Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 55

Search results for: dicentric chromosomes

55 Mathematical modeling of the calculation of the absorbed dose in uranium production workers with the genetic effects.

Authors: P. Kazymbet, G. Abildinova, K.Makhambetov, M. Bakhtin, D. Rybalkina, K. Zhumadilov


Conducted cytogenetic research in workers Stepnogorsk Mining-Chemical Combine (Akmola region) with the study of 26341 chromosomal metaphase. Using a regression analysis with program DataFit, version 5.0, dependence between exposure dose and the following cytogenetic exponents has been studied: frequency of aberrant cells, frequency of chromosomal aberrations, frequency of the amounts of dicentric chromosomes, and centric rings. Experimental data on calibration curves "dose-effect" enabled the development of a mathematical model, allowing on data of the frequency of aberrant cells, chromosome aberrations, the amounts of dicentric chromosomes and centric rings calculate the absorbed dose at the time of the study. In the dose range of 0.1 Gy to 5.0 Gy dependence cytogenetic parameters on the dose had the following equation: Y = 0,0067е^0,3307х (R2 = 0,8206) – for frequency of chromosomal aberrations; Y = 0,0057е^0,3161х (R2 = 0,8832) –for frequency of cells with chromosomal aberrations; Y =5 Е-0,5е^0,6383 (R2 = 0,6321) – or frequency of the amounts of dicentric chromosomes and centric rings on cells. On the basis of cytogenetic parameters and regression equations calculated absorbed dose in workers of uranium production at the time of the study did not exceed 0.3 Gy.

Keywords: Stepnogorsk, mathematical modeling, cytogenetic, dicentric chromosomes

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54 Exploring Structure of Human Chromosomes Using Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging

Authors: A. Bhartiya, S. Botchway, M. Yusuf, I. Robinson


Chromatin condensation is maintained by DNA-based proteins and some divalent cations (Mg²⁺, Ca²⁺, etc.). Condensation process during cell division maintains structural and functional organizations of chromosomes by transferring genetic information correctly to daughter cells. Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging (FLIM) technique measures the fluorescence decay of fixed human chromosomes by calculating the lifetime of fluorophores at a pixel x of the arrival of each photon as a function of time delay t, following excitation with a laser pulse. Fixed metaphase human chromosomes were labelled with DNA-binding dye, DAPI and later DAPI fluorescence lifetime measured using multiphoton microscopy. 5 out of 23 pairs of human chromosomes shown shorter lifetime at the centromere region, differentiating proportion of compaction along the length of chromosomes. Different lifetime was observed in a condensed and de-condensed chromosome. It clearly indicates the involvement of divalent cations in the process of condensation.

Keywords: divalent cations, FLIM (Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging), human chromosomes, multiphoton microscopy

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53 An Optimization Algorithm Based on Dynamic Schema with Dissimilarities and Similarities of Chromosomes

Authors: Radhwan Yousif Sedik Al-Jawadi


Optimization is necessary for finding appropriate solutions to a range of real-life problems. In particular, genetic (or more generally, evolutionary) algorithms have proved very useful in solving many problems for which analytical solutions are not available. In this paper, we present an optimization algorithm called Dynamic Schema with Dissimilarity and Similarity of Chromosomes (DSDSC) which is a variant of the classical genetic algorithm. This approach constructs new chromosomes from a schema and pairs of existing ones by exploring their dissimilarities and similarities. To show the effectiveness of the algorithm, it is tested and compared with the classical GA, on 15 two-dimensional optimization problems taken from literature. We have found that, in most cases, our method is better than the classical genetic algorithm.

Keywords: chromosome injection, dynamic schema, genetic algorithm, similarity and dissimilarity

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52 Phylogenetic Relationships between the Whole Sets of Individual Flow Sorted U, M, S and C Chromosomes of Aegilops and Wheat as Revealed by COS Markers

Authors: András Farkas, István Molnár, Jan Vrána, Veronika Burešová, Petr Cápal, András Cseh, Márta Molnár-Láng, Jaroslav Doležel


Species of Aegilops played a central role in the evolution of wheat and are sources of traits related to yield quality and tolerance against biotic and abiotic stresses. These wild genes and alleles are desirable to use in crop improvement programs via introgressive hybridization. However, the success of chromosome mediated gene transfer to wheat are hampered by the pour knowledge on the genome structure of Aegilops relative to wheat and by the low number of cost-effective molecular markers specific for Aegilops chromosomes. The COS markers specific for genes conserved throughout evolution in both sequence and copy number between Triticeae/Aegilops taxa and define orthologous regions, thus enabling the comparison of regions on the chromosomes of related species. The present study compared individual chromosomes of Aegilops umbellulata (UU), Ae. comosa (MM), Ae. speltoides (SS) and Ae. caudata (CC) purified by flourescent labelling with oligonucleotid SSR repeats and biparametric flow cytometry with wheat by identifying orthologous chromosomal regions by COS markers. The linear order of bin-mapped COS markers along the wheat D chromosomes was identified by the use of chromosome-specific sequence data and virtual gene order. Syntenic regions of wheat identifying genome rearrangements differentiating the U, M, S or C genomes from the D genome of wheat were detected. The conserved orthologous set markers assigned to Aegilops chromosomes promise to accelerate gene introgression by facilitating the identification of alien chromatin. The syntenic relationships between the Aegilops species and wheat will facilitate the targeted development of new markers specific for U, M, S and C genomic regions and will contribute to the understanding of molecular processes related to the evolution of Aegilops.

Keywords: Aegilops, cos-markers, flow-sorting, wheat

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51 Applying Sequential Pattern Mining to Generate Block for Scheduling Problems

Authors: Meng-Hui Chen, Chen-Yu Kao, Chia-Yu Hsu, Pei-Chann Chang


The main idea in this paper is using sequential pattern mining to find the information which is helpful for finding high performance solutions. By combining this information, it is defined as blocks. Using the blocks to generate artificial chromosomes (ACs) could improve the structure of solutions. Estimation of Distribution Algorithms (EDAs) is adapted to solve the combinatorial problems. Nevertheless many of these approaches are advantageous for this application, but only some of them are used to enhance the efficiency of application. Generating ACs uses patterns and EDAs could increase the diversity. According to the experimental result, the algorithm which we proposed has a better performance to solve the permutation flow-shop problems.

Keywords: combinatorial problems, sequential pattern mining, estimationof distribution algorithms, artificial chromosomes

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50 A Novel Chicken W Chromosome Specific Tandem Repeat

Authors: Alsu F. Saifitdinova, Alexey S. Komissarov, Svetlana A. Galkina, Elena I. Koshel, Maria M. Kulak, Stephen J. O'Brien, Elena R. Gaginskaya


The mystery of sex determination is one of the most ancient and still not solved until the end so far. In many species, sex determination is genetic and often accompanied by the presence of dimorphic sex chromosomes in the karyotype. Genomic sequencing gave the information about the gene content of sex chromosomes which allowed to reveal their origin from ordinary autosomes and to trace their evolutionary history. Female-specific W chromosome in birds as well as mammalian male-specific Y chromosome is characterized by the degeneration of gene content and the accumulation of repetitive DNA. Tandem repeats complicate the analysis of genomic data. Despite the best efforts chicken W chromosome assembly includes only 1.2 Mb from expected 55 Mb. Supplementing the information on the sex chromosome composition not only helps to complete the assembly of genomes but also moves us in the direction of understanding of the sex-determination systems evolution. A whole-genome survey to the assembly Gallus_gallus WASHUC 2.60 was applied for repeats search in assembled genome and performed search and assembly of high copy number repeats in unassembled reads of SRR867748 short reads datasets. For cytogenetic analysis conventional methods of fluorescent in situ hybridization was used for previously cloned W specific satellites and specifically designed directly labeled synthetic oligonucleotide DNA probe was used for bioinformatically identified repetitive sequence. Hybridization was performed with mitotic chicken chromosomes and manually isolated giant meiotic lampbrush chromosomes from growing oocytes. A novel chicken W specific satellite (GGAAA)n which is not co-localizes with any previously described classes of W specific repeats was identified and mapped with high resolution. In the composition of autosomes this repeat units was found as a part of upstream regions of gonad specific protein coding sequences. These findings may contribute to the understanding of the role of tandem repeats in sex specific differentiation regulation in birds and sex chromosome evolution. This work was supported by the postdoctoral fellowships from St. Petersburg State University (#1.50.1623.2013 and #1.50.1043.2014), the grant for Leading Scientific Schools (#3553.2014.4) and the grant from Russian foundation for basic researches (#15-04-05684). The equipment and software of Research Resource Center “Chromas” and Theodosius Dobzhansky Center for Genome Bioinformatics of Saint Petersburg State University were used.

Keywords: birds, lampbrush chromosomes, sex chromosomes, tandem repeats

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49 Hardware for Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Fariborz Ahmadi, Reza Tati


Genetic algorithm is a soft computing method that works on set of solutions. These solutions are called chromosome and the best one is the absolute solution of the problem. The main problem of this algorithm is that after passing through some generations, it may be produced some chromosomes that had been produced in some generations ago that causes reducing the convergence speed. From another respective, most of the genetic algorithms are implemented in software and less works have been done on hardware implementation. Our work implements genetic algorithm in hardware that doesn’t produce chromosome that have been produced in previous generations. In this work, most of genetic operators are implemented without producing iterative chromosomes and genetic diversity is preserved. Genetic diversity causes that not only do not this algorithm converge to local optimum but also reaching to global optimum. Without any doubts, proposed approach is so faster than software implementations. Evaluation results also show the proposed approach is faster than hardware ones.

Keywords: hardware, genetic algorithm, computer science, engineering

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48 A Second Order Genetic Algorithm for Traveling Salesman Problem

Authors: T. Toathom, M. Munlin, P. Sugunnasil


The traveling salesman problem (TSP) is one of the best-known problems in optimization problem. There are many research regarding the TSP. One of the most usage tool for this problem is the genetic algorithm (GA). The chromosome of the GA for TSP is normally encoded by the order of the visited city. However, the traditional chromosome encoding scheme has some limitations which are twofold: the large solution space and the inability to encapsulate some information. The number of solution for a certain problem is exponentially grow by the number of city. Moreover, the traditional chromosome encoding scheme fails to recognize the misplaced correct relation. It implies that the tradition method focuses only on exact solution. In this work, we relax some of the concept in the GA for TSP which is the exactness of the solution. The proposed work exploits the relation between cities in order to reduce the solution space in the chromosome encoding. In this paper, a second order GA is proposed to solve the TSP. The term second order refers to how the solution is encoded into chromosome. The chromosome is divided into 2 types: the high order chromosome and the low order chromosome. The high order chromosome is the chromosome that focus on the relation between cities such as the city A should be visited before city B. On the other hand, the low order chromosome is a type of chromosome that is derived from a high order chromosome. In other word, low order chromosome is encoded by the traditional chromosome encoding scheme. The genetic operation, mutation and crossover, will be performed on the high order chromosome. Then, the high order chromosome will be mapped to a group of low order chromosomes whose characteristics are satisfied with the high order chromosome. From the mapped set of chromosomes, the champion chromosome will be selected based on the fitness value which will be later used as a representative for the high order chromosome. The experiment is performed on the city data from TSPLIB.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, traveling salesman problem, initial population, chromosomes encoding

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47 Genome-Wide Analysis of Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) Retrotransposons in Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

Authors: Zeeshan Khan, Faisal Nouroz, Shumaila Noureen


European or common rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) belongs to class Mammalia, order Lagomorpha of family Leporidae. They are distributed worldwide and are native to Europe (France, Spain and Portugal) and Africa (Morocco and Algeria). LTR retrotransposons are major Class I mobile genetic elements of eukaryotic genomes and play a crucial role in genome expansion, evolution and diversification. They were mostly annotated in various genomes by conventional approaches of homology searches, which restricted the annotation of novel elements. Present work involved de novo identification of LTR retrotransposons by LTR_FINDER in haploid genome of rabbit (2247.74 Mb) distributed in 22 chromosomes, of which 7,933 putative full-length or partial copies were identified containing 69.38 Mb of elements, accounting 3.08% of the genome. Highest copy numbers (731) were found on chromosome 7, followed by chromosome 12 (705), while the lowest copy numbers (27) were detected in chromosome 19 with no elements identified from chromosome 21 due to partially sequenced chromosome, unidentified nucleotides (N) and repeated simple sequence repeats (SSRs). The identified elements ranged in sizes from 1.2 - 25.8 Kb with average sizes between 2-10 Kb. Highest percentage (4.77%) of elements was found in chromosome 15, while lowest (0.55%) in chromosome 19. The most frequent tRNA type was Arginine present in majority of the elements. Based on gained results, it was estimated that rabbit exhibits 15,866 copies having 137.73 Mb of elements accounting 6.16% of diploid genome (44 chromosomes). Further molecular analyses will be helpful in chromosomal localization and distribution of these elements on chromosomes.

Keywords: rabbit, LTR retrotransposons, genome, chromosome

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46 Cytogenetic Characterization of the VERO Cell Line Based on Comparisons with the Subline; Implication for Authorization and Quality Control of Animal Cell Lines

Authors: Fumio Kasai, Noriko Hirayama, Jorge Pereira, Azusa Ohtani, Masashi Iemura, Malcolm A. Ferguson Smith, Arihiro Kohara


The VERO cell line was established in 1962 from normal tissue of an African green monkey, Chlorocebus aethiops (2n=60), and has been commonly used worldwide for screening for toxins or as a cell substrate for the production of viral vaccines. The VERO genome was sequenced in 2014; however, its cytogenetic features have not been fully characterized as it contains several chromosome abnormalities and different karyotypes coexist in the cell line. In this study, the VERO cell line (JCRB0111) was compared with one of the sublines. In contrast to 59 chromosomes as the modal chromosome number in the VERO cell line, the subline had two peaks of 56 and 58 chromosomes. M-FISH analysis using human probes revealed that the VERO cell line was characterized by a translocation t(2;25) found in all metaphases, which was absent in the subline. Different abnormalities detected only in the subline show that the cell line is heterogeneous, indicating that the subline has the potential to change its genomic characteristics during cell culture. The various alterations in the two independent lineages suggest that genomic changes in both VERO cells can be accounted for by progressive rearrangements during their evolution in culture. Both t(5;X) and t(8;14) observed in all metaphases of the two cell lines might have a key role in VERO cells and could be used as genetic markers to identify VERO cells. The flow karyotype shows distinct differences from normal. Further analysis of sorted abnormal chromosomes may uncover other characteristics of VERO cells. Because of the absence of STR data, cytogenetic data are important in characterizing animal cell lines and can be an indicator of their quality control.

Keywords: VERO, cell culture passage, chromosome rearrangement, heterogeneous cells

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45 A Retrievable Genetic Algorithm for Efficient Solving of Sudoku Puzzles

Authors: Seyed Mehran Kazemi, Bahare Fatemi


Sudoku is a logic-based combinatorial puzzle game which is popular among people of different ages. Due to this popularity, computer softwares are being developed to generate and solve Sudoku puzzles with different levels of difficulty. Several methods and algorithms have been proposed and used in different softwares to efficiently solve Sudoku puzzles. Various search methods such as stochastic local search have been applied to this problem. Genetic Algorithm (GA) is one of the algorithms which have been applied to this problem in different forms and in several works in the literature. In these works, chromosomes with little or no information were considered and obtained results were not promising. In this paper, we propose a new way of applying GA to this problem which uses more-informed chromosomes than other works in the literature. We optimize the parameters of our GA using puzzles with different levels of difficulty. Then we use the optimized values of the parameters to solve various puzzles and compare our results to another GA-based method for solving Sudoku puzzles.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, optimization, solving Sudoku puzzles, stochastic local search

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44 Microarrays: Wide Clinical Utilities and Advances in Healthcare

Authors: Salma M. Wakil


Advances in the field of genetics overwhelmed detecting large number of inherited disorders at the molecular level and directed to the development of innovative technologies. These innovations have led to gene sequencing, prenatal mutation detection, pre-implantation genetic diagnosis; population based carrier screening and genome wide analyses using microarrays. Microarrays are widely used in establishing clinical and diagnostic setup for genetic anomalies at a massive level, with the advent of cytoscan molecular karyotyping as a clinical utility card for detecting chromosomal aberrations with high coverage across the entire human genome. Unlike a regular karyotype that relies on the microscopic inspection of chromosomes, molecular karyotyping with cytoscan constructs virtual chromosomes based on the copy number analysis of DNA which improves its resolution by 100-fold. We have been investigating a large number of patients with Developmental Delay and Intellectual disability with this platform for establishing micro syndrome deletions and have detected number of novel CNV’s in the Arabian population with the clinical relevance.

Keywords: microarrays, molecular karyotyping, developmental delay, genetics

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43 Gray Level Image Encryption

Authors: Roza Afarin, Saeed Mozaffari


The aim of this paper is image encryption using Genetic Algorithm (GA). The proposed encryption method consists of two phases. In modification phase, pixels locations are altered to reduce correlation among adjacent pixels. Then, pixels values are changed in the diffusion phase to encrypt the input image. Both phases are performed by GA with binary chromosomes. For modification phase, these binary patterns are generated by Local Binary Pattern (LBP) operator while for diffusion phase binary chromosomes are obtained by Bit Plane Slicing (BPS). Initial population in GA includes rows and columns of the input image. Instead of subjective selection of parents from this initial population, a random generator with predefined key is utilized. It is necessary to decrypt the coded image and reconstruct the initial input image. Fitness function is defined as average of transition from 0 to 1 in LBP image and histogram uniformity in modification and diffusion phases, respectively. Randomness of the encrypted image is measured by entropy, correlation coefficients and histogram analysis. Experimental results show that the proposed method is fast enough and can be used effectively for image encryption.

Keywords: correlation coefficients, genetic algorithm, image encryption, image entropy

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42 Brachypodium: A Model Genus to Study Grass Genome Organisation at the Cytomolecular Level

Authors: R. Hasterok, A. Betekhtin, N. Borowska, A. Braszewska-Zalewska, E. Breda, K. Chwialkowska, R. Gorkiewicz, D. Idziak, J. Kwasniewska, M. Kwasniewski, D. Siwinska, A. Wiszynska, E. Wolny


In contrast to animals, the organisation of plant genomes at the cytomolecular level is still relatively poorly studied and understood. However, the Brachypodium genus in general and B. distachyon in particular represent exceptionally good model systems for such study. This is due not only to their highly desirable ‘model’ biological features, such as small nuclear genome, low chromosome number and complex phylogenetic relations, but also to the rapidly and continuously growing repertoire of experimental tools, such as large collections of accessions, WGS information, large insert (BAC) libraries of genomic DNA, etc. Advanced cytomolecular techniques, such as fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with evermore sophisticated probes, empowered by cutting-edge microscope and digital image acquisition and processing systems, offer unprecedented insight into chromatin organisation at various phases of the cell cycle. A good example is chromosome painting which uses pools of chromosome-specific BAC clones, and enables the tracking of individual chromosomes not only during cell division but also during interphase. This presentation outlines the present status of molecular cytogenetic analyses of plant genome structure, dynamics and evolution using B. distachyon and some of its relatives. The current projects focus on important scientific questions, such as: What mechanisms shape the karyotypes? Is the distribution of individual chromosomes within an interphase nucleus determined? Are there hot spots of structural rearrangement in Brachypodium chromosomes? Which epigenetic processes play a crucial role in B. distachyon embryo development and selective silencing of rRNA genes in Brachypodium allopolyploids? The authors acknowledge financial support from the Polish National Science Centre (grants no. 2012/04/A/NZ3/00572 and 2011/01/B/NZ3/00177)

Keywords: Brachypodium, B. distachyon, chromosome, FISH, molecular cytogenetics, nucleus, plant genome organisation

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41 Using Genetic Algorithms to Outline Crop Rotations and a Cropping-System Model

Authors: Nicolae Bold, Daniel Nijloveanu


The idea of cropping-system is a method used by farmers. It is an environmentally-friendly method, protecting the natural resources (soil, water, air, nutritive substances) and increase the production at the same time, taking into account some crop particularities. The combination of this powerful method with the concepts of genetic algorithms results into a possibility of generating sequences of crops in order to form a rotation. The usage of this type of algorithms has been efficient in solving problems related to optimization and their polynomial complexity allows them to be used at solving more difficult and various problems. In our case, the optimization consists in finding the most profitable rotation of cultures. One of the expected results is to optimize the usage of the resources, in order to minimize the costs and maximize the profit. In order to achieve these goals, a genetic algorithm was designed. This algorithm ensures the finding of several optimized solutions of cropping-systems possibilities which have the highest profit and, thus, which minimize the costs. The algorithm uses genetic-based methods (mutation, crossover) and structures (genes, chromosomes). A cropping-system possibility will be considered a chromosome and a crop within the rotation is a gene within a chromosome. Results about the efficiency of this method will be presented in a special section. The implementation of this method would bring benefits into the activity of the farmers by giving them hints and helping them to use the resources efficiently.

Keywords: chromosomes, cropping, genetic algorithm, genes

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40 Inbreeding Study Using Runs of Homozygosity in Nelore Beef Cattle

Authors: Priscila A. Bernardes, Marcos E. Buzanskas, Luciana C. A. Regitano, Ricardo V. Ventura, Danisio P. Munari


The best linear unbiased predictor (BLUP) is a method commonly used in genetic evaluations of breeding programs. However, this approach can lead to higher inbreeding coefficients in the population due to the intensive use of few bulls with higher genetic potential, usually presenting some degree of relatedness. High levels of inbreeding are associated to low genetic viability, fertility, and performance for some economically important traits and therefore, should be constantly monitored. Unreliable pedigree data can also lead to misleading results. Genomic information (i.e., single nucleotide polymorphism – SNP) is a useful tool to estimate the inbreeding coefficient. Runs of homozygosity have been used to evaluate homozygous segments inherited due to direct or collateral inbreeding and allows inferring population selection history. This study aimed to evaluate runs of homozygosity (ROH) and inbreeding in a population of Nelore beef cattle. A total of 814 animals were genotyped with the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip and the quality control was carried out excluding SNPs located in non-autosomal regions, with unknown position, with a p-value in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium lower than 10⁻⁵, call rate lower than 0.98 and samples with the call rate lower than 0.90. After the quality control, 809 animals and 509,107 SNPs remained for analyses. For the ROH analysis, PLINK software was used considering segments with at least 50 SNPs with a minimum length of 1Mb in each animal. The inbreeding coefficient was calculated using the ratio between the sum of all ROH sizes and the size of the whole genome (2,548,724kb). A total of 25.711 ROH were observed, presenting mean, median, minimum, and maximum length of 3.34Mb, 2Mb, 1Mb, and 80.8Mb, respectively. The number of SNPs present in ROH segments varied from 50 to 14.954. The longest ROH length was observed in one animal, which presented a length of 634Mb (24.88% of the genome). Four bulls were among the 10 animals with the longest extension of ROH, presenting 11% of ROH with length higher than 10Mb. Segments longer than 10Mb indicate recent inbreeding. Therefore, the results indicate an intensive use of few sires in the studied data. The distribution of ROH along the chromosomes showed that chromosomes 5 and 6 presented a large number of segments when compared to other chromosomes. The mean, median, minimum, and maximum inbreeding coefficients were 5.84%, 5.40%, 0.00%, and 24.88%, respectively. Although the mean inbreeding was considered low, the ROH indicates a recent and intensive use of few sires, which should be avoided for the genetic progress of breed.

Keywords: autozygosity, Bos taurus indicus, genomic information, single nucleotide polymorphism

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39 Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of MLO Family Genes in Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duch.)

Authors: Khin Thanda Win, Chunying Zhang, Sanghyeob Lee


Mildew resistance locus o (Mlo), a plant-specific gene family with seven-transmembrane (TM), plays an important role in plant resistance to powdery mildew (PM). PM caused by Podosphaera xanthii is a widespread plant disease and probably represents the major fungal threat for many Cucurbits. The recent Cucurbita maxima genome sequence data provides an opportunity to identify and characterize the MLO gene family in this species. Total twenty genes (designated CmaMLO1 through CmaMLO20) have been identified by using an in silico cloning method with the MLO gene sequences of Cucumis sativus, Cucumis melo, Citrullus lanatus and Cucurbita pepo as probes. These CmaMLOs were evenly distributed on 15 chromosomes of 20 C. maxima chromosomes without any obvious clustering. Multiple sequence alignment showed that the common structural features of MLO gene family, such as TM domains, a calmodulin-binding domain and 30 important amino acid residues for MLO function, were well conserved. Phylogenetic analysis of the CmaMLO genes and other plant species reveals seven different clades (I through VII) and only clade IV is specific to monocots (rice, barley, and wheat). Phylogenetic and structural analyses provided preliminary evidence that five genes belonged to clade V could be the susceptibility genes which may play the importance role in PM resistance. This study is the first comprehensive report on MLO genes in C. maxima to our knowledge. These findings will facilitate the functional analysis of the MLOs related to PM susceptibility and are valuable resources for the development of disease resistance in pumpkin.

Keywords: Mildew resistance locus o (Mlo), powdery mildew, phylogenetic relationship, susceptibility genes

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38 Genomic and Evolutionary Diversity of Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) Retrotransposons in Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera)

Authors: Faisal Nouroz, Mukaramin Mukaramin


Of the transposable elements (TEs), the retrotransposons are the most copious elements identified from many sequenced genomes. They have played a major role in genome evolution, rearrangement, and expansions based on their copy and paste mode of proliferation. They are further divided into LTR and Non-LTR retrotransposons. The purpose of the current study was to identify the LTR REs in sequenced Phoenix dactylifera genome and to study their structural diversity. A total of 150 P. dactylifera BAC sequences with > 60kb sizes were randomly retrieved from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database and screened for the presence of LTR retrotransposons. Seven bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) sequences showed full-length LTR Retrotransposons with 4 Copia and 3 Gypsy families having variable copy numbers in respective families. Reverse transcriptase (RT) domain was found as the most conserved domain among Copia and Gypsy superfamilies and was used to deduce evolutionary analysis. The amino acid residues among various RT sequences showed variability in their percentages indicating post divergence evolution. Amino acid Leucine was found in highest proportions followed by Lysine, while Methionine and Tryptophan were in lowest percentages. The phylogenetic analysis based on RT domains confirmed that although having most conserved RT regions, several evolutionary events occurred causing nucleotide polymorphisms and hence clustering of Gypsy and Copia superfamilies into their respective lineages. The study will be helpful in identification and annotation of these elements in other species and genera and their distribution patterns on chromosomes by fluorescent in situ hybridization techniques.

Keywords: transposable elements, Phoenix dactylifera, retrotransposons, phylogenetic analysis

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37 From Primer Generation to Chromosome Identification: A Primer Generation Genotyping Method for Bacterial Identification and Typing

Authors: Wisam H. Benamer, Ehab A. Elfallah, Mohamed A. Elshaari, Farag A. Elshaari


A challenge for laboratories is to provide bacterial identification and antibiotic sensitivity results within a short time. Hence, advancement in the required technology is desirable to improve timing, accuracy and quality. Even with the current advances in methods used for both phenotypic and genotypic identification of bacteria the need is there to develop method(s) that enhance the outcome of bacteriology laboratories in accuracy and time. The hypothesis introduced here is based on the assumption that the chromosome of any bacteria contains unique sequences that can be used for its identification and typing. The outcome of a pilot study designed to test this hypothesis is reported in this manuscript. Methods: The complete chromosome sequences of several bacterial species were downloaded to use as search targets for unique sequences. Visual basic and SQL server (2014) were used to generate a complete set of 18-base long primers, a process started with reverse translation of randomly chosen 6 amino acids to limit the number of the generated primers. In addition, the software used to scan the downloaded chromosomes using the generated primers for similarities was designed, and the resulting hits were classified according to the number of similar chromosomal sequences, i.e., unique or otherwise. Results: All primers that had identical/similar sequences in the selected genome sequence(s) were classified according to the number of hits in the chromosomes search. Those that were identical to a single site on a single bacterial chromosome were referred to as unique. On the other hand, most generated primers sequences were identical to multiple sites on a single or multiple chromosomes. Following scanning, the generated primers were classified based on ability to differentiate between medically important bacterial and the initial results looks promising. Conclusion: A simple strategy that started by generating primers was introduced; the primers were used to screen bacterial genomes for match. Primer(s) that were uniquely identical to specific DNA sequence on a specific bacterial chromosome were selected. The identified unique sequence can be used in different molecular diagnostic techniques, possibly to identify bacteria. In addition, a single primer that can identify multiple sites in a single chromosome can be exploited for region or genome identification. Although genomes sequences draft of isolates of organism DNA enable high throughput primer design using alignment strategy, and this enhances diagnostic performance in comparison to traditional molecular assays. In this method the generated primers can be used to identify an organism before the draft sequence is completed. In addition, the generated primers can be used to build a bank for easy access of the primers that can be used to identify bacteria.

Keywords: bacteria chromosome, bacterial identification, sequence, primer generation

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36 Analysis of the Blastocysts Chromosomal Set Obtained after the Use of Donor Oocyte Cytoplasmic Transfer Technology

Authors: Julia Gontar, Natalia Buderatskaya, Igor Ilyin, Olga Parnitskaya, Sergey Lavrynenko, Eduard Kapustin, Ekaterina Ilyina, Yana Lakhno


Introduction: It is well known that oocytes obtained from older reproductive women have accumulated mitochondrial DNA mutations, which negatively affects the morphology of a developing embryo and may lead to the birth of a child with mitochondrial disease. Special techniques have been developed to allow a donor oocyte cytoplasmic transfer with the parents’ biological nuclear DNA retention. At the same time, it is important to understand whether the procedure affects the future embryonic chromosome sets as the nuclear DNA is the transfer subject in this new complex procedure. Material and Methods: From July 2015 to July 2016, the investigation was carried out in the Medical Centre IGR. 34 donor oocytes (group A) were used for the manipulation with the aim of donating cytoplasm: 21 oocytes were used for zygotes pronuclear transfer and oocytes 13 – for the spindle transfer. The mean age of the oocyte donors was 28.4±2.9 years. The procedure was performed using Nikon Ti Eclipse inverted microscope equipped with the micromanipulators Narishige system (Japan), Saturn 3 laser console (UK), Oosight imaging systems (USA). For the preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) blastocyst biopsy was performed, trophectoderm samples were diagnosed using fluorescent in situ hybridization on chromosomes 9, 13, 15, 16, 17, 18, 21, 22, X, Y. For comparison of morphological characteristics and euploidy, was chosen a group of embryos (group B) with the amount of 121 blastocysts obtained from 213 oocytes, which were gotten from the donor programs of assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Group B was not subjected to donor oocyte cytoplasmic transfer procedure and studied on the above mentioned chromosomes. Statistical analysis was carried out using the criteria t, x^2 at a significance levels p<0.05, p<0.01, p<0.001. Results: After the donor cytoplasm transfer process the amount of the third day developing embryos was 27 (79.4%). In this stage, the group B consisted of 189 (88.7%) developing embryos, and there was no statistically significant difference (SSD) between the two groups (p>0.05). After a comparative analysis of the morphological characteristics of the embryos on the fifth day, we also found no SSD among the studied groups (p>0.05): from 34 oocytes exposed to manipulation, 14 (41.2%) blastocysts was obtained, while the group B blastocyst yield was 56.8% (n=121) from 213 oocytes. The following results were obtained after PGS performing: in group A euploidy in studied chromosomes were 28.6%(n=4) blastocysts, whereas in group B this rate was 40.5%(n=49), 28.6%(n=4) and 21.5%(n=26) of mosaic embryos and 42.8%(n=6) and 38.0%(n=46) aneuploid blastocysts respectively were identified. None of these specified parameters had an SSD (p>0.05). But attention was drawn by the blastocysts in group A with identified mosaicism, which was chaotic without any cell having euploid chromosomal set, in contrast to the mosaic embryos in group B where identified chaotic mosaicism was only 2.5%(n=3). Conclusions: According to the obtained results, there is no direct procedural effect on the chromosome in embryos obtained following donor oocyte cytoplasmic transfer. Thus, the technology introduction will enhance the infertility treating effectiveness as well as avoiding having a child with mitochondrial disease.

Keywords: donor oocyte cytoplasmic transfer, embryos’ chromosome set, oocyte spindle transfer, pronuclear transfer

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35 Genetic Analysis of Rust Resistance Genes in Global Wheat

Authors: Aktar-Uz-Zaman, M. Tuhina-Khatun, Mohamed Hanafi Musa


Three rust diseases: leaf (brown) rust caused by Puccinia triticina Eriks, stripe (yellow) rust caused by Puccinia striiformis West, and stem (black) rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici are economically important diseases of wheat in world wide. Yield loss due to leaf rust is 40% in susceptible cultivars. Yield losses caused by the stem rust pathogens in the mid of 20 century reached 20-30% in Eastern and Central Europe and the most virulent stem rust race Ug99 emerged first in Uganda and after that in Kenya, Ethiopia, Yemen, in the Middle East and South Asia. Yield losses were estimated up to 100%, whereas, up to 80% have been reported in Kenya during 1999. In case of stripe rust, severity level has been recorded 60% - 70% as compared to 100% severity of susceptible check in disease screening nurseries in Kenya. Improvement of resistant varieties or cultivars is the sustainable, economical and environmentally friendly approaches for increasing the global wheat production to suppress the rust diseases. More than 68 leaf rust, 49 stripe rust and 53 stem rust resistance genes have been identified in the global wheat cultivars or varieties using different molecular breeding approaches. Among these, Lr1, Lr9, Lr10, Lr19, Lr21, Lr24, Lr25, Lr28, Lr29, Lr34, Lr35, Lr37, Lr39, Lr47, Lr51, Lr3bg, Lr18, Lr40, Lr46, and Lr50 leaf rust resistance genes have been identified by using molecular, enzymatic and microsatellite markers from African, Asian, European cultivars of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat and diploid wheat species. These genes are located on 20, of the 21 chromosomes of hexaploid wheat. Similarly, Sr1, Sr2, Sr24, and Sr3, Sr31 stem rust resistance genes have been recognized from wheat cultivars of Pakistan, India, Kenya, and Uganda etc. A race of P. striiformis (stripe rust) Yr9, Yr18, and Yr29 was first observed in East Africa, Italy, Pakistan and India wheat cultivars. These stripe rust resistance genes are located on chromosomes 1BL, 4BL, 6AL, 3BS and 6BL in bread wheat cultivars. All these identified resistant genes could be used for notable improvement of susceptible wheat cultivars in the future.

Keywords: hexaploid wheat, resistance genes, rust disease, triticum aestivum

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34 Linkage Disequilibrium and Haplotype Blocks Study from Two High-Density Panels and a Combined Panel in Nelore Beef Cattle

Authors: Priscila A. Bernardes, Marcos E. Buzanskas, Luciana C. A. Regitano, Ricardo V. Ventura, Danisio P. Munari


Genotype imputation has been used to reduce genomic selections costs. In order to increase haplotype detection accuracy in methods that considers the linkage disequilibrium, another approach could be used, such as combined genotype data from different panels. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the linkage disequilibrium and haplotype blocks in two high-density panels before and after the imputation to a combined panel in Nelore beef cattle. A total of 814 animals were genotyped with the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip (IHD), wherein 93 animals (23 bulls and 70 progenies) were also genotyped with the Affymetrix Axion Genome-Wide BOS 1 Array Plate (AHD). After the quality control, 809 IHD animals (509,107 SNPs) and 93 AHD (427,875 SNPs) remained for analyses. The combined genotype panel (CP) was constructed by merging both panels after quality control, resulting in 880,336 SNPs. Imputation analysis was conducted using software FImpute v.2.2b. The reference (CP) and target (IHD) populations consisted of 23 bulls and 786 animals, respectively. The linkage disequilibrium and haplotype blocks studies were carried out for IHD, AHD, and imputed CP. Two linkage disequilibrium measures were considered; the correlation coefficient between alleles from two loci (r²) and the |D’|. Both measures were calculated using the software PLINK. The haplotypes' blocks were estimated using the software Haploview. The r² measurement presented different decay when compared to |D’|, wherein AHD and IHD had almost the same decay. For r², even with possible overestimation by the sample size for AHD (93 animals), the IHD presented higher values when compared to AHD for shorter distances, but with the increase of distance, both panels presented similar values. The r² measurement is influenced by the minor allele frequency of the pair of SNPs, which can cause the observed difference comparing the r² decay and |D’| decay. As a sum of the combinations between Illumina and Affymetrix panels, the CP presented a decay equivalent to a mean of these combinations. The estimated haplotype blocks detected for IHD, AHD, and CP were 84,529, 63,967, and 140,336, respectively. The IHD were composed by haplotype blocks with mean of 137.70 ± 219.05kb, the AHD with mean of 102.10kb ± 155.47, and the CP with mean of 107.10kb ± 169.14. The majority of the haplotype blocks of these three panels were composed by less than 10 SNPs, with only 3,882 (IHD), 193 (AHD) and 8,462 (CP) haplotype blocks composed by 10 SNPs or more. There was an increase in the number of chromosomes covered with long haplotypes when CP was used as well as an increase in haplotype coverage for short chromosomes (23-29), which can contribute for studies that explore haplotype blocks. In general, using CP could be an alternative to increase density and number of haplotype blocks, increasing the probability to obtain a marker close to a quantitative trait loci of interest.

Keywords: Bos taurus indicus, decay, genotype imputation, single nucleotide polymorphism

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33 Effect of Vitrification on Embryos Euploidy Obtained from Thawed Oocytes

Authors: Natalia Buderatskaya, Igor Ilyin, Julia Gontar, Sergey Lavrynenko, Olga Parnitskaya, Ekaterina Ilyina, Eduard Kapustin, Yana Lakhno


Introduction: It is known that cryopreservation of oocytes has peculiar features due to the complex structure of the oocyte. One of the most important features is that mature oocytes contain meiotic division spindle which is very sensitive even to the slightest variation in temperature. Thus, the main objective of this study is to analyse the resulting euploid embryos obtained from thawed oocytes in comparison with the data of preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) in fresh embryo cycles. Material and Methods: The study was conducted at 'Medical Centre IGR' from January to July 2016. Data were analysed for 908 donor oocytes obtained in 67 cycles of assisted reproductive technologies (ART), of which 693 oocytes were used in the 51 'fresh' cycles (group A), and 215 oocytes - 16 ART programs with vitrification female gametes (group B). The average age of donors in the groups match 27.3±2.9 and 27.8±6.6 years. Stimulation of superovulation was conducted the standard way. Vitrification was performed in 1-2 hours after transvaginal puncture and thawing of oocytes were carried out in accordance with the standard protocol of Cryotech (Japan). Manipulation ICSI was performed 4-5 hours after transvaginal follicle puncture for fresh oocytes, or after defrosting - for vitrified female gametes. For the PGS, an embryonic biopsy was done on the third or on the fifth day after fertilization. Diagnostic procedures were performed using fluorescence in situ hybridization with the study of such chromosomes as 13, 16, 18, 21, 22, X, Y. Only morphologically quality blastocysts were used for the transfer, the estimation of which corresponded to the Gardner criteria. The statistical hypotheses were done using the criteria t, x^2 at a significance levels p<0.05, p<0.01, p<0.001. Results: The mean number of mature oocytes per cycle in group A was 13.58±6.65 and in group B - 13.44±6.68 oocytes for patient. The survival of oocytes after thawing totaled 95.3% (n=205), which indicates a highly effective quality of performed vitrification. The proportion of zygotes in the group A corresponded to 91.1%(n=631), in the group B – 80.5%(n=165), which shows statistically significant difference between the groups (p<0.001) and explained by non-viable oocytes elimination after vitrification. This is confirmed by the fact that on the fifth day of embryos development a statistically significant difference in the number of blastocysts was absent (p>0.05), and constituted respectively 61.6%(n=389) and 63.0%(n=104) in the groups. For the PGS performing 250 embryos analyzed in the group A and 72 embryos - in the group B. The results showed that euploidy in the studied chromosomes were 40.0%(n=100) embryos in the group A and 41.7% (n=30) - in the group B, which shows no statistical significant difference (p>0.05). The indicators of clinical pregnancies in the groups amounted to 64.7% (22 pregnancies per 34 embryo transfers) and 61.5% (8 pregnancies per 13 embryo transfers) respectively, and also had no significant difference between the groups (p>0.05). Conclusions: The results showed that the vitrification does not affect the resulting euploid embryos in assisted reproductive technologies and are not reflected in their morphological characteristics in ART programs.

Keywords: euploid embryos, preimplantation genetic screening, thawing oocytes, vitrification

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32 Comparison of Crossover Types to Obtain Optimal Queries Using Adaptive Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Wafa’ Alma'Aitah, Khaled Almakadmeh


this study presents an information retrieval system of using genetic algorithm to increase information retrieval efficiency. Using vector space model, information retrieval is based on the similarity measurement between query and documents. Documents with high similarity to query are judge more relevant to the query and should be retrieved first. Using genetic algorithms, each query is represented by a chromosome; these chromosomes are fed into genetic operator process: selection, crossover, and mutation until an optimized query chromosome is obtained for document retrieval. Results show that information retrieval with adaptive crossover probability and single point type crossover and roulette wheel as selection type give the highest recall. The proposed approach is verified using (242) proceedings abstracts collected from the Saudi Arabian national conference.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, information retrieval, optimal queries, crossover

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31 Medical Neural Classifier Based on Improved Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Fadzil Ahmad, Noor Ashidi Mat Isa


This study introduces an improved genetic algorithm procedure that focuses search around near optimal solution corresponded to a group of elite chromosome. This is achieved through a novel crossover technique known as Segmented Multi Chromosome Crossover. It preserves the highly important information contained in a gene segment of elite chromosome and allows an offspring to carry information from gene segment of multiple chromosomes. In this way the algorithm has better possibility to effectively explore the solution space. The improved GA is applied for the automatic and simultaneous parameter optimization and feature selection of artificial neural network in pattern recognition of medical problem, the cancer and diabetes disease. The experimental result shows that the average classification accuracy of the cancer and diabetes dataset has improved by 0.1% and 0.3% respectively using the new algorithm.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, artificial neural network, pattern clasification, classification accuracy

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30 Performance of High Density Genotyping in Sahiwal Cattle Breed

Authors: Hamid Mustafa, Huson J. Heather, Kim Eiusoo, Adeela Ajmal, Tad S. Sonstegard


The objective of this study was to evaluate the informativeness of Bovine high density SNPs genotyping in Sahiwal cattle population. This is a first attempt to assess the Bovine HD SNP genotyping array in any Pakistani indigenous cattle population. To evaluate these SNPs on genome wide scale, we considered 777,962 SNPs spanning the whole autosomal and X chromosomes in Sahiwal cattle population. Fifteen (15) non related gDNA samples were genotyped with the bovine HD infinium. Approximately 500,939 SNPs were found polymorphic (MAF > 0.05) in Sahiwal cattle population. The results of this study indicate potential application of Bovine High Density SNP genotyping in Pakistani indigenous cattle population. The information generated from this array can be applied in genetic prediction, characterization and genome wide association studies of Pakistani Sahiwal cattle population.

Keywords: Sahiwal cattle, polymorphic SNPs, genotyping, Pakistan

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29 Block Based Imperial Competitive Algorithm with Greedy Search for Traveling Salesman Problem

Authors: Meng-Hui Chen, Chiao-Wei Yu, Pei-Chann Chang


Imperial competitive algorithm (ICA) simulates a multi-agent algorithm. Each agent is like a kingdom has its country, and the strongest country in each agent is called imperialist, others are colony. Countries are competitive with imperialist which in the same kingdom by evolving. So this country will move in the search space to find better solutions with higher fitness to be a new imperialist. The main idea in this paper is using the peculiarity of ICA to explore the search space to solve the kinds of combinational problems. Otherwise, we also study to use the greed search to increase the local search ability. To verify the proposed algorithm in this paper, the experimental results of traveling salesman problem (TSP) is according to the traveling salesman problem library (TSPLIB). The results show that the proposed algorithm has higher performance than the other known methods.

Keywords: traveling salesman problem, artificial chromosomes, greedy search, imperial competitive algorithm

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28 Somatic Hybridization of between Citrus and Murraya paniculata Cells Applied by Electro-Fusion

Authors: Hasan Basri Jumin


Protoplasts isolated from embryogenic callus of Citrus sinensis were electrically used with mesophyll protoplasts isolated from seedless Citrus relatives. Hybrid of somatic embryos plantlets was obtained after 7 months of culture. Somatic hybrid plants were regenerated into normal seedlings and successfully transferred to soil after strictly acclimatization in the glass pot. The somatic hybrid plants were obtained by screening on the basis of chromosomes count. The number of chromosome of root tip counting revealed plantlets tetraploids (2n = 4x = 36) and the other were diploids (2n = 2x = 18) morphologically resembling the mesophyll parent. This somatic hybrid will be utilized as a possible pollen parent for improving the Citrus sinensis. A complete protoplast-to-plant system of somatic hybrid was developed for Citrus sinensis and Citrus relatives which could facilitate the transfer of nuclear and cytoplasmic genes from this species into cultivated Citrus through protoplast fusion.

Keywords: chromosome, Murraya paniculata, protoplast fusion, somatic hybrid, tetrapoliod

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27 Characterizing the Geometry of Envy Human Behaviour Using Game Theory Model with Two Types of Homogeneous Players

Authors: A. S. Mousa, R. I. Rajab, A. A. Pinto


An envy behavioral game theoretical model with two types of homogeneous players is considered in this paper. The strategy space of each type of players is a discrete set with only two alternatives. The preferences of each type of players is given by a discrete utility function. All envy strategies that form Nash equilibria and the corresponding envy Nash domains for each type of players have been characterized. We use geometry to construct two dimensional envy tilings where the horizontal axis reflects the preference for players of type one, while the vertical axis reflects the preference for the players of type two. The influence of the envy behavior parameters on the Cartesian position of the equilibria has been studied, and in each envy tiling we determine the envy Nash equilibria. We observe that there are 1024 combinatorial classes of envy tilings generated from envy chromosomes: 256 of them are being structurally stable while 768 are with bifurcation. Finally, some conditions for the disparate envy Nash equilibria are stated.

Keywords: game theory, Nash equilibrium, envy Nash behavior, geometric tilings, bifurcation thresholds

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26 Karyotyping the Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.)

Authors: Abdullah M. Alzahrani


The karyotypes of Khalas (KH), Sukkary (SK), Sheeshi (SS), Shibeebi (SB) and Sillije (SJ) date palm cultivars were investigated. Data showed no variation in chromosome number, 2n = 36, 34 autosomes in addition to XX in females and XY in males. Mean autosomes length ranged from 3.85-9.93 μm and 3.71-2.73 μm for X and Y chromosomes, respectively. The formula of female date palm karyotype was 8m + 4sm +2st + 4t, and submedian Y chromosome. Relative chromosome length ranged from 3.3- 9.38 μm. SS cultivar showed high asymmetry levels by scoring low values of Syi (45.51), TF (42.8) and high values for A1 (0.53), A (0.41) and AI (0.29). Syi developed an inverse relation with A1 and A while A exhibited a direct correlation with A1. Cultivars SK, SB and SJ score medium values of Syi, A1, AI and A. KH cultivar exhibited high symmetry by scoring highest values of Syi (53.68), TF (51.81) and lowest values of A1 (0.44), A (0.34) and AI (0.18). Higher DI value was obtained in SB cultivar (1.34) followed by SJ (1.15) and low DI scores of 0.99, 0.86 and 0.71 were detected in KH, SS and SK, respectively. Stebbins classification assorted SS as 3B and the other cultivars as 2B, insuring the evolution and asymmetry of SS compared to the other karyotypes. Scatter diagram of Syi-A1 couple has the advantage of revealing high degree of sensitivity to present karyotype interrelationships, followed by AI-A and CVCL-CVCI couples.

Keywords: Karyotype, date palm, Khalas, Sukkary, Sheeshi

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