Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 49

Search results for: Esra E. Benamara

49 Spectrophotometric Determination of L-Dopa in Germinated and Non-Germinated Broad Beans (Vicia faba L.) and Chickpea (Cicer aritinum L.)

Authors: Wissame Gouigah, Amina Medellel, Mahmoud Trachi, Djedjiga Benamara, Salem Benamara

Abstract:

The purpose of this work is to investigate, by UV/VIS spectrophotometry, the distribution of L-dopa, known as precursor of dopamine which is used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, in broad beans (Vicia faba) (Vf) and chickpea (Cicer aritinum L.) (CA). In the case of Vf, the different organs were analyzed separately: 1) First, in the fresh state: pod (GF), cotyledons (CF), green shell (EF) and placenta (PF) which is the organ through which the seed is attached to the pod, 2) in the dry state (S): peel of the dry seed (ES) and cotyledons (CS), and 3) in the germinated state: peel (EGe), cotyledons (CGe) and germ (GeVf). Results showed that the content of L-dopa is unevenly distributed between different parts of fresh Vf. But the most important result concerns the predominance of L-dopa in placenta with an L-dopa content (~ 60 mg/g of wet weight, ww) sometimes 7-fold higher (p≤0.05) than those of other considered parts of fresh Vf. In the case of CA, the L-dopa concentration in germinated gains was higher than those found in all analyzed Vf organs, excepted PF.

Keywords: broad bean (Vicia faba L.), chickpea (Cicer aritinum L.), L-dopa, Parkinson disease, placenta

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48 The Use of Metformin in Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) and Glucose Control in Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) at Tripoli Medical Center

Authors: Ebtisam A. Benomran, Abdurrauf M. Gusbi, Malak S. Elazarg, M. Sultan, Layla M. Kafu, Arwa M. Matoug, Esra E. Benamara

Abstract:

Normal pregnancy is associated with metabolic changes leading to decreased insulin sensitivity and reduced glucose tolerance, however, 3-5% of pregnant women proceed to develop gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Researcher studied the use of metformin in many fields and the benefit to risk balance of using metformin during pregnancy and the risk of fetotoxic. In this study we examined the use of Metformin to control Glucose in pregnant Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and evaluate its safety use during the first trimester of pregnancy.A group of pregnant patients with gestational diabetes mellitus from the first trimester of pregnancy, non smoking with no family history of congenital malformation disease, aged between (20-45 years) and have no liver diseases and who had indicating good compliance at more than one visit over several month until delivery put on Metformin were participated in this trial. Our study shown that all the studied group of pregnant women using metformin 500 mg daily delivered a healthy babies. Meta-analysis by mother risk program showed no increase in incidence of malformations by use Metformin during the first trimester of pregnancy. A hundred outpatients were participated in the survey on the general knowledge and awareness of diabetic patients to their illness and medication used their aged between 20-40 years old. In this survey we realize that 90% of the doctors are not giving the patient full information about their illness and the use of metformin during pregnancy, also about 65% of the patients did not know about the nutritionist in the hospital and the right control diet for diabetes. Courses on first aid, rapid diagnosis of poisoning and follow the written procedures to dealing with such cases.

Keywords: gestational diabetes, malformations, metformin, pregnancy

Procedia PDF Downloads 410
47 Assay of Formulation of Fresh Cheese Using Lemon and Orange Juices as Clotting Agents

Authors: F. Bouchouka, S. Benamara

Abstract:

The present work is an attempt to prepare a fresh cheese using lemon juice and lemon juice / orange juice mixture as acidifying / clotting agents. A reference cheese is obtained by acidification with commercial vinegar. The analysis performed on the final product (fat, cheese yield, sensory analysis, rheological and bacteriological properties) confirmed the technical feasibility of a natural cheese, using a lemon juice and / or lemon juice / orange juice mixture as acidifying / clotting agents. In addition, a general acceptance test allowed to select the cheese sample acidified with lemon juice as the best, compared to the two other samples (lemon juice/orange juice acidification and commercial vinegar acidification).

Keywords: clotting agent, fresh cheese, juice, lemon, orange

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
46 Compositional and Morphological Characteristics of Three Common Dates (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Grown in Algeria

Authors: H. Amellal, Y. Noui, A. Djouab, S. Benamara

Abstract:

Mech-Degla, Degla-Beida, and Frezza are the date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) common varieties with a more or less good availability and feeble trade value. Some morphologic and physicochemical factors were determined. Results show that the whole date weight is significantly different (P= 95%) concerning Mech-Degla and Degla-Beida which are more commercialised than Frezza whereas the pulp/kernel ratio for this last is highest (above 7) since it represents almost the double of that found for the two other varieties. The water content for all fruits is below 15g/100g (wet basis) what confers a dried consistence for common date. Some other morphologic and chemical proprieties of the whole pulps and their two constitutive parts (brown or pigmented and white) are also investigated. The predominance of phenolics in Mech-Degla (4.01g/100g, w.b) and Frezza (4.96 g/100g, w.b) pulps brown part is the main result revealed in this study.

Keywords: common dates, phenolics, sugars, tissues

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45 Evaluation of Activity of Anacyclus Pyrethrum Methanolic Extract on Acute Inflammation Induced in Rats

Authors: Dalila Bouamra, Chekib Arslane Baki, Abdelhamid Bouchebour, Fatiha Koussa, Amel Benamara, Seoussen Kada

Abstract:

The activity of methanolic extract from Anacyclus pyrethrum was evaluated using λ-carrageenan 1% induced paw edema in Wistar Albinos rats. The oral administration of 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg, body weight of methanolic extract, one hour before induction of inflammation, exerted a significant inhibition effect of 47%, 57% and 62% respectively after 4h λ-carrageenan treatment and highly significant inhibition effect of 57%, 66% and 75% respectively after 8h λ-carrageenan treatment, compared to non treated group (100%) and that treated with aspirin, a standard anti-inflammatory drug. On the other hand, the effect of the plant extract on stomach was macroscopically and microscopically studied. The plant extract has an impact on the loss ratio of granulocytes that have invaded the stomach after a period of inflammation at a dose of 600 mg/kg body weight.

Keywords: inflammation, Anacyclus pyrethrum, gastritis, Wistar Albinos rats

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44 ESRA: An End-to-End System for Re-identification and Anonymization of Swiss Court Decisions

Authors: Joel Niklaus, Matthias Sturmer

Abstract:

The publication of judicial proceedings is a cornerstone of many democracies. It enables the court system to be made accountable by ensuring that justice is made in accordance with the laws. Equally important is privacy, as a fundamental human right (Article 12 in the Declaration of Human Rights). Therefore, it is important that the parties (especially minors, victims, or witnesses) involved in these court decisions be anonymized securely. Today, the anonymization of court decisions in Switzerland is performed either manually or semi-automatically using primitive software. While much research has been conducted on anonymization for tabular data, the literature on anonymization for unstructured text documents is thin and virtually non-existent for court decisions. In 2019, it has been shown that manual anonymization is not secure enough. In 21 of 25 attempted Swiss federal court decisions related to pharmaceutical companies, pharmaceuticals, and legal parties involved could be manually re-identified. This was achieved by linking the decisions with external databases using regular expressions. An automated re-identification system serves as an automated test for the safety of existing anonymizations and thus promotes the right to privacy. Manual anonymization is very expensive (recurring annual costs of over CHF 20M in Switzerland alone, according to an estimation). Consequently, many Swiss courts only publish a fraction of their decisions. An automated anonymization system reduces these costs substantially, further leading to more capacity for publishing court decisions much more comprehensively. For the re-identification system, topic modeling with latent dirichlet allocation is used to cluster an amount of over 500K Swiss court decisions into meaningful related categories. A comprehensive knowledge base with publicly available data (such as social media, newspapers, government documents, geographical information systems, business registers, online address books, obituary portal, web archive, etc.) is constructed to serve as an information hub for re-identifications. For the actual re-identification, a general-purpose language model is fine-tuned on the respective part of the knowledge base for each category of court decisions separately. The input to the model is the court decision to be re-identified, and the output is a probability distribution over named entities constituting possible re-identifications. For the anonymization system, named entity recognition (NER) is used to recognize the tokens that need to be anonymized. Since the focus lies on Swiss court decisions in German, a corpus for Swiss legal texts will be built for training the NER model. The recognized named entities are replaced by the category determined by the NER model and an identifier to preserve context. This work is part of an ongoing research project conducted by an interdisciplinary research consortium. Both a legal analysis and the implementation of the proposed system design ESRA will be performed within the next three years. This study introduces the system design of ESRA, an end-to-end system for re-identification and anonymization of Swiss court decisions. Firstly, the re-identification system tests the safety of existing anonymizations and thus promotes privacy. Secondly, the anonymization system substantially reduces the costs of manual anonymization of court decisions and thus introduces a more comprehensive publication practice.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, courts, legal tech, named entity recognition, natural language processing, ·privacy, topic modeling

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43 New Methodology for Monitoring Alcoholic Fermentation Processes Using Refractometry

Authors: Boukhiar Aissa, Iguergaziz Nadia, Halladj Fatima, Lamrani Yasmina, Benamara Salem

Abstract:

Determining the alcohol content in alcoholic fermentation bioprocess has a great importance. In fact, it is a key indicator for monitoring this fermentation bioprocess. Several methodologies (chemical, spectrophotometric, chromatographic...) are used to the determination of this parameter. However, these techniques are very long and require: rigorous preparations, sometimes dangerous chemical reagents, and/or expensive equipment. In the present study, the date juice is used as a substrate of alcoholic fermentation. The extracted juice undergoes an alcoholic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The study of the possible use of refractometry as a sole means for the in situ control of this process revealed a good correlation (R2 = 0.98) between initial and final ° Brix: ° Brix f = 0.377× ° Brixi. In addition, we verified the relationship between the variation in final and initial ° Brix (Δ ° Brix) and alcoholic rate produced (A exp): CΔ° Brix / A exp = 1.1. This allows the tracing of abacus isoresponses that permit to determine the alcoholic and residual sugar rates with a mean relative error (MRE) of 5.35%.

Keywords: refractometry, alcohol, residual sugar, fermentation, brix, date, juice

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42 Yeasts Associated to Spontaneous Date Vinegar Process

Authors: F. Halladj, H. Amellal, S. Benamara

Abstract:

Current consumer trends go towards natural products defined as the products obtained by a traditional manufacturing method. Vinegar is one of those products marketed; it may be industrially obtained by a submerged (fast) or traditional (slow) processes. The latter exhibited a high quality because of its complex microbiological transformations (or two-stage fermentation) by the native must flora. Moreover, although that Acetic acid bacteria have traditionally been considered to play the leading role in vinegar production, some studies have recently highlighted that also yeasts metabolism can affect traditional vinegar chemical properties in a remarkable way. Thus, the aim of this study was to monitor a traditional slow process of vinegar as applied in the south of Algeria using date with hard texture (Degla-Beida variety) to isolate and identify the involved yeasts in order to select them as starter culture. Phenotypic and molecular analysis show that the non-Saccharomyces were the main yeasts species isolated throughout the alcoholic spontaneous fermentation and they included Hanseniaspora guilliermondii and Torulaspora delbrueckii.

Keywords: date vinegar, traditional production, yeasts, Phenotypic, Algeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
41 The Flora of Bozdağ, Sizma–Konya, Turkey and Its Environs

Authors: Esra Ipekci, Murad Aydin Sanda

Abstract:

The flora of Bozdağ (Konya) and its surroundings were investigated between 2003 and 2005 years; 700 herbarium specimens belonging to 482 taxa, 257 genera and 62 families were collected and identified from the area. The families which have the most taxa in research area are Asteraceae 67 (14.0%), Fabaceae 60 (12.6%), Lamiaceae 57 (11.9%), Brassicaceae 34 (7.1%), Poaceae 30 (6.3%), Rosaceae 24 (5.0%), Caryophyllaceae 23 (4.8%), Liliaceae 19 (4.0%), Boraginaceae 17 (3.6%), Apiaceae 13 (2.7%). The research area is in the district of Konya and is in the B4 square according to the Grid System. The phytogeographic elements are represented in the study area as follows; Mediterranean 72 (14.9%), Irano-Turanian 91 (18.9%), Euro-Siberian 21 (4.3%). The phytogeographic regions of 273 (56.6%) taxa are either multi regional or unknown. The number of endemic taxa is 79 (16.3%).

Keywords: Sizma, Bozdağ, Flora, Konya, Turkey

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40 Application of Refractometric Methodology for Simultaneous Determination of Alcohol and Residual Sugar Concentrations during Alcoholic Fermentation Bioprocess of Date Juice

Authors: Boukhiar Aissa, Halladj Fatima, Iguergaziz Nadia, Lamrani yasmina, Benamara Salem

Abstract:

Determining the alcohol content in alcoholic fermentation bioprocess is of great importance. In fact, it is a key indicator for monitoring this bioprocess. Several methodologies (chemical, spectrophotometric, chromatographic) are used to the determination of this parameter. However, these techniques are very long and they require: rigorous preparations, sometimes dangerous chemical reagents and/or expensive equipment. In the present study, the date juice is used as the substrate of alcoholic fermentation. The extracted juice undergoes an alcoholic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The study of the possible use of refractometry as a sole means for the in situ control of alcoholic fermentation revealed a good correlation (R2=0.98) between initial and final °Brix: °Brixf=0.377×°Brixi. In addition, the relationship between Δ°Brix and alcoholic content of the final product (A,%) has been determined: Δ°Brix/A=1.1. The obtained results allowed us to establish iso-responses abacus, which can be used for the determination of alcohol and residual sugar content, with a mean relative error (MRE) of 5.35%.

Keywords: alcoholic fermentation, date juice, refractometry, residual sugar

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
39 Synthesis and Use of Bio Polyols in Rigid Polyurethane Foam Production

Authors: A. Esra Pişkin, L. Yusuf Yivlik

Abstract:

Polyurethane consumption in the world increases every year. Polyetherpolyol, which is the main raw material of polyurethane, is produced from petroleum, and bioresources are needed in polyol production due to the damage it causes to the environment and the consumption of too much energy during the production phase. In this present work, bio polyol was synthesized with castor oil and soybean oil, and its use in rigid polyurethane systems was investigated. Transesterification and ring opening methods were applied for polyol synthesis, and the obtained bio polyols were compared with polyols derived petroleum. The goal of the present study was to synthesize biopolyols and to investigate the mechanical, thermal, and chemical properties of the synthesized polyurethane in terms of bio polyols.

Keywords: polyurethane, polyol, biopolyol, vegetable oil, foam, rigid polyurethane foam, ring opening, transesterification

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38 Influence of the Compression Force and Powder Particle Size on Some Physical Properties of Date (Phoenix dactylifera) Tablets

Authors: Djemaa Megdoud, Messaoud Boudaa, Fatima Ouamrane, Salem Benamara

Abstract:

In recent years, the compression of date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit powders (DP) to obtain date tablets (DT) has been suggested as a promising form of valorization of non commercial valuable date fruit (DF) varieties. To further improve and characterize DT, the present study aims to investigate the influence of the DP particle size and compression force on some physical properties of DT. The results show that independently of particle size, the hardness (y) of tablets increases with the increase of the compression force (x) following a logarithmic law (y = a ln (bx) where a and b are the constants of model). Further, a full factorial design (FFD) at two levels, applied to investigate the erosion %, reveals that the effects of time and particle size are the same in absolute value and they are beyond the effect of the compression. Regarding the disintegration time, the obtained results also by means of a FFD show that the effect of the compression force exceeds 4 times that of the DP particle size. As final stage, the color parameters in the CIELab system of DT immediately after their obtaining are differently influenced by the size of the initial powder.

Keywords: powder, tablets, date (Phoenix dactylifera L.), hardness, erosion, disintegration time, color

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
37 Comparison of Wet and Microwave Digestion Methods for the Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn Determination in Some Honey Samples by ICPOES in Turkey

Authors: Huseyin Altundag, Emel Bina, Esra Altıntıg

Abstract:

The aim of this study is determining amount of Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in the samples of honey which are gathered from Sakarya and Istanbul regions. In this study the evaluation of the trace elements in honeys samples are gathered from Sakarya and Istanbul, Turkey. The sample preparation phase is performed via wet decomposition method and microwave digestion system. The accuracy of the method was corrected by the standard reference material, Tea Leaves (INCY-TL-1) and NIST SRM 1515 Apple leaves. The comparison between gathered data and literature values has made and possible resources of the contamination to the samples of honey have handled. The obtained results will be presented in ICCIS 2015: XIII International Conference on Chemical Industry and Science.

Keywords: Wet decomposition, Microwave digestion, Trace element, Honey, ICP-OES

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36 Determination of Antimicrobial Effect and Essential Oil Composition Salvia verticillata L. Subsp. amasiaca

Authors: Tanju Teker, Yener Tekeli̇, Esra Karpuz

Abstract:

Salvia species are known as medicinal plant and often used in public. The antimicrobial effects and essential oil composition of Salvia verticillata L. subsp. amasiaca were determined. The antimicrobial activity is determined by using disk diffusion method against two Gram-positive bacteria, two Gram-negative bacteria and one kind of yeast and essential oil composition was determined by GC - MS. As a result of antimicrobial analysis while sample has shown very strong antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, moderately effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and low effective against Enterococcus faecalis, it has not shown antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and C. albicans. Trans-caryophyllene (% 35.07), germacrene-d (% 10.98) and caryopyllene oxide (% 5.81) are the main components of essential oil composition.

Keywords: salvia, medicinal plant, antimicrobial activity, essential oil

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35 Pre-Service Teachers’ Opinions on Disabled People

Authors: Sinem Toraman, Aysun Öztuna Kaplan, Hatice Mertoğlu, Esra Macaroğlu Akgül

Abstract:

This study aims to examine pre-service teachers’ opinions on disabled people taking into consideration various variables. The participants of the study are composed of 170 pre-service teachers being 1st year students of different branches at Education Department of Yıldız Technical, Yeditepe, Marmara and Sakarya Universities. Data of the research was collected in 2013-2014 fall term. This study was designed as a phenomenological study appropriately qualitative research paradigm. Pre-service teachers’ opinions about disabled people were examined in this study, open ended question form which was prepared by researcher and focus group interview techniques were used as data collection tool. The study presents pre-service teachers’ opinions about disabled people which were mentioned, and suggestions about teacher education.

Keywords: pre-service teachers, disabled people, teacher education, teachers' opinions

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34 Distribution of Epiphytic Lichen Biodiversity and Comparision with Their Preferred Tree Species around the Şeker Canyon, Karabük, Turkey

Authors: Hatice Esra Akgül, Celaleddin Öztürk

Abstract:

Lichen biodiversity in forests is controlled by environmental conditions. Epiphytic lichens have some degree of substrate specificity. Diversity and distribution of epiphytic lichens are affected by humidity, light, altitude, temperature, bark pH of the trees.This study describes the epiphytic lichen communities with comparing their preferred tree species. 34 epiphytic lichen taxa are reported on Pinus sp. L., Quercus sp. L., Fagus sp. L., Carpinus sp. L., Abies sp. Mill., Fraxinus sp. Tourn. ex L. from different altitudes around the Şeker Canyon (Karabük, Turkey). 11 of these taxa are growing on Quercus sp., 10 of them are growing on Fagus sp., 7 of them are growing on Pinus sp., 4 of them are on Carpinus sp., 2 of them are on Abies sp. and one of them is on Fraxinus sp. Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach. is growing on both of Fagus sp. and Quercus sp. Lecanora pulicaris (Pers.) Ach. is growing on both of Abies sp. and Quercus sp.

Keywords: biodiversity, epiphytic lichen, forest, Turkey

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33 Biomorphic Ornaments in Islamic Architecture and Their Development

Authors: Esra Alhamal

Abstract:

Islamic architecture is known for the ornamental patterns that cover the architectural surfaces: floors, walls, and ceilings. This quality in Islamic buildings has long impressed other civilisation, and it is a visual language that exists across the Islamic lands. Ornamentation is divided into three types: geometry, biomorphs, and Arabic calligraphy. The focus of this study is the biomorphic ornaments. This paper will aim to define and characterise biomorphic patterns and trace their development from the 7th to the 18th centuries. Although the time period is seemingly long, the biomorphic patterns and their motifs have been consistent and supported by a geometric system underlying the free flowing, symmetrical motifs. The methodology of this paper consists of analysing and comparing biomorphic patterns from each Islamic period using rules of geometry and symmetry. The study is concluded with a table showcasing the main motifs and how they developed under each Islamic dynasty. This research is a documentation of the biomorphic language and having this record will help contemporary designers employ biomorphic ornaments thoughtfully.

Keywords: architectural surface, biomorphic patterns, Islamic patterns, Islamic ornamentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
32 Photoluminescence Properties of Lu1.98Er0.02Ti2O7 Pyrochlore (A2B2O7) Phosphor

Authors: Esra Öztürk, Erkul Karacaoglu

Abstract:

Pyrochlores, having compounds of the general formula, A2B2O7 (A and B are metals/rare earths) are important class of materials thanks to having technological applications like in luminescence, ionic conductivity, nuclear waste immobilization etc. The rare earths included pyrochlore compounds have also potential photoluminescence characteristics. In this context, Er3+-activated Lu2Ti2O7 pyrochlore was chosen and synthesized through a high-temperature solid-state reaction route that was sintered under the open atmosphere in this study. The optimal reaction conditions to obtain expected single phase system, the thermal analysis (DTA/TG) were carried out. The X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) was used to determine phase properties of the sample. The photoluminescence (PL) results were done to obtain excitation, emission and decay time properties by a PL spectrometer under room temperature. According to the PL, there are excitation bands at 352 nm, 388 nm, 423 nm and 453 nm that are due to 4I15/2 → 2G7/2, 4I15/2 → 4G11/2 and 4I15/2 → 4F5/2 transitions of Er3+ ions, respectively. The emission bands are placed at 582 nm, 677 nm and 762 nm that are associated with 2H11/2, 4S3/2 → 4I15/2, 4F9/2 → 4I15/2, 4I9/2 → 4I15/2 transitions of Er3+ ions, respectively.

Keywords: Er3+, Lu2Ti2O7, photoluminescence, pyrochlore, rare-earths

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31 Planning and Implementing Large-Scale Ecological Connectivity: A Review of Past and Ongoing Practices in Turkey

Authors: Tutku Ak, A. Esra Cengiz, Çiğdem Ayhan Kaptan

Abstract:

The conservation community has been increasingly promoting the concept of ecological connectivity towards the prevention and mitigation of landscape fragmentation. Many tools have been proposed for this purpose in not only Europe, but also around the world. Spatial planning for building connectivity, however, has many problems associated with the complexity of ecological processes at spatial and temporal scales. Furthermore, on the ground implementation could be very difficult potentially leading to ecologically disastrous results and waste of resources. These problems, on the other hand, can be avoided or rectified as more experience is gained with implementation. Therefore, it is the objective of this study to document the experiences gained with connectivity planning in Turkish landscapes. This paper is a preliminary review of the conservation initiatives and projects aimed at protecting and building ecological connectivity in and around Turkey. The objective is to scope existing conservation plans, tools and implementation approaches in Turkey and the ultimate goal is to understand to what degree they have been implemented and what are the constraints and opportunities that are being faced.

Keywords: ecological connectivity, large-scale landscapes, planning and implementation, Turkey

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30 Co-Pyrolysis of Olive Pomace with Plastic Wastes and Characterization of Pyrolysis Products

Authors: Merve Sogancioglu, Esra Yel, Ferda Tartar, Nihan Canan Iskender

Abstract:

Waste polyethylene (PE) is classified as waste low density polyethylene (LDPE) and waste high density polyethylene (HDPE) according to their densities. Pyrolysis of plastic waste may have an important role in dealing with the enormous amounts of plastic waste produced all over the world, by decreasing their negative impact on the environment. This waste may be converted into economically valuable hydrocarbons, which can be used both as fuels and as feed stock in the petrochemical industry. End product yields and properties depend on the plastic waste composition. Pyrolytic biochar is one of the most important products of waste plastics pyrolysis. In this study, HDPE and LDPE plastic wastes were co-pyrolyzed together with waste olive pomace. Pyrolysis runs were performed at temperature 700°C with heating rates of 5°C/min. Higher pyrolysis oil and gas yields were observed by the using waste olive pomace. The biochar yields of HDPE- olive pomace and LDPEolive pomace were 6.37% and 7.26% respectively for 50% olive pomace doses. The calorific value of HDPE-olive pomace and LDPE-olive pomace of pyrolysis oil were 8350 and 8495 kCal.

Keywords: biochar, co-pyrolysis, waste plastic, waste olive pomace

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29 The Effectiveness of Using Video Modeling Procedures on the ipad to Teach Play Skills Children with ASD

Authors: Esra Orum Cattik

Abstract:

This study evaluated the effects of using video modeling procedures on the iPad to teach play skills to children with autism spectrum disorders. A male student with autism spectrum disorders participated in this study. A multiple baseline-across-skills single-subject design was used to evaluate the effects of using video modeling procedures on the iPad. During baseline, no prompts were presented to participants. In the intervention phase, the teacher gave video model on iPad to the first skill and asked play with toys for him. When the first play skill completed the second play skill began intervention. This procedure continued till all three play skill completed intervention. Finally, the participant learned all three play skills to use video modeling presented on the iPad. Based upon findings of this study, suggestions have been made to future researches.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorders, play, play skills, video modeling, single subject design

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28 Physical Properties of Nano-Sized Poly-N-Isopropylacrylamide Hydrogels

Authors: Esra Alveroglu Durucu, Kenan Koc

Abstract:

In this study, we synthesized and characterized nano-sized Poly- N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAM) hydrogels. N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) micro and macro gels are known as a thermosensitive colloidal structure, and they respond to changes in the environmental conditions such as temperature and pH. Here, nano-sized gels were synthesized via precipitation copolymerization method. N,N-methylenebisacrylamide (BIS) and ammonium persulfate APS were used as crosslinker and initiator, respectively. 8-Hydroxypyrene-1,3,6- trisulfonic Acid (Pyranine, Py) molecules were used for arranging the particle size and thus physical properties of the nano-sized hydrogels. Fluorescence spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and light scattering methods were used for characterizing the synthesized hydrogels. The results show that the gel size was decreased with increasing amount of ionic molecule from 550 to 140 nm due to the electrostatic behavior of the ionic side groups of pyranine. Light scattering experiments demonstrate that lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the gels shifts to the lower temperature with decreasing size of gel due to the hydrophobicity–hydrophilicity balance of the polymer chains.

Keywords: hydrogels, lower critical solution temperature, nanogels, poly(n-isopropylacrylamide)

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27 Effect of Copper Ions Doped-Hydroxyapatite 3D Fiber Scaffold

Authors: Adil Elrayah, Jie Weng, Esra Suliman

Abstract:

The mineral in human bone is not pure stoichiometric calcium phosphate (Ca/P) as it is partially substituted by in organic elements. In this study, the copper ions (Cu2+) substituted hydroxyapatite (CuHA) powder has been synthesized by the co-precipitation method. The CuHA powder has been used to fabricate CuHA fiber scaffolds by sol-gel process and the following sinter process. The resulted CuHA fibers have slightly different microstructure (i.e. porosity) compared to HA fiber scaffold, which is denser. The mechanical properties test was used to evaluate CuHA, and the results showed decreases in both compression strength and hardness tests. Moreover, the in vitro used endothelial cells to evaluate the angiogenesis of CuHA. The result illustrated that the viability of endothelial cell on CuHA fiber scaffold surfaces tends to antigenic behavior. The results obtained with CuHA scaffold give this material benefit in biological applications such as antimicrobial, antitumor, antigens, compacts, filling cavities of the tooth and for the deposition of metal implants anti-tumor, anti-cancer, bone filler, and scaffold.

Keywords: fiber scaffold, copper ions, hydroxyapatite, in vitro, mechanical property

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26 Effect of Vinclozolin on Some Biochemical Parameters of Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

Authors: Rahile Ozturk, Esra Maltas

Abstract:

This study aimed to determine the effect of vinclozolin on some biochemical characteristics of Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) which is an economically harmful species damaging the honeycomb in beekeeping. For experimental groups, the eggs obtained from stock were dropped into the mixed feed of vinclozolin at different doses (20, 40 and 60 ppm) and had the larvae fed with this feed. As result of the addition of vinclozolin at concentrations of 20, 40 and 60 ppm, glycogen contents of G. mellonella were determined and a significant reduction in the amount of glycogen was observed with increasing concentration of vinclozolin. In this study, activity of catalase enzyme, particularly effective in defense mechanism, activity of xanthine oxidase involved in nucleotide metabolism and activity of glucose oxidase in the metabolism of carbohydrates were measured. When compared with the results from control groups, the enzyme activities of the larvaes fed with the feed including 20, 40 and 60 ppm of vinclozolin were observed to vary or remain constant. Accordingly, glucose oxidase and catalase activities increased with the increase in amount of vinclozolin in the feed and the activity of xanthine oxidase remained stable.

Keywords: Catalase, Galleria mellonella, glucose oxidase, vinclozolin, xanthine oxidase.

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25 Study of the Effect of Using Corn-Cob Ash on Mortar and Concrete Properties: Case Study of Sudan

Authors: Taghried I. M. Abdel-Magid, Gheida T. A. Al-Khelifa, Ahmed O. Adam, Esra G. A. Mohamed, Saeed M. S. Saeed

Abstract:

The use of pozzolanic materials in concrete industry is facing challenges due to unpredictable behavior of natural materials. Corncob ash (CCA) is considered to be one of the promising plant-based materials that possess cementitious properties. Corn is one of the major planted crops in Sudan. Corncob is considered as waste and normally thrown away or burnt. The main purpose of this research was to test the hypothesis that CCA can sufficiently replace cement in a concrete mixture or a cement mortar. In this study, CCA was used to replace cement in mortar in three percentages: 0, 20, and 25%. The effect of this replacement was found to be positive in terms of long-term compressive strength, while not as such in short-term compressive strength. In the concrete mix, the introduction of CCA was found to have a positive impact on the slump test characteristics, whereas the early and late compressive strengths deteriorated by approximately 30%. More research is needed in this area to upgrade the efficient use of CCA in cement mortar and concrete properties.

Keywords: cementitious materials, compressive strength, corncob ash, pozzolanic materials

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24 Urban Transformation as a Process for Inner-City Slums in Turkey the Experience of Gaziantep City, Turkey

Authors: Samer Katerji, Mustafa Ozakça, Esra Demircioğlu

Abstract:

The inner-city slums become a global phenomenon problem. It is widely distributed in separate zones through the urban textures, threatens cities in physical, economic and social aspects. It often has illegal settlements with unsafe and unhealthy conditions. By the time, it grown up rapidly followed by growing in its problems. According to United Nations, in some cities, up to 80 percent of the population lives in slums. Fifty-five million new slum dwellers have been added to the global population since 2000. Both developed and developing countries started to figure out mechanics to find solutions, which is suitable to solve the inner-city slums problems. In turn, the planning agenda of Turkey has been focused on urban transformation as a solution for inner-city slums problems since the 2000s. The current laws after 2004 changed all of the statements on the urban transformation of the country. This paper come to explain the urban transformation approach as qualified presses in dealing with inner-city slums problems of turkey. After that, it highlights one of the earliest ongoing transformation projects in Gaziantep city, which is adopted by the local municipalities. The study includes assessment of the pros and cons of pursuing the project and identifying the potential consequences. This is more likely to keep up with the efforts of Gaziantep Municipality in developing and transforming slum areas.

Keywords: transformation, urban, slums, Gaziantep

Procedia PDF Downloads 436
23 An Alternative Nano Design Strategy by Neutralized AMPS and Soy Bean Lecithin to Form Nanoparticles

Authors: Esra Cansever Mutlu, Muge Sennaroglu Bostan, Fatemeh Bahadori, Ebru Toksoy Oner, Mehmet S. Eroglu

Abstract:

Paclitaxel is used in treatment of different cancer types mainly breast, ovarian, lung and Kaposi’s sarcoma. It is poorly soluble in water; therefore, currently used formulations tremendously show side-effects and high toxicity. Encapsulation of the drug in a nano drug carrier which causes both reducing side effects and increasing drug activity is a desired new approach for the nano-medicine to target the site of cancer. In this study, synthesis of a novel nano paclitaxel formulation made of a new amphiphilic monomer was followed by the investigation of its pharmacological properties. UV radical polymerization was carried out by using the monomer Lecithin-2-Acrylamido-2-methylpropane (L-AMPS) and the drug-spacer, to obtain sterically high stabilized, biocompatible and biodegradable phospholipid nanoparticles, in which the drug paclitaxel (Pxl) was encapsulated (NanoPxl). Particles showed high drug loading capacity (68%) and also hydrodynamic size less than 200 nm with slight negative surface charge. The drug release profile was obtained and in vitro cytotoxicity test was performed on MCF-7 cell line. Consequently, these data indicated that paclitaxel loaded Lecithin-AMPS/PCL-MAC nanoparticles can be considered as a new, safe and effective nanocarrier for the treatment of breast cancer.

Keywords: paclitaxel, nanoparticle, drug delivery, L-AMPS

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
22 Machine Learning Based Smart Beehive Monitoring System Without Internet

Authors: Esra Ece Var

Abstract:

Beekeeping plays essential role both in terms of agricultural yields and agricultural economy; they produce honey, wax, royal jelly, apitoxin, pollen, and propolis. Nowadays, these natural products become more importantly suitable and preferable for nutrition, food supplement, medicine, and industry. However, to produce organic honey, majority of the apiaries are located in remote or distant rural areas where utilities such as electricity and Internet network are not available. Additionally, due to colony failures, world honey production decreases year by year despite the increase in the number of beehives. The objective of this paper is to develop a smart beehive monitoring system for apiaries including those that do not have access to Internet network. In this context, temperature and humidity inside the beehive, and ambient temperature were measured with RFID sensors. Control center, where all sensor data was sent and stored at, has a GSM module used to warn the beekeeper via SMS when an anomaly is detected. Simultaneously, using the collected data, an unsupervised machine learning algorithm is used for detecting anomalies and calibrating the warning system. The results show that the smart beehive monitoring system can detect fatal anomalies up to 4 weeks prior to colony loss.

Keywords: beekeeping, smart systems, machine learning, anomaly detection, apiculture

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
21 Assessing the Adaptive Re-Use Potential of Buildings as Part of the Disaster Management Process

Authors: A. Esra İdemen, Sinan M. Şener, Emrah Acar

Abstract:

The technological paradigm of the disaster management field, especially in the case of governmental intervention strategies, is generally based on rapid and flexible accommodation solutions. From various technical solution patterns used to address the immediate housing needs of disaster victims, the adaptive re-use of existing buildings can be considered to be both low-cost and practical. However, there is a scarcity of analytical methods to screen, select and adapt buildings to help decision makers in cases of emergency. Following an extensive literature review, this paper aims to highlight key points and problem areas associated with the adaptive re-use of buildings within the disaster management context. In other disciplines such as real estate management, the adaptive re-use potential (ARP) of existing buildings is typically based on the prioritization of a set of technical and non-technical criteria which are then weighted to arrive at an economically viable investment decision. After a disaster, however, the assessment of the ARP of buildings requires consideration of different/additional layers of analysis which stem from general disaster management principles and the peculiarities of different types of disasters, as well as of their victims. In this paper, a discussion of the development of an adaptive re-use potential (ARP) assessment model is presented. It is thought that governmental and non-governmental decision makers who are required to take quick decisions to accommodate displaced masses following disasters are likely to benefit from the implementation of such a model.

Keywords: adaptive re-use of buildings, disaster management, temporary housing, assessment model

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20 The General Trend of FDI and the Effects of These Investments for Countries: 2000-2013

Authors: Esra Cebeci

Abstract:

As a result of acceleration of globalization in the 21st century economic boundaries are removed. With liberalization of capital and foreign trade, not only developed countries but also developing countries get into rapid growth efforts. In developing countries, one of the most important problem is insufficient capital accumulation. For reduce this deficit, one of the general approaches that is offered increasing amount of foreign direct investments. Also, in developing countries saving rates are low. So, foreign direct investments make possible an increase for domestic savings. In this regard, the multinational corporations are capable of these investments have importance. By providing micro-macro effects for countries, demand for these firms are many. These effects in general positive, some negative effects may able to come into being especially for developing countries. Foreign direct investments are performed buying an existing corporation, merging or greenfield investments. In recent, foreign direct investments are performed as a green field investments for developing countries. The study aims to analysis foreign direct investment trends for 2000-2013 years. In the first part of this study, the importance of foreign direct investments and their determinants are explained. In the second part, the article also shows that comparative analysis of the inward and outward investments for developing and developed countries. In conclusion, while developed countries can stand competition against other countries with these investments, developing countries can provide a sustainable growth with capital inflows.

Keywords: foreign direct investments, multinational corporations, determinants of FDI, FDI trend

Procedia PDF Downloads 309