Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 62

Search results for: Nina Bijedic

62 Modeling Influence on Petty Corruption Attitudes

Authors: Nina Bijedic, Drazena Gaspar, Mirsad Hadzikadic

Abstract:

Corruption is an influential and widespread problem. One part of it is so-called petty corruption, related to large-scale bribe giving by ordinary citizens trying to influence the works of public administration or public services. As it is with all means of corruption, petty corruption is related to the level of democracy (or administration efficiency) in a society. The developed model captures some of the factors related to corruptive behavior, as well as people’s attitude towards petty corruption. It has four basic elements: user’s perception of corruption in the society of interest, the influence of social interactions, the influence of penalizing mechanism, and influence of campaigns against petty corruption. The model is agent-based, developed in NetLogo, with a lot of random settings that provide a wider scope of responses. Interactions of different settings for variables of elements provide insight into the influence of each element on attitude towards petty corruption, as well as petty corruptive behavior.

Keywords: agent-based model, attitude, influence, petty corruption, society

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61 Development of Risk-Based Ambient Air Quality Standards in the Russian Federation on the Basis of Risk Assessment Procedures Harmonized with International Approaches

Authors: Nina V. Zaitseva, Pavel Z. Shur, Nina G. Atiskova

Abstract:

Nowadays harmonization of sanitary and hygienic standards of environmental quality with international standards is crucial part of integration of Russia into the international community. Harmonization of Russian and international ambient air quality standards may be realized by risk-based standards development. In this paper approaches to risk-based standards development and examples of these approaches implementation are presented.

Keywords: harmonization, health risk assessment, evolutionary modelling, benchmark level, nickel, manganese

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60 Real Time Classification of Political Tendency of Twitter Spanish Users based on Sentiment Analysis

Authors: Marc Solé, Francesc Giné, Magda Valls, Nina Bijedic

Abstract:

What people say on social media has turned into a rich source of information to understand social behavior. Specifically, the growing use of Twitter social media for political communication has arisen high opportunities to know the opinion of large numbers of politically active individuals in real time and predict the global political tendencies of a specific country. It has led to an increasing body of research on this topic. The majority of these studies have been focused on polarized political contexts characterized by only two alternatives. Unlike them, this paper tackles the challenge of forecasting Spanish political trends, characterized by multiple political parties, by means of analyzing the Twitters Users political tendency. According to this, a new strategy, named Tweets Analysis Strategy (TAS), is proposed. This is based on analyzing the users tweets by means of discovering its sentiment (positive, negative or neutral) and classifying them according to the political party they support. From this individual political tendency, the global political prediction for each political party is calculated. In order to do this, two different strategies for analyzing the sentiment analysis are proposed: one is based on Positive and Negative words Matching (PNM) and the second one is based on a Neural Networks Strategy (NNS). The complete TAS strategy has been performed in a Big-Data environment. The experimental results presented in this paper reveal that NNS strategy performs much better than PNM strategy to analyze the tweet sentiment. In addition, this research analyzes the viability of the TAS strategy to obtain the global trend in a political context make up by multiple parties with an error lower than 23%.

Keywords: political tendency, prediction, sentiment analysis, Twitter

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59 Study on the Presence of Protozoal Co-Infections Among Patients With Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia in Bulgaria

Authors: Nina Tsvetkova, Aleksandra Ivanova, Rumen Harizanov, Iskra Rainova, Nina Yancheva-Petrova, Dimitar Strashimirov, Raina Enikova, Mihaela Videnova, Eleonora Kaneva, Iskren Kaftandjiev, Viktoria Levterova, Ivan Simeonovski, Nikolay Yanev, Georgi Hinkov

Abstract:

The Pneumocystis jirovecii (P. jirovecii) and protozoan of the genera Acanthamoeba, Cryptosporidium, and Toxoplasma gondii are opportunistic pathogens that can cause life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients. Aim of the study was to evaluate the co-infection rate with opportunistic protozoal agents among the Bulgarian patients diagnosed with P. jirovecii pneumonia. Thirty eight pulmonary samples were collected from 38 patients (28 HIV-infected) with P. jirovecii infection. P. jirovecii DNA was detected by real-time PCR targeting the mitochondrial large subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Acanthamoeba was determined by genus-specific conventional PCR assay. Real-time PCR for detection of a Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium DNA fragment was used. Pneumocystis DNA was detected in all 38 specimens, 28 (73,7%) were from HIV-infected patients. Three (10,7%) of them were co-infected with T. gondii and 1 (3,6%) with Cryptosporidium. In the group of non-HIV-infected (n=10), Cryptosporidium DNA was detected in an infant (10%). Acanthamoeba DNA was not found in the tested samples. The current study showed a relatively low rate of co-infections of Cryptosporidium spp. / T. gondii and P. jirovecii in the Bulgarian patients studied.

Keywords: co-infection, opportunistic protozoal agents, Pneumocystis jirovecii, pulmonary infections

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58 The ‘Othered’ Body: Deafness and Disability in Nina Raine’s Tribes

Authors: Nurten Çelik

Abstract:

Under the new developments in science, medicine, sociology, psychology and literary theories, body studies has gained huge importance and the body has become a debatable issue. There has emerged, among sociologists and literary theorists, an overwhelming consensus that body is socially, politically and culturally perceived and constructed and thus, the position of an individual in the society is determined in accordance with his/her body image. In this regard, the most complicated point is the theoretical views propounded upon disability studies, where the disabled body is considered to be a site upon which social and political restrictions as well as repressions are inscribed. There has been the widely-accepted view that no matter what kind of disability it is, those with physical, mental or learning impairments face varied social, political and environmental obstacles that prevent them from being an active citizen, worker, lover and even a family member. In parallel with these approaches, the matter of the sufferings of disabled individuals attains its place in cinema and literature as well as in theatre studies under the category of disability theatre. One of the prominent plays that deal with physical disability came from the contemporary British playwright Nina Raine. In her awarded play Tribes, which premiered at the Royal Court Theatre in 2010, Raine develops the social strata where her deaf protagonist, Billy, caught up between two tribes – namely his family and his lover Slyvia, a member of the deaf community– experiences personal and social hardships due to his hearing impairment. In the play, intransigent and self-opinionated family members foster no sense of empathy towards Billy, there are noisy talking and shouting, but no communication, love, compassion or mutual understanding, and language becomes just a tool for the expression of rage and oppression. In the disordered atmosphere of the family life, Billy experiences isolation and loneliness. Billy’s hopes for success and love are destroyed when Slyvia, troubled between hearing and deafness, rejects him because she does not utterly grasp what Billy is experiencing. Drawing upon the hardships, Billy undergoes in his relationships with his family and his girlfriend, Tribes problematizes the concept of deafness and explores to what extent a deaf person can find a place in the hearing world. Setting ‘the disabled’ bodies against ‘the abled’ bodies in a family, a microcosm of the society where bodies are socially shaped and constructed, Tribes dramatizes how the disabled bodies are disenfranchised, stigmatised, marginalized and othered on the grounds that they are socially misfit. Tribes, with a specific focus on the dysfunctional family, shows that the lack of communication and empathy numbs the characters to the feelings of each other and thereby, they become more disabled than Billy. In conclusion, this paper, with the reference to the embodiment of disability and social theories, aims to explore how disabled bodies are socially marked and segregated from family and society.

Keywords: body, deafness, disability, disability theatre, Nina Raine, tribes

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57 Interactive Teaching Methods: An Imperative of Modern Pedagogy

Authors: Andrei Nastas, Nina Cebotaru, Sergiu Racu

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The modern approach based on competencies in the organization of the educational process, impels the teacher to transform the learning process: its structure, the forms of organization of activities, the principles of interaction between subjects. By using interactive methods, the learning process is organized in such a way that almost all students are involved in the learning process, have the opportunity to understand and reflect on what they know and think. Another feature of interactive methods is a high level of mutually directed activity of the subjects of interaction, emotional and spiritual unity.

Keywords: education, interactive methods, student, pedagogical process

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56 Ultrasonic Densitometry of Alveolar Bone Jaw during Retention Period of Orthodontic Treatment

Authors: Margarita A. Belousova, Sergey N. Ermoliev, Nina K. Loginova

Abstract:

The method of intraoral ultrasound densitometry developed to diagnose mineral density of alveolar bone jaws during retention period of orthodontic treatment (Patent of Russian Federation № 2541038). It was revealed significant decrease of the ultrasonic wave speed and bone mineral density in patients with relapses dentition anomalies during retention period of orthodontic treatment.

Keywords: intraoral ultrasonic densitometry, speed of sound, alveolar jaw bone, relapses of dentition anomalies, retention period of orthodontic treatment

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55 Investigation of Overstrength of Dual System by Non-Linear Static and Dynamic Analyses

Authors: Nina Øystad-Larsen, Miran Cemalovic, Amir M. Kaynia

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The nonlinear static and dynamic analysis procedures presented in EN 1998-1 for the structural response of a RC wall-frame building are assessed. The structure is designed according to the guidelines for high ductility (DCH) in 1998-1. The finite element packages SeismoStruct and OpenSees are utilized and evaluated. The structural response remains nearly in the elastic range even though the building was designed for high ductility. The overstrength is a result of oversized and heavily reinforced members, with emphasis on the lower storey walls. Nonlinear response history analysis in the software packages give virtually identical results for displacements.

Keywords: behaviour factor, dual system, OpenSEES, overstrength, seismostruct

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54 Updating Stochastic Hosting Capacity Algorithm for Voltage Optimization Programs and Interconnect Standards

Authors: Nicholas Burica, Nina Selak

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The ADHCAT (Automated Distribution Hosting Capacity Assessment Tool) was designed to run Hosting Capacity Analysis on the ComEd system via a stochastic DER (Distributed Energy Resource) placement on multiple power flow simulations against a set of violation criteria. The violation criteria in the initial version of the tool captured a limited amount of issues that individual departments design against for DER interconnections. Enhancements were made to the tool to further align with individual department violation and operation criteria, as well as the addition of new modules for use for future load profile analysis. A reporting engine was created for future analytical use based on the simulations and observations in the tool.

Keywords: distributed energy resources, hosting capacity, interconnect, voltage optimization

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53 Butterfly Diversity along Urban-Rural Gradient in Kolkata, India

Authors: Sushmita Chaudhuri, Parthiba Basu

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Urbanization leads to habitat degradation and is responsible for the fast disappearance of native butterfly species. Random sampling of rural, suburban and urban sites in an around Kolkata metropolis revealed the presence of 28 species of butterfly belonging to 5 different families in winter (February-March). Butterfly diversity, species richness and abundance decreased with increase in urbanization. Psyche (Leptosia nina of family Pieridae) was the most predominant butterfly species found everywhere in Kolkata during the winter period. The most dominant family was Nymphalidae (11species), followed by Pieridae (6 species), Lycaenidae (5 species), Papilionidae (4 species) and Hesperiidae (2 species). The rural and suburban sites had butterfly species that were unique to those sites. Vegetation cover and flowering shrub density were significantly related to butterfly diversity.

Keywords: butterfly, Kolkata metropolis, Shannon-Weiner diversity index, species diversity

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52 Creating a Virtual Perception for Upper Limb Rehabilitation

Authors: Nina Robson, Kenneth John Faller II, Vishalkumar Ahir, Arthur Ricardo Deps Miguel Ferreira, John Buchanan, Amarnath Banerjee

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This paper describes the development of a virtual-reality system ARWED, which will be used in physical rehabilitation of patients with reduced upper extremity mobility to increase limb Active Range of Motion (AROM). The ARWED system performs a symmetric reflection and real-time mapping of the patient’s healthy limb on to their most affected limb, tapping into the mirror neuron system and facilitating the initial learning phase. Using the ARWED, future experiments will test the extension of the action-observation priming effect linked to the mirror-neuron system on healthy subjects and then stroke patients.

Keywords: physical rehabilitation, mirror neuron, virtual reality, stroke therapy

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51 Extending Smart City Infrastructure to Cover Natural Disasters

Authors: Nina Dasari, Satvik Dasari

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Smart city solutions are being developed across the globe to transform urban areas. However, the infrastructure enablement for alerting natural disasters such as floods and wildfires is deficient. This paper discusses an innovative device that could be used as part of the smart city initiative to detect and provide alerts in case of floods at road crossings and wildfires. An Internet of Things (IoT) smart city node was designed, tested, and deployed with collaboration from the City of Austin. The end to end solution includes a 3G enabled IoT device, flood and fire sensors, cloud, a mobile app, and IoT analytics. The real-time data was collected and analyzed using IoT analytics to refine the solution for the past year. The results demonstrate that the proposed solution is reliable and provides accurate results. This low-cost solution is viable, and it can replace the current solution which costs tens of thousands of dollars.

Keywords: analytics, internet of things, natural disasters, smart city

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50 Developing Models for Predicting Physiologically Impaired Arm Reaching Paths

Authors: Nina Robson, Kenneth John Faller II, Vishalkumar Ahir, Mustafa Mhawesh, Reza Langari

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This paper describes the development of a model of an impaired human arm performing a reaching motion, which will be used to predict hand path trajectories for people with reduced arm joint mobility. Assuming that the arm was in contact with a surface during the entire movement, the contact conditions at the initial and final task locations were determined and used to generate the entire trajectory. The model was validated by comparing it to experimental data, which simulated an arm joint impairment by physically constraining the joint motion with a brace. Future research will include using the model in the development of physical training protocols that avoid early recruitment of “healthy” Degrees-Of-Freedom (DOF) for reaching motions, thus facilitating an Active Range-Of-Motion Recovery (AROM) for a particular impaired joint.

Keywords: higher order kinematic specifications, human motor coordination, impaired movement, kinematic synthesis

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49 A Theoretical Framework on International Voluntary Health Networks

Authors: Benet Reid, Nina Laurie, Matt Baillie-Smith

Abstract:

Trans-national and tropical medicine, historically associated with colonial power and missionary activity, is now central to discourses of global health and development, thrust into mainstream media by events like the 2014 Ebola crisis and enshrined in the Sustainable Development Goals. Research in this area remains primarily the province of health professional disciplines, and tends to be framed within a simple North-to-South model of development. The continued role of voluntary work in this field is bound up with a rhetoric of partnering and partnership. We propose, instead, the idea of International Voluntary Health Networks (IVHNs) as a means to de-centre global-North institutions in these debates. Drawing on our empirical work with IVHNs in countries both North and South, we explore geographical and sociological theories for mapping the multiple spatial and conceptual dynamics of power manifested in these phenomena. We make a radical break from conventional views of health as a de-politicised symptom or corollary of social development. In studying health work as it crosses between cultures and contexts, we demonstrate the inextricably political nature of health and health work everywhere.

Keywords: development, global health, power, volunteering

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48 Mathematical Modeling Pressure Losses of Trapezoidal Labyrinth Channel and Bi-Objective Optimization of the Design Parameters

Authors: Nina Philipova

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The influence of the geometric parameters of trapezoidal labyrinth channel on the pressure losses along the labyrinth length is investigated in this work. The impact of the dentate height is studied at fixed values of the dentate angle and the dentate spacing. The objective of the work presented in this paper is to derive a mathematical model of the pressure losses along the labyrinth length depending on the dentate height. The numerical simulations of the water flow movement are performed by using Commercial codes ANSYS GAMBIT and FLUENT. Dripper inlet pressure is set up to be 1 bar. As a result, the mathematical model of the pressure losses is determined as a second-order polynomial by means Commercial code STATISTIKA. Bi-objective optimization is performed by using the mean algebraic function of utility. The optimum value of the dentate height is defined at fixed values of the dentate angle and the dentate spacing. The derived model of the pressure losses and the optimum value of the dentate height are used as a basis for a more successful emitter design.

Keywords: drip irrigation, labyrinth channel hydrodynamics, numerical simulations, Reynolds stress model

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47 Mechanical Properties, Vibrational Response and Flow-Field Analysis of Staghorn Coral Skeleton, Acropora cervicornis

Authors: Alejandro Carrasco-Pena, Mahmoud Omer, Nina Orlovskaya

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The results of studies of microstructure, mechanical behavior, vibrational response, and flow field analysis of critically endangered staghorn coral (Acropora cervicornis) skeletons are reported. The CaCO₃ aragonite structure of a chemically-cleaned coral skeleton of A. cervicornis was studied by optical microscopy and computer tomography. The mechanical behavior was studied using uniaxial compression and Vickers hardness technique. The average maximum stress measured during skeleton uniaxial compression was 10.7 ± 2.24 MPa and Vickers hardness was 3.56 ± 0.31 GPa. The vibrational response of the aragonite structure was studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy, which showed a substantial dependence of the structure on applied compressive stress. The flow-field around a single coral skeleton forming vortices in the wake of the moving skeleton was measured using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The results are important for further analysis of time-dependent mechanical fatigue behavior and predicting the lifetime of staghorn corals.

Keywords: failure, mechanical properties, microstructure, Raman spectroscopy

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46 Comparison of Seismic Response for Two RC Curved Bridges with Different Column Shapes

Authors: Nina N. Serdar, Jelena R. Pejović

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This paper presents seismic risk assessment of two bridge structure, based on the probabilistic performance-based seismic assessment methodology. Both investigated bridges are tree span continuous RC curved bridges with the difference in column shapes. First bridge (type A) has a wall-type pier and second (type B) has a two-column bent with circular columns. Bridges are designed according to European standards: EN 1991-2, EN1992-1-1 and EN 1998-2. Aim of the performed analysis is to compare seismic behavior of these two structures and to detect the influence of column shapes on the seismic response. Seismic risk assessment is carried out by obtaining demand fragility curves. Non-linear model was constructed and time-history analysis was performed using thirty five pairs of horizontal ground motions selected to match site specific hazard. In performance based analysis, peak column drift ratio (CDR) was selected as engineering demand parameter (EDP). For seismic intensity measure (IM) spectral displacement was selected. Demand fragility curves that give probability of exceedance of certain value for chosen EDP were constructed and based on them conclusions were made.

Keywords: RC curved bridge, demand fragility curve, wall type column, nonlinear time-history analysis, circular column

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45 Unidentified Remains with Extensive Bone Disease without a Clear Diagnosis

Authors: Patricia Shirley Almeida Prado, Selma Paixão Argollo, Maria De Fátima Teixeira Guimarães, Leticia Matos Sobrinho

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Skeletal differential diagnosis is essential in forensic anthropology in order to differentiate skeletal trauma from normal osseous variation and pathological processes. Thus, part of forensic anthropological field is differentiate skeletal criminal injuries from the normal skeletal variation (bone fusion or nonunion, transitional vertebrae and other non-metric traits), non-traumatic skeletal pathology (myositis ossificans, arthritis, bone metastasis, osteomyelitis) from traumatic skeletal pathology (myositis ossificans traumatic) avoiding misdiagnosis. This case shows the importance of effective pathological diagnosis in order to accelerate the identification process of skeletonized human remains. THE CASE: An unidentified skeletal remains at the medico legal institute Nina Rodrigues-Salvador, of a male young adult (29 to 40 years estimated) showing a massive heterotopic ossification on its right tibia at upper epiphysis and adjacent articular femur surface; an extensive ossification on the right clavicle (at the sternal extremity) also presenting an heterotopic ossification at right scapulae (upper third of scapulae lateral margin and infraglenoid tubercule) and at the head of right humerus at the shoulder joint area. Curiously, this case also shows an unusual porosity in certain vertebrae´s body and in some tarsal and carpal bones. Likewise, his left fifth metacarpal bones (right and left) showed a healed fracture which led both bones distorted. Based on identification, of pathological conditions in human skeletal remains literature and protocols these alterations can be misdiagnosed and this skeleton may present more than one pathological process. The anthropological forensic lab at Medico-legal Institute Nina Rodrigues in Salvador (Brazil) adopts international protocols to ancestry, sex, age and stature estimations, also implemented well-established conventions to identify pathological disease and skeletal alterations. The most compatible diagnosis for this case is hematogenous osteomyelitis due to following findings: 1: the healed fracture pattern at the clavicle showing a cloaca which is a pathognomonic for osteomyelitis; 2: the metacarpals healed fracture does not present cloaca although they developed a periosteal formation. 3: the superior articular surface of the right tibia shows an extensive inflammatory healing process that extends to adjacent femur articular surface showing some cloaca at tibia bone disease. 4: the uncommon porosities may result from hematogenous infectious process. The fractures probably have occurred in a different moments based on the healing process; the tibia injury is more extensive and has not been reorganized, while metacarpals and clavicle fracture is properly healed. We suggest that the clavicle and tibia´s fractures were infected by an existing infectious disease (syphilis, tuberculosis, brucellosis) or an existing syndrome (Gorham’s disease), which led to the development of osteomyelitis. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that different bones are affected in diverse levels. Like the metacarpals that do not show the cloaca, but then a periosteal new bone formation; then the unusual porosities do not show a classical osteoarthritic processes findings as the marginal osteophyte, pitting and new bone formation, they just show an erosive process without bone formation or osteophyte. To confirm and prove our hypothesis we are working on different clinical approaches like DNA, histopathology and other image exams to find the correct diagnostic.

Keywords: bone disease, forensic anthropology, hematogenous osteomyelitis, human identification, human remains

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44 Entrepreneurial Leadership in Malaysian Public University: Competency and Behavior in the Face of Institutional Adversity

Authors: Noorlizawati Abd Rahim, Zainai Mohamed, Zaidatun Tasir, Astuty Amrin, Haliyana Khalid, Nina Diana Nawi

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Entrepreneurial leaders have been sought as in-demand talents to lead profit-driven organizations during turbulent and unprecedented times. However, research regarding the pertinence of their roles in the public sector has been limited. This paper examined the characteristics of the challenging experiences encountered by senior leaders in public universities that require them to embrace entrepreneurialism in their leadership. Through a focus group interview with five Malaysian university top senior leaders with experience being Vice-Chancellor, we explored and developed a framework of institutional adversity characteristics and exemplary entrepreneurial leadership competency in the face of adversity. Complexity of diverse stakeholders, multiplicity of academic disciplines, unfamiliarity to lead different and broader roles, leading new directions, and creating change in high velocity and uncertain environment are among the dimensions that characterise institutional adversities. Our findings revealed that learning agility, opportunity recognition capacity, and bridging capability are among the characteristics of entrepreneurial university leaders. The findings reinforced that the presence of specific attributes in institutional adversity and experiences in overcoming those challenges may contribute to the development of entrepreneurial leadership capabilities.

Keywords: bridging capability, entrepreneurial leadership, leadership development, learning agility, opportunity recognition, university leaders

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43 Achieving Conviviality in Terms of Collective Experience through Creative Public Spaces in Namik Kemal Square, Famagusta, North Cyprus

Authors: Shirin Shaideh, Nina Shirkhanloo

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Creative public spaces were needed to foster conviviality in an urban form. The conviviality could be enhanced by facilitating variety of opportunities to participate in communal activities and promoting collective experiences. In this regard, The Namik Kemal Square as a major public space of Walled City of Famagusta in North Cyprus was found as the creative public space because it supports collective practices by leisure activities which enclosed the space. The square also utilized creative collaboration such as festivals and outdoor exhibition. Accordingly this paper focuses on the issue of conviviality in urban public space, in the perspective of square, as a major indicator of their success. The survey firstly provides a theoretical framework for understanding conviviality in creative public space to empower collective experience. Secondly it discusses the essential components of conviviality in form of square and finally investigating conviviality and also its determinants in Namik Kemal square. Hence, the main challenges of this study are going to focus on how convivial public spaces impact collective experience, what people expect from a kind of public space, or what they perceive as a good place to be in. Since it seems essential to respond positively, inclusively to the needs of people to socialize in public spaces by involving them in collective and common practices, this article aims to tease out what gives some places personality and conviviality so that we can learn to design, maintain and manage better quality built environment in future.

Keywords: conviviality, creative public space, collective experience, Namik Kemal square

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42 Intercultural Trainings for Future Global Managers: Evaluating the Effect on the Global Mind-Set

Authors: Nina Dziatzko, Christopher Stehr, Franziska Struve

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Intercultural competence as an explicit required skill nearly never appears in job advertisements in international or even global contexts. But especially those who have to deal with different nationalities and cultures in their everyday business need to have several intercultural competencies and further a global mind-set. This way the question arises how potential future global managers can be trained to learn these competencies. In this regard, it might be helpful to see if different types of intercultural trainings have different effects on those skills. This paper outlines lessons learned based on the evaluation of two different intercultural trainings for management students. The main differences between the observed intercultural trainings are the amount of theoretical input in relation to hands-on experiences, the number of trainers as well as the used methods to teach implicit cultural rules. Both groups contain management students with the willingness and perspective to work abroad or to work in international context. The research is carried out with a pre-training-survey and a post-training-survey which consists of questions referring the international context of the students and a self-estimation of 19 identified intercultural and global mind-set skills, such as: cosmopolitanism, empathy, differentiation and adaptability. Whereas there is no clear result which training gets overall a significant higher increase of skills, there is a clear difference between the focus of competencies trained by each of the intercultural trainings. This way this research provides a guideline for both academicals institutions as well as companies for the decision between different types of intercultural trainings, if the to be trained required skills are defined. Therefore the efficiency and the accuracy of fit of the education of future global managers get optimized.

Keywords: global mind-set, intercultural competencies, intercultural training, learning experiences

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41 English Test Success among Syrian Refugee Girls Attending Language Courses in Lebanon

Authors: Nina Leila Mussa

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Background: The devastating effects of the war on Syria’s educational infrastructure has been widely reported, with millions of children denied access. However, among those who resettled in Lebanon, the impact of receiving educational assistance on their abilities to pass the English entrance exam is not well described. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of success among Syrian refugees receiving English language courses in a Lebanese university. Methods: The database of Syrian refugee girls matriculated in English courses at the American University of Beirut (AUB) was reviewed. The study period was 7/2018-09/2020. Variables compared included: family size and income, welfare status, parents’ education, English proficiency, access to the internet, and need for external help with homework. Results: For the study period, there were 28 girls enrolled. The average family size was 6 (range 4-9), with eight having completed primary, 14 secondary education, and 6 graduated high school. Eighteen were single-income families. After 12 weeks of English courses, 16 passed the Test of English as Foreign Language (TOEFL) from the first attempt, and 12 failed. Out of the 12, 8 received external help, and 6 passed on the second attempt, which brings the total number of successful passing to 22. Conclusion: Despite the tragedy of war, girls receiving assistance in learning English in Lebanon are able to pass the basic language test. Investment in enhancing those educational experiences will be determinantal in achieving widespread progress among those at-risk children.

Keywords: refugee girls, TOEFL, education, success

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40 Modeling and Numerical Simulation of Heat Transfer and Internal Loads at Insulating Glass Units

Authors: Nina Penkova, Kalin Krumov, Liliana Zashcova, Ivan Kassabov

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The insulating glass units (IGU) are widely used in the advanced and renovated buildings in order to reduce the energy for heating and cooling. Rules for the choice of IGU to ensure energy efficiency and thermal comfort in the indoor space are well known. The existing of internal loads - gage or vacuum pressure in the hermetized gas space, requires additional attention at the design of the facades. The internal loads appear at variations of the altitude, meteorological pressure and gas temperature according to the same at the process of sealing. The gas temperature depends on the presence of coatings, coating position in the transparent multi-layer system, IGU geometry and space orientation, its fixing on the facades and varies with the climate conditions. An algorithm for modeling and numerical simulation of thermal fields and internal pressure in the gas cavity at insulating glass units as function of the meteorological conditions is developed. It includes models of the radiation heat transfer in solar and infrared wave length, indoor and outdoor convection heat transfer and free convection in the hermetized gas space, assuming the gas as compressible. The algorithm allows prediction of temperature and pressure stratification in the gas domain of the IGU at different fixing system. The models are validated by comparison of the numerical results with experimental data obtained by Hot-box testing. Numerical calculations and estimation of 3D temperature, fluid flow fields, thermal performances and internal loads at IGU in window system are implemented.

Keywords: insulating glass units, thermal loads, internal pressure, CFD analysis

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39 Predictors of Social Participation of Children with Cerebral Palsy in Primary Schools in Czech Republic

Authors: Marija Zulić, Vanda Hájková, Nina Brkić-Jovanović, Linda Rathousová, Sanja Tomić

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Cerebral palsy is primarily reflected in the disorder of the development of movement and posture, which may be accompanied by sensory disturbances, disturbances of perception, cognition and communication, behavioural disorders and epilepsy. According to current inclusive attitudes towards people with disabilities implies that full social participation of children with cerebral palsy means inclusion in all activities in family, peer, school and leisure environments in the same scope and to the same extent as is the case with the children of proper development and without physical difficulties. Due to the fact that it has been established that the quality of children's participation in primary school is directly related to their social inclusion in future life, the aim of the paper is to identify predictors of social participation, respectively, and in particular, factors that could to improve the quality of social participation of children with cerebral palsy, in the primary school environment in Czech Republic. The study includes children with cerebral palsy (n = 75) in the Czech Republic, aged between six and 12 years who attend mainstream or special primary schools to the sixth grade. The main instrument used was the first and third part of the School function assessment questionnaire. It will also take into account the type of damage assessed according to a scale the Gross motor function classification system, five–level classification system for cerebral palsy. The research results will provide detailed insight into the degree of social participation of children with cerebral palsy and the factors that would be a potential cause of their levels of participation, in regular and special primary schools, in different socioeconomic environments in Czech Republic.

Keywords: cerebral palsy, Czech republic, social participation, the school function assessment

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38 Lipid-Chitosan Hybrid Nanoparticles for Controlled Delivery of Cisplatin

Authors: Muhammad Muzamil Khan, Asadullah Madni, Nina Filipczek, Jiayi Pan, Nayab Tahir, Hassan Shah, Vladimir Torchilin

Abstract:

Lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LPHNP) are delivery systems for controlled drug delivery at tumor sites. The superior biocompatible properties of lipid and structural advantages of polymer can be obtained via this system for controlled drug delivery. In the present study, cisplatin-loaded lipid-chitosan hybrid nanoparticles were formulated by the single step ionic gelation method based on ionic interaction of positively charged chitosan and negatively charged lipid. Formulations with various chitosan to lipid ratio were investigated to obtain the optimal particle size, encapsulation efficiency, and controlled release pattern. Transmission electron microscope and dynamic light scattering analysis demonstrated a size range of 181-245 nm and a zeta potential range of 20-30 mV. Compatibility among the components and the stability of formulation were demonstrated with FTIR analysis and thermal studies, respectively. The therapeutic efficacy and cellular interaction of cisplatin-loaded LPHNP were investigated using in vitro cell-based assays in A2780/ADR ovarian carcinoma cell line. Additionally, the cisplatin loaded LPHNP exhibited a low toxicity profile in rats. The in-vivo pharmacokinetics study also proved a controlled delivery of cisplatin with enhanced mean residual time and half-life. Our studies suggested that the cisplatin-loaded LPHNP being a promising platform for controlled delivery of cisplatin in cancer therapy.

Keywords: cisplatin, lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticle, chitosan, in vitro cell line study

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37 Speech Disorders as Predictors of Social Participation of Children with Cerebral Palsy in the Primary Schools of the Czech Republic

Authors: Marija Zulić, Vanda Hájková, Nina Brkić–Jovanović, Srećko Potić, Sanja Tomić

Abstract:

The name cerebral palsy comes from the word cerebrum, which means the brain and the word palsy, which means seizure, and essentially refers to the movement disorder. In the clinical picture of cerebral palsy, basic neuromotor disorders are associated with other various disorders: behavioural, intellectual, speech, sensory, epileptic seizures, and bone and joint deformities. Motor speech disorders are among the most common difficulties present in people with cerebral palsy. Social participation represents an interaction between an individual and their social environment. Quality of social participation of the students with cerebral palsy at school is an important indicator of their successful participation in adulthood. One of the most important skills for the undisturbed social participation is ability of good communication. The aim of the study was to determine relation between social participation of students with cerebral palsy and presence of their speech impairment in primary schools in the Czech Republic. The study was performed in the Czech Republic in mainstream schools and schools established for the pupils with special education needs. We analysed 75 children with cerebral palsy aged between six and twelve years attending up to sixth grade by using the first and the third part of the school function assessment questionnaire as the main instrument. The other instrument we used in the research is the Gross motor function classification system–five–level classification system, which measures degree of motor functions of children and youth with cerebral palsy. Funding for this study was provided by the Grant Agency of Charles University in Prague.

Keywords: cerebral palsy, social participation, speech disorders, The Czech Republic, the school function assessment

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36 Diverse Sensitivity to Ultraviolet Radiation of DNA and RNA Viruses

Authors: Nickolay Nosik, Dmitry Nosik, Marina Bochkova, Nina Kondrashina, Olga Lobach

Abstract:

The bactericidal effect of UV radiation is known for long time and widely used for inactivation of pathogens but for viruses it is not so uniform. Due to a wide variety of viruses their sensitivity to UV radiation is quite different and not quite predictable. The goal of the study was to determine the inactivation kinetics of UV radiation ( 254 nm) of the viruses of social importance (HIV), as well as test-viruses (poliovirus, adenovirus) used for the evaluation of the viral inactivation efficacy of germicides. Methods: DNA viruses- adenovirus, type 5; Herpes simplex virus (HSV), type 1, and RNA viruses–human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), type 1 and poliovirus, type 1 (Sabin strain) were obtained from State collection of viruses ( The D.I. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology). The source of UV radiation was a 15-watt low-pressure mercury vapor lamp (over 60% 254nm). The samples of 5cm2 were placed direct under the UV lamp flow (h-0.3m). Log reduction value was used as a marker for the rate of virus inactivation. Results: The data obtained indicate that poliovirus (one of the viruses most resistant to chemical germicides) and HSV are rather sensitive to UV radiation ( D90 =250-311 J/m2). Adenovirus is much more resistant to UV radiation (750 J/m2 ). The kinetics of adenovirus inactivation : 0 min- 5.0 lg TCID50, 10 min - 5,0, 15 min -4,0, 30 min – 3.5, 60 min – 1,0, 75 min -0,5 lg TCID50, 90 min –virus not detectable. HIV is most resistant to UV radiation among the studied viruses. It takes more than 4 hrs to inactivate the virus on the surface. D90 = 2000 J/m2 Conclusion: The results of the study show that there is no direct dependence between sensitivity to UV light and the size of the virion or presence\absence of the envelope of the virus. Poliovirus and adenovirus are small viruses (20-30nm poliovirus and 70-90nm adenovirus) and both are non-enveloped viruses but adenovirus 3-fold more resistant to UV radiation than poliovirus. It can be expected that viruses with more complicate structure, like Herpes virus (200nm) or HIV (80-100 nm), would be more sensitive to UV light. However, the very high resistance of HIV to UV radiation needs further investigation. The diverse resistance of the different viruses to UV radiation should be taken into the account when UV light is used to inactivate infectious viruses in hospitals and other public environments.

Keywords: HIV, HSV, inhibition of viruses, UV radiation

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35 The Development of Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for Citrinin Determination in Dry-Fermented Meat Products

Authors: Ana Vulic, Tina Lesic, Nina Kudumija, Maja Kis, Manuela Zadravec, Nada Vahcic, Tomaz Polak, Jelka Pleadin

Abstract:

Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by numerous types of molds. They can contaminate both food and feed so that they represent a serious public health concern. Production of dry-fermented meat products involves ripening, during which molds can overgrow the product surface, produce mycotoxins, and consequently contaminate the final product. Citrinin is a mycotoxin produced mainly by the Penicillium citrinum. Data on citrinin occurrence in both food and feed are limited. Therefore, there is a need for research on citrinin occurrence in these types of meat products. The LC-MS/MS method for citrinin determination was developed and validated. Sample preparation was performed using immunoaffinity columns, which resulted in clean sample extracts. Method validation included the determination of the limit of detection (LOD), the limit of quantification (LOQ), recovery, linearity, and matrix effect in accordance to the latest validation guidance. The determined LOD and LOQ were 0.60 µg/kg and 1.98 µg/kg, respectively, showing a good method sensitivity. The method was tested for its linearity in the calibration range of 1 µg/L to 10 µg/L. The recovery was 100.9 %, while the matrix effect was 0.7 %. This method was employed in the analysis of 47 samples of dry-fermented sausages collected from local households. Citrinin wasn’t detected in any of these samples, probably because of the short ripening period of the tested sausages that takes three months tops. The developed method shall be used to test other types of traditional dry-cured products, such as prosciuttos, whose surface is usually more heavily overgrown by surface molds due to the longer ripening period.

Keywords: citrinin, dry-fermented meat products, LC-MS/MS, mycotoxins

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34 Inactivation Kinetics of DNA and RNA Viruses by Ozone-Air Mixture in a Flow Mixer

Authors: Nikolai Nosik, Vladislav Podmasterjev, Nina Kondrashina, Marina Chataeva, Olga Lobach, Dmitry Noosik, Sergei Razumovskii

Abstract:

Virucidal activity of ozone is well known: dissolved in water it kill viruses very fast. The virucidal capacity of ozone in ozone-air mixture is less known. The goal of the study was to investigate the virucidal potentials of the ozone–air mixture and kinetics of virus inactivation. Materials and methods. Ozone (O3 ) was generated from oxygen with ozonizer ( 1.0 – 75.0 mg\l). The ozone concentration was determined by the spectrophotometric methods. Virus contaminated samples were placed into the flowing reactor. Viruses: poliovirus type 1, vaccine strain (Sabin) and adenovirus, type 5, were obtained from the State virus collection. Titrations of viruses were carried out in appropriate cell cultures. CxT value ( mg\l x min) was calculated. Results. Metallic, polycarbonic and fiber “Kevlar” samples were contaminated with virus, dried and treated with ozone-air mixture in the flowing reactor. Kinetics of poliovirus inactivation: in 15 min at 5.0 mg\l -2.0 lg TCID50 inhibition , in 15 min at 10 mg\l – 2.5 lg TCID50 , 4.0 lg TCID50 inactivation of poliovirus was achieved after 75min at ozone concentration 20.0mg\l (99.99%). ( CxT = 75, 150 and 1500 mg\l x min on all three types of surfaces). It was found that the inactivation of poliovirus was more effective when the virus contaminated samples were wet (in 15 min at 20mg\l inhibition of virus in dry samples was 2.0 TCID50 , in wet samples – 4.0 TCID50). Adenovirus was less resistant to ozone treatment then poliovirus: 4.0 lg TCID50 inhibition was observed after 30 min of the treatment with ozone at 20mg\l ( CxT mg\l x min = 300 for adenovirus as for poliovirus it was 1500). Conclusion. It was found that ozone-air mixture inactivates viruses at rather high concentrations (compared to the reported effect of ozone dissolved in water). Despite of that there is a difference in the resistance to ozone action between viruses – poliovirus is more resistant then adenovirus-ozone-air mixture can be used for disinfection of large rooms. The maintaining of the virus-contaminated surfaces in wet condition allow to decrease the ozone load for virus inactivation.

Keywords: adenovirus, disinfection, ozone, poliovirus

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33 Impact of Mammographic Screening on Ethnic Inequalities in Breast Cancer Stage at Diagnosis and Survival in New Zealand

Authors: Sanjeewa Seneviratne, Ian Campbell, Nina Scott, Ross Lawrenson

Abstract:

Introduction: Indigenous Māori women experience a 60% higher breast cancer mortality rate compared with European women in New Zealand. We explored the impact of difference in the rate of screen detected breast cancer between Māori and European women on more advanced disease at diagnosis and lower survival in Māori women. Methods: All primary in-situ and invasive breast cancers diagnosed in screening age women (as defined by the New Zealand National Breast Cancer Screening Programme) between 1999 and 2012 in the Waikato area were identified from the Waikato Breast Cancer Register and the national screening database. Association between screen versus non-screen detection and cancer stage at diagnosis and survival were compared by ethnicity and socioeconomic deprivation. Results: Māori women had 50% higher odds of being diagnosed with more advance staged cancer compared with NZ European women, a half of which was explained by the lower rate of screen detected cancer in Māori women. Significantly lower breast cancer survival rates were observed for Māori compared with NZ European and most deprived compared with most affluent socioeconomic groups for symptomatically detected breast cancer. No significant survival differences by ethnicity or socioeconomic deprivation were observed for screen detected breast cancer. Conclusions: Low rate of screen detected breast cancer appears to be a major contributor for more advanced stage disease at diagnosis and lower breast cancer survival in Māori compared with NZ European women. Increasing screening participation for Māori has the potential to substantially reduce breast cancer mortality inequity between Māori and NZ European women.

Keywords: breast cancer, screening, ethnicity, inequity

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