Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30

Search results for: Melon

30 Application of 1-MCP on ‘Centro’ Melon at Different Days after Harvest

Authors: L. P. L. Nguyen, G. Hitka, T. Zsom, Z. Kókai


This study is aimed to investigate the influence of postharvest delays of 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment on prolonging the storage potential of melon. Melons were treated with 625-650 ppb 1-MCP at 10 °C for 24 hours on the 1st, 3rd and 5th day after harvest. Decreased ethylene production and retarded softening of melon fruits after 7 days of storage at 10 °C plus 3 days of shelflife were obtained by 1-MCP applications. 1-MCP strongly affected the chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics and hue angle values of melon. After shelf-life, the peel color of treated melon was slow in turning to yellow compared to the control. Additionally, firmness of melons treated on the first day after harvest was 38% higher than that of the control fruit. Results showed that fruits treated on the 1st and the 3rd day after harvest could maintain the quality of melon.

Keywords: 1-MCP, muskmelon, storage, treatment.

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29 Production of Biodiesel from Melon Seed Oil Using Sodium Hydroxide as a Catalyst

Authors: Ene Rosemary Ndidiamaka, Nwangwu Florence Chinyere


The physiochemical properties of the melon seed oil was studied to determine its potentials as viable feed stock for biodisel production. The melon seed was extracted by solvent extraction using n-hexane as the extracting solvent. In this research, methanol was the alcohol used in the production of biodiesel, although alcohols like ethanol, propanol may also be used. Sodium hydroxide was employed for the catalysis. The melon seed oil was characterized for specific gravity, pH, ash content, iodine value, acid value, saponification value, peroxide value, free fatty acid value, flash point, viscosity, and refractive index using standard methods. The melon seed oil had very high oil content. Specific gravity and flash point of the oil is satisfactory. However, moisture content of the oil exceeded the stipulated ASRTM standard for biodiesel production. The overall results indicates that the melon seed oil is suitable for single-stage transesterification process to biodiesel production.

Keywords: biodiesel, catalyst, melon seed, transesterification

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
28 Development and Characterization of Kefir Drinks from Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) and Winter Melon (Benincasa hispida)

Authors: Uthumporn Utra, Y. N. Shariffa, M. Maizura, A. S. Ruri


This research is to study the utilization of pumpkin and winter melon as the main substrate for kefir fermentation in the production of pumpkin and winter melon-based fermented drinks. Optimized temperature and time were chosen for fermentation of pumpkin and winter melon. Physicochemical and microbiological evaluations were conducted to the end products: P (fermented pumpkin juice) and K (fermented winter melon juice). Ethanol content was detected at low concentration of 0.9% (v/wt) in P, and 1.0% (v/wt) in K. Level of glucose and fructose increased significantly (p < 0.05) in both fermented drinks when compared to unfermented pumpkin (CP) and winter melon (CK) juices. Total phenolic content in P & K was higher than CP and CK, while %DPPH inhibition of both decreased significantly. Total Lactobacilli counts in P & K were 8.9 and 7.88 log cfu/ml respectively, while acetic acid bacteria counts were 8.62 and 7.57 log cfu/ml respectively, yeast counts were 4.71 and 5 log cfu/ml, and no E.coli was detected in all samples. Sensory evaluation yield comparable properties in P & K. This concluded that pumpkin and winter melon fermented drinks inoculated by water kefir grains could be promising source of nutrients with probiotic potency.

Keywords: fermented drinks, functional beverage, kefir, pumpkin, winter melon

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
27 Comparative Study of the Effects of Process Parameters on the Yield of Oil from Melon Seed (Cococynthis citrullus) and Coconut Fruit (Cocos nucifera)

Authors: Ndidi F. Amulu, Patrick E. Amulu, Gordian O. Mbah, Callistus N. Ude


Comparative analysis of the properties of melon seed, coconut fruit and their oil yield were evaluated in this work using standard analytical technique AOAC. The results of the analysis carried out revealed that the moisture contents of the samples studied are 11.15% (melon) and 7.59% (coconut). The crude lipid content are 46.10% (melon) and 55.15% (coconut).The treatment combinations used (leaching time, leaching temperature and solute: solvent ratio) showed significant difference (p < 0.05) in yield between the samples, with melon oil seed flour having a higher percentage range of oil yield (41.30 – 52.90%) and coconut (36.25 – 49.83%). The physical characterization of the extracted oil was also carried out. The values gotten for refractive index are 1.487 (melon seed oil) and 1.361 (coconut oil) and viscosities are 0.008 (melon seed oil) and 0.002 (coconut oil). The chemical analysis of the extracted oils shows acid value of 1.00mg NaOH/g oil (melon oil), 10.050mg NaOH/g oil (coconut oil) and saponification value of 187.00mg/KOH (melon oil) and 183.26mg/KOH (coconut oil). The iodine value of the melon oil gave 75.00mg I2/g and 81.00mg I2/g for coconut oil. A standard statistical package Minitab version 16.0 was used in the regression analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The statistical software mentioned above was also used to optimize the leaching process. Both samples gave high oil yield at the same optimal conditions. The optimal conditions to obtain highest oil yield ≥ 52% (melon seed) and ≥ 48% (coconut seed) are solute - solvent ratio of 40g/ml, leaching time of 2hours and leaching temperature of 50oC. The two samples studied have potential of yielding oil with melon seed giving the higher yield.

Keywords: Coconut, Melon, Optimization, Processing

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26 Value Chain Analysis of Melon “Egusi” (Citrullus lanatus Thunb. Mansf) among Rural Farm Enterprises in South East, Nigeria

Authors: Chigozirim Onwusiribe, Jude Mbanasor


Egusi Melon (Citrullus Lanatus Thunb. Mansf ) is a very important oil seed that serves a major ingredient in the diet of most of the households in Nigeria. Egusi Melon is very nutritious and very important in meeting the food security needs of Nigerians. Egusi Melon is cultivated in most farm enterprise in South East Nigeria but the profitability of its value chain needs to be investigated. This study analyzed the profitability of the Egusi Melon value chain. Specifically this study developed a value chain map for Egusi Melon, analysed the profitability of each stage of the Egusi Melon Value chain and analysed the determinants of the profitability of the Egusi Melon at each stage of the value chain. Multi stage sampling technique was used to select 125 farm enterprises with similar capacity and characteristics. Questionnaire and interview were used to elicit the required data while descriptive statistics, Food and Agriculture Organization Value Chain Analysis Tool, profitability ratios and multiple regression analysis were used for the data analysis. One of the findings showed that the stages of the Egusi Melon value chain are very profitable. Based on the findings, we recommend the provision of grants by government and donor agencies to the farm enterprises through their cooperative societies, this will provide the necessary funds for the local fabrication of value addition and processing equipment to suit their unique value addition needs not met by the imported equipment.

Keywords: value, chain, melon, farm, enterprises

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
25 Decline in Melon Yield and Its Contribution to Young Farmers' Diversification into Watermelon Farming in Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: Oyediran Wasiu Oyeleke


Melon is a popular economic cucurbit in Southwest, Nigeria. In recent time, many young farmers are shifting from melon to watermelon farming due to poor yield and low monetary returns. Hence, this study was carried out to assess the decline in melon yield and its contribution to young farmers’ diversification into watermelon farming in Oyo state, Nigeria. Purposive sampling technique was used in selecting 75 respondents from five villages in Ibarapa block of the Oyo State Agricultural Development Project (ADP). Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC). Results show that majority of the respondents (77.3%) were between 31-40 years of age and 46.70% had secondary school education. Most of the respondents (80%) cultivated more than 3 ha of land for watermelon. Majority of the respondents (74.7%) intercropped melon with other crops while watermelon was cultivated as a sole crop. None of the respondents either grew improved melon seeds (certified seeds) or applied fertilizers but all respondents cultivated treated watermelon seeds, applied fertilizers, and agro-chemicals. The average yields of melon fell from 376.53kg/ha in 2009 to 280.70kg/ha in 2011. However, the respondents were shifting into watermelon production because of available quality seeds and its early maturity, easy harvest, and high sales. There was a significant relationship between melon output and young farmers’ diversification to watermelon in the study area at p < 0.05. The study concluded that decline in the melon yield discouraged youth to continue melon farming in the study area. It is hereby recommended that certified melon seeds should be made available while extension service providers should provide training support for the young farmers in order to reposition and boost melon production in the study area.

Keywords: decline, melon yield, contribution, watermelon, diversification, young farmers

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
24 In vitro α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities of Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia) with Different Stage of Maturity

Authors: P. S. Percin, O. Inanli, S. Karakaya


Bitter melon (Momordica charantia) is a medicinal vegetable, which is used traditionally to remedy diabetes. Bitter melon contains several classes of primary and secondary metabolites. In traditional Turkish medicine bitter melon is used for wound healing and treatment of peptic ulcers. Nowadays, bitter melon is used for the treatment of diabetes and ulcerative colitis in many countries. The main constituents of bitter melon, which are responsible for the anti-diabetic effects, are triterpene, protein, steroid, alkaloid and phenolic compounds. In this study total phenolics, total carotenoids and β-carotene contents of mature and immature bitter melons were determined. In addition, in vitro α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities of mature and immature bitter melons were studied. Total phenolic contents of immature and mature bitter melon were 74 and 123 mg CE/g bitter melon respectively. Although total phenolics of mature bitter melon was higher than that of immature bitter melon, this difference was not found statistically significant (p > 0.05). Carotenoids, a diverse group of more than 600 naturally occurring red, orange and yellow pigments, play important roles in many physiological processes both in plants and humans. The total carotenoid content of mature bitter melon was 4.36 fold higher than the total carotenoid content of immature bitter melon. The compounds that have hypoglycaemic effect of bitter melon are steroidal saponins known as charantin, insulin-like peptides and alkaloids. α-Amylase is one of the main enzymes in human that is responsible for the breakdown of starch to more simple sugars. Therefore, the inhibitors of this enzyme can delay the carbohydrate digestion and reduce the rate of glucose absorption. The immature bitter melon extract showed α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities in vitro. α-Amylase inhibitory activity was higher than that of α-glucosidase inhibitory activity when IC50 values were compared. In conclusion, the present results provide evidence that aqueous extract of bitter melon may have an inhibitory effect on carbohydrate breakdown enzymes.

Keywords: bitter melon, in vitro antidiabetic activity, total carotenoids, total phenols

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
23 Dynamics of Agricultural Information and Effect on Income of Melon Farmers in Enugu Ezike Agricultural Zone of Enugu State, Nigeria

Authors: Iwuchukwu J. C., Ekeh G. Madukwe, M. C., Asadu A. N.


Melon has significant importance of easy to plant, early maturing, low nutrient requirement and high yielding. Yet many melon farmers in the study area are either diversifying or abandoning this enterprise probably because of lack of agricultural knowledge/information and consequent reduction in output and income. The study was therefore carried out to asses effects of agricultural information on income of melon farmers in Enugu-Ezike Agricultural zone of Enugu state, Nigeria. Three blocks, nine circles and ninety melon farmers who were purposively selected constituted the sample for the study..Data were collected with interview schedule. Percentage and chart were used to present some of the data while some were analysed with mean score and correlation. The findings reveal that. average annual income of these respondents from melon was about seven thousand and five hundred Naira (approximately forty five Dollars). while their total average monthly income (income from melon and other sources) was about one thousand and two hundred Naira (approximately seven Dollars). About 42.% and 62% of the respondents in their respective order did not receive information on agricultural matters and melon production. Among the minority that received information on melon production, most of them sourced it from neighbours/friends/relatives. Majority of the respondents needed information on how to plant melon through interpersonal contact (face to face) using Igbo language as medium of communication and extension agent as teacher or resource person. The study also reveal a significant and positive relationship between number of times respondents received information on agriculture and their total monthly income. There was also a strong, positive and significant relationship between number of times respondents received information on melon and their annual income on melon production. The study therefore recommends that governmental and non-governmental organizations/ institutions should strengthen these farmers access to information on agriculture and melon specifically so as to boost their output and income.

Keywords: farmers, income, information, melon

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22 Preliminary Investigation into the Potentials of Mixed Blend of Acha (Digitaria exiles), Aya (Cyperus esculenta) and Defatted Water Melon Seed (Citrullis lanatus) Flour as a Weaning Formula

Authors: O. G. Onuoha, O. G. Akagu


The potentials of acha (Digitaria exiles), aya (Cyperus esculentus) and defatted water melon seed (Citrullis lanatus) as a weaning formula was investigated using the following blends for acha, aya and defatted water melon seed respectively in percentage proportion to obtain the weaning formulae; WS1(20:50:30); WS2(30:40:30); WS3(40:30:30); WS4(50:20:30). The result of the chemical analysis showed that; the sample WS1 had the highest value (15.6%) for protein while sample WS4 had the least value (14.1%). The fat content sample WS4 having the highest value (30.8%) while sample WS1 had the least value (27.3%). The ash content sample WS4 had the highest value (3.22%) while sample WS1 had the least value (2.63%). The carbohydrate content showed that sample WS1 having the highest value (50.5%) while sample WS4 had the least value (46.58%). While sample WS4 had the highest energy value (528.32 Kcal) and sample WS2 had the least value (515.06 Kcal). However, all the sample results fell within the dietary daily reference intake for infants between 0-3 years and required only local technology in its production.

Keywords: weaning formula, acha, aya, deffted water melon seed

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21 Improvement of the Melon (Cucumis melo L.) through Genetic Gain and Discriminant Function

Authors: M. R. Naroui Rad, H. Fanaei, A. Ghalandarzehi


To find out the yield of melon, the traits are vital. This research was performed with the objective to assess the impact of nine different morphological traits on the production of 20 melon landraces in the sistan weather region. For all the traits genetic variation was noted. Minimum genetical variance (9.66) along with high genetic interaction with the environment led to low heritability (0.24) of the yield. The broad sense heritability of the traits that were included into the differentiating model was more than it was in the production. In this study, the five selected traits, number of fruit, fruit weight, fruit width, flesh diameter and plant yield can differentiate the genotypes with high or low production. This demonstrated the significance of these 5 traits in plant breeding programs. Discriminant function of these 5 traits, particularly, the weight of the fruit, in case of the current outputs was employed as an all-inclusive parameter for pointing out landraces with the highest yield. 75% of variation in yield can be explained with this index, and the weight of fruit also has substantial relation with the total production (r=0.72**). This factor can be highly beneficial in case of future breeding program selections.

Keywords: melon, discriminant analysis, genetic components, yield, selection

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
20 The Antioxidant Gel Mask Supplies Of Bitter Melon's Extract ( Momordica charantia Linn.)

Authors: N. S. Risqina, G. Edijanti, P. S. Nurita, L. Endang, R. A. Siti, R. Tri


Skin is an important and vital organs and also as a mirror of health and life. Facial skin care is one of the main emphasis to get the beautiful, healthy, and fresh skin. Potentially antioxidant phenolic compounds shows, antimutagen, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer. Flavonoids are a group of polyphenolic compounds that have the nature of free radicals, inhibiting the oxidative and hydrolytic enzymes as well as anti-inflammatory. Bitter melon (Momordica charantia Linn) is a plant that contains flavonoids, and phenolic antioxidant activity. Bitter melon has strong antioxidant activity that can counteract the free radicals.These compounds can prevent free radicals that cause premature aging. Gel masks including depth cleansing is the cosmetics which work in depth and could raise the dead skin cells. Measurement of antioxidant activity of the extract and gel mask is done by using the immersion method of DPPH. IC50 value of ethanol extract of bitter melon fruit of 287.932 ppm. The preparation of gel mask bitter melon fruit extract, necessary to test the effectiveness of antioxidants using DPPH method is done by measuring the inhibition of DPPH and using UV spectrophotometer at the wavelength of maximum DPPH solution. Tests conducted at the beginning and end of the evaluation (day 0 and day 28). The purpose of this study is to determine the antioxidant activity of the bitter melon's extract and to determine the antioxidant activity of ethanol extract gel mask pare in varying concentrations, ie 1xIC100 (0.295%), 2xIC100 (0.590%) and 4xIC100 (1.180%). Evaluation of physical properties of the preparation on (Day-0,7,14,21, and 28) and evaluation of antioxidant activity (day 0 and 28). Data were analyzed using One Way ANOVA to determine differences in the physical properties of each formula. The statistical results showed that differences in the formula and storage time affects the adhesion, dispersive power, dry time and pH it is shown on a significant value of p <0.05, but longer storage does not affect the pH because the significance value p> 0,05. The antioxidant test showed that there are differences in antioxidant activity in all formulas. Measurement of antioxidant activity of bitter melon fruit extract gel mask on day 0 with a concentration of 0.295%, 0.590%, and 1.180%, respectively, are 124,209.277 ppm, ppm 83819.223 and 47323.592 ppm, whereas day 28 consecutive 130 411, 495 ppm, and 53239.806 95561.645 ppm ppm. The Conclusions drawn that there are antioxidant activity in preparation gel mask of bitter melon fruit extract. The antioxidant activity of bitter melon fruit extract gel mask on the day 0 with a concentration of 0.295%, 0.590%, and 1.180%, respectively, are 124,209.277 ppm, ppm 83819.223 and 47323.592 ppm, whereas on day 28 of antioxidant activity gel mask bitter melon fruit extract with a concentration of 0.295%, 0.590%, and 1.180% in succession, namely: 130,411.495 ppm, ppm 95561.645 and 53239.806 ppm.

Keywords: antioxdant, bitter melon, gel mask, IC50

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19 Design and Development of a Mechanical Force Gauge for the Square Watermelon Mold

Authors: Morteza Malek Yarand, Hadi Saebi Monfared


This study aimed at designing and developing a mechanical force gauge for the square watermelon mold for the first time. It also tried to introduce the square watermelon characteristics and its production limitations. The mechanical force gauge performance and the product itself were also described. There are three main designable gauge models: a. hydraulic gauge, b. strain gauge, and c. mechanical gauge. The advantage of the hydraulic model is that it instantly displays the pressure and thus the force exerted by the melon. However, considering the inability to measure forces at all directions, complicated development, high cost, possible hydraulic fluid leak into the fruit chamber and the possible influence of increased ambient temperature on the fluid pressure, the development of this gauge was overruled. The second choice was to calculate pressure using the direct force a strain gauge. The main advantage of these strain gauges over spring types is their high precision in measurements; but with regard to the lack of conformity of strain gauge working range with water melon growth, calculations were faced with problems. Finally the mechanical pressure gauge has advantages, including the ability to measured forces and pressures on the mold surface during melon growth; the ability to display the peak forces; the ability to produce melon growth graph thanks to its continuous force measurements; the conformity of its manufacturing materials with the required physical conditions of melon growth; high air conditioning capability; the ability to permit sunlight reaches the melon rind (no yellowish skin and quality loss); fast and straightforward calibration; no damages to the product during assembling and disassembling; visual check capability of the product within the mold; applicable to all growth environments (field, greenhouses, etc.); simple process; low costs and so forth.

Keywords: mechanical force gauge, mold, reshaped fruit, square watermelon

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
18 Antidiabetic Effects of Bitter Melon

Authors: Jinhyun Ryu, Chengliang Xie, Nal Ae Yoon, Dong Hoon Lee, Gu Seob Roh, Hyun Joon Kim, Gyeong Jae Cho, Wan Sung Choi, Sang Soo Kang


Type 2 diabetes is a heterogeneous group of metabolic disorders featured by a deficit in or loss of insulin activity to maintain normal glucose homeostasis. Mainly, it results from the compromised insulin secretion and/or reduced insulin activity. The frequency of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been increased rapidly in recent decades with the increase in the trend of obesity due to life style and food habit. Obesity is considered to be the primary risk factor for the development of insulin resistance and thereby developing T2D. Traditionally naturally occurring fruits, vegetables etc. are being used to treat many pathogenic conditions. In this study, we tried to find out the effect of a popularly used vegetable in Bangladesh and several other Asian countries, ‘bitter melon’ on high fat diet induced T2D. To investigate the effect, we used 70% ethanol extract of bitter melon (BME) as dietary supplement with chow. BME was found to attenuate the high fat diet (HFD) induced body weight and total fat mass significantly. We also observed that BME reduced the insulin resistance induced by HFD effectively. Furthermore, dietary supplementation of BME was highly effective in increasing insulin sensitivity, and reducing the hepatic fat and obesity. These results indicate that BME could be effective to attenuate T2D and could be a preventive measure against T2D.

Keywords: bitter melon, obesity, type 2 diabetes, high fat diet

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
17 Analysis of Weather Variability Impact on Yields of Some Crops in Southwest, Nigeria

Authors: Olumuyiwa Idowu Ojo, Oluwatobi Peter Olowo


The study developed a Geographical Information Systems (GIS) database and mapped inter-annual changes in crop yields of cassava, cowpea, maize, rice, melon and yam as a response to inter-annual rainfall and temperature variability in Southwest, Nigeria. The aim of this project is to study the comparative analysis of the weather variability impact of six crops yield (Rice, melon, yam, cassava, Maize and cowpea) in South Western States of Nigeria (Oyo, Osun, Ekiti, Ondo, Ogun and Lagos) from 1991 – 2007. The data was imported and analysed in the Arch GIS 9 – 3 software environment. The various parameters (temperature, rainfall, crop yields) were interpolated using the kriging method. The results generated through interpolation were clipped to the study area. Geographically weighted regression was chosen from the spatial statistics toolbox in Arch GIS 9.3 software to analyse and predict the relationship between temperature, rainfall and the different crops (Cowpea, maize, rice, melon, yam, and cassava).

Keywords: GIS, crop yields, comparative analysis, temperature, rainfall, weather variability

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
16 Anti-Nutritional Factors, In-Vitro Trypsin, Chymotrypsin and Peptidase Multi Enzyme Protein Digestibility of Some Melon (Egusi) Seeds and Their Protein Isolates

Authors: Joan O. Ogundele, Aladesanmi A. Oshodi, Adekunle I. Amoo


Abstract In-vitro multi-enzyme protein digestibility (IVMPD) and some anti-nutritional factors (ANF) of five melon (egusi) seed flours (MSF) and their protein isolates (PI) were carried out. Their PI have potentials comparable to that of soya beans. It is important to know the IVMPD and ANF of these protein sources as to ensure their safety when adapted for use as alternate protein sources to substitute for cow milk, which is relatively expensive in Nigeria. Standard methods were used to produce PI of Citrullus colocynthis, Citrullus vulgaris, African Wine Kettle gourd (Lageneria siceraria I), Basket Ball gourd (Lagenaria siceraria II) and Bushel Giant Gourd (Lageneria siceraria III) seeds and to determine the ANF and IVMPD of the MSF and PI unheated and at 37oC. Multi-enzymes used were trypsin, chymotrypsin and peptidase. IVMPD of MSF ranged from (70.67±0.70) % (C. vulgaris) to (72.07± 1.79) % (L.siceraria I) while for their PI ranged from 74.33% (C.vulgaris) to 77.55% (L.siceraria III). IVMPD of the PI were higher than those of MSF. Heating increased IVMPD of MSF with average value of 79.40% and those of PI with average of 84.14%. ANF average in MSF are tannin (0.11mg/g), phytate (0.23%). Differences in IVMPD of MSF and their PI at different temperatures may arise from processing conditions that alter the release of amino acids from proteins by enzymatic processes. ANF in MSF were relatively low, but were found to be lower in the PI, therefor making the PI safer for human consumption as an alternate source of protein.

Keywords: Anti-nutrients, Enzymatic protein digestibility, Melon (egusi)., Protein Isolates.

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
15 Seedling Emergence and Initial Growth of Different Plants after Trichoderma sp. Inoculation

Authors: Simonida S. Djuric, Timea I. Hajnal Jafari, Dragana R. Stamenov


The use of plant growth promoting fungi (PGPF) has significantly increased in the last decade mostly due to their multi-level properties, and their expected success as biofertilizers in agriculture. Beneficial fungi with broad-host range undergo long-term interactions with a large variety of plants thereby playing a significant role in managed ecosystems and in the adaptation of crops to global climate changes. Trichoderma spp. are promising fungi toward the development of sustainable agriculture. The aim of our experiment was to investigate the effect of seed inoculation of sunflower, maize, soybean, paprika, melon, and watermelon seeds with Trichoderma sp. on early seed germination energy and initial growth of the plant. The seed inoculation with Trichoderma sp. increased the seedling emergence from 7, 85% in melon to 156,70% in watermelon. The inoculation had the best effect on initial growth of maize shoot (+23,80%) and soybean root (+106,30%). The different response of seed and young plants on Trichoderma sp. inoculation implicate the need for future investigations of successful inoculation systems and modes of their integration in sustainable agriculture production systems.

Keywords: initial growth, inoculation, seedling, Trichoderma sp.

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
14 Kinetics and Adsorption Studies of Tetracycline from Aqueous Solution Using Melon Husk

Authors: Ungwanen John Ahile, Sylvester Obaike Adejo, Simon Terver Ubwa, Raymond Lubem Tyohemba, Pius Utange, Mnena G. Ikyagh


The adsorption of tetracycline from aqueous solution was carried out using melon husk as a low-cost adsorbent. The adsorption was characterized using standard methods and values obtained were; pH = 7.80, bulk density = 0.43 g/mL, ash content = 2.2 %, moisture content = 8.27 %, attrition = 1%, and iodine number = 552 mg/g. Adsorption capacity was found to vary with initial concentration, adsorbent dosage, pH, contact time and temperature, the maximum adsorption capacity in each case was found to be at; 30 mg/L for concentration, 0.8 g for adsorbent dose, 5 for pH, 60 minutes for time and 30 °C for temperature. FTIR analysis was done to analyses the surface functional groups which shows the presence of O-H stretch, at 3743.92 corresponding to alcohol, phenols, C-H stretch at 2923.27 indicative of alkanes, H-C=O: C-H stretch at 2725.76 corresponding to aldehyde, C-C stretch at 1462.72 corresponding to aromatic, SEM analysis carried out revealed a rough and smooth morphology of the uncontacted and contacted adsorbent respectively. The experimental data judging from the R2 values fitted best into the Temkin isotherm. The fitting of tetracycline adsorption into the pseudo second order kinetic model (R2 of 0.9992) is suggestive of chemisorption for the adsorbent.

Keywords: adsorption, adsorbent isotherm, antibiotics, tertracycline

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13 Performance of Different Biodegradable Waxes Based Specialized Pheromone and Lure Application Technology-Male Anhelation Technique-Cue Lure Formulations in Bittergourd Field against Bactrocera cucurbitae

Authors: Amna Jalal, Muhammad Dildar Gogi, Muhammad Jalal Arif, Anum Tariq, Waleed Afzal Naveed, Talha Farooq, Mubashir Iqbal, Muhammad Junaid Nisar


Melon fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) are economically important pests of the cucurbits and are geographically distributed throughout the tropics and subtropics of the world. It causes heavy quantitative and qualitative losses in bitter gourd. The present experiment was carried out to evaluate the performance of different biodegradable waxes based SPLAT-MAT-CL (Specialized Pheromone and Lure Application Technology-Male Anhelation Technique- Cue Lure) formulations in bitter gourd field. Fourteen SPLAT-MAT emulsions/formulations were prepared by admixing different SPLAT matrices with toxicant (spinosad) and sex pheromone cuelure (attractant) in different proportionate percentage by weight. The results revealed that attraction and trapping of fruit flies of B. cucurbitae varied significantly for different SPLAT-MAT-CL formulations (p < 0.05). The maximum B. cucurbitae males were trapped in SPLAT-MAT-CL-7 (60 flies/trap/day) followed by SPLAT-MAT-CL-9 (40 flies/trap/day). The performance of all other formulations of SPLAT-MAT-CL was found in the order of SPLAT-MAT-CL-8 (30 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-3 (28 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-5 (25 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-4 (22 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-12 (20 flies/trap/day) SPLAT-MAT-CL-2 (19 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-14 (17 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-13 (15 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-11 (10 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-1 (8 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-10 (02 flies/trap/day). Overall, all the SPLAT-MAT-CL formulations, except SPLAT-MAT-CL-10, demonstrated higher density of captures of B. cucurbitae males as compared to standard (06 flies/trap/day). The results also demonstrate that SPLAT-MAT-CL-7, SPLAT-MAT-CL-9, SPLAT-MAT-CL-8, SPLAT-MAT-CL-3, SPLAT-MAT-CL-5, SPLAT-MAT-CL-4, SPLAT-MAT-CL-12, SPLAT-MAT-CL-2, SPLAT-MAT-CL-14, SPLAT-MAT-CL-13, SPLAT-MAT-CL-11 and SPLAT-MAT-CL-1 explained approximately 5, 4.6, 4.1, 3.6, 3.3, 3.1,2.8,2.5 and 1.6 times higher captures of B. cucurbitae males over standards. However, SPLAT-MAT-CL-10 demonstrated 3 times fewer captures of B. cucurbitae males over standards. In conclusion, SPLAT-MAT-CL-7, SPLAT-MAT-CL-9 can be exploited for the monitoring and trapping of B. cucurbitae in its IPM of program.

Keywords: attractancy, field conditions, melon fruit fly, SPLAT-MAT-CL

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12 Fatty Acid Profile and Dietary Fibre Contents of Some Standardized Soups and Dishes Consumed in Nigeria

Authors: Olufunke O. Obanla, Oluseye O. Onabanjo, Silifat A. Sanni, Mojisola O. Adegunwa, Wasiu A. O. Afolabi, Omolola O. Oyawoye, Atinuke Titilola Lano-Maduagu


Background: Dietary fat is implicated in the increasing development of chronic diseases in developing countries while dietary fibre plays a major role in the management of these diseases. Accurate nutrient composition data for composite dishes unique to a population is essential for the development of a nutrient database and the calculation of dietary intake. Methods: Representative samples of standardized Nigerian soups and dishes were analyzed for fatty acids using gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS) and dietary fibre using an enzymatic-gravimetric standard method of AOAC. Results: The total Saturated Fatty acids (SFAs) ranged from 0.74+0.3g/100g to 73.82+0.07g/100g. The total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) ranged from 2.16+1.13g/100g for Yam pottage to 22.25+0.58g/100g for Okazi soup and eba, and from 0.42+0.10g/100g for Yam pottage to 10.22+0.1g/100g for Pounded yam with egusi ball soup, respectively. Trans fat was observed in Alapafubu and Tuwo shinkafa (2.80+0.2g/100g), Yam pottage (0.20+0.15g/100g), Steamed bean pudding (1.28+0.53g/100g) and Ikokore (5.33+0.41g/100g). The Total Dietary Fibre (TDF) contents of the dishes ranged from 12.95+2.99g/100g in Jollof rice to 62.00+0.94g/100g in Melon seed and vegetable soup, the Soluble Dietary Fibre (SDF) ranged from 2.05+0.32g/100g in Steamed bean pudding to 7.81+0.74g/100g in Ikokore while the Insoluble Dietary Fibre (IDF) ranged from 8.20+0.43g/100g in Jollof rice to 57.91+4.69g/100g in melon seed and vegetable soup. Conclusions: The study has indicated that some Nigerian dishes are characterized by high SFAs, TFAs and dietary fibre, moderate MUFAs and very low levels of PUFAs. High levels of SFAs in some soups and dishes are a major public health concern.

Keywords: healthy diet, dietary fibre, fatty acid profile, chronic diseases, Nigerian dishes

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11 Studies on Population and Management of Melon Fruit Fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) in Vegetables Agro-Ecosystem in District Hyderabada

Authors: Abro Zain-Ul-Aabdin, Naheed Baloch, Khuhro Niaz Hussain, Waseem Akbar, Noor Abid Saeed


The Melon Fruit Fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coq.) belongs to family: Tephritidae order: Diptera and is distributed throughout the vegetable growing areas of Pakistan. The B. cucurbitae is injurious pest of more than 125 species of the vegetables throughout the world. In the present studies we investigated the population of this important pest in cucurbit crops and influence of abiotic parameters such as: temperature, relative humidity and rainfall. The study was carried out at two different locations of District, Hyderabad. The locations were Jeay Shah and Dehli farm where three cucurbit vegetable crops, such as bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria), bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) and ridge gourd (Luffa acutangula) were grown. The traps were baited with Cue-lure and deployed at three meter height in the all locations from 01.01.2015 and up to 30.06.2015. Results revealed that overall significantly higher (P < 0.05) population was recorded on L.acutangula, M.charantia and L.siceraria (130.64, 127.21, and 122.91), respectively. However, significantly higher (P < 0.05) population was observed on L. acutangula (339.4±22.59) during the 4th week of May 2015 followed by M. charantia (334.6±22.76) L. siceraria (333.2±20.13). Whereas; lowest population was recorded on L. siceraria (5.8±1.39) followed by L. acutangula and M. charantia (6.8±0.80g, 8.0±1.30) respectively during the 4th week of January. The population of B. cucurbitae was significantly correlated with the temperature while negatively correlated with relative humidity. Meanwhile in the parasitism preference experiment pupal parasitoid Dirhinus giffardii showed significantly higher (P<0.05) parasitization when the pupae of B.cucurbitae were reared on Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) (24.8±0.48) and also female were yielded from pupae reared on C.sativus under no choice experiment. Similarly higher parasitization and female were recovered when pupae were supplied C. sativus under free choice experiment. Results of the present investigation would be useful in developing a sustainable pest management strategy in the vegetable agro-ecosystem.

Keywords: Dirhinus giffardii, Bactrocera cucurbitae Cucumis sativus, diptera, free choice, parasitization

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10 Antiglycemic Activity of Raw Plant Materials as Potential Components of Functional Food

Authors: Ewa Flaczyk, Monika Przeor, Joanna Kobus-Cisowska, Józef Korczak


The aim of this paper was to collect the information concerning the most popular raw plant materials of antidiabetic activity, in a context of functional food developing production. The elaboration discusses morphological elements possible for an application in functional food production of the plants such as: common bean, ginger, Ceylon cinnamon, white mulberry, fenugreek, French lilac, ginseng, jambolão, and bitter melon. An activity of bioactive substances contained in these raw plant materials was presented, pointing their antiglycemic and also hypocholesterolemic, antiarthritic, antirheumatic, antibacterial, and antiviral activity in the studies on humans and animals. Also the genesis of functional food definition was presented.

Keywords: antiglycemic activity, raw plant materials, functional food, food, nutritional sciences

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9 Ultrasound Assisted Extraction and Microwave Assisted Extraction of Carotenoids from Melon Shells

Authors: A. Brinda Lakshmi, J. Lakshmi Priya


Cantaloupes (muskmelon and watermelon) contain biologically active molecules such as carotenoids which are natural pigments used as food colorants and afford health benefits. ß-carotene is the major source of carotenoids present in muskmelon and watermelon shell. Carotenoids were extracted using Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and Ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) utilising organic lipophilic solvents such as acetone, methanol, and hexane. Extraction conditions feed-solvent ratio, microwave power, ultrasound frequency, temperature and particle size were varied and optimized. It was found that the yield of carotenoids was higher using UAE than MAE, and muskmelon had the highest yield of carotenoids when was ethanol used as a solvent for 0.5 mm particle size.

Keywords: carotenoids, extraction, muskmelon shell, watermelon shell

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8 The First Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Melon Thrips, Thrips palmi (Thripinae: Thysanoptera): Vector for Tospoviruses

Authors: Kaomud Tyagi, Rajasree Chakraborty, Shantanu Kundu, Devkant Singha, Kailash Chandra, Vikas Kumar


The melon thrips, Thrips palmi is a serious pest of a wide range of agriculture crops and also act as vectors for plant viruses (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae). More molecular data on this species is required to understand the cryptic speciation and evolutionary affiliations. Mitochondrial genomes have been widely used in phylogenetic and evolutionary studies in insect. So far, mitogenomes of five thrips species (Anaphothrips obscurus, Frankliniella intonsa, Frankliniella occidentalis, Scirtothrips dorsalis and Thrips imaginis) is available in the GenBank database. In this study, we sequenced the first complete mitogenome T. palmi and compared it with available thrips mitogenomes. We assembled the mitogenome from the whole genome sequencing data generated using Illumina Hiseq2500. Annotation was performed using MITOS web-server to estimate the location of protein coding genes (PCGs), transfer RNA (tRNAs), ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and their secondary structures. The boundaries of PCGs and rRNAs was confirmed manually in NCBI. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using the 13 PCGs data using maximum likelihood (ML) in PAUP, and Bayesian inference (BI) in MrBayes 3.2. The complete mitogenome of T. palmi was 15,333 base pairs (bp), which was greater than the genomes of A. obscurus (14,890bp), F. intonsa (15,215 bp), F. occidentalis (14,889 bp) and S. dorsalis South Asia strain (SA1) (14,283 bp), but smaller than the genomes of T. imaginis (15,407 bp) and S. dorsalis East Asia strain (EA1) (15,343bp). Like in other thrips species, the mitochondrial genome of T. palmi was represented by 37 genes, including 13 PCGs, large and small ribosomal RNA (rrnL and rrnS) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNAs) genes (with one extra gene for trn-Serine) and two A+T-rich control regions (CR1 and CR2). Thirty one genes were observed on heavy (H) strand and six genes on the light (L) strand. The six tRNA genes (trnG,trnK, trnY, trnW, trnF, and trnH) were found to be conserved in all thrips species mitogenomes in their locations relative to a protein-coding or rRNA gene upstream or downstream. The gene arrangements of T. palmi is very close to T. imaginis except the rearrangements in tRNAs genes: trnR (arginine), and trnE (glutamic acid) were found to be located between cox3 and CR2 in T. imaginis which were translocated between atp6 and CR1 in T. palmi; trnL1 (Leucine) and trnS1(Serine) were located between atp6 and CR1 in T. imaginis which were translocated between cox3 and CR2 in T. palmi. The location of CR1 upstream of nad5 gene was suggested to be ancestral condition of the thrips species in subfamily Thripinae, was also observed in T. palmi. Both the Maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian Inference (BI) phylogenetic trees generated resulted in similar topologies. The T. palmi was clustered with T. imaginis. We concluded that more molecular data on the diverse thrips species from different hierarchical level is needed, to understand the phylogenetic and evolutionary relationships among them.

Keywords: thrips, comparative mitogenomics, gene rearrangements, phylogenetic analysis

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7 Crop Leaf Area Index (LAI) Inversion and Scale Effect Analysis from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)-Based Hyperspectral Data

Authors: Xiaohua Zhu, Lingling Ma, Yongguang Zhao


Leaf Area Index (LAI) is a key structural characteristic of crops and plays a significant role in precision agricultural management and farmland ecosystem modeling. However, LAI retrieved from different resolution data contain a scaling bias due to the spatial heterogeneity and model non-linearity, that is, there is scale effect during multi-scale LAI estimate. In this article, a typical farmland in semi-arid regions of Chinese Inner Mongolia is taken as the study area, based on the combination of PROSPECT model and SAIL model, a multiple dimensional Look-Up-Table (LUT) is generated for multiple crops LAI estimation from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) hyperspectral data. Based on Taylor expansion method and computational geometry model, a scale transfer model considering both difference between inter- and intra-class is constructed for scale effect analysis of LAI inversion over inhomogeneous surface. The results indicate that, (1) the LUT method based on classification and parameter sensitive analysis is useful for LAI retrieval of corn, potato, sunflower and melon on the typical farmland, with correlation coefficient R2 of 0.82 and root mean square error RMSE of 0.43m2/m-2. (2) The scale effect of LAI is becoming obvious with the decrease of image resolution, and maximum scale bias is more than 45%. (3) The scale effect of inter-classes is higher than that of intra-class, which can be corrected efficiently by the scale transfer model established based Taylor expansion and Computational geometry. After corrected, the maximum scale bias can be reduced to 1.2%.

Keywords: leaf area index (LAI), scale effect, UAV-based hyperspectral data, look-up-table (LUT), remote sensing

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6 Virus Diseases of Edible Seed Squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) in Aksaray Province

Authors: Serkan Yesil


Cucurbits (the Cucurbitaceae family) include 119 genera and 825 species distributed primarily in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The major cultivated cucurbit species such as melon (Cucumis melo L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb) Matsum.&Nakai) are important vegetable crops worldwide. Squash is grown for fresh consuming, as well as its seeds are used as a snack in Turkey like some Mediterranean countries and Germany, Hungary, Austria and China. Virus diseases are one of the most destructive diseases on squash which is grown for seeds in Aksaray province. In this study, it was aimed to determine the virus infections in major squash growing areas in Aksaray province. Totally 153 plant samples with common virus symptoms like mosaic, curling, blistering, mottling, distortion, shoestring, stunting and vine decline were collected from squash plants during 2014. In this study, DAS-ELISA method is used for identifying the virus infections on the plant samples. According to the results of the DAS-ELISA 84.96 % of plant samples were infected with Zucchini yellow mosaic Potyvirus (ZYMV), Watermelon mosaic Potyvirus-2 (WMV-2), Cucumber mosaic Cucumovirus (CMV), Papaya ringspot Potyvirus-watermelon strain (PRSV-W) and Squash mosaic Comovirus (SqMV). ZYMV was predominant in the research area with the ratio of 66.01 %. WMV-2 was the second important virus disease in the survey area, it was detected on the samples at the ratio of 57.51 %. Also, mixed infections of those virus infections were detected commonly in squash. Especially, ZYMV+WMV-2 mixed infections were common. Cucumber green mottle mosaic Tobamovirus (CGMMV) was not present in the research area.

Keywords: Aksaray, DAS-ELISA, edible seed squash, WMV-2, ZYMV

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5 Study of the Biochemical Properties of the Protease Coagulant Milk Extracted from Sunflower Cake: Manufacturing Test of Cheeses Uncooked Dough Press and Analysis of Sensory Properties

Authors: Kahlouche Amal, Touzene F. Zohra, Betatache Fatihaet Nouani Abdelouahab


The development of the world production of the cheese these last decades, as well as agents' greater request cheap coagulants, accentuated the search for new surrogates of the rennet. What about the interest to explore the vegetable biodiversity, the source well cheap of many naturals metabolites that the scientists today praise it (thistle, latex of fig tree, Cardoon, seeds of melon). Indeed, a big interest is concerned the search for surrogates of vegetable origin. The objective of the study is to show the possibility of extracting a protease coagulant the milk from the cake of Sunflower, available raw material and the potential source of surrogates of rennet. so, the determination of the proteolytic activity of raw extracts, the purification, the elimination of the pigments of tint of the enzymatic preparations, a better knowledge of the coagulative properties through study of the effect of certain factors (temperature, pH, concentration in CaCl2) are so many factors which contribute to value milk particularly those produced by the small ruminants of the Algerian dairy exploitations. Otherwise, extracts coagulants of vegetable origin allowed today to value traditional, in addition, although the extract coagulants of vegetable origin made it possible today to develop traditional cheeses whose Iberian peninsula is the promoter, but the test of 'pressed paste not cooked' cheese manufacturing led to the semi-scale pilot; and that, by using the enzymatic extract of sunflower (Helianthus annus) which gave satisfactory results as well to the level of outputs as on the sensory level,which, statistically,did not give any significant difference between studied cheeses. These results confirm the possibility of use of this coagulase as a substitute of rennet commercial on an industrial scale.

Keywords: characterization, cheese, Rennet, sunflower

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4 The Thinking of Dynamic Formulation of Rock Aging Agent Driven by Data

Authors: Longlong Zhang, Xiaohua Zhu, Ping Zhao, Yu Wang


The construction of mines, railways, highways, water conservancy projects, etc., have formed a large number of high steep slope wounds in China. Under the premise of slope stability and safety, the minimum cost, green and close to natural wound space repair, has become a new problem. Nowadays, in situ element testing and analysis, monitoring, field quantitative factor classification, and assignment evaluation will produce vast amounts of data. Data processing and analysis will inevitably differentiate the morphology, mineral composition, physicochemical properties between rock wounds, by which to dynamically match the appropriate techniques and materials for restoration. In the present research, based on the grid partition of the slope surface, tested the content of the combined oxide of rock mineral (SiO₂, CaO, MgO, Al₂O₃, Fe₃O₄, etc.), and classified and assigned values to the hardness and breakage of rock texture. The data of essential factors are interpolated and normalized in GIS, which formed the differential zoning map of slope space. According to the physical and chemical properties and spatial morphology of rocks in different zones, organic acids (plant waste fruit, fruit residue, etc.), natural mineral powder (zeolite, apatite, kaolin, etc.), water-retaining agent, and plant gum (melon powder) were mixed in different proportions to form rock aging agents. To spray the aging agent with different formulas on the slopes in different sections can affectively age the fresh rock wound, providing convenience for seed implantation, and reducing the transformation of heavy metals in the rocks. Through many practical engineering practices, a dynamic data platform of rock aging agent formula system is formed, which provides materials for the restoration of different slopes. It will also provide a guideline for the mixed-use of various natural materials to solve the complex, non-uniformity ecological restoration problem.

Keywords: data-driven, dynamic state, high steep slope, rock aging agent, wounds

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3 Preparations of Fruit Nectars from Fresh Fruit Juices-Analyses before and after Storage

Authors: Youcef Amir


The consumption of beverages continues to grow worldwide due to increasing demography, but pure fruit juices and high-quality nectars can induce protective effects on human health because of their natural bioactive components. In contrast, sodas and gaseous drinks containing synthetic food additives are considered as responsible for consumers of several pathologies such as obesity, diabetes, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The nutritional and therapeutic virtues of fruit juices are generally a remarkable antioxidant power, anti-cancer activity linked to their richness of indigestible and indigestible sugars, vitamins, mineral salts, carotenoids and phenolic compounds. The main reasons, which led us to produce these fruit derivatives, are the non-availability of the fresh fruits mentioned above all along the year and also the existence of variations in the chemical composition of these different fruits as well as for the major or minor components. We tested, therefore, the physicochemical characteristics of each fruit juice and pulp apart and afterward those of the cocktails formulated. The fresh juices used during our experiments were obtained from the following fruits from north-central Algeria: prickly pear, pomegranate, melon, red oranges. The formulations of these fruit juices were tested after several trials comprising sensorial analysis, physicochemical factors (pH, titratable acidity, Brix degree, formal index, water content, total ash, total and reducing sugars, vitamin C, carotenoids, phenolic compounds) and microbial analysis after a storage period. To the pure juices proportions, citric acid E330, sucrose, and water were added followed by pasteurisation. These products were analysed from the physicochemical, microbial and sensorial viewpoints after a storage period of one month according to national legislation to evaluate their stability. The results of the physicochemical parameters of the prepared beverages had shown good physicochemical results, acceptable sensorial characteristics and microbial stability and safety before and after a storage period. We measured appreciable amounts of minor compounds with health properties.

Keywords: fruit juices, microbial analyses, nectars, physico chemical characteristics, sensorial analysis, storage period

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2 Development of an Instrument for Measurement of Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Diffusivity of Tropical Fruit Juice

Authors: T. Ewetumo, K. D. Adedayo, Festus Ben


Knowledge of the thermal properties of foods is of fundamental importance in the food industry to establish the design of processing equipment. However, for tropical fruit juice, there is very little information in literature, seriously hampering processing procedures. This research work describes the development of an instrument for automated thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity measurement of tropical fruit juice using a transient thermal probe technique based on line heat principle. The system consists of two thermocouple sensors, constant current source, heater, thermocouple amplifier, microcontroller, microSD card shield and intelligent liquid crystal. A fixed distance of 6.50mm was maintained between the two probes. When heat is applied, the temperature rise at the heater probe measured with time at time interval of 4s for 240s. The measuring element conforms as closely as possible to an infinite line source of heat in an infinite fluid. Under these conditions, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity are simultaneously measured, with thermal conductivity determined from the slope of a plot of the temperature rise of the heating element against the logarithm of time while thermal diffusivity was determined from the time it took the sample to attain a peak temperature and the time duration over a fixed diffusivity distance. A constant current source was designed to apply a power input of 16.33W/m to the probe throughout the experiment. The thermal probe was interfaced with a digital display and data logger by using an application program written in C++. Calibration of the instrument was done by determining the thermal properties of distilled water. Error due to convection was avoided by adding 1.5% agar to the water. The instrument has been used for measurement of thermal properties of banana, orange and watermelon. Thermal conductivity values of 0.593, 0.598, 0.586 W/m^o C and thermal diffusivity values of 1.053 ×〖10〗^(-7), 1.086 ×〖10〗^(-7), and 0.959 ×〖10〗^(-7) 〖m/s〗^2 were obtained for banana, orange and water melon respectively. Measured values were stored in a microSD card. The instrument performed very well as it measured the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of the tropical fruit juice samples with statistical analysis (ANOVA) showing no significant difference (p>0.05) between the literature standards and estimated averages of each sample investigated with the developed instrument.

Keywords: thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, tropical fruit juice, diffusion equation

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1 Ecophysiological Features of Acanthosicyos horridus (!Nara) to Survive the Namib Desert

Authors: Jacques M. Berner, Monja Gerber, Gillian L. Maggs-Kolling, Stuart J. Piketh


The enigmatic melon species, Acanthosicyos horridus Welw. ex Hook. f., locally known as !nara, is endemic to the hyper-arid Namib Desert, where it thrives in sandy dune areas and dry river banks. The Namib Desert is characterized by extreme weather conditions which include high temperatures, very low rainfall, and extremely dry air. Plant and animals that have made the Namib Dessert their home are dependent on non-rainfall water inputs, like fog, dew and water vapor, for survival. Fog is believed to be the most important non-rainfall water input for most of the coastal Namib Desert and is a life line to many Namib plants and animals. It is commonly assumed that the !nara plant is adapted and dependent upon coastal fog events. The !nara plant shares many comparable adaptive features with other organisms that are known to exploit fog as a source of moisture. These include groove-like structures on the stems and the cone-like structures of thorns. These structures are believed to be the driving forces behind directional water flow that allow plants to take advantage of fog events. The !nara-fog interaction was investigated in this study to determine the dependence of !nara on these fog events, as it would illustrate strategies to benefit from non-rainfall water inputs. The direct water uptake capacity of !nara shoots was investigated through absorption tests. Furthermore, the movement and behavior of fluorescent water droplets on a !nara stem were investigated through time-lapse macrophotography. The shoot water potential was measured to investigate the effect of fog on the water status of !nara stems. These tests were used to determine whether the morphology of !nara has evolved to exploit fog as a non-rainfall water input and whether the !nara plant has adapted physiologically in response to fog. Chlorophyll a fluorescence was used to compare the photochemical efficiency of !nara plants on days with fog events to that on non-foggy days. The results indicate that !nara plants do have the ability to take advantage of fog events as commonly believed. However, the !nara plant did not exhibit visible signs of drought stress and this, together with the strong shoot water potential, indicates that these plants are reliant on permanent underground water sources. Chlorophyll a fluorescence data indicated that temperature stress and wind were some of the main abiotic factors influencing the plants’ overall vitality.

Keywords: Acanthosicyos horridus, chlorophyll a fluorescence, fog, foliar absorption, !nara

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