Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Search results for: Morenike Abimbola Adeleye

26 Genesis of Talc Bodies in Relation to the Mafic-Ultramafic Rocks around Wonu, Ibadan-Apomu Area, Southwestern Nigeria

Authors: Morenike Abimbola Adeleye, Anthony Temidayo Bolarinwa

Abstract:

The genesis of talc bodies around Wonu, Ibadan-Apomu area, southwestern Nigeria, has been speculative due to inadequate compositional data on the talc and the mafic-ultramafic protoliths. Petrography, morphology, using scanning electron microscope, mineral chemistry, X-ray diffraction, and major, trace and rare-earth element compositions of the talc and the mafic-ultramafic in the area were undertaken with a view to determine the genesis of the talc bodies. Fine-grained amphibolite and lherzolite are the major mafic-ultramafic rocks in the study area. The amphibolite is fine-grained, composed of amphiboles, pyroxenes plagioclase, K-feldspar, ilmenite, magnetite, and garnet. The lherzolite and talc are composed of olivines, pyroxenes, amphiboles, and plagioclase. Alteration minerals include serpentine, amesite, talc, Cr-bearing clinochlore, and ferritchromite. Cr-spinel, pyrite, and magnetite are the accessory minerals present. Alteration of olivines, pyroxenes, and amphiboles to talc and chlinochlore; and spinel to ferritchchromite by hydrothermal (H₂O-CO₂-Cl-HF) fluids, provided by the granitic intrusions in the area, showed retrograde metasomatism of amphibolites to greenschist facies at 500-550ºC. This led to the formation of talc, amesite, anthophyllite, actinolite, and tremolite. The Al₂O₃-Fe₂O₃+TiO₂-MgO discrimination diagram suggests tholeiitic protolith for the amphibolite and komatitic protolith for the lherzolite. The lherzolite has flat rare-earth element patterns typical of komatiites and dunites. The Al₂O₃/TiO₂ ratios, Ce/Nb vs. Th/Nb, Cr-TiO₂, TiO₂ vs. Al₂O₃, and Nd vs. Nb discrimination diagrams indicated that the talcs are from two-parent sources: altered metacarbonates and tholeiitic basalts (amphibolites) to komatitic basalts (lherzolites).

Keywords: amphibolites, lherzolites, talc, komatiite

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25 Ethnic Conflict and African Women's Capacity for Preventive Diplomacy

Authors: Olaifa Temitope Abimbola

Abstract:

The spate of the occurrence of Ethnic Conflict in Nigeria and indeed Africa is sporadic and to say the least alarming. To scholars of Ethnic Conflict in Africa, it has defied all logical approaches to its resolution. Based on this fact international organisations have begun to look for alternative means of approaching these conflicts. Not a few have agreed that wars are better and cheaper prevented than resolved or transformed. In the light of this, this paper had set out to look at the concept of Preventive Diplomacy, Ethnic Conflict, Women and the role they play in mitigating conflict by researching into activities of women in pre and post-conflict situations in selected African conflict and has been able to establish the peculiar capacity of women in dousing tension both at domestic and communal levels.

Keywords: preventive diplomacy, gender, peacebuilding, low

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24 Web-Based Criminal Diary: Paperless Criminal Evidence for Federal Republic of Nigeria

Authors: Yekini Nureni Asafe, Haastrup Victor Adeleye, Ikotun Abiodun Motunrayo, Ojo Olanrewaju

Abstract:

Web Based Criminal Diary is a web based application whereby data of criminals been convicted by a judge in the court of law in Nigeria are shown to the entire public. Presently, criminal records are kept manually in Nigeria, which means when a person needs to be investigated to know if the person has a criminal record in the country, there is need to pass through different manual processes. With the use of manual record keeping, the criminal records can easily be manipulated by people in charge. The focus of this research work is to design a web-based application system for criminal record in Nigeria, towards elimination of challenges (such as loss of criminal records, in-efficiency in criminal record keeping, data manipulation, and other attendant problems of paper-based record keeping) which surrounds manual processing currently in use. The product of this research work will also help to minimize crime rate in our country since the opportunities and benefits lost as a result of a criminal record create will a lifelong barriers for anyone attempting to overcome a criminal past in our country.

Keywords: court of law, criminal, criminal diary, criminal evidence, Nigeria, web-based

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23 Green Building Practices: Harmonizing Non-Governmental Organizations Roles and Energy Efficiency

Authors: Abimbola A. Adebayo, Kikelomo I. Adebayo

Abstract:

Green buildings provide serious challenges for governments all over the world with regard to achieving energy efficiency in buildings. Energy efficient buildings are needed to keep up with minimal impacts on the environment throughout their cycle and to enhance sustainable development. The lack of awareness and benefits of energy efficient buildings have given rise to NGO’s playing important role in filling data gaps, publicizing information, and undertaking awareness raising and policy engagement activities. However, these roles are countered by concerns about subsidies for evaluations, incentives to facilitate data-sharing, and incentives to finance independent research. On the basis of literature review on experiences with NGO’s involvement in energy efficient buildings, this article identifies governance strategies that stimulate the harmonization of NGO’s roles in green buildings with the objective to increase energy efficiency in buildings.

Keywords: energy efficiency, green buildings, NGOs, sustainable development

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22 The Tracking and Hedging Performances of Gold ETF Relative to Some Other Instruments in the UK

Authors: Abimbola Adedeji, Ahmad Shauqi Zubir

Abstract:

This paper examines the profitability and risk between investing in gold exchange traded funds (ETFs) and gold mutual funds compares to gold prices. The main focus in determining whether there are similarities or differences between those financial products is the tracking error. The importance of understanding the similarities or differences between the gold ETFs, gold mutual funds and gold prices is derived from the fact that gold ETFs and gold mutual funds are used as substitutions for investors who are looking to profit from gold prices although they are short in capital. 10 hypotheses were tested. There are 3 types of tracking error used. Tracking error 1 and 3 gives results that differentiate between types of ETFs and mutual funds, hence yielding the answers in answering the hypotheses that were developed. However, tracking error 2 failed to give the answer that could shed light on the questions raised in this study. All of the results in tracking error 2 technique only telling us that the difference between the ups and downs of the financial instruments are similar, statistically to the physical gold prices movement.

Keywords: gold etf, gold mutual funds, tracking error

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21 Soil Properties and Yam Performance as Influenced by Poultry Manure and Tillage on an Alfisol in Southwestern Nigeria

Authors: E. O. Adeleye

Abstract:

Field experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of soil tillage techniques and poultry manure application on the soil properties and yam (Dioscorea rotundata) performance in Ondo, southwestern Nigeria for two farming seasons. Five soil tillage techniques, namely ploughing (P), ploughing plus harrowing (PH), manual ridging (MR), manual heaping (MH) and zero-tillage (ZT) each combined with and without poultry manure at the rate of 10 tha-1 were investigated. Data were obtained on soil properties, nutrient uptake, growth and yield of yam. Soil moisture content, bulk density, total porosity and post harvest soil chemical characteristics were significantly (p>0.05) influenced by soil tillage-manure treatments. Addition of poultry manure to the tillage techniques in the study increased soil total porosity, soil moisture content and reduced soil bulk density. Poultry manure improved soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorous, exchangeable Ca, k, leaf nutrients content of yam, yam growth and tuber yield relative to tillage techniques plots without poultry manure application. It is concluded that the possible deleterious effect of tillage on soil properties, growth and yield of yam on an alfisol in southwestern Nigeria can be reduced by combining tillage with poultry manure.

Keywords: poultry manure, tillage, soil chemical properties, yield

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20 Noise Pollution in Nigerian Cities: Case Study of Bida, Nigeria

Authors: Funke Morenike Jiyah, Joshua Jiyah

Abstract:

The occurrence of various health issues have been linked to excessive noise pollution in all works of life as evident in many research efforts. This study provides empirical analysis of the effects of noise pollution on the well-being of the residents of Bida Local Government Area, Niger State, Nigeria. The study adopted a case study research design, involving cross-sectional procedure. Field observations and medical reports were obtained to support the respondents’ perception on the state of their well-being. The sample size for the study was selected using the housing stock in the various wards. One major street in each ward was selected. A total of 1,833 buildings were counted along the sampled streets and 10% of this was selected for the administration of structured questionnaire.The environmental quality of the wards was determined by measuring the noise level using Testo 815 noise meters. The result revealed that Bariki ward which houses the GRA has the lowest noise level of 37.8 dB(A)while the noise pollution levels recorded in the other thirteen wards were all above the recommended levels. The average ambient noise level in sawmills, commercial centres, road junctions and industrial areas were above 90 dB(A). The temporal record from the Federal Medical Centre, Bida revealed that, apart from malaria, hypertension (5,614 outpatients) was the most prevalent health issue in 2013 alone. The paper emphasised the need for compatibility consideration in the choice of residential location, the use of ear muffler and effective enforcement of zoning regulations.

Keywords: bida, decibels, environmental quality, noise, well-being

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19 Comparative Effects of Convective Drying on the Qualities of Some Leafy Vegetables

Authors: Iyiola Olusola Oluwaleye, Samson A. Adeleye, Omojola Awogbemi

Abstract:

This paper reports an investigation of the comparative effects of drying on the quality of some leafy vegetables at three different temperatures namely: 50ᵒC, 60ᵒC and 70ᵒC. The vegetables investigated are spinach (Amaranthus cruentus); water leaf (Talinum triangulare); lettuce (Lactuca satuva); and fluted pumpkin (Telfaria occidentalis). These vegetables are available in abundance during raining season and are commonly consumed by average Nigerians. A convective dryer was used for the drying process at the stipulated temperatures which were maintained with the aid of a thermostat. The vegetable samples after washing was cut into smaller sizes of 0.4 cm-0.5 cm and loaded into the drying cage of the convective dryer. The daily duration of the drying is six hours from 9:00 am to 3:00 pm. The dried samples were thereafter subjected to microbial and proximate analyses. The result of the tests shows that the microbial load decreases as the drying temperature increases. As temperature increases, the moisture content and carbohydrate of all the samples decreases while the crude fiber, ash and protein increases. Percentage fat content decreases as drying temperature increases with the exception of fluted pumpkin. The shelf life of the vegetable samples increase with drying temperature, Spinach has the lowest shelf life followed by Fluted Pumpkin, followed by lettuce while Water Leaf has the highest shelf life at the three drying temperatures of 50ᵒC, 60ᵒC and 70ᵒC respectively.

Keywords: convective drying, leafy vegetables, quality, shelf life

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18 Impacts of Computer Assisted Instruction and Gender on High-Flyers Pre-Service Teachers' Attitude towards Agricultural Economics in Southwest Nigeria

Authors: Alice Morenike Olagunju, Olufemi A. Fakolade, Abiodun Ezekiel Adesina, Olufemi Akinloye Bolaji, Oriyomi Rabiu

Abstract:

The use of computer-assisted instruction(CAI) has been suggested as a way out of the problem of Colleges of Education (CoE) in Southwest, Nigeria persistent high failure rate in and negative attitude towards Agricultural Economics (AE).The impacts of this are yet unascertained on high-flyers. This study, therefore, determined the impacts of CAI onhigh-flyers pre-service teachers’ attitude towards AE concepts in Southwest, Nigeria. The study adopted pretest-posttest, control group, quasi-experimental design. Six CoE with e-library facilities were purposively selected. Fourty-nine 200 level Agricultural education students offering introduction to AE course across the six CoE were participants. The participants were assigned to two groups (CAI, 22 and control, 27). Treatment lasted eight weeks. The AE Attitude Scale(r=0.80), Instructional guides and Teacher Performance Assessment Sheets were used for data collection. Data were analysed using t-test. The participants were 62.8% male with mean age of 22 years. Treatment had significant effects on high-flyers pre-service teachers’ attitude (t = 17.44; df = 47, p < .5). Participants in CAI ( =71.03) had higher post attitude mean score compared to those in control ( = 64.92) groups. Gender had no significant effect on attitude (t= 3.06; df= 47, p > .5). The computer assisted instructional mode enhanced students’ attitude towards Agricultural Economics concepts. Therefore, CAI should be adopted for improved attitude towards agricultural economics concepts among high-flyers pre-service teachers.

Keywords: attitude towards agricultural economics concepts, colleges of education in southwest Nigeria, computer-assisted instruction, high-flyers pre-service teachers

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17 Physico-Chemical and Heavy Metals Analysis of Contaminated Ndawuse River in North Central of Nigeria

Authors: Abimbola Motunrayo Enitan, Ibironke Titilayo Enitan, John Odiyo

Abstract:

The study assessed quality of surface water across Ndawuse River Phase 1, District of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja, Nigeria based on physico-chemical variables that are linked to agrochemical and eutrophication, as well as heavy metals concentrations. In total, sixteen surface water samples were obtained from five locations along the river. The results were compared with the standard limits set by both World Health Organization and Federal Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water. The results obtained indicated that BOD5, turbidity, 0.014-3.511 mg Fe/L and 0.078-0.14 mg Cr/L were all above the standard limits. The results further showed that the quality of surface water is being significantly affected by human activities around the Ndawuse River which could pose an adverse health risk to several communities that rely on these receiving water bodies primarily as their source of water. Therefore, there is a need for strict enforcement of environmental laws considering the physico-chemical analysis.

Keywords: Abuja, heavy metals, human exposure risk, Ndawuse River, Nigeria, surface water

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16 Electrochemical Studies of the Inhibition Effect of 2-Dimethylamine on the Corrosion of Austenitic Stainless Steel Type 304 in Dilute Hydrochloric Acid

Authors: Roland Tolulope Loto, Cleophas Akintoye Loto, Abimbola Patricia Popoola

Abstract:

The inhibiting action of 2-dimethylamine on the electrochemical behaviour of austenitic stainless steel (type 304) in dilute hydrochloric was evaluated through weight-loss method, open circuit potential measurement and potentiodynamic polarization tests at specific concentrations of the organic compound. Results obtained reveal that the compound performed effectively giving a maximum inhibition efficiency of 79% at 12.5% concentration from weight loss analysis and 80.9% at 12.5% concentration from polarization tests. The average corrosion potential of -321 mV was obtained the same concentration from other tests which is well within passivation potentials on the steel thus, providing good protection against corrosion in the acid solutions. 2-dimethylamine acted through physiochemical interaction at the steel/solution interface from thermodynamic calculations and obeyed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The values of the inhibition efficiency determined from the three methods are in reasonably good agreement. Polarization studies showed that the compounds behaved as cathodic type inhibitor.

Keywords: corrosion, 2-dimethylamine, inhibition, adsorption, hydrochloric acid, steel

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15 Identification of Microbial Community in an Anaerobic Reactor Treating Brewery Wastewater

Authors: Abimbola M. Enitan, John O. Odiyo, Feroz M. Swalaha

Abstract:

The study of microbial ecology and their function in anaerobic digestion processes are essential to control the biological processes. This is to know the symbiotic relationship between the microorganisms that are involved in the conversion of complex organic matter in the industrial wastewater to simple molecules. In this study, diversity and quantity of bacterial community in the granular sludge taken from the different compartments of a full-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating brewery wastewater was investigated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The phylogenetic analysis showed three major eubacteria phyla that belong to Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Chloroflexi in the full-scale UASB reactor, with different groups populating different compartment. The result of qPCR assay showed high amount of eubacteria with increase in concentration along the reactor’s compartment. This study extends our understanding on the diverse, topological distribution and shifts in concentration of microbial communities in the different compartments of a full-scale UASB reactor treating brewery wastewater. The colonization and the trophic interactions among these microbial populations in reducing and transforming complex organic matter within the UASB reactors were established.

Keywords: bacteria, brewery wastewater, real-time quantitative PCR, UASB reactor

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14 Pragmatic Strategies of Selected Online Articles on the Buhari/Jubril Dilemma

Authors: Oluwaseun Amusa

Abstract:

The online space has continued to be a platform for not only private and mundane discussions but also a tribune for voicing critical political and national opinions. Nigerians and the international community have employed the online media, as well as other media platforms to articulate their thoughts on the claims which favour possibilities of the demise of the incumbent president of Nigeria, President Muhammadu Buhari, after a prolonged illness in year 2007 and the ploy of a Jubril of Sudan clone in his place. This study thus examines the pragmatic strategies employed in the online articles on the national dilemma caused by the Buhari/Jubril claims and refutals, in response to the lacuna in the literature on such analytical investigations on the subject. Two online articles titled, 'Buhari: The real, the fake and the dead' and 'Taking the Buhari/Jubril story seriously', authored by two Nigerian writers, Tunde Odesola and Abimbola Adelakun, respectively and retrieved online from 360nobs.com and Nairaland blogs, on December 3, 2018, and December 7, 2018, respectively, served as data for the study. The data were analysed using the Stance Theory and the Pragmatic Act Theory. Findings showed that the writers employed stance acts, rhetorical questions, metaphors, histo-political allusions, name-calling, and derogatives, in achieving the pragmeme of disabusing. This results in a pragmatic reconstruction of readers' views on the issue.

Keywords: Buhari/Jubril claims, online articles, pragmatic strategies, stance theory

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13 Surface Water Pollution by Open Refuse Dumpsite in North Central of Nigeria

Authors: Abimbola Motunrayo Folami, Ibironke Titilayo Enitan, Feroz Mohomed Swalaha

Abstract:

Water is a vital resource that is important in ensuring the growth and development of any country. To sustain the basic human needs and the demands for agriculture, industry, conservational and ecosystem, enough quality and quantity water is needed. Contamination of water resources is now a global and public health concern. Hence, this study assessed the water quality of Ndawuse River by measuring the physicochemical parameters and heavy metals concentrations of the river using standard methods. In total, 16 surface water samples were obtained from five locations along the river, from upstream to downstream as well as samples from the dumpsite. The results obtained were compared with the standard limits set by both the World Health Organization and the Federal Environmental Protection Agency for domestic purposes. The results of the measured parameters indicated that biological oxygen demand (85.88 mg/L), turbidity (44.51 NTU), Iron (0.014 - 3.511 mg /L) and chromium (0.078 - 0.14 mg /L) were all above the standard limits. The results further showed that the quality of surface water is being significantly affected by human activities around the Ndawuse River which could pose an adverse health risk to several communities that rely on this river as their primary source of water. Therefore, there is a need for strict enforcement of environmental laws to protect the aquatic ecosystem and to avoid long term cumulative exposure risk that heavy metals may pose on human health.

Keywords: Abuja, contaminants, heavy metals, Ndawuse River, Nigeria, surface water

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
12 Estimation of Bio-Kinetic Coefficients for Treatment of Brewery Wastewater

Authors: Abimbola M. Enitan, J. Adeyemo

Abstract:

Anaerobic modeling is a useful tool to describe and simulate the condition and behaviour of anaerobic treatment units for better effluent quality and biogas generation. The present investigation deals with the anaerobic treatment of brewery wastewater with varying organic loads. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total suspended solids (TSS) of the influent and effluent of the bioreactor were determined at various retention times to generate data for kinetic coefficients. The bio-kinetic coefficients in the modified Stover–Kincannon kinetic and methane generation models were determined to study the performance of anaerobic digestion process. At steady-state, the determination of the kinetic coefficient (K), the endogenous decay coefficient (Kd), the maximum growth rate of microorganisms (µmax), the growth yield coefficient (Y), ultimate methane yield (Bo), maximum utilization rate constant Umax and the saturation constant (KB) in the model were calculated to be 0.046 g/g COD, 0.083 (dˉ¹), 0.117 (d-¹), 0.357 g/g, 0.516 (L CH4/gCODadded), 18.51 (g/L/day) and 13.64 (g/L/day) respectively. The outcome of this study will help in simulation of anaerobic model to predict usable methane and good effluent quality during the treatment of industrial wastewater. Thus, this will protect the environment, conserve natural resources, saves time and reduce cost incur by the industries for the discharge of untreated or partially treated wastewater. It will also contribute to a sustainable long-term clean development mechanism for the optimization of the methane produced from anaerobic degradation of waste in a close system.

Keywords: brewery wastewater, methane generation model, environment, anaerobic modeling

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11 Effects of Tillage and Poultry Manure on Soil Properties and Yam Performance on Alfisol in Southwest Nigeria

Authors: Adeleye Ebenezer Omotayo

Abstract:

The main effects of tillage, poultry manure and interaction effects of tillage-poultry manure combinations on soil characteristics and yam yield were investigated in a factorial experiment involving four tillage techniques namely (ploughing (p), ploughing plus harrowing (PH), manual ridging (MR), manual heaping (MH) and poultry manure at two levels 0 t ha-1 and 10 t ha-1 arranged in split-plot design. Data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance using Statistical Analysis System (SAS) Institute Package. Soil moisture content, bulk density and total porosity were significantly (p>0.05) influenced by soil tillage techniques. Manually heaped and ridged plots had the lowest soil bulk density, moisture content and highest total porosity. The soil total N, exchangeable Mg, k, base saturation and CEC were better enhanced in manually tilled plots. Soil nutrients status declined at the end of the second cropping for all the tillage techniques in the order PH>P>MH>MR. Yam tuber yields were better enhanced in manually tilled plots than mechanically tilled plots. Poultry manure application reduced soil bulk density, temperature, increased total porosity and soil moisture content. It also improved soil organic matter, total N, available P, exchangeable Mg, Ca, K and lowered exchange acidity. It also increased yam tuber yield significantly. Tillage techniques plots amended with poultry manure enhanced yam tuber yield relative to tillage techniques plots without poultry manure application. It is concluded that yam production on alfisol in Southwest Nigeria requires loose soil structure for tuber development and that the use of poultry manure in combination with tillage is recommended as it will ensure stability of soil structure, improve soil organic matter status, nutrient availability and high yam tuber yield. Also, it will help to reduce the possible deleterious effects of tillage on soil properties and yam performance.

Keywords: ploughing, poultry manure, yam, yield

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10 Characterization of Brewery Wastewater Composition

Authors: Abimbola M. Enitan, Josiah Adeyemo, Sheena Kumari, Feroz M. Swalaha, Faizal Bux

Abstract:

With the competing demand on water resources and water reuse, discharge of industrial effluents into the aquatic environment has become an important issue. Much attention has been placed on the impact of industrial wastewater on water bodies worldwide due to the accumulation of organic and inorganic matter in the receiving water bodies. The scope of the present work is to assess the physic-chemical composition of the wastewater produced from one of the brewery industry in South Africa. This is to estimate the environmental impact of its discharge into the receiving water bodies or the municipal treatment plant. The parameters monitored for the quantitative analysis of brewery wastewater include biological oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids, volatile suspended solids, ammonia, total oxidized nitrogen, nitrate, nitrite, phosphorus, and alkalinity content. In average, the COD concentration of the brewery effluent was 5340.97 mg/l with average pH values of 4.0 to 6.7. The BOD and the solids content of the wastewater from the brewery industry were high. This means that the effluent is very rich in organic content and its discharge into the water bodies or the municipal treatment plant could cause environmental pollution or damage the treatment plant. In addition, there were variations in the wastewater composition throughout the monitoring period. This might be as a result of different activities that take place during the production process, as well as the effects of the peak period of beer production on the water usage.

Keywords: Brewery wastewater, environmental pollution, industrial effluents, physic-chemical composition

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9 An Investigation into the Gaps in Green Building Education and Training Offerings in Nigeria

Authors: Adebayo A. Abimbola, Anifowose O. Joseph, Olanrewaju S. Taiwo

Abstract:

Green building (GB) practices have the potential to save energy, save money, and improve the quality of human habitat. They can also contribute to water conservation, more efficient use of raw materials, and ecosystem health around the globe. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) singled out the building sector as having the most cost-effective opportunities for reducing carbon emissions—in fact, many building-related opportunities are cost-neutral, or even cost-positive, to the building owner. These benefits have made green building practices the fastest-growing trend in the building industry, but they still represent only a fraction of new construction, and the enormous stock of existing buildings has barely been touched at all. To effectively deliver the kind of (GB) that can become a force for positive change at global, regional and local scales, all workforce sectors need new skills that are both technical and interpersonal in nature. A prominent bottleneck is seen to be education and training. This paper investigates the major gaps in current GB education and training offerings in Nigeria. A questionnaire survey was developed to capture the perception of construction professionals and academics in relevant professions regarding the significance of the identified gaps as it affects GB education and training. Based on Likert scale ranking, research result shows that perception of training in specific technical fields and financial benefits and evaluation are identified as the top gaps in GB training and education offerings. The paper concludes with suggestions and actions that can enhance capabilities of the GB workforce in Nigeria.

Keywords: education and training, gaps, green building, workforce

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8 Nitrification Efficiency and Community Structure of Municipal Activated Sewage Sludge

Authors: Oluyemi O. Awolusi, Abimbola M. Enitan, Sheena Kumari, Faizal Bux

Abstract:

Nitrification is essential to biological processes designed to remove ammonia and/or total nitrogen. It removes the excess nitrogenous compound in wastewater which could be very toxic to the aquatic fauna or cause a serious imbalance of such aquatic ecosystem. Efficient nitrification is linked to an in-depth knowledge of the structure and dynamics of the nitrifying community structure within the wastewater treatment systems. In this study, molecular technique was employed for characterizing the microbial structure of activated sludge [ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB)] in a municipal wastewater treatment with intention of linking it to the plant efficiency. PCR-based phylogenetic analysis was also carried out for. The average operating and environmental parameters, as well as specific nitrification rate of a plant, was investigated during the study. During the investigation, the average temperature was 23±1.5oC. Other operational parameters such as mixed liquor suspended solids and chemical oxygen demand inversely correlated with ammonia removal. The dissolved oxygen level in the plant was constantly lower than the optimum (between 0.24 and 1.267 mg/l) during this study. The plant was treating wastewater with the influent ammonia concentration of 31.69 and 24.47 mg/l. The influent flow rates (ML/day) was 96.81 during the period. The dominant nitrifiers include: Nitrosomonas spp. Nitrobacter spp. and Nitrospira spp. The AOB had a correlation with nitrification efficiency and temperature. This study shows that the specific ammonia oxidizing rate and the specific nitrate formation rates can serve as a good indicator of the plant overall nitrification performance.

Keywords: Ammonia monooxygenase α-subunit gene, amoA, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, AOB, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, NOB, specific nitrification rate

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7 A Comparative Analysis of the Enforceability of Social and Economic Rights: Nigeria and South Africa as Case Studies

Authors: Foluke Abimbola

Abstract:

There are two separate groups of a recognised body of human rights. These are known as Civil and Political Rights, and Economic and Social Rights. There is however an impression that civil and political rights are enforceable in courts while socio-economic rights are not. Nigeria is an example of one of such countries whose constitution has social, economic and cultural rights’ provisions as well as civil and political rights. However, the socio-economic rights provided in the Nigerian constitution are not justiciable or are unenforceable in a court of law. On the other hand, a comparative examination of the socio-economic right provisions in the South African constitution and judgments of the constitutional court of South Africa reveals that socio-economic rights may be enforceable. This position may ensure the protection of the socio-economic rights of the poor and vulnerable groups. These rights include the rights to food, adequate shelter, health, and education. Moreover, the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (African Charter) which incorporates similar socio-economic right provisions, has been recognized as a domestic law in Nigeria and its provisions are enforceable by the domestic courts by virtue of the African Charter on Human and People’s Rights (Ratification and Enforcement) Act Cap A9 Laws of the Federation of Nigeria 2004. It is not only a regional treaty signed and adopted by Nigeria but has been passed into law by the National Assembly and can be enforced like any other local law. This paper will propose that in view of the provisions of the African Charter and mechanisms for implementation as well as other international conventions and national constitutional provisions on human rights, domestic courts may be able to assess state responsibilities in the light of socio-economic rights. Cases decided by South African courts and other jurisdictions will be discussed in order to lend weight to the notion that socio-economic rights can be enforced in jurisdictions such as Nigeria even though the constitution provides otherwise.

Keywords: african charter, constitutional court of south africa, nigerian constitution, socio-economic rights, south african constitution

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6 A Review on Applications of Evolutionary Algorithms to Reservoir Operation for Hydropower Production

Authors: Nkechi Neboh, Josiah Adeyemo, Abimbola Enitan, Oludayo Olugbara

Abstract:

Evolutionary algorithms are techniques extensively used in the planning and management of water resources and systems. It is useful in finding optimal solutions to water resources problems considering the complexities involved in the analysis. River basin management is an essential area that involves the management of upstream, river inflow and outflow including downstream aspects of a reservoir. Water as a scarce resource is needed by human and the environment for survival and its management involve a lot of complexities. Management of this scarce resource is necessary for proper distribution to competing users in a river basin. This presents a lot of complexities involving many constraints and conflicting objectives. Evolutionary algorithms are very useful in solving this kind of complex problems with ease. Evolutionary algorithms are easy to use, fast and robust with many other advantages. Many applications of evolutionary algorithms, which are population based search algorithm, are discussed. Different methodologies involved in the modeling and simulation of water management problems in river basins are explained. It was found from this work that different evolutionary algorithms are suitable for different problems. Therefore, appropriate algorithms are suggested for different methodologies and applications based on results of previous studies reviewed. It is concluded that evolutionary algorithms, with wide applications in water resources management, are viable and easy algorithms for most of the applications. The results suggested that evolutionary algorithms, applied in the right application areas, can suggest superior solutions for river basin management especially in reservoir operations, irrigation planning and management, stream flow forecasting and real-time applications. The future directions in this work are suggested. This study will assist decision makers and stakeholders on the best evolutionary algorithm to use in varied optimization issues in water resources management.

Keywords: evolutionary algorithm, multi-objective, reservoir operation, river basin management

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5 The Emerging Role of Cannabis as an Anti-Nociceptive Agent in the Treatment of Chronic Back Pain

Authors: Josiah Damisa, Michelle Louise Richardson, Morenike Adewuyi

Abstract:

Lower back pain is a significant cause of disability worldwide and associated with great implications in terms of the well-being of affected individuals and society as a whole due to its undeniable socio-economic impact. With its prevalence on the increase as a result of an aging global population, the need for novel forms of pain management is ever paramount. This review aims to provide further insight into current research regarding a role for the endocannabinoid signaling pathway as a target in the treatment of chronic pain, with particular emphasis on its potential use as part of the treatment of lower back pain. Potential advantages and limitations of cannabis-based medicines over other forms of analgesia currently licensed for medical use are discussed in addition to areas that require ongoing consideration and research. To evaluate the efficacy of cannabis-based medicines in chronic pain, studies pertaining to the role of medical cannabis in chronic disease were reviewed. Standard searches of PubMed, Google Scholar and Web of Science databases were undertaken with peer-reviewed journal articles reviewed based on the indication for pain management, cannabis treatment modality used and study outcomes. Multiple studies suggest an emerging role for cannabis-based medicines as therapeutic agents in the treatment of chronic back pain. A potential synergistic effect has also been purported if these medicines are co-administered with opiate analgesia due to the similarity of the opiate and endocannabinoid signaling pathways. However, whilst recent changes to legislation in the United Kingdom mean that cannabis is now licensed for medicinal use on NHS prescription for a number of chronic health conditions, concerns remain as to the efficacy and safety of cannabis-based medicines. Research is lacking into both their side effect profiles and the long-term effects of cannabis use. Legal and ethical considerations to the use of these products in standardized medical practice also persist due to the notoriety of cannabis as a drug of abuse. Despite this, cannabis is beginning to gain traction as an alternative or even complementary drug to opiates, with some preclinical studies showing opiate-sparing effects. Whilst there is a paucity of clinical trials in this field, there is scope for cannabinoids to be successful anti-nociceptive agents in managing chronic back pain. The ultimate aim would be to utilize cannabis-based medicines as alternative or complementary therapies, thereby reducing opiate over-reliance and providing hope to individuals who have exhausted all other forms of standard treatment.

Keywords: endocannabinoids, cannabis-based medicines, chronic pain, lower back pain

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4 Child Marriages in Africa: Using a Rights-Based Approach to Protect the Girl-Child in Nigeria

Authors: Foluke Abimbola

Abstract:

The United Nations Convention on the rights of the child has been signed and ratified by several countries due to the concern about various abuses and crimes committed against children both locally and internationally. It is a shame that in view of the peculiar hardships being experienced by children today, the natural right to childhood has to be protected by a vast array of laws and international conventions. 194 countries have so far acceded to and ratified the convention on the Rights of a Child while some countries such as Nigeria have enacted the convention as a domestic law, yet child abuse is still rampant not only in Nigeria but all over the world. In Nigeria, the Child Rights Act was passed into law in 2003, with its provisions similar to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of a Child. Despite the age of marriage provided in the Nigerian Child’s Rights Act 2003, many communities still practice child marriages to the detriment of the girl-child. Cases where these children have to withdraw from school as a result of these unripe marriages abound. Unfortunately, the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999 appears to indirectly support early marriages for girls in section 29 (4) where it states that a woman who is married is deemed to be of full age whereas ‘full age’ as a general term in the Constitution is from 18 years old and above. Section 29 (4) may thus be interpreted to mean that a girl of 12 years old, if married, is deemed to be of ‘full-age.’ In view of these discrepancies which continue to justify this unwholesome practice, this paper shall proffer solutions to this unlawful act and make recommendations to existing institutions, using a rights-based approach, on how to prevent and/or substantially reduce this practice. A comparative analysis with other African countries will be adopted in order to conduct a research for effective policies that may be implemented for the protection of these girls. Thus, this paper will further examine the issue of child marriage which is still quite rampant in African countries particularly in Nigeria which also affects the girl-child’s right to an education. Such children are in need of special protection and this paper will recommend ways in which state institutions, particularly in Nigeria, may be able to introduce policies to curb incidences of child marriage and child sexual abuse while proffering strategies for the prevention of these crimes.

Keywords: child abuse, child marriages, child rights, constitutions, child rights, the girl-child

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3 Characterization of Fungal Endophytes in Leaves, Stems and Roots of African Yam Bean (Sphenostylis sternocarpa Hochst ex. A. Rich Harms)

Authors: Iyabode A. Kehinde, Joshua O. Oyekanmi, Jumoke T. Abimbola, Olajumoke E. Ayanda

Abstract:

African yam bean (AYB), (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) is a leguminous crop that provides nutritionally rich seeds, tubers and leaves for human consumption. AYB potentials as an important food security crop is yet to be realized and thus classified as underutilized crop. Underutilization of the crop has been partly associated with scarce information on the incidence and characterization of fungal endophytes infecting vascular parts of AYB. Accurate and robust detection of these endophytic fungi is essential for diagnosis, modeling, surveillance and protection of germplasm (seed) health. This work aimed at isolating and identifying fungal endophytes associated with leaves, stems and roots of AYB in Ogun State, Nigeria. This study investigated both cultural and molecular properties of endophytic fungi in AYB for its characterization and diversity. Fungal endophytes were isolated and culturally identified. DNA extraction, PCR amplification using ITS primers and analyses of nucleotide sequences of ribosomal DNA fragments were conducted on selected isolates. BLAST analysis was conducted on consensus nucleotide sequences of 28 out of 30 isolates and results showed similar homology with genera of Rhizopus, Cunninghamella, Fusarium, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Alternaria, Diaporthe, Nigrospora, Purpureocillium, Corynespora, Magnaporthe, Macrophomina, Curvularia, Acrocalymma, Talaromyces and Simplicillium. Slight similarity was found with endophytes associated with soybean. Phylogenetic analysis by maximum likelihood method showed high diversity among the general. These organisms have high economic importance in crop improvement. For an instance, Purpureocillium lilacinum showed high potential in control of root rot caused by nematodes in tomatoes. Though some can be pathogens, but many of the fungal endophytes have beneficial attributes to plant in host health, uptake of nutrients, disease suppression, and host immunity.

Keywords: molecular characterization, African Yam Bean, fungal endophyte, plant parts

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2 Achieving Design-Stage Elemental Cost Planning Accuracy: Case Study of New Zealand

Authors: Johnson Adafin, James O. B. Rotimi, Suzanne Wilkinson, Abimbola O. Windapo

Abstract:

An aspect of client expenditure management that requires attention is the level of accuracy achievable in design-stage elemental cost planning. This has been a major concern for construction clients and practitioners in New Zealand (NZ). Pre-tender estimating inaccuracies are significantly influenced by the level of risk information available to estimators. Proper cost planning activities should ensure the production of a project’s likely construction costs (initial and final), and subsequent cost control activities should prevent unpleasant consequences of cost overruns, disputes and project abandonment. If risks were properly identified and priced at the design stage, observed variance between design-stage elemental cost plans (ECPs) and final tender sums (FTS) (initial contract sums) could be reduced. This study investigates the variations between design-stage ECPs and FTS of construction projects, with a view to identifying risk factors that are responsible for the observed variance. Data were sourced through interviews, and risk factors were identified by using thematic analysis. Access was obtained to project files from the records of study participants (consultant quantity surveyors), and document analysis was employed in complementing the responses from the interviews. Study findings revealed the discrepancies between ECPs and FTS in the region of -14% and +16%. It is opined in this study that the identified risk factors were responsible for the variability observed. The values obtained from the analysis would enable greater accuracy in the forecast of FTS by Quantity Surveyors. Further, whilst inherent risks in construction project developments are observed globally, these findings have important ramifications for construction projects by expanding existing knowledge on what is needed for reasonable budgetary performance and successful delivery of construction projects. The findings contribute significantly to the study by providing quantitative confirmation to justify the theoretical conclusions generated in the literature from around the world. This therefore adds to and consolidates existing knowledge.

Keywords: accuracy, design-stage, elemental cost plan, final tender sum

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1 A Post-Occupancy Evaluation of the Impact of Indoor Environmental Quality on Health and Well-Being in Office Buildings

Authors: Suyeon Bae, Abimbola Asojo, Denise Guerin, Caren Martin

Abstract:

Post-occupancy evaluations (POEs) have been recognized for documenting occupant well-being and responses to indoor environmental quality (IEQ) factors such as thermal, lighting, and acoustic conditions. Sustainable Post-Occupancy evaluation survey (SPOES) developed by an interdisciplinary team at a Midwest University provides an evidence-based quantitative analysis of occupants’ satisfaction in office, classroom, and residential spaces to help direct attention to successful areas and areas that need improvement in buildings. SPOES is a self-administered and Internet-based questionnaire completed by building occupants. In this study, employees in three different office buildings rated their satisfaction on a Likert-type scale about 12 IEQ criteria including thermal condition, indoor air quality, acoustic quality, daylighting, electric lighting, privacy, view conditions, furnishings, appearance, cleaning and maintenance, vibration and movement, and technology. Employees rated their level of satisfaction on a Likert-type scale from 1 (very dissatisfied) to 7 (very satisfied). They also rate the influence of their physical environment on their perception of their work performance and the impact of their primary workspaces on their health on a scale from 1 (hinders) to 7 (enhances). Building A is a three-story building that includes private and group offices, classrooms, and conference rooms and amounted to 55,000 square-feet for primary workplace (N=75). Building B, a six-story building, consisted of private offices, shared enclosed office, workstations, and open desk areas for employees and amounted to 14,193 square-feet (N=75). Building C is a three-story 56,000 square-feet building that included classrooms, therapy rooms, an outdoor playground, gym, restrooms, and training rooms for clinicians (N=76). The results indicated that 10 IEQs for Building A except acoustic quality and privacy showed statistically significant correlations on the impact of the primary workspace on health. In Building B, 11 IEQs except technology showed statistically significant correlations on the impact of the primary workspace on health. Building C had statistically significant correlations between all 12 IEQ and the employees’ perception of the impact of their primary workspace on their health in two-tailed correlations (P ≤ 0.05). Out of 33 statistically significant correlations, 25 correlations (76%) showed at least moderate relationship (r ≥ 0.35). For the three buildings, daylighting, furnishings, and indoor air quality IEQs ranked highest on the impact on health. IEQs about vibration and movement, view condition, and electric lighting ranked second, followed by IEQs about cleaning and maintenance and appearance. These results imply that 12 IEQs developed in SPOES are highly related to employees’ perception of how their primary workplaces impact their health. The IEQs in this study offer an opportunity for improving occupants’ well-being and the built environment.

Keywords: post-occupancy evaluation, built environment, sustainability, well-being, indoor air quality

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