Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 93

Search results for: Soma Banerjee

93 High Throughput Virtual Screening against ns3 Helicase of Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV)

Authors: Soma Banerjee, Aamen Talukdar, Argha Mandal, Dipankar Chaudhuri

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Japanese Encephalitis is a major infectious disease with nearly half the world’s population living in areas where it is prevalent. Currently, treatment for it involves only supportive care and symptom management through vaccination. Due to the lack of antiviral drugs against Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV), the quest for such agents remains a priority. For these reasons, simulation studies of drug targets against JEV are important. Towards this purpose, docking experiments of the kinase inhibitors were done against the chosen target NS3 helicase as it is a nucleoside binding protein. Previous efforts regarding computational drug design against JEV revealed some lead molecules by virtual screening using public domain software. To be more specific and accurate regarding finding leads, in this study a proprietary software Schrödinger-GLIDE has been used. Druggability of the pockets in the NS3 helicase crystal structure was first calculated by SITEMAP. Then the sites were screened according to compatibility with ATP. The site which is most compatible with ATP was selected as target. Virtual screening was performed by acquiring ligands from databases: KinaseSARfari, KinaseKnowledgebase and Published inhibitor Set using GLIDE. The 25 ligands with best docking scores from each database were re-docked in XP mode. Protein structure alignment of NS3 was performed using VAST against MMDB, and similar human proteins were docked to all the best scoring ligands. The low scoring ligands were chosen for further studies and the high scoring ligands were screened. Seventy-three ligands were listed as the best scoring ones after performing HTVS. Protein structure alignment of NS3 revealed 3 human proteins with RMSD values lesser than 2Å. Docking results with these three proteins revealed the inhibitors that can interfere and inhibit human proteins. Those inhibitors were screened. Among the ones left, those with docking scores worse than a threshold value were also removed to get the final hits. Analysis of the docked complexes through 2D interaction diagrams revealed the amino acid residues that are essential for ligand binding within the active site. Interaction analysis will help to find a strongly interacting scaffold among the hits. This experiment yielded 21 hits with the best docking scores which could be investigated further for their drug like properties. Aside from getting suitable leads, specific NS3 helicase-inhibitor interactions were identified. Selection of Target modification strategies complementing docking methodologies which can result in choosing better lead compounds are in progress. Those enhanced leads can lead to better in vitro testing.

Keywords: antivirals, docking, glide, high-throughput virtual screening, Japanese encephalitis, ns3 helicase

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92 Learning from Dendrites: Improving the Point Neuron Model

Authors: Alexander Vandesompele, Joni Dambre

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The diversity in dendritic arborization, as first illustrated by Santiago Ramon y Cajal, has always suggested a role for dendrites in the functionality of neurons. In the past decades, thanks to new recording techniques and optical stimulation methods, it has become clear that dendrites are not merely passive electrical components. They are observed to integrate inputs in a non-linear fashion and actively participate in computations. Regardless, in simulations of neural networks dendritic structure and functionality are often overlooked. Especially in a machine learning context, when designing artificial neural networks, point neuron models such as the leaky-integrate-and-fire (LIF) model are dominant. These models mimic the integration of inputs at the neuron soma, and ignore the existence of dendrites. In this work, the LIF point neuron model is extended with a simple form of dendritic computation. This gives the LIF neuron increased capacity to discriminate spatiotemporal input sequences, a dendritic functionality as observed in another study. Simulations of the spiking neurons are performed using the Bindsnet framework. In the common LIF model, incoming synapses are independent. Here, we introduce a dependency between incoming synapses such that the post-synaptic impact of a spike is not only determined by the weight of the synapse, but also by the activity of other synapses. This is a form of short term plasticity where synapses are potentiated or depressed by the preceding activity of neighbouring synapses. This is a straightforward way to prevent inputs from simply summing linearly at the soma. To implement this, each pair of synapses on a neuron is assigned a variable,representing the synaptic relation. This variable determines the magnitude ofthe short term plasticity. These variables can be chosen randomly or, more interestingly, can be learned using a form of Hebbian learning. We use Spike-Time-Dependent-Plasticity (STDP), commonly used to learn synaptic strength magnitudes. If all neurons in a layer receive the same input, they tend to learn the same through STDP. Adding inhibitory connections between the neurons creates a winner-take-all (WTA) network. This causes the different neurons to learn different input sequences. To illustrate the impact of the proposed dendritic mechanism, even without learning, we attach five input neurons to two output neurons. One output neuron isa regular LIF neuron, the other output neuron is a LIF neuron with dendritic relationships. Then, the five input neurons are allowed to fire in a particular order. The membrane potentials are reset and subsequently the five input neurons are fired in the reversed order. As the regular LIF neuron linearly integrates its inputs at the soma, the membrane potential response to both sequences is similar in magnitude. In the other output neuron, due to the dendritic mechanism, the membrane potential response is different for both sequences. Hence, the dendritic mechanism improves the neuron’s capacity for discriminating spa-tiotemporal sequences. Dendritic computations improve LIF neurons even if the relationships between synapses are established randomly. Ideally however, a learning rule is used to improve the dendritic relationships based on input data. It is possible to learn synaptic strength with STDP, to make a neuron more sensitive to its input. Similarly, it is possible to learn dendritic relationships with STDP, to make the neuron more sensitive to spatiotemporal input sequences. Feeding structured data to a WTA network with dendritic computation leads to a significantly higher number of discriminated input patterns. Without the dendritic computation, output neurons are less specific and may, for instance, be activated by a sequence in reverse order.

Keywords: dendritic computation, spiking neural networks, point neuron model

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91 MR Imaging Spectrum of Intracranial Infections: An Experience of 100 Cases in a Tertiary Hospital in Northern India

Authors: Avik Banerjee, Kavita Saggar

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Infections of the nervous system and adjacent structures are often life-threatening conditions. Despite the recent advances in neuroimaging evaluation, the diagnosis of unclear infectious CNS disease remains a challenge. Our aim is to evaluate the typical and atypical neuro-imaging features of the various routinely encountered CNS infected patients so as to form guidelines for their imaging recognition and differentiation from tumoral, vascular and other entities that warrant a different line of therapy.

Keywords: central nervous system (CNS), Cerebro Spinal Fluid (Csf), Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease (CJD), progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML)

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90 Geriatric Nutrition: An Important Marker for Oral Health Related Quality of Life of Complete Denture Patients

Authors: Rajlakshmi Banerjee, Sujoy Banerjee

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The prevalence of malnutrition, as the most common cause of morbidity and mortality increases with old age, especially in developing countries like India, because of many factors out of which dentate status is one. It affects diet, nutritional status and general health due to reduced chewing ability and poor food choices. Aim and Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of nutritional status, dietary intake on the Oral Health-related Quality of life (OHRQoL) of elderly edentulous complete denture wearing patients and to know whether they are at a higher risk of malnutrition. The objective was to assess the need to include dietary and nutritional counselling during Prosthodontic rehabilitation of elderly edentulous patients. Materials and method: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 200 elderly denture wearing patients above 60 yrs of age from Nagpur, Maharashtra. The majority of study subjects (60%) were between the age group 60 and 75 years. Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) Questionnaire was used to assess nutritional status and General Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) questionnaire was used to determine the Oral health related Quality of life of these patients.Descriptive statistics was used to analyze data using SPSS version 21. Results: Among the assessed subjects, nearly 80% of them had total scores of GOHAI between 12 and 57 which require ‘needed dental care.’ As per MNA, 10.5% had adequate nutrition, 70 % were at risk of malnutrition, and remaining 19.5 % of subjects were malnourished. There was a significant correlation between GOHAI and MNA scores. A strong association was found between mean GOHAI and MNA scores and thereby nutritional status and OHRQOL.Conclusion: The use of conventional dentures increases the risk of malnutrition in the elderly due to inability to eat and chew food properly and therefore severely affecting the quality of life. Dietary analysis and counselling should be strictly incorporated into geriatric treatment planning during Prosthetic rehabilitation.

Keywords: general oral health assessment index, General Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI), nutritional assessment, mini-nutritional assessment, Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA), quality of life

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89 Text Mining Analysis of the Reconstruction Plans after the Great East Japan Earthquake

Authors: Minami Ito, Akihiro Iijima

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On March 11, 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake occurred off the coast of Sanriku, Japan. It is important to build a sustainable society through the reconstruction process rather than simply restoring the infrastructure. To compare the goals of reconstruction plans of quake-stricken municipalities, Japanese language morphological analysis was performed by using text mining techniques. Frequently-used nouns were sorted into four main categories of “life”, “disaster prevention”, “economy”, and “harmony with environment”. Because Soma City is affected by nuclear accident, sentences tagged to “harmony with environment” tended to be frequent compared to the other municipalities. Results from cluster analysis and principle component analysis clearly indicated that the local government reinforces the efforts to reduce risks from radiation exposure as a top priority.

Keywords: eco-friendly reconstruction, harmony with environment, decontamination, nuclear disaster

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88 Developing an Intonation Labeled Dataset for Hindi

Authors: Esha Banerjee, Atul Kumar Ojha, Girish Nath Jha

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This study aims to develop an intonation labeled database for Hindi. Although no single standard for prosody labeling exists in Hindi, researchers in the past have employed perceptual and statistical methods in literature to draw inferences about the behavior of prosody patterns in Hindi. Based on such existing research and largely agreed upon intonational theories in Hindi, this study attempts to develop a manually annotated prosodic corpus of Hindi speech data, which can be used for training speech models for natural-sounding speech in the future. 100 sentences ( 500 words) each for declarative and interrogative types have been labeled using Praat.

Keywords: speech dataset, Hindi, intonation, labeled corpus

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87 Similarity Based Retrieval in Case Based Reasoning for Analysis of Medical Images

Authors: M. Dasgupta, S. Banerjee

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Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) coupled with Case Based Reasoning (CBR) is a paradigm that is becoming increasingly popular in the diagnosis and therapy planning of medical ailments utilizing the digital content of medical images. This paper presents a survey of some of the promising approaches used in the detection of abnormalities in retina images as well in mammographic screening and detection of regions of interest in MRI scans of the brain. We also describe our proposed algorithm to detect hard exudates in fundus images of the retina of Diabetic Retinopathy patients.

Keywords: case based reasoning, exudates, retina image, similarity based retrieval

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86 CERD: Cost Effective Route Discovery in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: Anuradha Banerjee

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A mobile ad hoc network is an infrastructure less network, where nodes are free to move independently in any direction. The nodes have limited battery power; hence, we require energy efficient route discovery technique to enhance their lifetime and network performance. In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient route discovery technique CERD that greatly reduces the number of route requests flooded into the network and also gives priority to the route request packets sent from the routers that has communicated with the destination very recently, in single or multi-hop paths. This does not only enhance the lifetime of nodes but also decreases the delay in tracking the destination.

Keywords: ad hoc network, energy efficiency, flooding, node lifetime, route discovery

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85 Performance Evaluation of Thermosiphon Based Solar Water Heater in India

Authors: Dnyandip K. Bhamare, Manish K Rathod, Jyotirmay Banerjee

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This paper aims to study performance of a thermosiphon solar water heating system with the help of the proposed analytical model. This proposed model predicts the temperature and mass flow rate in a thermosiphon solar water heating system depending on radiation intensity and ambient temperature. The performance of the thermosiphon solar water heating system is evaluated in the Indian context. For this, eight cities in India are selected considering radiation intensity and geographical positions. Predicted performance at various cities reveals the potential for thermosiphon solar water in India.

Keywords: solar water heater, collector outlet temperature, thermosyphon, India

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84 Nudge Plus: Incorporating Reflection into Behavioural Public Policy

Authors: Sanchayan Banerjee, Peter John

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Nudge plus is a modification of the toolkit of behavioural public policy. It incorporates an element of reflection¾the plus¾into the delivery of a nudge, either blended in or made proximate. Nudge plus builds on recent work combining heuristics and deliberation. It may be used to design pro-social interventions that help preserve the autonomy of the agent. The argument turns on seminal work on dual systems, which presents a subtler relationship between fast and slow thinking than commonly assumed in the classic literature in behavioural public policy. We review classic and recent work on dual processes to show that a hybrid is more plausible than the default interventionist or parallel competitive framework. We define nudge plus, set out what reflection could entail, provide examples, outline causal mechanisms, and draw testable implications.

Keywords: nudge, nudge plus, think, dual process theory

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83 Signal Processing Approach to Study Multifractality and Singularity of Solar Wind Speed Time Series

Authors: Tushnik Sarkar, Mofazzal H. Khondekar, Subrata Banerjee

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This paper investigates the nature of the fluctuation of the daily average Solar wind speed time series collected over a period of 2492 days, from 1st January, 1997 to 28th October, 2003. The degree of self-similarity and scalability of the Solar Wind Speed signal has been explored to characterise the signal fluctuation. Multi-fractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MFDFA) method has been implemented on the signal which is under investigation to perform this task. Furthermore, the singularity spectra of the signals have been also obtained to gauge the extent of the multifractality of the time series signal.

Keywords: detrended fluctuation analysis, generalized hurst exponent, holder exponents, multifractal exponent, multifractal spectrum, singularity spectrum, time series analysis

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82 Creating a Virtual Perception for Upper Limb Rehabilitation

Authors: Nina Robson, Kenneth John Faller II, Vishalkumar Ahir, Arthur Ricardo Deps Miguel Ferreira, John Buchanan, Amarnath Banerjee

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This paper describes the development of a virtual-reality system ARWED, which will be used in physical rehabilitation of patients with reduced upper extremity mobility to increase limb Active Range of Motion (AROM). The ARWED system performs a symmetric reflection and real-time mapping of the patient’s healthy limb on to their most affected limb, tapping into the mirror neuron system and facilitating the initial learning phase. Using the ARWED, future experiments will test the extension of the action-observation priming effect linked to the mirror-neuron system on healthy subjects and then stroke patients.

Keywords: physical rehabilitation, mirror neuron, virtual reality, stroke therapy

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81 Understanding Narrative Transformations of Ebola in Negotiations of Epidemic Risk

Authors: N. W. Paul, M. Banerjee

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Discussing the nexus between global health policy and local practices, this article addresses the recent Ebola outbreak as a role model for narrative co-constructions of epidemic risk. We will demonstrate in how far a theory-driven and methodologically rooted analysis of narrativity can help to improve mechanisms of prevention and intervention whenever epidemic risk needs to be addressed locally in order to contribute to global health. Analyzing the narrative transformation of Ebola, we will also address issues of transcultural problem-solving and of normative questions at stake. In this regard, we seek to contribute to a better understanding of a key question of global health and justice as well as to the underlying ethical questions. By highlighting and analyzing the functions of narratives, this paper provides a translational approach to refine our practices by which we address epidemic risk, be it on the national, the transnational or the global scale.

Keywords: ebola, epidemic risk, medical ethics, medical humanities

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80 Scoping Review of the Barriers and Facilitators to Enabling Scholarly Activity within Canadian Schools of Nursing

Authors: Christa Siminiuk, Morgan Yates, Paramita Banerjee, Alison Curtis, Lysbeth Cuanda

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This review looked at current evidence regarding barriers and facilitators to nursing scholarship within the content of Canadian Schools of Nursing. Nursing scholarship mainly referred to research, though other activities as described by Boyer’s Model were also discussed. This scoping review was done to assist the Langara School of Nursing in developing an evidenced-based plan to enhance scholarly work among its faculty members. The scoping review identified 10 articles which detailed barriers and facilitators in both Canadian and international contexts. Barriers and facilitators in these articles were extracted and they were also critically appraised. The identified barriers and facilitators fell into three main areas; personal attributes, facility factors and system challenges. The three area will be discussed further in the presentation as well as strategies identified to overcome these barriers.

Keywords: barriers, facilitators, nursing education, scholarship

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79 Analyzing the Upcoming Changes in the Multi Brand E-commerce Industry with Specific Reference to the Indian Market

Authors: Shubham Banerjee

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The paper focuses on, how the business model of the Indian multi brand ecommerce industry is unstable and is headed towards an e-commerce bubble burst. Due to multiple players in the industry and little or no product differentiation, the Indian multi brand ecommerce industry has turned into an oligopoly market where there is hardly any brand loyalty of the customers. Companies have been rapidly increasing their selling cost in the forms of discounts and advertisements to retain and grow its customer base. This is resulting into higher revenues, but is driving the companies further away from their break-even point. With close to half a decade into the industry, none of the companies have been able to generate profits. With private investors losing patience and devaluing companies, the paper will throw light on how the multi brand e-commerce industry will change in the coming years.

Keywords: bubble burst, finance, multi brand ecommerce, product differentiation, private investor

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78 Anomalous Origin of Bilateral Testicular Arteries: A Case Report

Authors: Arthi Ganapathy, Arithra Banerjee, Saroj Kaler

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Abdominal aorta is the sole purveyor of all organs in the abdomen. Anomalies of its main trunk or its branches are to be meticulously observed as it effects the perfusion of an organ. Varying patterns of the testicular artery is one of them. The origin and course of testicular arteries have to be identified carefully during various surgical procedures like renal transplant, intra abdominal surgeries and even in orthopedic surgery like spine surgery. With the advent of new intra-abdominal therapeutic and diagnostic techniques, the anatomy of testicular arteries has assumed much more significance. Though the variations of the testicular vein are well documented, the variations of the testicular artery are not so frequent in incidence. We report a case of the bilateral aberrant origin of the testicular artery from polar renal arteries. We also discuss its developmental basis. Such anomalies if left unnoticed will lead to serious intraoperative complications during procedures on retroperitoneal organs. Any damage to testicular arteries will compromise the function of the gonads.

Keywords: cadaver, gonadal, renal, surgery

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77 Hydraulic Studies on Core Components of PFBR

Authors: G. K. Pandey, D. Ramadasu, I. Banerjee, V. Vinod, G. Padmakumar, V. Prakash, K. K. Rajan

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Detailed thermal hydraulic investigations are very essential for safe and reliable functioning of liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors. These investigations are further more important for components with complex profile, since there is no direct correlation available in literature to evaluate the hydraulic characteristics of such components directly. In those cases available correlations for similar profile or geometries may lead to significant uncertainty in the outcome. Hence experimental approach can be adopted to evaluate these hydraulic characteristics more precisely for better prediction in reactor core components. Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR), a sodium cooled pool type reactor is under advanced stage of construction at Kalpakkam, India. Several components of this reactor core require hydraulic investigation before its usage in the reactor. These hydraulic investigations on full scale models, carried out by experimental approaches using water as simulant fluid are discussed in the paper.

Keywords: fast breeder reactor, cavitation, pressure drop, reactor components

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76 FESA: Fuzzy-Controlled Energy-Efficient Selective Allocation and Reallocation of Tasks Among Mobile Robots

Authors: Anuradha Banerjee

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Energy aware operation is one of the visionary goals in the area of robotics because operability of robots is greatly dependent upon their residual energy. Practically, the tasks allocated to robots carry different priority and often an upper limit of time stamp is imposed within which the task needs to be completed. If a robot is unable to complete one particular task given to it the task is reallocated to some other robot. The collection of robots is controlled by a Central Monitoring Unit (CMU). Selection of the new robot is performed by a fuzzy controller called Task Reallocator (TRAC). It accepts the parameters like residual energy of robots, possibility that the task will be successfully completed by the new robot within stipulated time, distance of the new robot (where the task is reallocated) from distance of the old one (where the task was going on) etc. The proposed methodology increases the probability of completing globally assigned tasks and saves huge amount of energy as far as the collection of robots is concerned.

Keywords: energy-efficiency, fuzzy-controller, priority, reallocation, task

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75 Integrated Thermal Control to Improve Workers' Intellectual Concentration in Office Environment

Authors: Kimi Ueda, Kosuke Sugita, Soma Kawamoto, Hiroshi Shimoda, Hirotake Ishii, Fumiaki Obayashi, Kazuhiro Taniguchi, Ayaka Suzuki

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The authors have focused on the thermal difference between office rooms and break rooms, and proposed an integrated thermal control method to improve workers’ intellectual concentration. First, a trial experiment was conducted to verify the effect of temperature difference on workers’ intellectual concentration with using two experimental rooms; a thermally neutral break room and a cooler office room. As the result of the experiment, it was found that the thermal difference had a significant effect on improving their intellectual concentration. Workers, however, often take a short break at their desks without moving to a break room, so that the thermal difference cannot be given to them. So utilization of airflow was proposed as an integrated thermal control method instead of the temperature difference to realize the similar effect. Concretely, they are exposed to airflow when working in order to reduce their effective temperature while it is weakened when taking a break. Another experiment was conducted to confirm the effect of the airflow control on their intellectual concentration. As the result of concentration index and questionnaire survey, their intellectual concentration was significantly improved in the integrated thermal controlled environment. It was also found that most of them felt more comfortable and had higher motivation and higher degree of concentration in the environment.

Keywords: airflow, evaluation experiment, intellectual concentration, thermal difference

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74 A Study on the Factors Effecting Store Format Selection between SBOand MBOs for Sportswear and Sports Accessories in the Fashion Capital of India-Shillong, Tier III Indian City

Authors: Arnab Banerjee, Deep Sagar Verma

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Tier 3 cities of India is home to one of the fastest growing socio-economic powers in the world and hence is the focus of a lot of business activity as it is almost a blue ocean giving the first mover a huge strategic advantage. Among the various sectors, the retailing is perhaps one of the most promising sectors. The study caries out 129 successfully structured mall-intercept interviews in the town of Shillong, Meghalaya in an attempt to understand the SBO and MBO shoppers. Demographic variables itself does not show any store format preference although discounts do attract the lower income group more while clear difference is observed among genders when it comes to importance of ambience, and it is more pronounced for SBO patrons. SBO patrons are more focused while MBO patrons are more into leisure shopping. Price is the most important predictor of satisfaction especially for MBO shoppers. The market shows three basic segments i.e experiential, relationship and value shoppers.

Keywords: demographic variables, degree of importance, degree of satisfaction, SBO and MBO

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73 The Delone and McLean Model: A Review and Reconceptualisation for Explaining Organisational IS Success

Authors: Probir Kumar Banerjee

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Though the revised DeLone and McLean (DM) model of IS success is found to be effective at the individual level of analysis, there is lack of consensus in regard to its effectiveness at the organisational level. This research reviews the DM model in the light of business/IT alignment theory and supporting literature, and suggests its reconceptualization. Specifically, arguments are made for augmenting it with business process quality. Business process quality, it is argued, captures the effect of intent to use, use and user satisfaction interactions, thus eliminating the need to capture their interaction effects in explaining organisational IS success. It is also argued that ‘operational performance’ driven by systems and business process quality, and higher order measures of organisational performance tied to operational performance are appropriate measures of ‘net benefit’. Suggestions are made for reconceptualisation of the other constructs and an adapted model of organisational IS success is proposed.

Keywords: organisational IS success, business/IT alignment, systems quality, business process quality, operational performance, market performance

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72 Loss Allocation in Radial Distribution Networks for Loads of Composite Types

Authors: Sumit Banerjee, Chandan Kumar Chanda

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The paper presents allocation of active power losses and energy losses to consumers connected to radial distribution networks in a deregulated environment for loads of composite types. A detailed comparison among four algorithms, namely quadratic loss allocation, proportional loss allocation, pro rata loss allocation and exact loss allocation methods are presented. Quadratic and proportional loss allocations are based on identifying the active and reactive components of current in each branch and the losses are allocated to each consumer, pro rata loss allocation method is based on the load demand of each consumer and exact loss allocation method is based on the actual contribution of active power loss by each consumer. The effectiveness of the proposed comparison among four algorithms for composite load is demonstrated through an example.

Keywords: composite type, deregulation, loss allocation, radial distribution networks

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71 Rethinking News Aggregation to Achieve Depolarization

Authors: Kushagra Khandelwal, Chinmay Anand, Sharmistha Banerjee

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This paper presents an approach to news aggregation that is aimed at solving the issues centered on depolarization and manipulation of news information and stories. Largest democracies across the globe face numerous issues related to news democratization. With the advancements in technology and increasing outreach, web has become an important information source which is inclusive of news. Research was focused on the current millennial population consisting of modern day internet users. The study involved literature review, an online survey, an expert interview with a journalist and a focus group discussion with the user groups. The study was aimed at investigating problems associated with the current news system from both the consumer as well as distributor point of view. The research findings helped in producing five key potential opportunity areas which were explored for design intervention. Upon ideation, we identified five design features which include opinion aggregation. Categorized opinions, news tracking, online discussion and ability to take actions that support news democratization.

Keywords: citizen journalism, democratization, depolarized news, napsterization, news aggregation, opinions

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70 Participation of Titanium Influencing the Petrological Assemblage of Mafic Dyke: Salem, South India

Authors: Ayoti Banerjee, Meenakshi Banerjee

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The study of metamorphic reaction textures is important in contributing to our understanding of the evolution of metamorphic terranes. Where preserved, they provide information on changes in the P-T conditions during the metamorphic history of the rock, and thus allow us to speculate on the P-T-t evolution of the terrane. Mafic dykes have attracted the attention of petrologists because they act as window to mantle. This rock represents a mafic dyke of doleritic composition. It is fine to medium grained in which clinopyroxene are enclosed by the lath shaped plagioclase grains to form spectacular ophitic texture. At places, sub ophitic texture was also observed. Grains of pyroxene and plagioclase show very less deformation typically plagioclase showing deformed lamella along with plagioclase-clinopyroxene-phyric granoblastic fabric within a groundmass of feldspar microphenocrysts and Fe–Ti oxides. Both normal and reverse zoning were noted in the plagioclase laths. The clinopyroxene grains contain exsolved phases such as orthopyroxene, plagioclase, magnetite, ilmenite along the cleavage traces and the orthopyroxene lamella form granules in the periphery of the clinopyroxene grains. Garnet corona also develops preferentially around plagioclase at the contact of clinopyroxene, ilmenite or magnetite. Tiny quartz and K-fs grains showed symplectic intergrowth with garnet at a few places. The product quartz formed along with garnet rims the coronal garnet and the reacting clinopyroxene. Thin amphibole corona formed along the periphery of deformed plagioclase and clinopyroxene occur as patches over the magmatic minerals. The amphibole coronas cannot be assigned to a late magmatic stage and are interpreted as reactive being restricted to the contact between clinopyroxene and plagioclase, thus postdating the crystallization of both. The amphibole and garnet do not share grain boundary in the entire rock and is thus pointing towards simultaneous crystallization. Olivine is absent. Spectacular myrmekitic growth of orthoclase and quartz rimming the plagioclase is consistent with the potash metasomatic effects that is also found in other rocks of this region. These textural features are consistent with a phase of fluid induced metamorphism (retrogression). But the appearance of coronal garnet and amphibole exclusive of each other reflects the participation if Ti as the prime reason. Presence of Ti as a reactant phase is a must for amphibole forming reactions whereas it is not so in case of garnet forming reactions although the reactants are the same plagioclase and clinopyroxene in both cases. These findings are well validated by petrographical and textural analysis. In order to obtain balanced chemical reactions that explain formation of amphibole and garnet in the mafic dyke rocks a matrix operation technique called Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) was adopted utilizing the measured chemical compositions of the minerals. The computer program C-Space was used for this purpose and the required compositional matrix. Data fed to C-Space was after doing cation-calculation of the oxide percentages obtained from EPMA analysis. The Garnet-Clinopyroxene geothermometer yielded a temperature of 650 degrees Celsius. The Garnet-Clinopyroxene-Plagioclase geobarometer and Al-in amphibole yielded roughly 7.5 kbar pressure.

Keywords: corona, dolerite, geothermometer, metasomatism, metamorphic reaction texture, retrogression

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69 Effects of the Different Recovery Durations on Some Physiological Parameters during 3 X 3 Small-Sided Games in Soccer

Authors: Samet Aktaş, Nurtekin Erkmen, Faruk Guven, Halil Taskin

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This study aimed to determine the effects of 3 versus 3 small-sided games (SSG) with different recovery times on soma physiological parameters in soccer players. Twelve soccer players from Regional Amateur League volunteered for this study (mean±SD age, 20.50±2.43 years; height, 177.73±4.13 cm; weight, 70.83±8.38 kg). Subjects were performing soccer training for five days per week. The protocol of the study was approved by the local ethic committee in School of Physical Education and Sport, Selcuk University. The subjects were divided into teams with 3 players according to Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test. The field dimension was 26 m wide and 34 m in length. Subjects performed two times in a random order a series of 3 bouts of 3-a-side SSGs with 3 min and 5 min recovery durations. In SSGs, each set were performed with 6 min duration. The percent of maximal heart rate (% HRmax), blood lactate concentration (LA) and Rated Perceived Exertion (RPE) scale points were collected before the SSGs and at the end of each set. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures. Significant differences were found between %HRmax in before SSG and 1st set, 2nd set, and 3rd set in both SSG with 3 min recovery duration and SSG with 5 min recovery duration (p<0.05). Means of %HRmax in SSG with 3 min recovery duration at both 1st and 2nd sets were significantly higher than SSG with 5 min recovery duration (p<0.05). No significant difference was found between sets of either SSGs in terms of LA (p>0.05). LA in SSG with 3 min recovery duration was higher than SSG with 5 min recovery duration at 2nd sets (p<0.05). RPE in soccer players was not different between SSGs (p>0.05).In conclusion, this study demonstrates that exercise intensity in SSG with 3 min recovery durations is higher than SSG with 5 min recovery durations.

Keywords: small-sided games, soccer, heart rate, lactate

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68 Quantifying Parallelism of Vectors Is the Quantification of Distributed N-Party Entanglement

Authors: Shreya Banerjee, Prasanta K. Panigrahi

Abstract:

The three-way distributive entanglement is shown to be related to the parallelism of vectors. Using a measurement-based approach a set of 2−dimensional vectors is formed, representing the post-measurement states of one of the parties. These vectors originate at the same point and have an angular distance between them. The area spanned by a pair of such vectors is a measure of the entanglement of formation. This leads to a geometrical manifestation of the 3−tangle in 2−dimensions, from inequality in the area which generalizes for n− qubits to reveal that the n− tangle also has a planar structure. Quantifying the genuine n−party entanglement in every 1|(n − 1) bi-partition it is shown that the genuine n−way entanglement does not manifest in n− tangle. A new quantity geometrically similar to 3−tangle is then introduced that represents the genuine n− way entanglement. Extending the formalism to 3− qutrits, the nonlocality without entanglement can be seen to arise from a condition under which the post-measurement state vectors of a separable state show parallelism. A connection to nontrivial sum uncertainty relation analogous to Maccone and Pati uncertainty relation is then presented using decomposition of post-measurement state vectors along parallel and perpendicular direction of the pre-measurement state vectors. This study opens a novel way to understand multiparty entanglement in qubit and qudit systems.

Keywords: Geometry of quantum entanglement, Multipartite and distributive entanglement, Parallelism of vectors , Tangle

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67 Measuring Audit Quality Using Text Analysis: An Empirical Study of Indian Companies

Authors: Leesa Mohanty, Ashok Banerjee

Abstract:

Better audit quality signifies the financial statements of the auditee firm reflect true and fair view of their actual state of affairs, which reduces information asymmetry between management and shareholders, as a result, helps protect interests of shareholders. This study examines the impact of joint audit on audit quality. It is motivated by the ongoing debate where The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI), the regulatory body governing auditors, has advocated the finance ministry and the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) for the mandatory use of joint audit in private banks to enhance the quality of audit. Earlier, the Government of India had rejected the plea by ICAI for mandatory joint audits in large companies stating it is not a viable option for promoting domestic firms. We introduce a new measure of audit quality. Drawing from the domain of text analytics, we use relevant phrases in audit reports to gauge audit quality and demonstrate that joint audit improves audit quality. We also, for robustness, use prevalent proxy for audit quality (Big N Auditor, ratio of audit fees to total fees) and find negative effect of joint audit on audit quality. We, therefore highlight that different proxy for audit quality show opposite effect of joint audit.

Keywords: audit fees, audit quality, Big N. Auditor, joint audit

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66 The Phylogenetic Investigation of Candidate Genes Related to Type II Diabetes in Man and Other Species

Authors: Srijoni Banerjee

Abstract:

Sequences of some of the candidate genes (e.g., CPE, CDKAL1, GCKR, HSD11B1, IGF2BP2, IRS1, LPIN1, PKLR, TNF, PPARG) implicated in some of the complex disease, e.g. Type II diabetes in man has been compared with other species to investigate phylogenetic affinity. Based on mRNA sequence of these genes of 7 to 8 species, using bioinformatics tools Mega 5, Bioedit, Clustal W, distance matrix was obtained. Phylogenetic trees were obtained by NJ and UPGMA clustering methods. The results of the phylogenetic analyses show that of the species compared: Xenopus l., Danio r., Macaca m., Homo sapiens s., Rattus n., Mus m. and Gallus g., Bos taurus, both NJ and UPGMA clustering show close affinity between clustering of Homo sapiens s. (Man) with Rattus n. (Rat), Mus m. species for the candidate genes, except in case of Lipin1 gene. The results support the functional similarity of these genes in physiological and biochemical process involving man and mouse/rat. Therefore, in understanding the complex etiology and treatment of the complex disease mouse/rate model is the best laboratory choice for experimentation.

Keywords: phylogeny, candidate gene of type-2 diabetes, CPE, CDKAL1, GCKR, HSD11B1, IGF2BP2, IRS1, LPIN1, PKLR, TNF, PPARG

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65 Electrical Transport in Bi₁Sb₁Te₁.₅Se₁.₅ /α-RuCl₃ Heterostructure Nanodevices

Authors: Shoubhik Mandal, Debarghya Mallick, Abhishek Banerjee, R. Ganesan, P. S. Anil Kumar

Abstract:

We report magnetotransport measurements in Bi₁Sb₁Te₁.₅Se₁.₅/RuCl₃ heterostructure nanodevices. Bi₁Sb₁Te₁.₅Se₁.₅ (BSTS) is a strong three-dimensional topological insulator (3D-TI) that hosts conducting topological surface states (TSS) enclosing an insulating bulk. α-RuCl₃ (namely, RuCl₃) is an anti-ferromagnet that is predicted to behave as a Kitaev-like quantum spin liquid carrying Majorana excitations. Temperature (T)-dependent resistivity measurements show the interplay between parallel bulk and surface transport channels. At T < 150 K, surface state transport dominates over bulk transport. Multi-channel weak anti-localization (WAL) is observed, as a sharp cusp in the magnetoconductivity, indicating strong spin-orbit coupling. The presence of top and bottom topological surface states (TSS), including a pair of electrically coupled Rashba surface states (RSS), are indicated. Non-linear Hall effect, explained by a two-band model, further supports this interpretation. Finally, a low-T logarithmic resistance upturn is analyzed using the Lu-Shen model, supporting the presence of gapless surface states with a π Berry phase.

Keywords: topological materials, electrical transport, Lu-Shen model, quantum spin liquid

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64 Action Potential of Lateral Geniculate Neurons at Low Threshold Currents: Simulation Study

Authors: Faris Tarlochan, Siva Mahesh Tangutooru

Abstract:

Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN) is the relay center in the visual pathway as it receives most of the input information from retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and sends to visual cortex. Low threshold calcium currents (IT) at the membrane are the unique indicator to characterize this firing functionality of the LGN neurons gained by the RGC input. According to the LGN functional requirements such as functional mapping of RGC to LGN, the morphologies of the LGN neurons were developed. During the neurological disorders like glaucoma, the mapping between RGC and LGN is disconnected and hence stimulating LGN electrically using deep brain electrodes can restore the functionalities of LGN. A computational model was developed for simulating the LGN neurons with three predominant morphologies, each representing different functional mapping of RGC to LGN. The firings of action potentials at LGN neuron due to IT were characterized by varying the stimulation parameters, morphological parameters and orientation. A wide range of stimulation parameters (stimulus amplitude, duration and frequency) represents the various strengths of the electrical stimulation with different morphological parameters (soma size, dendrites size and structure). The orientation (0-1800) of LGN neuron with respect to the stimulating electrode represents the angle at which the extracellular deep brain stimulation towards LGN neuron is performed. A reduced dendrite structure was used in the model using Bush–Sejnowski algorithm to decrease the computational time while conserving its input resistance and total surface area. The major finding is that an input potential of 0.4 V is required to produce the action potential in the LGN neuron which is placed at 100 µm distance from the electrode. From this study, it can be concluded that the neuroprostheses under design would need to consider the capability of inducing at least 0.4V to produce action potentials in LGN.

Keywords: Lateral Geniculate Nucleus, visual cortex, finite element, glaucoma, neuroprostheses

Procedia PDF Downloads 214