Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Search results for: Parul Johri

19 Carbon Based Classification of Aquaporin Proteins: A New Proposal

Authors: Mala Trivedi, Parul Johri

Abstract:

Major Intrinsic proteins (MIPs), actively involved in the passive transport of small polar molecules across the membranes of almost all living organisms. MIPs that specifically transport water molecules are named aquaporins (AQPs). The permeability of membranes is actively controlled by the regulation of the amount of different MIPs present but also in some cases by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of the channel. Based on sequence similarity, MIPs have been classified into many categories. All of the proteins are made up of the 20 amino acids, the only difference is there in their orientations. Again all the 20 amino acids are made up of the basic five elements namely: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulphur and nitrogen. These elements are responsible for giving the amino acids the properties of hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity which play an important role in protein interactions. The hydrophobic amino acids characteristically have greater number of carbon atoms as carbon is the main element which contributes to hydrophobic interactions in proteins. It is observed that the carbon level of proteins in different species is different. In the present work, we have taken a sample set of 150 aquaporins proteins from Uniprot database and a dynamic programming code was written to calculate the carbon percentage for each sequence. This carbon percentage was further used to barcode the aqauporins of animals and plants. The protein taken from Oryza sativa, Zea mays and Arabidopsis thaliana preferred to have carbon percentage of 31.8 to 35, whereas on the other hand sequences taken from Mus musculus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Homo sapiens, Bos Taurus, and Rattus norvegicus preferred to have carbon percentage of 31 to 33.7. This clearly demarks the carbon range in the aquaporin proteins from plant and animal origin. Hence the atom level analysis of protein sequences can provide us with better results as compared to the residue level comparison.

Keywords: Carbon, Aquaporins, MIPS, dynamic prgramming

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18 Designing and Enacting an Adjunct Faculty Self-Study of Teaching Community

Authors: Anastasia P. Samaras, Allison Ward-Parsons, Beth Dalbec, Paula Cristina Azevedo, Anya Evmenova, Arvinder Johri, Lynne Scott Constantine, Lesley Smith

Abstract:

Two cycles of qualitative data were collected. Cycle One sources included participant survey results, participant postings on Blackboard forums, facilitator memos, and meeting notes as well as reflections and notes from whole-group meetings.

Keywords: Teaching, Professional Development, adjunct faculty, self-study methodology

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17 Evaluating the Evolution of Public Art across the World and Exploring Its Growth in Urban India

Authors: Mitali Kedia, Parul Kapoor

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Public Art is a tool with the power to enrich and enlighten any place; it has been accepted and welcomed effortlessly by many cultures around the World. In this paper, we discuss the implications Public Art has had on the society and how it has evolved over the years, and how in India, art in this aspect is still overlooked and treated as an accessory. Urban aesthetics are still substantially limited to the installation of deities, political figures, and so on. The paper also discusses various possibilities and opportunities on how Public Art can boost a society; it also suggests a framework that can be incorporated in the legal system of the country to make it a part of the city development process.

Keywords: Urban Fabric, Public Art, community welfare, placemaking, imageability, public art program

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16 Experimental Analysis of Tools Used for Doxing and Proposed New Transforms to Help Organizations Protect against Doxing Attacks

Authors: Parul Khanna, Pavol Zavarsky, Dale Lindskog

Abstract:

Doxing is a term derived from documents, and hence consists of collecting information on an organization or individual through social media websites, search engines, password cracking methods, social engineering tools and other sources of publicly displayed information. The main purpose of doxing attacks is to threaten, embarrass, harass and humiliate the organization or individual. Various tools are used to perform doxing. Tools such as Maltego visualize organization’s architecture which helps in determining weak links within the organization. This paper discusses limitations of Maltego Chlorine CE 3.6.0 and suggests measures as to how organizations can use these tools to protect themselves from doxing attacks.

Keywords: Advanced Persistent Threat, FOCA, OSINT, PII

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15 Performance Analysis and Comparison of Various 1-D and 2-D Prime Codes for OCDMA Systems

Authors: Gurjit Kaur, Shashank Johri, Arpit Mehrotra

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In this paper we have analyzed and compared the performance of various coding schemes. The basic ID prime sequence codes are unique in only dimension i.e. time slots whereas 2D coding techniques are not unique by their time slots but with their wavelengths also. In this research we have evaluated and compared the performance of 1D and 2D coding techniques constructed using prime sequence coding pattern for OCDMA system on a single platform. Results shows that 1D Extended Prime Code (EPC) can support more number of active users compared to other codes but at the expense of larger code length which further increases the complexity of the code. Modified Prime Code (MPC) supports lesser number of active users at λc=2 but it has a lesser code length as compared to 1D prime code. Analysis shows that 2D prime code supports lesser number of active users than 1D codes but they are having large code family and are the most secure codes compared to other codes. The performance of all these codes is analyzed on basis of number of active users supported at a Bit Error Rate (BER) of 10-9.

Keywords: CDMA, BER, EPC, OCDMA, OOC, MPC, λc, λa

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14 Juridical Protection to Consumers in Electronic Contracts: Need of a Uniform International Law

Authors: Parul Sinha

Abstract:

Electronic commerce facilitates increased choice and information on goods or services for consumers but at the same time it compounds the inequality of bargaining power many consumers face when contracting with sellers. Due to the ‘inequality of bargaining power’ experienced by consumers when contracting by electronic means with business sellers in different jurisdictions, it may be difficult to determine where either the consumer is domiciled or the place where the seller is situated or conducts its business. The question arises in such situation that if one party wants to sue the other, then where can one sue? Which court has jurisdiction to try international conflicts arising from electronic contracts concluded through the internet? Will the same rules applicable to conventional contracts apply? Or should other considerations be taken into account? In all these situations the degree of consumer protection in electronic contracts comes into picture. In the light of the above, the paper discusses the jurisdiction and choice of law rules applied in EU and United States. Further, the paper considers the current uncertainty plaguing questions of jurisdiction in India. Therefore, the jurisdiction and choice of law rules for electronic contracts must be applied consistently and provide an automatic, harmonised rule in favour of the consumer’s jurisdiction and law. Lastly, the paper suggests the need for a uniform law in order to achieve effective juridical protection.

Keywords: Electronic Commerce, Jurisdiction, consumer protection, electronic contracts

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13 Characterization of Fateh Sagar Wetland and Its Catchment Area at Udaipur City, (Raj.) India, Using High Resolution Data

Authors: Parul Bhalla, Sarvesh Palria

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Wetlands are areas of land that are either temporarily or permanently covered by water. Wetlands exhibit enormous diversity according to their genesis, geographical location, water regime and chemistry, dominant plants and soil or sediment characteristics. The spatial and temporal characteristics of wetland in terms of turbidity and aquatic vegetation could serve as guiding tool, in conservation prioritization of wetlands. The aquatic vegetation in the wetland is an indicator of the trophic status of the wetland which has a bearing on the water quality, the turbidity level in any wetland is indicative of the quality of the water in it. To conserve and manage wetland resources, it is important to have inventory of wetland and its catchment. Fateh Sagar wetland in Udaipur city is the one of the important wetland for tourism industry and other economic activities in the region. Realizing the importance of the wetland, the present study has been taken up with the specific objective of delineation and characterization of Fateh Sagar wetland in terms of turbidity and aquatic vegetation, using high resolution satellite data such as Cartosat and LISS IV multi-temporal data, which will efficiently bring out the changes in water spread and quality parameters. The catchment of wetland has been also characterized for various features. The study leads in to takes necessary steps to conserve the wetland and its resources.

Keywords: wetland, catchment, aquatic vegetation, turbidity status

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12 A Conceptual Design of Freeze Desalination Using Low Cost Refrigeration

Authors: Parul Sahu

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In recent years, seawater desalination has been emerged as a potential resource to circumvent water scarcity, especially in coastal regions. Among the various methods, thermal evaporation or distillation and membrane operations like Reverse Osmosis (RO) has been exploited at commercial scale. However, the energy cost and maintenance expenses associated with these processes remain high. In this context Freeze Desalination (FD), subjected to the availability of low cost refrigeration, offers an exciting alternative. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) regasification terminals provide an opportunity to utilize the refrigeration available with regasification of LNG. This work presents the conceptualization and development of a process scheme integrating the ice and hydrate based FD to the LNG regasification process. This integration overcomes the high energy demand associated with FD processes by utilizing the refrigeration associated with LNG regasification. An optimal process scheme was obtained by performing process simulation using ASPEN PLUS simulator. The results indicated the new proposed process requires only 1 kWh/m³ of energy with the utilization of maximum refrigeration. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was also performed to study the effect of various process parameters on water recovery and energy consumption for the proposed process. The results show that the energy consumption decreases by 30% with an increase in water recovery from 30% to 60%. However, due to operational limitations associated with ice and hydrate handling in seawater, the water recovery cannot be maximized but optimized. The proposed process can be potentially used to desalinate seawater in integration with LNG regasification terminal.

Keywords: Refrigeration, Process Simulation, freeze desalination, liquefied natural gas regasification

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11 Effect of Sr-Doping on Multiferroic Properties of Ca₁₋ₓSrₓMn₇O₁₂

Authors: Parul Jain, Jitendra Saha, L. C. Gupta, Satyabrata Patnaik, Ashok K. Ganguli, Ratnamala Chatterjee

Abstract:

This study shows how sensitively and drastically multiferroic properties of CaMn₇O₁₂ get modified by isovalent Sr-doping, namely, in Ca₁₋ₓSrₓMn₇O₁₂ for x as small as 0.01 and 0.02. CaMn₇O₁₂ is a type-II multiferroic, wherein polarization is caused by magnetic spin ordering. In this report magnetic and ferroelectric properties of Ca₁₋ₓSrₓMn₇O₁₂ (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.1) are investigated. Samples were prepared by wet sol gel technique using their respective nitrates; powders thus obtained were calcined and sintered in optimized conditions. The X-ray diffraction patterns of all samples doped with Sr concentrations in the range (0 ≤ x ≤ 10%) were found to be free from secondary phases. Magnetization versus temperature and magnetization versus field measurements were carried out using Quantum Design SQUID magnetometer. Pyroelectric current measurements were done for finding the polarization in the samples. Findings of the measurements are: (i) increase of Sr-doping in CaMn₇O₁₂ lattice i.e. for x ≤ 0.02, increases the polarization, whereas decreases the magnetization and the coercivity of the samples; (ii) the material with x = 0.02 exhibits ferroelectric polarization Ps which is more than double the Ps in the un-doped material and the magnetization M is reduced to less than half of that of the pure material; remarkably (iii) the modifications in Ps and M are reversed as x increases beyond x = 0.02 and for x = 0.10, Ps is reduced even below that for the pure sample; (iv) there is no visible change of the two magnetic transitions TN1 (90 K) and TN2 (48 K) of the pure material as a function of x. The strong simultaneous variations of Ps and M for x = 0.02 strongly suggest that either a basic modification of the magnetic structure of the material or a significant change of the coupling of P and M or possibly both.

Keywords: Ferroelectric, pyroelectric, Polarization, multiferroic, isovalent

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10 Isolation, Characterization and Quantitation of Anticancer Constituent from Chloroform Extract of N. arbortristis L. Leaves

Authors: Raj Kumar, Parul Grover, K. A. Suri, Gulshan Bansal

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Background: Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn is traditionally used as anticancer herb in Indian system of medicine, but its introduction into modern system of medicine is still awaited due to lack of systematic scientific studies. Objective: The objective of the present study was to isolate and characterize anticancer phytoconstituents from N. arbortristis L. leaves based on bioactivity guided fractionation. Method: Different extracts of the leaves of the plant were prepared by Soxhlet extractor. Each extract was evaluated for anticancer activity against HL-60 cell lines. Chloroform and HA extract showed potent anticancer activity and hence were selected for fractionation. Fraction C1 from chloroform extract was found to be most potent amongst all when tested against three cell lines (HL-60, A-549, and HCT-116) and thus was selected for further fractionation and a pure compound CP-01 was isolated. RP-HPLC method has been developed for quantification of isolated compound by using Kinetex C-18 column with gradient elution at 0.7 mL/min using mobile phase containing potassium dihydrogen phosphate (0.01 M, pH 3.0) with acetonitrile. The wavelength of maximum absorption (λₘₐₓ) selected was 210 nm. Results: The structure of potent anticancer CP-01 was determined on the basis spectroscopic methods like IR, 1H-NMR, ¹³C-NMR and Mass Spectrometry and it was characterized as 1,1,2-tris(2’,4’-di-tert-butylbenzene)-4,4-dimethyl-pent-1-ene. The content of CP-01 was found to be 0.88 %w/w of chloroform extract and 0.08 %w/w of N.arbortristis leaves. Conclusion: The study supports the traditional use of N. arbortristis as anticancer herb & the identified compound CP-01 can serve as an excellent lead to develop potent and safe anticancer drugs.

Keywords: anticancer, RP-HPLC, HL-60 cell lines, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis

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9 Clinical and Radiological Features of Adenomyosis and Its Histopathological Correlation

Authors: Parul Garg, Surabhi Agrawal Kohli, Sunita Gupta, Esha Khanuja, P. Gupta

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Background: Adenomyosis is a common gynaecological condition that affects the menstruating women. Uterine enlargement, dysmenorrhoea, and menorrhagia are regarded as the cardinal clinical symptoms of adenomyosis. Classically it was thought, compared with ultrasonography, when adenomyosis is suspected, MRI enables more accurate diagnosis of the disease. Materials and Methods: 172 subjects were enrolled after an informed consent that had complaints of HMB, dyspareunia, dysmenorrhea, and chronic pelvic pain. Detailed history of the enrolled subjects was taken, followed by a clinical examination. These patients were then subjected to TVS where myometrial echo texture, presence of myometrial cysts, blurring of endomyometrial junction was noted. MRI was followed which noted the presence of junctional zone thickness and myometrial cysts. After hysterectomy, histopathological diagnosis was obtained. Results: 78 participants were analysed. The mean age was 44.2 years. 43.5% had parity of 4 or more. heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) was present in 97.8% and dysmenorrhea in 93.48 % of HPE positive patient. Transvaginal sonography (TVS) and MRI had a sensitivity of 89.13% and 80.43%, specificity of 90.62% and 84.37%, positive likelihood ratio of 9.51 and 5.15, negative likelihood ratio of 0.12 and 0.23, positive predictive value of 93.18% and 88.1%, negative predictive value of 85.29% and 75% and a diagnostic accuracy of 89.74% and 82.5%. Comparison of sensitivity (p=0.289) and specificity (p=0.625) showed no statistically significant difference between TVS and MRI. Conclusion: Prevalence of 30.23%. HMB with dysmenorrhoea and chronic pelvic pain helps in diagnosis. TVS (Endomyometrial junction blurring) is both sensitive and specific in diagnosing adenomyosis without need for additional diagnostic tool. Both TVS and MRI are equally efficient, however because of certain additional advantages of TVS over MRI, it may be used as the first choice of imaging. MRI may be used additionally in difficult cases as well as in patients with existing co-pathologies.

Keywords: MRI, TVs, adenomyosis, heavy menstrual bleeding

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8 Improvement of Artemisinin Production by P. indica in Hairy Root Cultures of A. annua L.

Authors: Seema Ahlawat, Parul Saxena, Malik Zainul Abdin

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Malaria is a major health problem in many developing countries. The parasite responsible for the vast majority of fatal malaria infections is Plasmodium falciparum. Unfortunately, most Plasmodium strains including P. falciparum have become resistant to most of the antimalarials including chloroquine, mefloquine, etc. To combat this problem, WHO has recommended the use of artemisinin and its derivatives in artemisinin based combination therapy (ACT). Due to its current use in artemisinin based-combination therapy (ACT), its global demand is increasing continuously. But, the relatively low yield of artemisinin in A. annua L. plants and unavailability of economically viable synthetic protocols are the major bottlenecks for its commercial production and clinical use. Chemical synthesis of artemisinin is also very complex and uneconomical. The hairy root system, using the Agrobacterium rhizogenes LBA 9402 strain to enhance the production of artemisinin in A. annua L., is developed in our laboratory. The transgenic nature of hairy root lines and the copy number of trans gene (rol B) were confirmed using PCR and Southern Blot analyses, respectively. The effect of different concentrations of Piriformospora indica on artemisinin production in hairy root cultures were evaluated. 3% P. indica has resulted 1.97 times increase in artemisinin production in comparison to control cultures. The effects of P. indica on artemisinin production was positively correlated with regulatory genes of MVA, MEP and artemisinin biosynthetic pathways, viz. hmgr, ads, cyp71av1, aldh1, dxs, dxr and dbr2 in hairy root cultures of A. annua L. Mass scale cultivation of A. annua L. hairy roots by plant tissue culture technology may be an alternative route for production of artemisinin. A comprehensive investigation of the hairy root system of A. annua L. would help in developing a viable process for the production of artemisinin. The efficiency of the scaling up systems still needs optimization before industrial exploitation becomes viable.

Keywords: Malaria, artemisinin, A. annua L, hairy root cultures

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7 Gender Roles in Modern Indian Marriages

Authors: Parul Bhandari

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An image of a modern and progressive India garners the rhetoric of ‘choice’ marriages, gender egalitarian relationships, and search for ‘love’ in conjugal unions. Such an image especially resonates with the lives of young professionals, who, largely belonging to the middle class, consider themselves to be the global face India. While this rhetoric of ‘progress’ and ‘love’ is abounding in both Indian and non-Indian public discourses, it is imperative to scientifically analyse the veracity of these claims. This paper thus queries and problematises the notions of being modern and progressive, through the lens of gender roles as expected and desired in a process of matchmaking. The fieldwork conducted is based on qualitative methodology, involving in-depth interviews with 100 highly qualified professionals, (60 men and 40 women), between the age of 24-31, belonging to the Hindu religion and of varied castes and communities, who are residing in New Delhi, and are in the process of spouse-selection or have recently completed it. Further, an analysis of the structure and content of matrimonial websites, which have fast emerged as the new method of matchmaking, was also undertaken. The main finding of this paper is that gender asymmetries continue to determine a suitable match, whether in ‘arranged’ or ‘love’ marriages. This is demonstrated by analysing the expectations of gender roles and gender practices of both men and women, to construct an ideal of a ‘good match’. On the basis of the interviews and the content of matrimonial websites, the paper discusses the characteristics of a ‘suitable boy’ and a ‘suitable girl’, and the ways in which these are received (practiced or criticised) by the young men and women themselves. It is then concluded that though an ideal of ‘compatibility’ and love determines conjugal desires, traditional gender roles, that, for example, consider men as the primary breadwinner and women as responsible for the domestic sphere, continue to dictate urban Indian marriages.

Keywords: Gender, marriage, India, middle class

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6 Evaluating the Challenges of Large Scale Urban Redevelopment Projects for Central Government Employee Housing in Delhi

Authors: DHEERAJ BHARDWAJ, Parul Kapoor

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Delhi and other Indian cities accommodate thousands of Central Government employees in housing complexes called ‘General Pool Residential Accommodation’ (GPRA), located in prime parcels of the city. These residential colonies are now undergoing redevelopment at a massive scale, significantly impacting the ecology of the surrounding areas. Essentially, these colonies were low-rise, low-density planned developments with a dense tree cover and minimal parking requirements. But with increasing urbanisation and spike in parking demand, the proposed built form is an aggregate of high-rise gated complexes, redefining the skyline of the city which is a huge departure from the mediocre setup of Low-rise Walk-up apartments. The complexity of these developments is further aggravated by the need for parking which necessitates cutting huge number of trees to accommodate multiple layers of parking beneath the structures thus sidelining the authentic character of these areas which is laden with a dense tree cover. The aftermath of this whole process is the generation of a huge carbon footprint on the surrounding areas, which is unaccounted for, in the planning and design practice. These developments are currently planned as mix-use compounds with large commercial built-up spaces which have additional parking requirements over and above the residential parking. Also, they are perceived as gated complexes and not as neighborhood units, thus project isolated images of high-rise, dense systems with little context to the surroundings. The paper would analyze case studies of GPRA Redevelopment projects in Delhi, and the lack of relevant development control regulations which have led to abnormalities and complications in the entire redevelopment process. It would also suggest policy guidelines which can establish comprehensive codes for effective planning of these settlements.

Keywords: gated complexes, GPRA Redevelopment projects, increased densities, huge carbon footprint, mixed-use development

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5 Experiments to Study the Vapor Bubble Dynamics in Nucleate Pool Boiling

Authors: Parul Goel, Jyeshtharaj B. Joshi, Arun K. Nayak

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Nucleate boiling is characterized by the nucleation, growth and departure of the tiny individual vapor bubbles that originate in the cavities or imperfections present in the heating surface. It finds a wide range of applications, e.g. in heat exchangers or steam generators, core cooling in power reactors or rockets, cooling of electronic circuits, owing to its highly efficient transfer of large amount of heat flux over small temperature differences. Hence, it is important to be able to predict the rate of heat transfer and the safety limit heat flux (critical heat flux, heat flux higher than this can lead to damage of the heating surface) applicable for any given system. A large number of experimental and analytical works exist in the literature, and are based on the idea that the knowledge of the bubble dynamics on the microscopic scale can lead to the understanding of the full picture of the boiling heat transfer. However, the existing data in the literature are scattered over various sets of conditions and often in disagreement with each other. The correlations obtained from such data are also limited to the range of conditions they were established for and no single correlation is applicable over a wide range of parameters. More recently, a number of researchers have been trying to remove empiricism in the heat transfer models to arrive at more phenomenological models using extensive numerical simulations; these models require state-of-the-art experimental data for a wide range of conditions, first for input and later, for their validation. With this idea in mind, experiments with sub-cooled and saturated demineralized water have been carried out under atmospheric pressure to study the bubble dynamics- growth rate, departure size and frequencies for nucleate pool boiling. A number of heating elements have been used to study the dependence of vapor bubble dynamics on the heater surface finish and heater geometry along with the experimental conditions like the degree of sub-cooling, super heat and the heat flux. An attempt has been made to compare the data obtained with the existing data and the correlations in the literature to generate an exhaustive database for the pool boiling conditions.

Keywords: Experiment, Boiling, bubbles, bubble dynamics, pool boiling

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4 Estimation of Noise Barriers for Arterial Roads of Delhi

Authors: Dr. Sourabh Jain, Parul Madan

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Traffic noise pollution has become a challenging problem for all metro cities of India due to rapid urbanization, growing population and rising number of vehicles and transport development. In Delhi the prime source of noise pollution is vehicular traffic. In Delhi it is found that the ambient noise level (Leq) is exceeding the standard permissible value at all the locations. Noise barriers or enclosures are definitely useful in obtaining effective deduction of traffic noise disturbances in urbanized areas. US’s Federal Highway Administration Model (FHWA) and Calculation of Road Traffic Noise (CORTN) of UK are used to develop spread sheets for noise prediction. Spread sheets are also developed for evaluating effectiveness of existing boundary walls abutting houses in mitigating noise, redesigning them as noise barriers. Study was also carried out to examine the changes in noise level due to designed noise barrier by using both models FHWA and CORTN respectively. During the collection of various data it is found that receivers are located far away from road at Rithala and Moolchand sites and hence extra barrier height needed to meet prescribed limits was less as seen from calculations and most of the noise diminishes by propagation effect.On the basis of overall study and data analysis, it is concluded that FHWA and CORTN models under estimate noise levels. FHWA model predicted noise levels with an average percentage error of -7.33 and CORTN predicted with an average percentage error of -8.5. It was observed that at all sites noise levels at receivers were exceeding the standard limit of 55 dB. It was seen from calculations that existing walls are reducing noise levels. Average noise reduction due to walls at Rithala was 7.41 dB and at Panchsheel was 7.20 dB and lower amount of noise reduction was observed at Friend colony which was only 5.88. It was observed from analysis that Friends colony sites need much greater height of barrier. This was because of residential buildings abutting the road. At friends colony great amount of traffic was observed since it is national highway. At this site diminishing of noise due to propagation effect was very less.As FHWA and CORTN models were developed in excel programme, it eliminates laborious calculations of noise. There was no reflection correction in FHWA models as like in CORTN model.

Keywords:

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3 Ultrasonic Atomizer for Turbojet Engines

Authors: Aman Johri, Sidhant Sood, Pooja Suresh

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This paper suggests a new and more efficient method of atomization of fuel in a combustor nozzle of a high bypass turbofan engine, using ultrasonic vibrations. Since atomization of fuel just before the fuel spray is injected into the combustion chamber is an important and crucial aspect related to functioning of a propulsion system, the technology suggested by this paper and the experimental analysis on the system components eventually proves to assist in complete and rapid combustion of the fuel in the combustor module of the engine. Current propulsion systems use carburetors, atomization nozzles and apertures in air intake pipes for atomization. The idea of this paper is to deploy new age hybrid technology, namely the Ultrasound Field Effect (UFE) to effectively atomize fuel before it enters the combustion chamber, as a viable and effective method to increase efficiency and improve upon existing designs. The Ultrasound Field Effect is applied axially, on diametrically opposite ends of an atomizer tube that gloves onto the combustor nozzle, where the fuel enters and exits under a pre-defined pressure. The Ultrasound energy vibrates the fuel particles to a breakup frequency. At reaching this frequency, the fuel particles start disintegrating into smaller diameter particles perpendicular to the axis of application of the field from the parent boundary layer of fuel flow over the baseplate. These broken up fuel droplets then undergo swirling effect as per the original nozzle design, with a higher breakup ratio than before. A significant reduction of the size of fuel particles eventually results in an increment in the propulsive efficiency of the engine. Moreover, the Ultrasound atomizer operates within a control frequency such that effects of overheating and induced vibrations are least felt on the overall performance of the engine. The design of an electrical manifold for the multiple-nozzle system over a typical can-annular combustor is developed along with this study, such that the product can be installed and removed easily for maintenance and repairing, can allow for easy access for inspections and transmits least amount of vibrational energy to the surface of the combustor. Since near-field ultrasound is used, the vibrations are easily controlled, thereby successfully reducing vibrations on the outer shell of the combustor. Experimental analysis is carried out on the effect of ultrasonic vibrations on flowing jet turbine fuel using an ultrasound generator probe and results of an effective decrease in droplet size across a constant diameter, away from the boundary layer of flow is noted using visual aid by observing under ultraviolet light. The choice of material for the Ultrasound inducer tube and crystal along with the operating range of temperatures, pressures, and frequencies of the Ultrasound field effect are also studied in this paper, while taking into account the losses incurred due to constant vibrations and thermal loads on the tube surface.

Keywords: atomization, ultrasound field effect, titanium mesh, breakup frequency, parent boundary layer, baseplate, propulsive efficiency, jet turbine fuel, induced vibrations

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2 Prediction of Endotracheal Tube Size in Children by Predicting Subglottic Diameter Using Ultrasonographic Measurement versus Traditional Formulas

Authors: Parul Jindal, Shubhi Singh, Priya Ramakrishnan, Shailender Raghuvanshi

Abstract:

Background: Knowledge of the influence of the age of the child on laryngeal dimensions is essential for all practitioners who are dealing with paediatric airway. Choosing the correct endotracheal tube (ETT) size is a crucial step in pediatric patients because a large-sized tube may cause complications like post-extubation stridor and subglottic stenosis. On the other hand with a smaller tube, there will be increased gas flow resistance, aspiration risk, poor ventilation, inaccurate monitoring of end-tidal gases and reintubation may also be required with a different size of the tracheal tube. Recent advancement in ultrasonography (USG) techniques should now allow for accurate and descriptive evaluation of pediatric airway. Aims and objectives: This study was planned to determine the accuracy of Ultrasonography (USG) to assess the appropriate ETT size and compare it with physical indices based formulae. Methods: After obtaining approval from Institute’s Ethical and Research committee, and parental written and informed consent, the study was conducted on 100 subjects of either sex between 12-60 months of age, undergoing various elective surgeries under general anesthesia requiring endotracheal intubation. The same experienced radiologist performed ultrasonography. The transverse diameter was measured at the level of cricoids cartilage by USG. After USG, general anesthesia was administered using standard techniques followed by the institute. An experienced anesthesiologist performed the endotracheal intubations with uncuffed endotracheal tube (Portex Tracheal Tube Smiths Medical India Pvt. Ltd.) with Murphy’s eye. He was unaware of the finding of the ultrasonography. The tracheal tube was considered best fit if air leak was satisfactory at 15-20 cm H₂O of airway pressure. The obtained values were compared with the values of endotracheal tube size calculated by ultrasonography, various age, height, weight-based formulas and diameter of right and left little finger. The correlation of the size of the endotracheal tube by different modalities was done and Pearson's correlation coefficient was obtained. The comparison of the mean size of the endotracheal tube by ultrasonography and by traditional formula was done by the Friedman’s test and Wilcoxon sign-rank test. Results: The predicted tube size was equal to best fit and best determined by ultrasonography (100%) followed by comparison to left little finger (98%) and right little finger (97%) and age-based formula (95%) followed by multivariate formula (83%) and body length (81%) formula. According to Pearson`s correlation, there was a moderate correlation of best fit endotracheal tube with endotracheal tube size by age-based formula (r=0.743), body length based formula (r=0.683), right little finger based formula (r=0.587), left little finger based formula (r=0.587) and multivariate formula (r=0.741). There was a strong correlation with ultrasonography (r=0.943). Ultrasonography was the most sensitive (100%) method of prediction followed by comparison to left (98%) and right (97%) little finger and age-based formula (95%), the multivariate formula had an even lesser sensitivity (83%) whereas body length based formula was least sensitive with a sensitivity of 78%. Conclusion: USG is a reliable method of estimation of subglottic diameter and for prediction of ETT size in children.

Keywords: Ultrasonography, endotracheal intubation, pediatric airway, subglottic diameter, traditional formulas

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1 Capability of a Single Antigen to Induce Both Protective and Disease Enhancing Antibody: An Obstacle in the Creation of Vaccines and Passive Immunotherapies

Authors: Subrata Sinha, Parul Kulshreshtha, Rakesh Bhatnagar

Abstract:

This study was conducted by taking B. anthracis as a model pathogen. On infecting a host, B. anthracis secretes three proteins, namely, protective antigen (PA, 83kDa), edema factor (EF, 89 kDa) and lethal factor (LF, 90 kDa). These three proteins are the components of two anthrax toxins. PA binds to the cell surface receptors, namely, tumor endothelial marker (TEM) 8 and capillary morphogenesis protein (CMG) 2. TEM8 and CMG2 interact with LDL-receptor related protein (LRP) 6 for endocytosis of EF and LF. On entering the cell, EF acts as a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase that causes a prolonged increase of cytosolic cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). LF is a metalloprotease that cleaves most isoforms of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MAPKK/MEK) close to their N-terminus. By secreting these two toxins, B.anthracis ascertains death of the host. Once the systemic levels of the toxins rise, antibiotics alone cannot save the host. Therefore, toxin-specific inhibitors have to be developed. In this wake, monoclonal antibodies have been developed for the neutralization of toxic effects of anthrax toxins. We created hybridomas by using spleen of mice that were actively immunized with rLFn (recombinant N-terminal domain of lethal factor of B. anthracis) to obtain anti-toxin antibodies. Later on, separate group of mice were immunized with rLFn to obtain a polyclonal control for passive immunization studies of monoclonal antibodies. This led to the identification of one cohort of rLFn-immunized mice that harboured disease-enhancing polyclonal antibodies. At the same time, the monoclonal antibodies from all the hybridomas were being tested. Two hybridomas secreted monoclonal antibodies (H8 and H10) that were cross-reactive with EF (edema factor) and LF (lethal factor), while the other two hybridomas secreted LF-specific antibodies (H7 and H11). The protective efficacy of H7, H8, H10 and H11 was investigated. H7, H8 and H10 were found to be protective. H11 was found to have disease enhancing characteristics in-vitro and in mouse model of challenge with B. anthracis. In this study the disease enhancing character of H11 monoclonal antibody and anti-rLFn polyclonal sera was investigated. Combination of H11 with protective monoclonal antibodies (H8 and H10) reduced its disease enhancing nature both in-vitro and in-vivo. But combination of H11 with LETscFv (an scFv with VH and VL identical to H10 but lacking Fc region) could not abrogate the disease-enhancing character of H11 mAb. Therefore it was concluded that for suppression of disease enhancement, Fc portion was absolutely essential for interaction of H10 with H11. Our study indicates that the protective potential of an antibody depends equally on its idiotype/ antigen specificity and its isotype. A number of monoclonal and engineered antibodies are being explored as immunotherapeutics but it is absolutely essential to characterize each one for their individual and combined protective potential. Although new in the sphere of toxin-based diseases, it is extremely important to characterize the disease-enhancing nature of polyclonal as well as monoclonal antibodies. This is because several anti-viral therapeutics and vaccines have failed in the face of this phenomenon. The passive –immunotherapy thus needs to be well formulated to avoid any contraindications.

Keywords: Immunotherapy, polyclonal, monoclonal, antibody-dependent disease enhancement

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