardena

Abstract:

Ransomware has become a common threat in past few years and the recent threat reports show an increase of growth in Ransomware infections. Researchers have identified different variants of Ransomware families since 2015. Lack of knowledge of the user about the threat is a major concern. Ransomware detection methodologies are still growing through the industry. Email is the easiest method to send Ransomware to its victims. Uninformed users tend to click on links and attachments without much consideration assuming the emails are genuine. As a solution to this in this paper R-Killer Ransomware detection tool is introduced. Tool can be integrated with existing email services. The core detection Engine (CDE) discussed in the paper focuses on separating suspicious samples from emails and handling them until a decision is made regarding the suspicious mail. It has the capability of preventing execution of identified ransomware processes. On the other hand, Sandboxing and URL analyzing system has the capability of communication with public threat intelligence services to gather known threat intelligence. The R-Killer has its own mechanism developed in its Proactive Monitoring System (PMS) which can monitor the processes created by downloaded email attachments and identify potential Ransomware activities. R-killer is capable of gathering threat intelligence without exposing the user’s data to public threat intelligence services, hence protecting the confidentiality of user data.

Keywords: ransomware, deep learning, recurrent neural networks, email, core detection engine

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
2578 Do Persistent and Transitory Hybrid Entrepreneurs Differ?

Authors: Anmari Viljamaa, Elina Varamäki

Abstract:

In this study we compare the profiles of transitory hybrid entrepreneurs and persistent hybrid entrepreneurs to determine how they differ. Hybrid entrepreneurs (HEs) represent a significant share of entrepreneurial activity yet little is known about them. We define HEs as individuals who are active as entrepreneurs but do no support themselves primarily by their enterprise. Persistent HEs (PHEs) are not planning to transition to fulltime entrepreneurship whereas transitory HEs (THEs) consider it probable. Our results show that THEs and PHEs are quite similar in background. THEs are more interested in increasing their turnover than PHEs, as expected, but also emphasize self-fulfillment as a motive for entrepreneurship more than PHEs. The clearest differences between THEs and PHEs are found in their views on how well their immediate circle supports full-time entrepreneurship, and their views of their own entrepreneurial abilities and the market potential of their firm. Our results support earlier arguments that hybrids should be considered separately in research on entrepreneurial entry and self-employment.

Keywords: hybrid entrepreneurship, part-time entrepreneurship, self-employment, Theory of Planned Behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
2577 The Effects of Self-Efficacy on Challenge and Threat States

Authors: Nadine Sammy, Mark Wilson, Samuel Vine

Abstract:

The Theory of Challenge and Threat States in Athletes (TCTSA) states that self-efficacy is an antecedent of challenge and threat. These states result from conscious and unconscious evaluations of situational demands and personal resources and are represented by both cognitive and physiological markers. Challenge is considered a more adaptive stress response as it is associated with a more efficient cardiovascular profile, as well as better performance and attention effects compared with threat. Self-efficacy is proposed to influence challenge/threat because an individual’s belief that they have the skills necessary to execute the courses of action required to succeed contributes to a perception that they can cope with the demands of the situation. This study experimentally examined the effects of self-efficacy on cardiovascular responses (challenge and threat), demand and resource evaluations, performance and attention under pressurised conditions. Forty-five university students were randomly assigned to either a control (n=15), low self-efficacy (n=15) or high self-efficacy (n=15) group and completed baseline and pressurised golf putting tasks. Self-efficacy was manipulated using false feedback adapted from previous studies. Measures of self-efficacy, cardiovascular reactivity, demand and resource evaluations, task performance and attention were recorded. The high self-efficacy group displayed more favourable cardiovascular reactivity, indicative of a challenge state, compared with the low self-efficacy group. The former group also reported high resource evaluations, but no task performance or attention effects were detected. These findings demonstrate that levels of self-efficacy influence cardiovascular reactivity and perceptions of resources under pressurised conditions.

Keywords: cardiovascular, challenge, performance, threat

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
2576 Persistent Homology of Convection Cycles in Network Flows

Authors: Minh Quang Le, Dane Taylor

Abstract:

Convection is a well-studied topic in fluid dynamics, yet it is less understood in the context of networks flows. Here, we incorporate techniques from topological data analysis (namely, persistent homology) to automate the detection and characterization of convective/cyclic/chiral flows over networks, particularly those that arise for irreversible Markov chains (MCs). As two applications, we study convection cycles arising under the PageRank algorithm, and we investigate chiral edges flows for a stochastic model of a bi-monomer's configuration dynamics. Our experiments highlight how system parameters---e.g., the teleportation rate for PageRank and the transition rates of external and internal state changes for a monomer---can act as homology regularizers of convection, which we summarize with persistence barcodes and homological bifurcation diagrams. Our approach establishes a new connection between the study of convection cycles and homology, the branch of mathematics that formally studies cycles, which has diverse potential applications throughout the sciences and engineering.

Keywords: homology, persistent homolgy, markov chains, convection cycles, filtration

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2575 A Reasoning Method of Cyber-Attack Attribution Based on Threat Intelligence

Authors: Li Qiang, Yang Ze-Ming, Liu Bao-Xu, Jiang Zheng-Wei

Abstract:

With the increasing complexity of cyberspace security, the cyber-attack attribution has become an important challenge of the security protection systems. The difficult points of cyber-attack attribution were forced on the problems of huge data handling and key data missing. According to this situation, this paper presented a reasoning method of cyber-attack attribution based on threat intelligence. The method utilizes the intrusion kill chain model and Bayesian network to build attack chain and evidence chain of cyber-attack on threat intelligence platform through data calculation, analysis and reasoning. Then, we used a number of cyber-attack events which we have observed and analyzed to test the reasoning method and demo system, the result of testing indicates that the reasoning method can provide certain help in cyber-attack attribution.

Keywords: reasoning, Bayesian networks, cyber-attack attribution, Kill Chain, threat intelligence

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
2574 Identification of Clinical Characteristics from Persistent Homology Applied to Tumor Imaging

Authors: Eashwar V. Somasundaram, Raoul R. Wadhwa, Jacob G. Scott

Abstract:

The use of radiomics in measuring geometric properties of tumor images such as size, surface area, and volume has been invaluable in assessing cancer diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. In addition to analyzing geometric properties, radiomics would benefit from measuring topological properties using persistent homology. Intuitively, features uncovered by persistent homology may correlate to tumor structural features. One example is necrotic cavities (corresponding to 2D topological features), which are markers of very aggressive tumors. We develop a data pipeline in R that clusters tumors images based on persistent homology is used to identify meaningful clinical distinctions between tumors and possibly new relationships not captured by established clinical categorizations. A preliminary analysis was performed on 16 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) breast tissue segments downloaded from the 'Investigation of Serial Studies to Predict Your Therapeutic Response with Imaging and Molecular Analysis' (I-SPY TRIAL or ISPY1) collection in The Cancer Imaging Archive. Each segment represents a patient’s breast tumor prior to treatment. The ISPY1 dataset also provided the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status data. A persistent homology matrix up to 2-dimensional features was calculated for each of the MRI segmentation. Wasserstein distances were then calculated between all pairwise tumor image persistent homology matrices to create a distance matrix for each feature dimension. Since Wasserstein distances were calculated for 0, 1, and 2-dimensional features, three hierarchal clusters were constructed. The adjusted Rand Index was used to see how well the clusters corresponded to the ER/PR/HER2 status of the tumors. Triple-negative cancers (negative status for all three receptors) significantly clustered together in the 2-dimensional features dendrogram (Adjusted Rand Index of .35, p = .031). It is known that having a triple-negative breast tumor is associated with aggressive tumor growth and poor prognosis when compared to non-triple negative breast tumors. The aggressive tumor growth associated with triple-negative tumors may have a unique structure in an MRI segmentation, which persistent homology is able to identify. This preliminary analysis shows promising results in the use of persistent homology on tumor imaging to assess the severity of breast tumors. The next step is to apply this pipeline to other tumor segment images from The Cancer Imaging Archive at different sites such as the lung, kidney, and brain. In addition, whether other clinical parameters, such as overall survival, tumor stage, and tumor genotype data are captured well in persistent homology clusters will be assessed. If analyzing tumor MRI segments using persistent homology consistently identifies clinical relationships, this could enable clinicians to use persistent homology data as a noninvasive way to inform clinical decision making in oncology.

Keywords: cancer biology, oncology, persistent homology, radiomics, topological data analysis, tumor imaging

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
2573 A Machine Learning-Assisted Crime and Threat Intelligence Hunter

Authors: Mohammad Shameel, Peter K. K. Loh, James H. Ng

Abstract:

Cybercrime is a new category of crime which poses a different challenge for crime investigators and incident responders. Attackers can mask their identities using a suite of tools and with the help of the deep web, which makes them difficult to track down. Scouring the deep web manually takes time and is inefficient. There is a growing need for a tool to scour the deep web to obtain useful evidence or intel automatically. In this paper, we will explain the background and motivation behind the research, present a survey of existing research on related tools, describe the design of our own crime/threat intelligence hunting tool prototype, demonstrate its capability with some test cases and lastly, conclude with proposals for future enhancements.

Keywords: cybercrime, deep web, threat intelligence, web crawler

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
2572 Sharing Experience in Authentic Learning for Mobile Security

Authors: Kai Qian, Lixin Tao

Abstract:

Mobile devices such as smartphones are getting more and more popular in our daily lives. The security vulnerability and threat attacks become a very emerging and important research and education topic in computing security discipline. There is a need to have an innovative mobile security hands-on laboratory to provide students with real world relevant mobile threat analysis and protection experience. This paper presents an authentic teaching and learning mobile security approach with smartphone devices which covers most important mobile threats in most aspects of mobile security. Each lab focuses on one type of mobile threats, such as mobile messaging threat, and conveys the threat analysis and protection in multiple ways, including lectures and tutorials, multimedia or app-based demonstration for threats analysis, and mobile app development for threat protections. This authentic learning approach is affordable and easily-adoptable which immerse students in a real world relevant learning environment with real devices. This approach can also be applied to many other mobile related courses such as mobile Java programming, database, network, and any security relevant courses so that can learn concepts and principles better with the hands-on authentic learning experience.

Keywords: mobile computing, Android, network, security, labware

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
2571 Hierarchical Filtering Method of Threat Alerts Based on Correlation Analysis

Authors: Xudong He, Jian Wang, Jiqiang Liu, Lei Han, Yang Yu, Shaohua Lv

Abstract:

Nowadays, the threats of the internet are enormous and increasing; however, the classification of huge alert messages generated in this environment is relatively monotonous. It affects the accuracy of the network situation assessment, and also brings inconvenience to the security managers to deal with the emergency. In order to deal with potential network threats effectively and provide more effective data to improve the network situation awareness. It is essential to build a hierarchical filtering method to prevent the threats. In this paper, it establishes a model for data monitoring, which can filter systematically from the original data to get the grade of threats and be stored for using again. Firstly, it filters the vulnerable resources, open ports of host devices and services. Then use the entropy theory to calculate the performance changes of the host devices at the time of the threat occurring and filter again. At last, sort the changes of the performance value at the time of threat occurring. Use the alerts and performance data collected in the real network environment to evaluate and analyze. The comparative experimental analysis shows that the threat filtering method can effectively filter the threat alerts effectively.

Keywords: correlation analysis, hierarchical filtering, multisource data, network security

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
2570 Effects of Swimming Exercise Training on Persistent Pain in Rats after Thoracotomy

Authors: Shao-Cyuan Yewang, Yu-Wen Chen

Abstract:

Background: Exercise training is well known to alleviate chronic pain syndromes improve of chronic pain. This study investigated the effect of swimming exercise training on thoracotomy and rib retraction-induced allodynia. Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats that received animal model of persistent postthoracotomy pain. All rats were divided into three groups: sham operations group (Sham), thoracotomy and rib retraction group (TRR), and TRR with swimming exercise training for 90min/day, 7 days a week for 4 weeks (TRR-SEW). The sham group did not receive retraction of the ribs. Thus, they received a pleural incision. The levels of mechanical and cold allodynia were measured by von Frey and acetone test. Results: In von Frey test, the level of mechanical allodynia in the TRR group was significantly higher than the sham group. The level of mechanical allodynia in the TRR-SEW group was significantly lower than the TRR group. In acetone test, the level of cold allodynia in the TRR group was significantly higher than the sham group. The level of cold allodynia in the TRR-SEW group was significantly lower than the TRR group. Conclusions: These results suggest that swimming exercise training decreases persistent postthoracotomy pain caused by TRR surgery. It may provide one of the new therapeutic effects of swimming exercise training could alleviate persistent postthoracotomy pain.

Keywords: chronic pain, thoracotomy pain, swimming, von Frey test, acetone test

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
2569 Development of Terrorist Threat Prediction Model in Indonesia by Using Bayesian Network

Authors: Hilya Mudrika Arini, Nur Aini Masruroh, Budi Hartono

Abstract:

There are more than 20 terrorist threats from 2002 to 2012 in Indonesia. Despite of this fact, preventive solution through studies in the field of national security in Indonesia has not been conducted comprehensively. This study aims to provide a preventive solution by developing prediction model of the terrorist threat in Indonesia by using Bayesian network. There are eight stages to build the model, started from literature review, build and verify Bayesian belief network to what-if scenario. In order to build the model, four experts from different perspectives are utilized. This study finds several significant findings. First, news and the readiness of terrorist group are the most influent factor. Second, according to several scenarios of the news portion, it can be concluded that the higher positive news proportion, the higher probability of terrorist threat will occur. Therefore, the preventive solution to reduce the terrorist threat in Indonesia based on the model is by keeping the positive news portion to a maximum of 38%.

Keywords: Bayesian network, decision analysis, national security system, text mining

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2568 Personal Identity and Group Identity under Threat following Exclusion: A Study in Singapore and in the Netherlands

Authors: Z. N. Huwaë, E.M. W. Tong, Y. H. M. See

Abstract:

In the present study, the researchers examined whether people from collectivistic cultures perceive a more group identity threat following social exclusion, whereas a more personal identity threat would be the case for those from individualistic cultures. In doing so, they investigated whether threatened identities depend on whether people are excluded by ingroup members (same ethnic background) or outgroup members (another ethnic background), as exclusion studies have shown mixed results when it comes to being excluded by ingroup versus outgroup members. For this purpose, students in Singapore and in the Netherlands participated in an online ball-tossing game (Cyberball) where they were excluded or included by other players with either the same or other ethnicity. Tentative results showed that both Singaporean and Dutch participants reported a more threat to their group identity than to their personal identity following exclusion and this did not depend on who excluded them. These tentative findings suggest that threatened identities following exclusion may not depend on cultural factors or on the source of exclusion.

Keywords: cultures, exclusion, experiment, group membership, identities

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2567 Cognitive and Environmental Factors Affecting Graduate Student Perception of Mathematics

Authors: Juanita Morris

Abstract:

The purpose of this study will examine the mediating relationships between the theories of intelligence, mathematics anxiety, gender stereotype threat, meta-cognition and math performance through the use of eye tracking technology, affecting student perception and problem-solving abilities. The participants will consist of (N=80) female graduate students. Test administered were the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale, Tobii Eye Tracking software, gender stereotype threat through Google images, and they will be asked to describe their problem-solving approach allowed to measure metacognition. Participants will be administered mathematics problems while having gender stereotype threat shown to them through online images while being directed to look at the eye tracking software Tobii. We will explore this by asking ‘Is mathematics anxiety associated with the theories of intelligence and gender stereotype threat and how does metacognition and math performance place a role in mediating those perspectives?’. It is hypothesized that math-anxious students are more likely affected by the gender stereotype threat and that may play a role in their performance? Furthermore, we also want to explore whether math anxious students are more likely to be an entity theorist than incremental theorist and whether those who are math anxious will be more likely to be fixated on variables associated with coefficients? Path analysis and independent samples t-test will be used to generate results for this study. We hope to conclude that both the theories of intelligence and metacognition mediate the relationship between mathematics anxiety and gender stereotype threat.

Keywords: math anxiety, emotions, affective domains fo learning, cognitive underlinings

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