Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 256

Search results for: transcription termination

256 Aire-Dependent Transcripts have Shortened 3’UTRs and Show Greater Stability by Evading Microrna-Mediated Repression

Authors: Clotilde Guyon, Nada Jmari, Yen-Chin Li, Jean Denoyel, Noriyuki Fujikado, Christophe Blanchet, David Root, Matthieu Giraud


Aire induces ectopic expression of a large repertoire of tissue-specific antigen (TSA) genes in thymic medullary epithelial cells (MECs), driving immunological self-tolerance in maturing T cells. Although important mechanisms of Aire-induced transcription have recently been disclosed through the identification and the study of Aire’s partners, the fine transcriptional functions underlied by a number of them and conferred to Aire are still unknown. Alternative cleavage and polyadenylation (APA) is an essential mRNA processing step regulated by the termination complex consisting of 85 proteins, 10 of them have been related to Aire. We evaluated APA in MECs in vivo by microarray analysis with mRNA-spanning probes and RNA deep sequencing. We uncovered the preference of Aire-dependent transcripts for short-3’UTR isoforms and for proximal poly(A) site selection marked by the increased binding of the cleavage factor Cstf-64. RNA interference of the 10 Aire-related proteins revealed that Clp1, a member of the core termination complex, exerts a profound effect on short 3’UTR isoform preference. Clp1 is also significantly upregulated in the MECs compared to 25 mouse tissues in which we found that TSA expression is associated with longer 3’UTR isoforms. Aire-dependent transcripts escape a global 3’UTR lengthening associated with MEC differentiation, thereby potentiating the repressive effect of microRNAs that are globally upregulated in mature MECs. Consistent with these findings, RNA deep sequencing of actinomycinD-treated MECs revealed the increased stability of short 3’UTR Aire-induced transcripts, resulting in TSA transcripts accumulation and contributing for their enrichment in the MECs.

Keywords: Aire, central tolerance, miRNAs, transcription termination

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255 Arginase Activity and Nitric Oxide Levels in Patients Undergoing Open Heart Surgery with Cardiopulmonary Bypass

Authors: Mehmet Ali Kisaçam, P. Sema Temizer Ozan, Ayşe Doğan, Gonca Ozan, F. Sarper Türker


Cardiovascular disease which is one of the most common health problems worldwide has crucial importance because of its’ morbidity and mortality rates. Nitric oxide synthase and arginase use L-arginine as a substrate and produce nitric oxide (NO), citrulline and urea, ornithine respectively. Endothelial dysfunction is characterized by reduced bioavailability of vasodilator and anti-inflammatory molecule NO. The purpose of the study to assess endothelial function via arginase activity and NO levels in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. The study was conducted on 26 patients (14 male, 12 female) undergoing CABG surgery. Blood samples were collected from the subjects before surgery, after the termination and after 24 hours of the surgery. Arginase activity and NO levels measured in collected samples spectrophotometrically. Arginase activity decreased significantly in subjects after the termination of the surgery compared to before surgery data. 24 hours after the surgery there wasn’t any significance in arginase activity as it compared to before surgery and after the termination of the surgery. On the other hand, NO levels increased significantly in the subject after the termination of the surgery. However there was no significant increase in NO levels after 24 hours of the surgery, but there was an insignificant increase compared to before surgery data. The results indicate that after the termination of the surgery vascular and endothelial function improved and after 24 hours of the surgery arginase activity and NO levels returned to normal.

Keywords: arginase, bypass, cordiopulmonary, nitric oxide

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254 Termination of the Brachial Artery in the Arm and Its Clinical Significance

Authors: Ramya Rathan, Miral N. F. Salama


The variations in the arteries have been drawing attention of anatomists for a long time because of their clinical significance. The brachial artery is the principal artery of the arm which is the continuation of the axillary artery from the lower border of the Teres Major. It terminates into the radial and ulnar arteries below the elbow joint at the neck radius. The present study aims at exploring the clinical significance of the high termination of the brachial artery. During the routine cadaveric dissection of the arm, for the undergraduate students of medicine at our university, we observed a high bifurcation of the radial and the ulnar artery at the midshaft of the humerus. The median nerve was seen passing between these two junctions. Further, the course and the relations of this artery were studied. The accurate knowledge regarding these kinds of variation in the blood vessels is mandatory for planning of designing. General physicians, surgeons and radiologists should keep in mind the variations in the branching pattern of the arteries in their daily medical, diagnostic and therapeutic procedures to avoid complications in diagnostic and surgical procedures.

Keywords: brachial artery, high termination, radial artery, ulnar artery

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253 An Investigation to Study the Moisture Dependency of Ground Enhancement Compound

Authors: Arunima Shukla, Vikas Almadi, Devesh Jaiswal, Sunil Saini, Bhusan S. Patil


Lightning protection consists of three main parts; mainly air termination system, down conductor, and earth termination system. Earth termination system is the most important part as earth is the sink and source of charges. Therefore, even when the charges are captured and delivered to the ground, and an easy path is not provided to the charges, earth termination system would lead to problems. Soil has significantly different resistivities ranging from 10 Ωm for wet organic soil to 10000 Ωm for bedrock. Different methods have been discussed and used conventionally such as deep-ground-well method and altering the length of the rod. Those methods are not considered economical. Therefore, it was a general practice to use charcoal along with salt to reduce the soil resistivity. Bentonite is worldwide acceptable material, that had led our interest towards study of bentonite at first. It was concluded that bentonite is a clay which is non-corrosive, environment friendly. Whereas bentonite is suitable only when there is moisture present in the soil, as in the absence of moisture, cracks will appear on the surface which will provide an open passage to the air, resulting into increase in the resistivity. Furthermore, bentonite without moisture does not have enough bonding property, moisture retention, conductivity, and non-leachability. Therefore, bentonite was used along with the other backfill material to overcome the dependency of bentonite on moisture. Different experiments were performed to get the best ratio of bentonite and carbon backfill. It was concluded that properties will highly depend on the quantity of bentonite and carbon-based backfill material.

Keywords: backfill material, bentonite, grounding material, low resistivity

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252 Following the Modulation of Transcriptional Activity of Genes by Chromatin Modifications during the Cell Cycle in Living Cells

Authors: Sharon Yunger, Liat Altman, Yuval Garini, Yaron Shav-Tal


Understanding the dynamics of transcription in living cells has improved since the development of quantitative fluorescence-based imaging techniques. We established a method for following transcription from a single copy gene in living cells. A gene tagged with MS2 repeats, used for mRNA tagging, in its 3' UTR was integrated into a single genomic locus. The actively transcribing gene was detected and analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and live-cell imaging. Several cell clones were created that differed in the promoter regulating the gene. Thus, comparative analysis could be obtained without the risk of different position effects at each integration site. Cells in S/G2 phases could be detected exhibiting two adjacent transcription sites on sister chromatids. A sharp reduction in the transcription levels was observed as cells progressed along the cell cycle. We hypothesized that a change in chromatin structure acts as a general mechanism during the cell cycle leading to down-regulation in the activity of some genes. We addressed this question by treating the cells with chromatin decondensing agents. Quantifying and imaging the treated cells suggests that chromatin structure plays a role both in regulating transcriptional levels along the cell cycle, as well as in limiting an active gene from reaching its maximum transcription potential at any given time. These results contribute to understanding the role of chromatin as a regulator of gene expression.

Keywords: cell cycle, living cells, nucleus, transcription

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251 Influence of Improved Roughage Quality and Period of Meal Termination on Digesta Load in the Digestive Organs of Goats

Authors: Rasheed A. Adebayo, Mehluli M. Moyo, Ignatius V. Nsahlai


Ruminants are known to relish roughage for productivity but the effect of its quality on digesta load in rumen, omasum, abomasum and other distal organs of the digestive tract is yet unknown. Reticulorumen fill is a strong indicator for long-term control of intake in ruminants. As such, the measurement and prediction of digesta load in these compartments may be crucial to productivity in the ruminant industry. The current study aimed at determining the effect of (a) diet quality on digesta load in digestive organs of goats, and (b) period of meal termination on the reticulorumen fill and digesta load in other distal compartments of the digestive tract of goats. Goats were fed with urea-treated hay (UTH), urea-sprayed hay (USH) and non-treated hay (NTH). At the end of eight weeks of a feeding trial period, upon termination of a meal in the morning, afternoon or evening, all goats were slaughtered in random groups of three per day to measure reticulorumen fill and digesta loads in other distal compartments of the digestive tract. Both diet quality and period affected (P < 0.05) the measure of reticulorumen fill. However, reticulorumen fill in the evening was larger (P < 0.05) than afternoon, while afternoon was similar (P > 0.05) to morning. Also, diet quality affected (P < 0.05) the wet omasal digesta load, wet abomasum, dry abomasum and dry caecum digesta loads but did not affect (P > 0.05) both wet and dry digesta loads in other compartments of the digestive tract. Period of measurement did not affect (P > 0.05) the wet omasal digesta load, and both wet and dry digesta loads in other compartments of the digestive tract except wet abomasum digesta load (P < 0.05) and dry caecum digesta load (P < 0.05). Both wet and dry reticulorumen fill were correlated (P < 0.05) with omasum (r = 0.623) and (r = 0.723), respectively. In conclusion, reticulorumen fill of goats decreased by improving the roughage quality; and the period of meal termination and measurement of the fill is a key factor to the quantity of digesta load.

Keywords: digesta, goats, meal termination, reticulo-rumen fill

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250 Net Neutrality and Asymmetric Platform Competition

Authors: Romain Lestage, Marc Bourreau


In this paper we analyze the interplay between access to the last-mile network and net neutrality in the market for Internet access. We consider two Internet Service Providers (ISPs), which act as platforms between Internet users and Content Providers (CPs). One of the ISPs is vertically integrated and provides access to its last-mile network to the other (non-integrated) ISP. We show that a lower access price increases the integrated ISP's incentives to charge CPs positive termination fees (i.e., to deviate from net neutrality), and decreases the non-integrated ISP's incentives to charge positive termination fees.

Keywords: net neutrality, access regulation, internet access, two-sided markets

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
249 Analysis of Osmotin as Transcription Factor/Cell Signaling Modulator Using Bioinformatic Tools

Authors: Usha Kiran, M. Z. Abdin


Osmotin is an abundant cationic multifunctional protein discovered in cells of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. var Wisconsin 38) adapted to an environment of low osmotic potential. It provides plants protection from pathogens, hence placed in the PRP family of proteins. The osmotin induced proline accumulation has been reported in plants including transgenic tomato and strawberry conferring tolerance against both biotic and abiotic stresses. The exact mechanism of induction of proline by osmotin is however, not known till date. These observations have led us to hypothesize that osmotin induced proline accumulation could be due to its involvement as transcription factor and/or cell signal pathway modulator in proline biosynthesis. The present investigation was therefore, undertaken to analyze the osmotin protein as transcription factor /cell signalling modulator using bioinformatics tools. The results of available online DNA binding motif search programs revealed that osmotin does not contain DNA-binding motifs. The alignment results of osmotin protein with the protein sequence from DATF showed the homology in the range of 0-20%, suggesting that it might not contain a DNA binding motif. Further to find unique DNA-binding domain, the superimposition of osmotin 3D structure on modeled Arabidopsis transcription factors using Chimera also suggested absence of the same. We, however, found evidence implicating osmotin in cell signaling. With these results, we concluded that osmotin is not a transcription factor but regulating proline biosynthesis and accumulation through cell signaling during abiotic stresses.

Keywords: osmotin, cell signaling modulator, bioinformatic tools, protein

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248 Cdk1 Gates Cell Cycle-Dependent tRNA Synthesis by Regulating RNA Polymerase III Activity

Authors: Maricarmen Herrera, Pierre Chymkowitch, Joe Robertson, Jens Eriksson, Jorrit Enserink


tRNA genes are transcribed by RNA polymerase III. During recent years, it has become clear that tDNA transcription fluctuates during the cell cycle. However, the mechanism by which the cell cycle controls the amplitude of tDNA transcription remains unknown. We found that the cyclin Clb5 recruits the cyclin dependent kinase Cdk1 to tRNA genes to sharply increase tRNA synthesis during a brief interval in the cell cycle. We show that Cdk1 promotes the interaction of TFIIIB with TFIIIC, that it stimulates the recruitment of TFIIIC to tRNA genes, that it prevents the formation of an overly stable TFIIIB-tDNA complex and that it augments the dynamics of RNA polymerase III. Furthermore, we identify Bdp1 as a novel Cdk1 substrate, and phosphorylation of Bdp1 is required for the cell cycle-dependent increase in tDNA transcription. In addition, we show that phosphorylation of the Cdk1 substrate Nup60 mediates formation of a Nup60-Nup2 complex at tRNA genes, which is also required for cell cycle-dependent tDNA transcription. Together, our findings indicate that Cdk1 activity gates tRNA synthesis by regulating the dynamics of the TFIIIB-TFIIIC-RNAPIII complex, and that it may promote the formation of a nuclear pore microenvironment conducive to efficient tDNA transcription.

Keywords: Cdk1, cell cycle, RNAPIII machinery, tRNA

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247 Dynamical Relation of Poisson Spike Trains in Hodkin-Huxley Neural Ion Current Model and Formation of Non-Canonical Bases, Islands, and Analog Bases in DNA, mRNA, and RNA at or near the Transcription

Authors: Michael Fundator


Groundbreaking application of biomathematical and biochemical research in neural networks processes to formation of non-canonical bases, islands, and analog bases in DNA and mRNA at or near the transcription that contradicts the long anticipated statistical assumptions for the distribution of bases and analog bases compounds is implemented through statistical and stochastic methods apparatus with addition of quantum principles, where the usual transience of Poisson spike train becomes very instrumental tool for finding even almost periodical type of solutions to Fokker-Plank stochastic differential equation. Present article develops new multidimensional methods of finding solutions to stochastic differential equations based on more rigorous approach to mathematical apparatus through Kolmogorov-Chentsov continuity theorem that allows the stochastic processes with jumps under certain conditions to have γ-Holder continuous modification that is used as basis for finding analogous parallels in dynamics of neutral networks and formation of analog bases and transcription in DNA.

Keywords: Fokker-Plank stochastic differential equation, Kolmogorov-Chentsov continuity theorem, neural networks, translation and transcription

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246 Diapause Incidence in Zygogramma bicolorata Pallister Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae

Authors: Fazil Hasan, M. Shafiq Ansari, Mohammad Muslim


Zygogramma bicolorata Pallister (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is an exotic insect and effective biocontrol agent of Parthenium hysterophorus L. (Asteraceae). Our study aimed to determine the induction and termination of diapause, in response to abiotic (temperature and moisture) and biotic factors (age and reproductive status) and the effect of diapause on adult longevity and female fecundity. The adults burrowed into the soil about 1–6 cm below the surface for diapause at any time from July to December with a peak of 70% in the 2nd week of December at Aligarh region, India. The termination of diapause took place in May and June with the commencement of monsoon rains. Non-diapausing adults were also capable of breeding during winter under laboratory conditions. There was a significantly increased in the percentage of diapaused adults in subsequent generation i.e. 4% in F1 generation and 90% in F7 generation. The percentage of diapause was also significantly increased with age of adults. It has a positive effect on female fecundity as compared to the fecundity in pre-diapaused duration. Experiments proved that soil moisture played an important role in providing the conditions for initiation and termination of diapause. The adults which undergone diapause in January and February were continuously exposed to 35º, 40º and 45º C for one week and a daily dose of 10 and 8 hours for 6 and 5 days, respectively resulting in termination of diapause. This method may be used to initiate mass multiplication for carrying out releases early in the season. Exposure of adults to extremely low temperatures i.e. 5º and 10º C induced 94.3% and 92.5% diapause, respectively with no adult mortality. Therefore, low temperatures can also be used as a medium for the storage of mass reared beetles for a long time without having negative effect on their longevity and fecundity. Thus, our findings are of great utility in the biological suppression of P. hysterophorus as it will enhance the effectiveness of this beetle through manipulation of diapause.

Keywords: Zygogramma bicolorata, environmental factors, age, sex, diapause, Parthenium hysterophorus, biocontrol

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245 Characterization of Transcription Factors Involved in Early Defense Response during Interaction of Oil Palm Elaeis guineensis Jacq. with Ganoderma boninense

Authors: Sakeh N. Mohd, Bahari M. N. Abdul, Abdullah S. N. Akmar


Oil palm production generates high export earnings to many countries especially in Southeast Asian region. Infection by necrotrophic fungus, Ganoderma boninense on oil palm results in basal stem rot which compromises oil palm production leading to significant economic loss. There are no reliable disease treatments nor promising resistant oil palm variety has been cultivated to eradicate the disease up to date. Thus, understanding molecular mechanisms underlying early interactions of oil palm with Ganoderma boninense may be vital to promote preventive or control measure of the disease. In the present study, four months old oil palm seedlings were infected via artificial inoculation of Ganoderma boninense on rubber wood blocks. Roots of six biological replicates of treated and untreated oil palm seedlings were harvested at 0, 3, 7 and 11 days post inoculation. Next-generation sequencing was performed to generate high-throughput RNA-Seq data and identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) during early oil palm-Ganoderma boninense interaction. Based on de novo transcriptome assembly, a total of 427,122,605 paired-end clean reads were assembled into 30,654 unigenes. DEGs analysis revealed upregulation of 173 transcription factors on Ganoderma boninense-treated oil palm seedlings. Sixty-one transcription factors were categorized as DEGs according to stringent cut-off values of genes with log2 ratio [Number of treated oil palm seedlings/ Number of untreated oil palm seedlings] ≥ |1.0| (corresponding to 2-fold or more upregulation) and P-value ≤ 0.01. Transcription factors in response to biotic stress will be screened out from abiotic stress using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Transcription factors unique to biotic stress will be verified using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The findings will help researchers to pinpoint defense response mechanism specific against Ganoderma boninense.

Keywords: Ganoderma boninense, necrotrophic, next-generation sequencing, transcription factors

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244 The Interplay between Autophagy and Macrophages' Polarization in Wound Healing: A Genetic Regulatory Network Analysis

Authors: Mayada Mazher, Ahmed Moustafa, Ahmed Abdellatif


Background: Autophagy is a eukaryotic, highly conserved catabolic process implicated in many pathophysiologies such as wound healing. Autophagy-associated genes serve as a scaffolding platform for signal transduction of macrophage polarization during the inflammatory phase of wound healing and tissue repair process. In the current study, we report a model for the interplay between autophagy-associated genes and macrophages polarization associated genes. Methods: In silico analysis was performed on 249 autophagy-related genes retrieved from the public autophagy database and gene expression data retrieved from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO); GSE81922 and GSE69607 microarray data macrophages polarization 199 DEGS. An integrated protein-protein interaction network was constructed for autophagy and macrophage gene sets. The gene sets were then used for GO terms pathway enrichment analysis. Common transcription factors for autophagy and macrophages' polarization were identified. Finally, microRNAs enriched in both autophagy and macrophages were predicated. Results: In silico prediction of common transcription factors in DEGs macrophages and autophagy gene sets revealed a new role for the transcription factors, HOMEZ, GABPA, ELK1 and REL, that commonly regulate macrophages associated genes: IL6,IL1M, IL1B, NOS1, SOC3 and autophagy-related genes: Atg12, Rictor, Rb1cc1, Gaparab1, Atg16l1. Conclusions: Autophagy and macrophages' polarization are interdependent cellular processes, and both autophagy-related proteins and macrophages' polarization related proteins coordinate in tissue remodelling via transcription factors and microRNAs regulatory network. The current work highlights a potential new role for transcription factors HOMEZ, GABPA, ELK1 and REL in wound healing.

Keywords: autophagy related proteins, integrated network analysis, macrophages polarization M1 and M2, tissue remodelling

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243 Detection of PCD-Related Transcription Factors for Improving Salt Tolerance in Plant

Authors: A. Bahieldin, A. Atef, S. Edris, N. O. Gadalla, S. M. Hassan, M. A. Al-Kordy, A. M. Ramadan, A. S. M. Al- Hajar, F. M. El-Domyati


The idea of this work is based on a natural exciting phenomenon suggesting that suppression of genes related to the program cell death (or PCD) mechanism might help the plant cells to efficiently tolerate abiotic stresses. The scope of this work was the detection of PCD-related transcription factors (TFs) that might also be related to salt stress tolerance in plant. Two model plants, e.g., tobacco and Arabidopsis, were utilized in order to investigate this phenomenon. Occurrence of PCD was first proven by Evans blue staining and DNA laddering after tobacco leaf discs were treated with oxalic acid (OA) treatment (20 mM) for 24 h. A number of 31 TFs up regulated after 2 h and co-expressed with genes harboring PCD-related domains were detected via RNA-Seq analysis and annotation. These TFs were knocked down via virus induced gene silencing (VIGS), an RNA interference (RNAi) approach, and tested for their influence on triggering PCD machinery. Then, Arabidopsis SALK knocked out T-DNA insertion mutants in selected TFs analogs to those in tobacco were tested under salt stress (up to 250 mM NaCl) in order to detect the influence of different TFs on conferring salt tolerance in Arabidopsis. Involvement of a number of candidate abiotic-stress related TFs was investigated.

Keywords: VIGS, PCD, RNA-Seq, transcription factors

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242 Socio-Economic Inequality in Breastfeeding Patterns in India

Authors: Ankita Shukla


The promotion and support of breastfeeding is a global priority with benefits for maternal and infant health, especially in low income and middle-income countries where the probability of child survival is still very low. In India too it has been well established that breastfeeding increases the survival of the child. However, the breastfeeding levels are quite low in the country. Examining the socio-economic inequality in breastfeeding pattern can help to the causal pathways responsible for early breastfeeding termination. This paper tries to understand the socio-economic differential in breastfeeding patterns among Indian women. Data is used from nationally representative National Family Health Survey-3. Using Cox regression modelling techniques, the analysis found that the likelihood of having small breastfeeding duration increased with increasing household wealth status similarly education also has negative effect on breastfeeding duration. The considerable gender difference is also visible in India, likelihood of stopping breastfeeding was significantly higher among female children compared with male children. To understand the cultural factors or norms responsible for the early termination of breastfeeding more in depth/qualitative studies are needed.

Keywords: breastfeeding, India, socio-economic inequality, women education

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
241 Identification of Tissue-Specific Transcription Factors in C. roseus with Emphasis to the TIA Biosynthetic Pathway

Authors: F. M. El-Domyati, A. Atef, S. Edris, N. O. Gadalla, M. A. Al-Kordy, A. M. Ramadan, Y. M. Saad, H. S. Al-Zahrani, A. Bahieldin


Transcriptome retrieved from SRA database of different tissues and treatments of C. roseus was assembled in order to detect tissue-specific transcription factors (TFs) and TFs possibly related to terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIA) pathway. A number of 290 TF-like transcripts along with 12 transcripts related to TIA biosynthetic pathway were divided in terms of co-expression in the different tissues, treatments and genotypes. Three transcripts encoding peroxidases 1 and 12 were downregulated in hairy root, while upregulated in mature leaf. Eight different transcripts of the TIA pathway co-expressed with TFs either functioning downstream tryptophan biosynthesis, e.g., tdc, str1 and sgd, or upstream vindoline biosynthesis, e.g., t16h, omt, nmt, d4h and dat. The results showed no differential expression of TF transcripts in hairy roots knocked down for tdc gene (TDCi) as compared to their wild type controls. There were several evidences of tissue-specific expression of TF transcripts in flower, mature leaf, root/hairy root, stem, seedling, hairy root and immature/mature leaves. Regulation included transcription factor families, e.g., bHLH, MYB and WRKY mostly induced by ABA and/or JA (or MeJA) and regulated during abiotic or biotic stress. The information of tissue-specific regulation and co-expression of TFs and genes in the TIA pathway can be utilized in manipulating alkaloid biosynthesis in C. roseus.

Keywords: SRA database, bHLH, MYB, WRKY, co-expression

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240 Evolution of DNA-Binding With-One-Finger Transcriptional Factor Family in Diploid Cotton Gossypium raimondii

Authors: Waqas Shafqat Chattha, Muhammad Iqbal, Amir Shakeel


Transcriptional factors are proteins that play a vital role in regulating the transcription of target genes in different biological processes and are being widely studied in different plant species. In the current era of genomics, plant genomes sequencing has directed to the genome-wide identification, analyses and categorization of diverse transcription factor families and hence provide key insights into their structural as well as functional diversity. The DNA-binding with One Finger (DOF) proteins belongs to C2-C2-type zinc finger protein family. DOF proteins are plant-specific transcription factors implicated in diverse functions including seed maturation and germination, phytohormone signalling, light-mediated gene regulation, cotton-fiber elongation and responses of the plant to biotic as well as abiotic stresses. In this context, a genome-wide in-silico analysis of DOF TF family in diploid cotton species i.e. Gossypium raimondii has enabled us to identify 55 non-redundant genes encoding DOF proteins renamed as GrDofs (Gossypium raimondii Dof). Gene distribution studies have shown that all of the GrDof genes are unevenly distributed across 12 out of 13 G. raimondii chromosomes. The gene structure analysis illustrated that 34 out of 55 GrDof genes are intron-less while remaining 21 genes have a single intron. Protein sequence-based phylogenetic analysis of putative 55 GrDOFs has divided these proteins into 5 major groups with various paralogous gene pairs. Molecular evolutionary studies aided with the conserved domain as well as gene structure analysis suggested that segmental duplications were the principal contributors for the expansion of Dof genes in G. raimondii.

Keywords: diploid cotton , G. raimondii, phylogenetic analysis, transcription factor

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239 Elucidation of the Sequential Transcriptional Activity in Escherichia coli Using Time-Series RNA-Seq Data

Authors: Pui Shan Wong, Kosuke Tashiro, Satoru Kuhara, Sachiyo Aburatani


Functional genomics and gene regulation inference has readily expanded our knowledge and understanding of gene interactions with regards to expression regulation. With the advancement of transcriptome sequencing in time-series comes the ability to study the sequential changes of the transcriptome. This method presented here works to augment existing regulation networks accumulated in literature with transcriptome data gathered from time-series experiments to construct a sequential representation of transcription factor activity. This method is applied on a time-series RNA-Seq data set from Escherichia coli as it transitions from growth to stationary phase over five hours. Investigations are conducted on the various metabolic activities in gene regulation processes by taking advantage of the correlation between regulatory gene pairs to examine their activity on a dynamic network. Especially, the changes in metabolic activity during phase transition are analyzed with focus on the pagP gene as well as other associated transcription factors. The visualization of the sequential transcriptional activity is used to describe the change in metabolic pathway activity originating from the pagP transcription factor, phoP. The results show a shift from amino acid and nucleic acid metabolism, to energy metabolism during the transition to stationary phase in E. coli.

Keywords: Escherichia coli, gene regulation, network, time-series

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238 PARP1 Links Transcription of a Subset of RBL2-Dependent Genes with Cell Cycle Progression

Authors: Ewelina Wisnik, Zsolt Regdon, Kinga Chmielewska, Laszlo Virag, Agnieszka Robaszkiewicz


Apart from protecting genome, PARP1 has been documented to regulate many intracellular processes inter alia gene transcription by physically interacting with chromatin bound proteins and by their ADP-ribosylation. Our recent findings indicate that expression of PARP1 decreases during the differentiation of human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells to monocytes as a consequence of differentiation-associated cell growth arrest and formation of E2F4-RBL2-HDAC1-SWI/SNF repressive complex at the promoter of this gene. Since the RBL2 complexes repress genes in a E2F-dependent manner and are widespread in the genome in G0 arrested cells, we asked (a) if RBL2 directly contributes to defining monocyte phenotype and function by targeting gene promoters and (b) if RBL2 controls gene transcription indirectly by repressing PARP1. For identification of genes controlled by RBL2 and/or PARP1,we used primer libraries for surface receptors and TLR signaling mediators, genes were silenced by siRNA or shRNA, analysis of gene promoter occupation by selected proteins was carried out by ChIP-qPCR, while statistical analysis in GraphPad Prism 5 and STATISTICA, ChIP-Seq data were analysed in Galaxy On the list of 28 genes regulated by RBL2, we identified only four solely repressed by RBL2-E2F4-HDAC1-BRM complex. Surprisingly, 24 out of 28 emerged genes controlled by RBL2 were co-regulated by PARP1 in six different manners. In one mode of RBL2/PARP1 co-operation, represented by MAP2K6 and MAPK3, PARP1 was found to associate with gene promoters upon RBL2 silencing, which was previously shown to restore PARP1 expression in monocytes. PARP1 effect on gene transcription was observed only in the presence of active EP300, which acetylated gene promoters and activated transcription. Further analysis revealed that PARP1 binding to MA2K6 and MAPK3 promoters enabled recruitment of EP300 in monocytes, while in proliferating cancer cell lines, which actively transcribe PARP1, this protein maintained EP300 at the promoters of MA2K6 and MAPK3. Genome-wide analysis revealed a similar distribution of PARP1 and EP300 around transcription start sites and the co-occupancy of some gene promoters by PARP1 and EP300 in cancer cells. Here, we described a new RBL2/PARP1/EP300 axis which controls gene transcription regardless of the cell type. In this model cell, cycle-dependent transcription of PARP1 regulates expression of some genes repressed by RBL2 upon cell cycle limitation. Thus, RBL2 may indirectly regulate transcription of some genes by controlling the expression of EP300-recruiting PARP1. Acknowledgement: This work was financed by Polish National Science Centre grants nr DEC-2013/11/D/NZ2/00033 and DEC-2015/19/N/NZ2/01735. L.V. is funded by the National Research, Development and Innovation Office grants GINOP-2.3.2-15-2016-00020 TUMORDNS, GINOP-2.3.2-15-2016-00048-STAYALIVE and OTKA K112336. AR is supported by Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education 776/STYP/11/2016.

Keywords: retinoblastoma transcriptional co-repressor like 2 (RBL2), poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), E1A binding protein p300 (EP300), monocytes

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
237 Transcription Skills and Written Composition in Chinese

Authors: Pui-sze Yeung, Connie Suk-han Ho, David Wai-ock Chan, Kevin Kien-hoa Chung


Background: Recent findings have shown that transcription skills play a unique and significant role in Chinese word reading and spelling (i.e. word dictation), and written composition development. The interrelationships among component skills of transcription, word reading, word spelling, and written composition in Chinese have rarely been examined in the literature. Is the contribution of component skills of transcription to Chinese written composition mediated by word level skills (i.e., word reading and spelling)? Methods: The participants in the study were 249 Chinese children in Grade 1, Grade 3, and Grade 5 in Hong Kong. They were administered measures of general reasoning ability, orthographic knowledge, stroke sequence knowledge, word spelling, handwriting fluency, word reading, and Chinese narrative writing. Orthographic knowledge- orthographic knowledge was assessed by a task modeled after the lexical decision subtest of the Hong Kong Test of Specific Learning Difficulties in Reading and Writing (HKT-SpLD). Stroke sequence knowledge: The participants’ performance in producing legitimate stroke sequences was measured by a stroke sequence knowledge task. Handwriting fluency- Handwriting fluency was assessed by a task modeled after the Chinese Handwriting Speed Test. Word spelling: The stimuli of the word spelling task consist of fourteen two-character Chinese words. Word reading: The stimuli of the word reading task consist of 120 two-character Chinese words. Written composition: A narrative writing task was used to assess the participants’ text writing skills. Results: Analysis of covariance results showed that there were significant between-grade differences in the performance of word reading, word spelling, handwriting fluency, and written composition. Preliminary hierarchical multiple regression analysis results showed that orthographic knowledge, word spelling, and handwriting fluency were unique predictors of Chinese written composition even after controlling for age, IQ, and word reading. The interaction effects between grade and each of these three skills (orthographic knowledge, word spelling, and handwriting fluency) were not significant. Path analysis results showed that orthographic knowledge contributed to written composition both directly and indirectly through word spelling, while handwriting fluency contributed to written composition directly and indirectly through both word reading and spelling. Stroke sequence knowledge only contributed to written composition indirectly through word spelling. Conclusions: Preliminary hierarchical regression results were consistent with previous findings about the significant role of transcription skills in Chinese word reading, spelling and written composition development. The fact that orthographic knowledge contributed both directly and indirectly to written composition through word reading and spelling may reflect the impact of the script-sound-meaning convergence of Chinese characters on the composing process. The significant contribution of word spelling and handwriting fluency to Chinese written composition across elementary grades highlighted the difficulty in attaining automaticity of transcription skills in Chinese, which limits the working memory resources available for other composing processes.

Keywords: orthographic knowledge, transcription skills, word reading, writing

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236 Use of Misoprostol in Pregnancy Termination in the Third Trimester: Oral versus Vaginal Route

Authors: Saimir Cenameri, Arjana Tereziu, Kastriot Dallaku


Introduction: Intra-uterine death is a common problem in obstetrical practice, and can lead to complications if left to resolve spontaneously. The cervix is unprepared, making inducing of labor difficult. Misoprostol is a synthetic prostaglandin E1 analogue, inexpensive, and is presented valid thanks to its ability to bring about changes in the cervix that lead to the induction of uterine contractions. Misoprostol is quickly absorbed when taken orally, resulting in high initial peak serum concentrations compared with the vaginal route. The vaginal misoprostol peak serum concentration is not as high and demonstrates a more gradual serum concentration decline. This is associated with many benefits for the patient; fast induction of labor; smaller doses; and fewer side effects (dose-depended). Mostly it has been used the regime of 50 μg/4 hour, with a high percentage of success and limited side effects. Objective: Evaluation of the efficiency of the use of oral and vaginal misoprostol in inducing labor, and comparing it with its use not by a previously defined protocol. Methods: Participants in this study included patients at U.H.O.G. 'Koco Gliozheni', Tirana from April 2004-July 2006, presenting with an indication for inducing labor in the third trimester for pregnancy termination. A total of 37 patients were randomly admitted for birth inducing activity, according to protocol (26), oral or vaginal protocol (10 vs. 16), and a control group (11), not subject to the protocol, was created. Oral or vaginal misoprostol was administered at a dose of 50 μg/4 h, while the fourth group participants were treated individually by the members of the medical staff. The main result of interest was the time between induction of labor to birth. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the average age, parity, women weight, gestational age, Bishop's score, the size of the uterus and weight of the fetus between the four groups in the study. The Fisher exact test was used to compare day-stay and causes in the four groups. Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the time of the expulsion and the number of doses between oral and vaginal group. For all statistical tests used, the value of P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The four groups were comparable with regard to woman age and weight, parity, abortion indication, Bishop's score, fetal weight and the gestational age. There was significant difference in the percentage of deliveries within 24 hours. The average time from induction to birth per route (vaginal, oral, according to protocol and not according to the protocol) was respectively; 10.43h; 21.10h; 15.77h, 21.57h. There was no difference in maternal complications in groups. Conclusions: Use of vaginal misoprostol for inducing labor in the third trimester for termination of pregnancy appears to be more effective than the oral route, and even more to uses not according to the protocols approved before, where complications are greater and unjustified.

Keywords: inducing labor, misoprostol, pregnancy termination, third trimester

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235 Unravelling of the TOR Signaling Pathway in Human Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans

Authors: Yee-Seul So, Guiseppe Ianiri, Alex Idnurm, Yong-Sun Bahn


Tor1 is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is widely conserved across eukaryotic species. Tor1 was first identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a target of rapamycin (TOR). The TOR pathway has been implicated in regulating cellular responses to nutrients, proliferation, translation, transcription, autophagy, and ribosome biogenesis. Here we identified two homologues of S. cerevisiae Tor proteins, CNAG_06642 (Tor1) and CNAG_05220 (Tlk1, TOR-like kinase 1), in Cryptococcus neoformans causing a life-threatening fungal meningoencephalitis. Both Tor1 and Tlk1 have rapamycin-binding (RB) domains but Tlk1 has truncated RB form. To study the TOR-signaling pathway in the fungal pathogen, we attempt to construct the tor1Δ and tlk1Δ mutants and phenotypically analyze them. Although we failed to construct the tor1Δ mutant, we successfully construct the tlk1Δ mutant. The tlk1Δ mutant does not exhibit any discernable phenotypes, suggesting that Tlk1 is dispensable in C. neoformans. The essentiality of TOR1 is independently confirmed by constructing the TOR1 promoter replacement strain by using a copper transporter 4 (CTR4) promoter and the TOR1/tor1 heterozygous mutant in diploid C. neoformans strain background followed by sporulation analysis. To further analyze the function of Tor1, we construct TOR1 overexpression mutant using a constitutively active histone H3 in C. neoformans. We find that the Tor1 overexpression mutant is resistant to rapamycin but the tlk1Δ mutant does not exhibit any altered resistance to rapamycin, further confirming that Tor1, but not Tlk1, is critical for TOR signaling. Furthermore, we found that Tor1 is involved in response to diverse stresses, including genotoxic stress, oxidative stress, thermo-stress, antifungal drug treatment, and production of melanin. To identify any TOR-related transcription factors, we screened C. neoformans transcription factor library that we constructed in our previous study and identified several potential downstream factors of Tor1, including Atf1, Crg1 and Bzp3. In conclusion, the current study provides insight into the role of the TOR signaling pathway in human fungal pathogens as well as C. neoformans.

Keywords: fungal pathogen, serine/threonine kinase, target of rapamycin, transcription factor

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234 Effects of Epinephrine on Gene Expressions during the Metamorphosis of Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas

Authors: Fei Xu, Guofan Zhang, Xiao Liu


Many major marine invertebrate phyla are characterized by indirect development. These animals transit from planktonic larvae to benthic adults via settlement and metamorphosis, which has many advantages for organisms to adapt marine environment. Studying the biological process of metamorphosis is thus a key to understand the origin and evolution of indirect development. Although the mechanism of metamorphosis has been largely studied on their relationships with the marine environment, microorganisms, as well as the neurohormones, little is known on the gene regulation network (GRN) during metamorphosis. We treated competent oyster pediveligers with epinephrine, which was known to be able to effectively induce oyster metamorphosis, and analyzed the dynamics of gene and proteins with transcriptomics and proteomics methods. The result indicated significant upregulation of protein synthesis system, as well as some transcription factors including Homeobox, basic helix-loop-helix, and nuclear receptors. The result suggested the GRN complexity of the transition stage during oyster metamorphosis.

Keywords: indirect development, gene regulation network, protein synthesis, transcription factors

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233 Identification of Conserved Domains and Motifs for GRF Gene Family

Authors: Jafar Ahmadi, Nafiseh Noormohammadi, Sedegeh Fabriki Ourang


GRF, Growth regulating factor, genes encode a novel class of plant-specific transcription factors. The GRF proteins play a role in the regulation of cell numbers in young and growing tissues and may act as transcription activations in growth and development of plants. Identification of GRF genes and their expression are important in plants to performance of the growth and development of various organs. In this study, to better understanding the structural and functional differences of GRFs family, 45 GRF proteins sequences in A. thaliana, Z. mays, O. sativa, B. napus, B. rapa, H. vulgare, and S. bicolor, have been collected and analyzed through bioinformatics data mining. As a result, in secondary structure of GRFs, the number of alpha helices was more than beta sheets and in all of them QLQ domains were completely in the biggest alpha helix. In all GRFs, QLQ, and WRC domains were completely protected except in AtGRF9. These proteins have no trans-membrane domain and due to have nuclear localization signals act in nuclear and they are component of unstable proteins in the test tube.

Keywords: domain, gene family, GRF, motif

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232 Stress-Controlled Senescence and Development in Arabidopsis thaliana by Root Associated Factor (RAF), a NAC Transcription Regulator

Authors: Iman Kamranfar, Gang-Ping Xue, Salma Balazadeh, Bernd Mueller-Roeber


Adverse environmental conditions such as salinity stress, high temperature and drought limit plant growth and typically lead to precocious tissue degeneration and leaf senescence, a process by which nutrients from photosynthetic organs are recycled for the formation of flowers and seeds to secure reaching the next generation under such harmful conditions. In addition, abiotic stress affects developmental patterns that help the plant to withstand unfavourable environmental conditions. We discovered an NAC (for NAM, ATAF1, 2, and CUC2) transcription factor (TF), called RAF in the following, which plays a central role in abiotic drought stress-triggered senescence and the control of developmental adaptations to stressful environments. RAF is an ABA-responsive TF; RAF overexpressors are hypersensitive to abscisic acid (ABA) and exhibit precocious senescence while knock-out mutants show delayed senescence. To explore the RAF gene regulatory network (GRN), we determined its preferred DNA binding sites by binding site selection assay (BSSA) and performed microarray-based expression profiling using inducible RAF overexpression lines and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-PCR. Our studies identified several direct target genes, including those encoding for catabolic enzymes acting during stress-induced senescence. Furthermore, we identified various genes controlling drought stress-related developmental changes. Based on our results, we conclude that RAF functions as a central transcriptional regulator that coordinates developmental programs with stress-related inputs from the environment. To explore the potential agricultural applications of our findings, we are currently extending our studies towards crop species.

Keywords: abiotic stress, Arabidopsis, development, transcription factor

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231 The Subcellular Localisation of EhRRP6 and Its Involvement in Pre-Ribosomal RNA Processing in Growth-Stressed Entamoeba histolytica

Authors: S. S. Singh, A. Bhattacharya, S. Bhattacharya


The eukaryotic exosome complex plays a pivotal role in RNA biogenesis, maturation, surveillance and differential expression of various RNAs in response to varying environmental signals. The exosome is composed of evolutionary conserved nine core subunits and the associated exonucleases Rrp6 and Rrp44. Rrp6p is crucial for the processing of rRNAs, other non-coding RNAs, regulation of polyA tail length and termination of transcription. Rrp6p, a 3’-5’ exonuclease is required for degradation of 5’-external transcribed spacer (ETS) released from the rRNA precursors during the early steps of pre-rRNA processing. In the parasitic protist Entamoeba histolytica in response to growth stress, there occurs the accumulation of unprocessed pre-rRNA and 5’ ETS sub fragment. To understand the processes leading to this accumulation, we looked for Rrp6 and the exosome subunits in E. histolytica, by in silico approaches. Of the nine core exosomal subunits, seven had high percentage of sequence similarity with the yeast and human. The EhRrp6 homolog contained exoribonuclease and HRDC domains like yeast but its N- terminus lacked the PMC2NT domain. EhRrp6 complemented the temperature sensitive phenotype of yeast rrp6Δ cells suggesting conservation of biological activity. We showed 3’-5’ exoribonuclease activity of EhRrp6p with in vitro-synthesized appropriate RNAs substrates. Like the yeast enzyme, EhRrp6p degraded unstructured RNA, but could degrade the stem-loops slowly. Furthermore, immunolocalization revealed that EhRrp6 was nuclear-localized in normal cells but was diminished from nucleus during serum starvation, which could explain the accumulation of 5’ETS during stress. Our study shows functional conservation of EhRrp6p in E.histolytica, an early-branching eukaryote, and will help to understand the evolution of exosomal components and their regulatory function.

Keywords: entamoeba histolytica, exosome complex, rRNA processing, Rrp6

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230 Molecular Cloning of CSP2s, PBP1 and PBP2 Genes of Rhyzopertha dominica

Authors: Suliman A. I. Ali, Mory Mandiana Diakite, Saqib Ali, Man-Qun Wang


Lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, is a causing damages of stored grains all tropical and subtropical area in the global, according to the information of antenna cDNA library of R. dominica, three olfactory protein genes, including R.domica CSPs2, R.domica PBPs1, R.domica PBPs2 genes (GenBank accessions are KJ186798.1, KJ186830.1, KJ186831.1 separately.), were successfully cloned. For sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, R.domica CSPs1 and R.domica CSPs2 belonged to Minus-C CSPs showed that have 4 conserved cysteine residues, while R.domica PBPs1 and R.domica PBPs2 showed conserved amino acids in all PBPs six conserved cysteine residues. The results of transcription expression level of PBPs1 and PBPs2 of R. dominica showed that the expression level of R.domnica PBP2 is much higher than that of R.domnica PBP1. The variation transcription level at the different developmental time suggested the PBP1, and PBP2 had their particular job in searching food sources, mates and oviposition sites.

Keywords: Rhyzopertha dominica, CSPs, PBPs, molecular cloning

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229 Construction and Cross-Linking of Polyelectrolyte Multilayers Based on Polysaccharides as Antifouling Coatings

Authors: Wenfa Yu, Thuva Gnanasampanthan, John Finlay, Jessica Clarke, Charlotte Anderson, Tony Clare, Axel Rosenhahn


Marine biofouling is a worldwide problem at vast economic and ecological costs. Historically it was combated with toxic coatings such as tributyltin. As those coatings being banned nowadays, finding environmental friendly antifouling solution has become an urgent topic. In this study antifouling coatings consisted of natural occurring polysaccharides hyaluronic acid (HA), alginic acid (AA), chitosan (Ch) and polyelectrolyte polyethylenimine (PEI) are constructed into polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) in a Layer-by-Layer (LbL) method. LbL PEM construction is a straightforward way to assemble biomacromolecular coatings on surfaces. Advantages about PEM include ease of handling, highly diverse PEM composition, precise control over the thickness and so on. PEMs have been widely employed in medical application and there are numerous studies regarding their protein adsorption, elasticity and cell adhesive properties. With the adjustment of coating composition, termination layer charge, coating morphology and cross-linking method, it is possible to prepare low marine biofouling coatings with PEMs. In this study, using spin coating technology, PEM construction was achieved at smooth multilayers with roughness as low as 2nm rms and highly reproducible thickness around 50nm. To obtain stability in sea water, the multilayers were covalently cross-linked either thermally or chemically. The cross-linking method affected surface energy, which was reflected in water contact angle, thermal cross-linking led to hydrophobic surfaces and chemical cross-linking generated hydrophilic surfaces. The coatings were then evaluated regarding its protein resistance and biological species resistance. While the hydrophobic thermally cross-linked PEM had low resistance towards proteins, the resistance of chemically cross-linked PEM strongly depended on the PEM termination layer and the charge of the protein, opposite charge caused high adsorption and same charge low adsorption, indicating electrostatic interaction plays a crucial role in the protein adsorption processes. Ulva linza was chosen as the biological species for antifouling performance evaluation. Despite of the poor resistance towards protein adsorption, thermally cross-linked PEM showed good resistance against Ulva spores settlement, the chemically cross-linked multilayers showed poor resistance regardless of the termination layer. Marine species adhesion is a complex process, although it involves proteins as bioadhesives, protein resistance its own is not a fully indicator for its antifouling performance. The species will pre select the surface, responding to cues like surface energy, chemistry, or charge and so on. Thus making it difficult for one single factors to determine its antifouling performance. Preparing PEM coating is a comprehensive work involving choosing polyelectrolyte combination, determining termination layer and the method for cross-linking. These decisions will affect PEM properties such as surface energy, charge, which is crucial, since biofouling is a process responding to surface properties in a highly sensitive and dynamic way.

Keywords: hyaluronic acid, polyelectrolyte multilayers, protein resistance, Ulva linza zoospores

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228 The Role of Estradiol-17β and Type IV Collagen on the Regulation and Expression Level Of C-Erbb2 RNA and Protein in SKOV-3 Ovarian Cancer Cell Line

Authors: Merry Meryam Martgrita, Marselina Irasonia Tan


One of several aggresive cancer is cancer that overexpress c-erbB2 receptor along with the expression of estrogen receptor. Components of extracellular matrix play an important role to increase cancer cells proliferation, migration and invasion. Both components can affect cancer development by regulating the signal transduction pathways in cancer cells. In recent research, SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cell line, that overexpress c-erbB2 receptor was cultured on type IV collagen and treated with estradiol-17β, to reveal the role of both components on RNA and protein level of c-erbB2 receptor. In this research we found a modulation phenomena of increasing and decreasing of c-erbB2 RNA level and a stabilisation phenomena of c-erbB2 protein expression due to estradiol-17β and type IV collagen. It seemed that estradiol-17β has an important role to increase c-erbB2 transcription and the stability of c-erbB2 protein expression. Type IV collagen has an opposite role. It blocked c-erbB2 transcription when it bound to integrin receptor in SKOV-3 cells.

Keywords: c-erbB2, estradiol-17β, SKOV-3, type IV collagen

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227 Comparative Functional Analysis of Two Major Sterol-Biosynthesis Regulating Transcription Factors, Hob1 and Sre1, in Pathogenic Cryptococcus Species Complex

Authors: Dong-Gi Lee, Suyeon Cha, Yong-Sun Bahn


Sterol lipid is essential for cell membrane structure in eukaryotic cells. In mammalian cells, sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) act as principal regulators of cellular cholesterol which is essential for proper cell membrane fluidity and structure. SREBP and sterol regulation are related to levels of cellular oxygen because it is a major substrate for sterol synthesis. Upon cellular sterol and oxygen levels are depleted, SREBP is translocated to the Golgi where it undergoes proteolytic cleavage of N terminus, then it travels to the nucleus to play a role as transcription factor. In yeast cells, synthesis of ergosterol is also highly oxygen consumptive, and Sre1 is a transcription factor known to play a central role in adaptation to growth under low oxygen condition and sterol homeostasis in Cryptococcus neoformans. In this study, we observed phenotypes in other strains of Cryptococcus species by constructing hob1Δ and sre1Δ mutants to confirm whether the functions of both genes are conserved in most serotypes. As a result, hob1Δ showed no noticeable phenotype under treatment of antifungal drugs and most environmental stresses in R265 (C. gattii) and XL280 (C. neoformans), suggesting that Hob1 is related to sterol regulation only in H99 (serotype A). On the other hand, the function of Sre1 was found to be conserved in most serotypes. Furthermore, mating experiment of hob1Δ or sre1Δ showed dramatic defects in serotype A (H99) and D (XL280). It revealed that Hob1 and Sre1 related to mating ability in Cryptococcus species, especially cell fusion efficiency. In conclusion, HOB1 and SRE1 play crucial role in regulating sterol-homeostasis and differentiation in C. neoformans, moreover, Hob1 is specific gene in Cryptococcus neoformans. It suggests that Hob1 is considered as potent factor-targeted new safety antifungal drug.

Keywords: cryptococcus neoformans, Hob1, Sre1, sterol regulatory element binding proteins

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