Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: Noriyuki Fujikado

8 Aire-Dependent Transcripts have Shortened 3’UTRs and Show Greater Stability by Evading Microrna-Mediated Repression

Authors: Clotilde Guyon, Nada Jmari, Yen-Chin Li, Jean Denoyel, Noriyuki Fujikado, Christophe Blanchet, David Root, Matthieu Giraud

Abstract:

Aire induces ectopic expression of a large repertoire of tissue-specific antigen (TSA) genes in thymic medullary epithelial cells (MECs), driving immunological self-tolerance in maturing T cells. Although important mechanisms of Aire-induced transcription have recently been disclosed through the identification and the study of Aire’s partners, the fine transcriptional functions underlied by a number of them and conferred to Aire are still unknown. Alternative cleavage and polyadenylation (APA) is an essential mRNA processing step regulated by the termination complex consisting of 85 proteins, 10 of them have been related to Aire. We evaluated APA in MECs in vivo by microarray analysis with mRNA-spanning probes and RNA deep sequencing. We uncovered the preference of Aire-dependent transcripts for short-3’UTR isoforms and for proximal poly(A) site selection marked by the increased binding of the cleavage factor Cstf-64. RNA interference of the 10 Aire-related proteins revealed that Clp1, a member of the core termination complex, exerts a profound effect on short 3’UTR isoform preference. Clp1 is also significantly upregulated in the MECs compared to 25 mouse tissues in which we found that TSA expression is associated with longer 3’UTR isoforms. Aire-dependent transcripts escape a global 3’UTR lengthening associated with MEC differentiation, thereby potentiating the repressive effect of microRNAs that are globally upregulated in mature MECs. Consistent with these findings, RNA deep sequencing of actinomycinD-treated MECs revealed the increased stability of short 3’UTR Aire-induced transcripts, resulting in TSA transcripts accumulation and contributing for their enrichment in the MECs.

Keywords: Aire, central tolerance, miRNAs, transcription termination

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7 Sustainability Index for REDD-Plus Implementation in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

Authors: Febrina Natalia, Noriyuki Tanaka, Mitsuru Osaki

Abstract:

Sustainability Index for REDD-plus implementation was constructed to evaluate the sustainability of different communities in 5 villages (Taruna Jaya, Tumbang Nusa, Marang, Terantang, and Seragam Jaya) in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia based on the main objectives of REDD-plus project (reducing emission from deforestation and forest degradation, increasing carbon stock, preserving biodiversity and sustaining forest management). This index was separately composed of 3 different components; (1) ecology, (2) economy, and (3) society. The index of sustainability was determined into four categories; 3,3-4,0 (excellent), 2,5-3,2 (good), 1,8-2,4 (fair), and 1,0-1,7 (poor). Overall, this technique aims to assist all stakeholders and local government in particular in providing information of villages’ sustainability index before implementing REDD-plus project that the assistance and benefits given to villages will be beneficial, effective and efficient.

Keywords: central kalimantan, Indonesia, REDD-plus, sustainability index

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6 Effect of Bamboo Chips in Cemented Sand Soil on Permeability and Mechanical Properties in Triaxial Compression

Authors: Sito Ismanti, Noriyuki Yasufuku

Abstract:

Cement utilization to improve the properties of soil is a well-known method applied in field. However, its addition in large quantity must be controlled. This study presents utilization of natural and environmental-friendly material mixed with small amount of cement content in soil improvement, i.e. bamboo chips. Absorbability, elongation, and flatness ratio of bamboo chips were examined to investigate and understand the influence of its characteristics in the mixture. Improvement of dilation behavior as a problem of loose and poorly graded sand soil is discussed. Bamboo chips are able to improve the permeability value that affects the dilation behavior of cemented sand soil. It is proved by the stress path as the result of triaxial compression test in the undrained condition. The effect of size and content variation of bamboo chips, as well as the curing time variation are presented and discussed.  

Keywords: bamboo chips, permeability, mechanical properties, triaxial compression

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5 Improvement of Frictional Coefficient of Modified Shoe Soles onto Icy and Snowy Road by Tilting of Added Glass Fibers into Rubber

Authors: Wakayama Shunya, Okubo Kazuya, Fujii Toru, Sakata Daisuke, Kado Noriyuki, Furutachi Hiroshi

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to propose an effective method to improve frictional coefficient of modified shoe rubber soles with added glass fibers onto the icy and snowy road surfaces in order to prevent slip-and-fall accidents by the users. Added fibers in the rubber were uniformly tilted to the perpendicular direction of the frictional surface, where tilting angle was -60, -30, +30, +60, 90 degrees and 0 for usual specimen, respectively. It was found that horizontal arraignment was effective to improve the frictional coefficient when glass fibers were embedded in the shoe rubber, while the standing in normal direction of the embedded glass fibers on the shoe surface was also effective to do that once after they were exposed from the shoe rubber with its abrasion. These improvements were explained by the increase of stiffness against the shear deformation of the rubber at the critical frictional state and the enlargement of resistance force for extracting exposed fibers from the ice and snow, respectively. Current study suggested that effective arraignments in the tilting angle of the added fibers should be applied in designing rubber shoe soles to keep the safeties for uses in regions of cold climates.

Keywords: frictional coefficient, shoe soles, icy and snowy road, glass fibers, tilting angle

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4 Estimation of Consolidating Settlement Based on a Time-Dependent Skin Friction Model Considering Column Surface Roughness

Authors: Jiang Zhenbo, Ishikura Ryohei, Yasufuku Noriyuki

Abstract:

Improvement of soft clay deposits by the combination of surface stabilization and floating type cement-treated columns is one of the most popular techniques worldwide. On the basis of one dimensional consolidation model, a time-dependent skin friction model for the column-soil interaction is proposed. The nonlinear relationship between column shaft shear stresses and effective vertical pressure of the surrounding soil can be described in this model. The influence of column-soil surface roughness can be represented using a roughness coefficient R, which plays an important role in the design of column length. Based on the homogenization method, a part of floating type improved ground will be treated as an unimproved portion, which with a length of αH1 is defined as a time-dependent equivalent skin friction length. The compression settlement of this unimproved portion can be predicted only using the soft clay parameters. Apart from calculating the settlement of this composited ground, the load transfer mechanism is discussed utilizing model tests. The proposed model is validated by comparing with calculations and laboratory results of model and ring shear tests, which indicate the suitability and accuracy of the solutions in this paper.

Keywords: floating type improved foundation, time-dependent skin friction, roughness, consolidation

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3 Peat Soil Stabilization by Using Sugarcane Bagasse Ash (SCBA)

Authors: Mohd. Khaidir Abu Talib, Noriyuki Yasufuku, Ryohei Ishikura

Abstract:

It is well recognized that peat can impede the proper hydration of cement because of high organic content, presence of humic acid and less solid particles. That means the large amount of cement is required in order to neutralize the acids or otherwise the process of the peat stabilization remains retarded. Nevertheless, adding a great quantity of cement into the peat is absolutely an unfriendly and uneconomical solution. Sugarcane production is world number one commodities and produced a lot of bagasse. Bagasse is burnt to generate power required for diverse activities in the factory and leave bagasse ash as a waste. Increasing concern of disposal of bagasse residual creates interest to explore the potential application of this material. The objective of this study is to develop alternative binders that are environment friendly and contribute towards sustainable management by utilizing sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) in the stabilization of peat soil. Alongside SCBA, Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), calcium chloride (CaCl2) and silica sand (K7) were used as additives to stabilize the peat that sampled from Hokkaido, Japan. In obtaining the optimal mix design, specimens of stabilized peat were tested in unconfined compression. It was found that stabilized peat comprising 20% and 5% (PCB1-20 and PCB2-5) partial replacement of OPC with SCBA 1 and SCBA 2 attain the maximum unconfined compressive strength (UCS) and discovered greater than untreated soil (P) and UCS of peat-cement (PC) specimen. At the optimal mix design, the UCS of the stabilized peat specimens increased with increasing of curing time, preloading during curing, OPC dosage and K7 dosage. For PCB1-20 mixture, inclusion of a minimum OPC dosage of 300 kg/m3 and K7 dosage of 500 kg/m3 along with curing under 20kPa pressure is recommendable for the peat stabilization to be effective. However for PCB2-5 mixture, it suggested to use more OPC and K7 dosage or alternatively increase the preloading during curing to 40kPa in order to achieve minimum strength target. It can be concluded that SCBA 1 has better quality than SCBA 2 in peat stabilization especially the contribution made by its fine particle size.

Keywords: peat stabilization, sugarcane bagasse ash utilization, partial cement replacement, unconfined strength

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2 Effects of Covid-19 pandemic in Japan on Japanese People’s and Expatriates’ Lifestyles

Authors: Noriyuki Suyama

Abstract:

This paper looked into consumer behavioral changes by analyzing the data collected by ASMARKS Co., one of a research companies in Japan. The purpose of the paper is to understand the two differences of before vs. after COVID-19 pandemic and Japanese living in Japan. Subsequently, examining the analysis results helped obtain useful insights into new business models for business parties in Japan as a microlevel perspective. The paper also tried to explore future conditions of globalization by taking into consideration nation’s political and economic changes as a macro-level perspective. The COVID-19 has been continuing its spread across the world with more than 60 million confirmed cases in 190 countries. This pandemic with restricted scopes of behavior mandates have disrupted the consumer habits of their lifestyles. Consumers have tendency to learn new ways when they have trouble in taking routine action. For example, the government forces people to refrain from going out, they try to telecommute at home. If the situation come back to normal, people still change their lifestyles to fit in the best. Some of data show typical effects of COVID-19; forceful exposure to digitalized work-life styles; more flexible time at home; importance of trustful and useful information gathering between what's good and bad;etc. in comparison with before vs. after COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, Japanese have less changed their lifestyles than Expatriates living in Japan. For example, while 94% of the expatriates have decreased their outgo because of self-quarantine, only 55% of the Japanese have done. There are more differences in both comparisons in the analysis results. The economic downtrend resulting from COVID-19 is supposed to be at least as devastating if not more so than that of the financial crisis. With unemployment levels in the US taking two weeks to reach what took 6 months in the 2008 crisis, there is no doubt of a global recession some predict could reach 10% or above of GDP. As a result, globalization in the global supply chain of goods and services will end up with negative impact. A lot of governmental financial and economic policies are supposed to focus on their own profits and interests, exclusing other countries interests as is the case with the Recovery Act just after the global financial crisis from 2007 to 2008. Both micro- and macro-levels analysis successfully reveal important connotations and managerial implications of business in Japan for Japanese consumers as well as after COVID-19 global business.

Keywords: COVID-19, lifestyle in Japan, expatriates, consumer behavior

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1 Sugar-Induced Stabilization Effect of Protein Structure

Authors: Mitsuhiro Hirai, Satoshi Ajito, Nobutaka Shimizu, Noriyuki Igarashi, Hiroki Iwase, Shinichi Takata

Abstract:

Sugars and polyols are known to be bioprotectants preventing such as protein denaturation and enzyme deactivation and widely used as a nontoxic additive in various industrial and medical products. The mechanism of their protective actions has been explained by specific bindings between biological components and additives, changes in solvent viscosities, and surface tension and free energy changes upon transfer of those components into additive solutions. On the other hand, some organisms having tolerances against extreme environment produce stress proteins and/or accumulate sugars in cells, which is called cryptobiosis. In particular, trehalose has been drawing attention relevant to cryptobiosis under external stress such as high or low temperature, drying, osmotic pressure, and so on. The function of cryptobiosis by trehalose has been explained relevant to the restriction of the intra-and/or-inter-molecular movement by vitrification or from the replacement of water molecule by trehalose. Previous results suggest that the structure and interaction between sugar and water are a key determinant for understanding cryptobiosis. Recently, we have shown direct evidence that the protein hydration (solvation) and structural stability against chemical and thermal denaturation significantly depend on sugar species and glycerol. Sugar and glycerol molecules tend to be preferentially or weakly excluded from the protein surface and preserved the native protein hydration shell. Due to the protective action of the protein hydration shell by those molecules, the protein structure is stabilized against chemical (guanidinium chloride) and thermal denaturation. The protective action depends on sugar species. To understand the above trend and difference in detail, it is essentially important to clarify the characteristics of solutions containing those additives. In this study, by using wide-angle X-ray scattering technique covering a wide spatial region (~3-120 Å), we have clarified structures of sugar solutions with the concentration from 5% w/w to 65% w/w. The sugars measured in the present study were monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, mannose) and disaccharides (sucrose, trehalose, maltose). Due to observed scattering data with a wide spatial resolution, we have succeeded in obtaining information on the internal structure of individual sugar molecules and on the correlation between them. Every sugar gradually shortened the average inter-molecular distance as the concentration increased. The inter-molecular interaction between sugar molecules was essentially showed an exclusive tendency for every sugar, which appeared as the presence of a repulsive correlation hole. This trend was more weakly seen for trehalose compared to other sugars. The intermolecular distance and spread of individual molecule clearly showed the dependence of sugar species. We will discuss the relation between the characteristic of sugar solution and its protective action of biological materials.

Keywords: hydration, protein, sugar, X-ray scattering

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