Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Search results for: Jin-Ho Choy

15 Postharvest Losses and Handling Improvement of Organic Pak-Choi and Choy Sum

Authors: Pichaya Poonlarp, Danai Boonyakiat, C. Chuamuangphan, M. Chanta

Abstract:

Current consumers’ behavior trends have changed towards more health awareness, the well-being of society and interest of nature and environment. The Royal Project Foundation is, therefore, well aware of organic agriculture. The project only focused on using natural products and utilizing its highland biological merits to increase resistance to diseases and insects for the produce grown. The project also brought in basic knowledge from a variety of available research information, including, but not limited to, improvement of soil fertility and a control of plant insects with biological methods in order to lay a foundation in developing and promoting farmers to grow quality produce with a high health safety. This will finally lead to sustainability for future highland agriculture and a decrease of chemical use on the highland area which is a source of natural watershed. However, there are still shortcomings of the postharvest management in term of quality and losses, such as bruising, rottenness, wilting and yellowish leaves. These losses negatively affect the maintenance and a shelf life of organic vegetables. Therefore, it is important that a research study of the appropriate and effective postharvest management is conducted for an individual organic vegetable to minimize product loss and find root causes of postharvest losses which would contribute to future postharvest management best practices. This can be achieved through surveys and data collection from postharvest processes in order to conduct analysis for causes of postharvest losses of organic pak-choi, baby pak-choi, and choy sum. Consequently, postharvest losses reduction strategies of organic vegetables can be achieved. In this study, postharvest losses of organic pak choi, baby pak-choi, and choy sum were determined at each stage of the supply chain starting from the field after harvesting, at the Development Center packinghouse, at Chiang Mai packinghouse, at Bangkok packing house and at the Royal Project retail shop in Chiang Mai. The results showed that postharvest losses of organic pak-choi, baby pak-choi, and choy sum were 86.05, 89.05 and 59.03 percent, respectively. The main factors contributing to losses of organic vegetables were due to mechanical damage and underutilized parts and/or short of minimum quality standard. Good practices had been developed after causes of losses were identified. Appropriate postharvest handling and management, for example, temperature control, hygienic cleaning, and reducing the duration of the supply chain, postharvest losses of all organic vegetables should be able to remarkably reduced postharvest losses in the supply chain.

Keywords: postharvest losses, organic vegetables, handling improvement, shelf life, supply chain

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14 Effects of Malachite Green Contaminated Water on Production of Pak Choy and Chinese Convolvulus

Authors: N. Piwpuan, J. Tosalee, N. Phonkerd

Abstract:

Malachite green (MG), a synthetic dye, is used in industries and aquaculture and also disposed in the effluent. Use of wastewater in irrigation increases due to water shortage. However, wastewater containing dyes, MG, are toxic to biological systems. Therefore, effects of MG on growth of vegetables were evaluated in order to utilize dye-contaminated wastewater for irrigation. In this study, Pak choy (Brassica chinensis) and Chinese convolvulus (Ipomoea aquatica) were grown in growing material (mixture of soil, coconut fiber, and compost) for four weeks and afterward kept watering with 200 ml of tap water containing MG at the concentrations of 0 (control), 1, 2, 10, and 20 mg/L. At harvest, number of leaf and shoot and root dry weight of the treated plants were measured and compared with control. For both species, their biomass values were similar among treatments and did not differ from the control plants (dry weight were 0.6-1.0 and 1.1-1.7 g/plant for B. chinensis and I. aquatica, respectively). B. chinensis treated with 2, 10, and 20 mg/L of MG produced lower number of new leaf and had smaller and shorter leaf compared to control and treatment of 1 mg/L. These results indicate the different responses between plant species, which B. chinensis is more sensitive to contaminant compared to I. aquatica. There was no sign of MG and leucomalachite green (LMG) detected in root and shoot tissues of plants treated with MG at 20 mg/L, tested by thin layer chromatography. After plant harvest, toxicity of the growing material from all treatments was tested on mung beans. Percent germination (83-97%), seedling fresh weight (0.3-0.5 g/plant), and shoot length (11-12.5 cm) were similar to the control. These indicated that contaminant in growing material did not pose detrimental effect on mung beans. Based on these results, the water contaminated with low concentration of MG, such as discharge from aquaculture, may serve as ferti-irrigation water to compensate water shortage.

Keywords: ferti-irrigation, soil toxicity, triphenylmethane dye, wastewater reuse

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13 Scope of Lasers in Periodontics

Authors: Atmaja Patel

Abstract:

Since the development of lasers in 1951, the first medical application was reported by Goldman in 1962. In 1960, T.H. Maiman produced the first Ruby laser and was used in cardiovascular surgery by McGuff in 1963. After a long time of investigations and new developments in laser technology first clinical applications were performed by Choy and Ginsburg in 1983. Introduction of the first true dental laser was in 1989. This paper is to highlight the various treatments and prevention of periodontal diseases. Lasers have become more predictable and effective form of treatment for periodontal diseases. The advantages of lasers include reduced use of anaesthesia, coagulation that yields a dry surgical field and hence better visibility, reduced need of sutures, minimal swelling and scarring, less pain and medication, faster healing and increased patient acceptance.

Keywords: lasers, periodontal surgery, diode laser, healing

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12 An Analytical Study on the Vibration Reduction Method of Railway Station Using TPU

Authors: Jinho Hur, Minjung Shin, Heekyu Kim

Abstract:

In many places, new railway constructions in the city are being used to build a viaduct station to take advantage of the space below the line, for difficulty of securing railway site and disconnections of areas. The space under the viaduct has limited to use by noise and vibration. In order to use it for various purposes, reducing noise and vibration is required. The vibration reduction method for new structures is recently developed enough to use as accommodation, but the reduction method for existing structures is still far-off. In this study, it suggests vibration reduction method by filling vibration reduction material to column members which is path of structure-bone-noise from trains run. Because most of railroad stations are reinforced concrete structures. It compares vibration reduction of station applied the method and original station by FEM analysis. As a result, reduction of vibration acceleration level in bandwidth 15~30Hz can be reduced. Therefore, using this method for viaduct railroad station, vibration of station is expected to be reduced.

Keywords: structure borne noise, TPU, viaduct rail station, vibration reduction method

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11 The Relationships between How and Why Students Learn and Academic Achievement

Authors: S. Chee Choy, Daljeet Singh Sedhu

Abstract:

This study examines the relationships between how and why students learned and academic achievement for 2646 university students from various faculties. The LALQ, a self-report measure of student approaches to learning was administered and academic achievement data were obtained from student CGPA. The results showed significant differences in the approach to learning of male and female students. How and why students learned can influence their achievement and efficacy as well. High and low achievers have different learning behaviours. High female achievers were more likely to learn for a better future and be persistent in it. Meanwhile high male achievers were more likely to seek approval from their peers and be more confident about graduating on time from their university. The implications of individual differences and limitations of the study are discussed.

Keywords: student learning, learner awareness, student achievement, LALQ

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10 Topical Delivery of Griseofulvin via Lipid Nanoparticles

Authors: Yann Jean Tan, Hui Meng Er, Choy Sin Lee, Shew Fung Wong, Wen Huei Lim

Abstract:

Griseofulvin is a long standing fungistatic agent against dermatophytosis. Nevertheless, it has several drawbacks such as poor and highly variable bio availability, long duration of treatment, systemic side effects and drug interactions. Targeted treatment for the superficial skin infection, dermatophytosis via topical route could be beneficial. Nevertheless, griseofulvin is only available in the form of oral preparation. Hence, it generates interest in developing a topical formulation for griseofulvin, by using lipid nano particle as the vehicle. Lipid nanoparticle is a submicron colloidal carrier with a core that is solid in nature (lipid). It has combined advantages of various traditional carriers and is a promising vehicle for topical delivery. The griseofulvin loaded lipid nano particles produced using high pressure homogenization method were characterized and investigated for its skin targeting effect in vitro. It has a mean particle size of 179.8±4.9 nm with polydispersity index of 0.306±0.011. Besides, it showed higher skin permeation and better skin targeting effect compared to the griseofulvin suspension.

Keywords: lipid nanoparticles, griseofulvin, topical, dermatophytosis

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9 Pilot Study of the Psychometric Properties of the Test of Predisposition towards the Bullying

Authors: Rosana Choy, Fabiola Henostroza

Abstract:

Actual theory suggests social-ecological factors as the main framework of bullying. Most previous research in this phenomenon is focused on the identification of bullying attitudes and conducts in puberty and adolescence periods. For this reason, this study is considered as a contribution to the existing knowledge in measuring matters, because of its non-traditional way of evaluation (graphic items), and because of its approach to a distinctive age group, children from 7 to 9 years-old, not regularly examined in current studies in this field. The research used a transversal descriptive investigation design for the development of a graphic test for bullying predisposition. The process began with the operationalization of the variable bullying predisposition, the structuring of the factors and variable indicators of a pilot instrument, evaluation by experts of the items representation, and finally it continued with the test application to children of two types of regular school population in Lima-Peru: private and public schools. The reliability level was 0.85 and the validity of the test corroborated the three-factor structure proposed by the researchers.

Keywords: bullying, graphic test, reliability, validity

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8 Learner Awareness Levels Questionnaire: Development and Preliminary Validation of the English and Malay Versions to Measure How and Why Students Learn

Authors: S. Chee Choy, Pauline Swee Choo Goh, Yow Lin Liew

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the English version and a Malay translation of the 21-item Learner Awareness Questionnaire for its application to assess student learning in higher education. The Learner Awareness Questionnaire, originally written in English, is a quantitative measure of how and why students learn. The questionnaire gives an indication of the process and motives to learn using four scales: survival, establishing stability, approval, and loving to learn. Data in the present study came from 680 university students enrolled in various programs in Malaysia. The Malay version of the questionnaire supported a similar four-factor structure and internal consistency to the English version. The four factors of the Malay version also showed moderate to strong correlations with those of the English versions. The results suggest that the Malay version of the questionnaire is similar to the English version. However, further refinement for the questions is needed to strengthen the correlations between the two questionnaires.

Keywords: student learning, learner awareness, questionnaire development, instrument validation

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7 Enhanced Energy Powers via Composites of Piezoelectric CH₃NH₃PbI₃ and Flexoelectric Zn-Al:Layered Double Hydroxides (LDH) Nanosheets

Authors: Soon-Gil Yoon, Min-Ju Choi, Sung-Ho Shin, Junghyo Nah, Jin-Seok Choi, Hyun-A Song, Goeun Choi, Jin-Ho Choy

Abstract:

Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with positively charged brucite-like layers and negatively charged interlayer anions are considered a critical nanoscale building block with potential for application in catalysts, biological sensors, and optical, electrical, and magnetic devices. LDHs also have a great potential as an energy conversion device, a key component in common modern electronics. Although LDHs are theoretically predicted to be centrosymmetric, we report here the first observations of the flexoelectric nature of LDHs and demonstrate their potential as an effective energy conversion material. We clearly show a linear energy conversion relationship between the output powers and curvature radius via bending with both the LDH nanosheets and thin films, revealing a direct evidence for flexoelectric effects. These findings potentially open up avenues to incorporate a flexoelectric coupling phenomenon into centrosymmetric materials such as LDHs and to harvest high-power energy using LDH nanosheets. In the present study, for enhancement of the output power, Zn-Al:LDH nanosheets were composited with piezoelectric CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) dye films and their enhanced energy harvesting was demonstrated in detail.

Keywords: layered double hydroxides, flexoelectric, piezoelectric, energy harvesting

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6 Blood Analysis of Diarrheal Calves Using Portable Blood Analyzer: Analysis of Calves by Age

Authors: Kwangman Park, Jinhee Kang, Suhee Kim, Dohyeon Yu, Kyoungseong Choi, Jinho Park

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: Diarrhea is a major cause of death in young calves. This causes great economic damage to the livestock industry. These diarrhea cause dehydration, decrease blood flow, lower the pH and degrade enzyme function. In the past, serum screening was not possible in the field. However, now with the spread of portable serum testing devices, it is now possible to conduct tests directly on field. Thus, accurate serological changes can be identified and used in the field of large animals. Methodology and Theoretical Orientation: The test groups were calves from 1 to 44 days old. The status of the feces was divided into four grade to determine the severity of diarrhea (grade 0,1,2,3). Grade 0, 1 is considered to have no diarrhea. Grade 2, 3 is considered to diarrhea positive group. One or more viruses were detected in this group. Diarrhea negasitive group consisted of 57 calves (Asan=30, Samrye=27). Diarrhea positive group consisted of 34 calves (Kimje=27, Geochang=7). The feces of all calves were analyzed by PCR Test. Blood sample was measured using an automatic blood analyzer(i-STAT, Abbott inc. Illinois, US). Calves were divided into 3 groups according to age. Group 1 is 1 to 14 days old. Group 2 is 15 to 28 days old. Group 3 is more than 28 days old. Findings: Diarrhea caused an increase in HCT due to dehydration. The difference from normal was highest in 15 to 28 days old (p < 0.01). At all ages, bicarbonate decreased compared to normal, and therefore pH decreased. Similar to HCT, the largest difference was observed between 15 and 28 days (p < 0.01). The pCO₂ decreases to compensate for the decrease in pH. Conclusion and Significance: At all ages, HCT increases, and bicarbonate, pH, and pCO₂ decrease in diarrhea calves. The calf from 15 days to 28 days shows the most difference from normal. Over 28 days of age, weight gain and homeostasis ability increase, diarrhea is seen in the stool, there are fewer hematologic changes than groups below 28 days of age.

Keywords: calves, diarrhea, hematological changes, i-STAT

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5 Health Care Providers' Perceptions on mHealth Workplace Nutrition Wellness Program: A Thematic Analysis

Authors: Kim H. K. Choy, Oliva H. K. Chu, W. Y. Keung, B. Lim, Winnie P. Y. Tang

Abstract:

Background: Health care providers have been identified as an at-risk group for obesity. Mobile health technology can be used to motivate lifestyle behavioral changes. The aim of this study was to investigate hospital-based health care providers’ perceptions of mHealth Workplace Nutrition Wellness Program. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted at a regional hospital in Hong Kong. Ten health care providers were purposively selected for the study. Qualitative data was collected by individual face-to-face semi-structured interviews which were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim and analyzed by thematic analysis. Results: Four themes were identified: (1) mobile health technology motivates lifestyle changes, (2) self-perceived body weight initiates health behavioral changes, (3) organizational support promotes healthy behavior, (4) lack of self-confidence hinders lifestyle modification. The health care providers’ perceptions of mobile health technology, barriers, and facilitators to participation in the mHealth Workplace Nutrition Wellness Program were discussed in the study. Conclusions: Barriers, facilitators, self-perceived body weight and experiences of mobile health technology were associated with intention of participation in mHealth Workplace Nutrition Wellness Program. The knowledge generated from the study could be used to guide the design and implementation of effective interventions, strategies and policies of workplace wellness programs to promote participation for hospital’s employees.

Keywords: workplace wellness program, mobile health, barriers, facilitators, qualitative

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4 Comparison of Serum Protein Fraction between Healthy and Diarrhea Calf by Electrophoretogram

Authors: Jinhee Kang, Kwangman Park, Ruhee Song, Suhee Kim, Do-Hyeon Yu, Kyoungseong Choi, Jinho Park

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: Animal blood components maintain homeostasis when animals are healthy, and changes in chemical composition of the blood and body fluids can be observed if animals have a disease. In particular, newborn calves are susceptible to disease and therefore hematologic tests and serum chemistry tests could become an important guideline to the diagnosis and the treatment of diseases. Diarrhea in newborn calves is the most damaging to cattle ranch, whether dairy or cattle fattening, and is a large part of calf atrophy and death. However, since the study on calf electrophoresis was not carried out, a survey analysis was conducted on it. Methodology and Theoretical Orientation: The calves were divided into healthy calves and disease (diarrhea) calves, and calves were classified by 1-14d, 15-28d, and more than 28d, respectively. The fecal state was classified by solid (0-value), semi-solid (1-value), loose (2-value) and watery (3-value). In the solid (0-value) and semi-solid (1-value) feces valuable pathogen was not detected, but loose (2-value) and watery (3-value) feces were detected. Findings: ALB, α-1, α-2, α-SUM, β and γ (Gamma) were examined by electrophoresis analysis of healthy calves and diarrhea calves. Test results showed that there were age differences between healthy calves and diarrheic calves. When we look at the γ-globulin at 1-14 days of age, we can see that the average calf of healthy calves is 16.8% and the average of diarrheal calves is 7.7%, when we look at the figures for the α-2 at 1-14 days, we found that healthy calves average 5.2% and diarrheal calves 8.7% higher than healthy cows. On α-1, 15-28 days, and after 28 days, healthy calves average 10.4% and diarrheal calves average 7.5% diarrhea calves were 12.6% and 12.4% higher than healthy calves. In the α-SUM, the healthy calves were 21.6%, 16.8%, and 14.5%, respectively, after 1-14 days, 15-28 days and 28 days. diarrheal calves were 23.1%, 19.5%, and 19.8%. Conclusion and Significance: In this study, we examined the electrophoresis results of healthy calves and diseased (diarrhea) calves, gamma globulin at 1-14 days of age were lower than those of healthy calves (diarrhea), indicating that the calf was unable to consume colostrum from the mother when it was a new calf. α-1, α-2, α-SUM may be associated with an acute inflammatory response as a result of increased levels of calves with diarrhea (diarrhea). Further research is needed to investigate the effects of acute inflammatory responses on additional calf-forming proteins. Information on the results of the electrophoresis test will be provided where necessary according to the item.

Keywords: alpha, electrophoretogram, serum protein, γ, gamma

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3 A Nutritional Wellness Program for Overweight Health Care Providers in Hospital Setting: A Randomized Controlled Trial Pilot Study

Authors: Kim H. K. Choy, Oliva H. K. Chu, W. Y. Keung, B. Lim, Winnie P. Y. Tang

Abstract:

Background: The prevalence of workplace obesity is rising worldwide; therefore, the workplace is an ideal venue to implement weight control intervention. This pilot randomized controlled trial aimed to develop, implement, and evaluate a nutritional wellness program for obese health care providers working in a hospital. Methods: This hospital-based nutritional wellness program was an 8-week pilot randomized controlled trial for obese health care providers. The primary outcomes were body weight and body mass index (BMI). The secondary outcomes were serum fasting glucose, fasting cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density (HDL) and low-density (LDL) lipoprotein, body fat percentage, and body mass. Participants were randomly assigned to the intervention (n = 20) or control (n = 22) group. Participants in both groups received individual nutrition counselling and nutrition pamphlets, whereas only participants in the intervention group were given mobile phone text messages. Results: 42 participants completed the study. In comparison with the control group, the intervention group showed approximately 0.98 kg weight reduction after two months. Participants in intervention group also demonstrated clinically significant improvement in BMI, serum cholesterol level, and HDL level. There was no improvement of body fat percentage and body mass for both intervention and control groups. Conclusion: The nutritional wellness program for obese health care providers was feasible in hospital settings. Health care providers demonstrated short-term weight loss, decrease in serum fasting cholesterol level, and HDL level after completing the program.

Keywords: weight management, weight control, health care providers, hospital

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2 Human Resource Management Practices and Employee Retention in Public Higher Learning Institutions in the Maldives

Authors: Shaheeb Abdul Azeez, Siong-Choy Chong

Abstract:

Background: Talent retention is increasingly becoming a major challenge for many industries due to the high turnover rate. Public higher learning institutions in the Maldives have a similar situation with the turnover of their employees'. This paper is to identify whether Human Resource Management (HRM) practices have any impact on employee retention in public higher learning institutions in the Maldives. Purpose: This paper aims to identify the influence of HRM practices on employee retention in public higher learning institutions in the Maldives. A total of 15 variables used in this study; 11 HRM practices as independent variables (leadership, rewards, salary, employee participation, compensation, training and development, career development, recognition, appraisal system and supervisor support); job satisfaction and motivation as mediating variables; demographic profile as moderating variable and employee retention as dependent variable. Design/Methodology/Approach: A structured self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. A total of 300 respondents were selected as the study sample, representing the academic and administrative from public higher learning institutions using a stratified random sampling method. AMOS was used to test the hypotheses constructed. Findings: The results suggest that there is no direct effect between the independent variable and dependent variable. Also, the study concludes that no moderate effects of demographic profile between independent and dependent variables. However, the mediating effects of job satisfaction and motivation in the relationship between HRM practices and employee retention were significant. Salary had a significant influence on job satisfaction, whilst both compensation and recognition have significant influence on motivation. Job satisfaction and motivation were also found to significantly influence employee retention. Research Limitations: The study consists of many variables more time consuming for the respondents to answer the questionnaire. The study is focussed only on public higher learning institutions in the Maldives due to no participation from the private sector higher learning institutions. Therefore, the researcher is unable to identify the actual situation of the higher learning industry in the Maldives. Originality/Value: To our best knowledge, no study has been conducted using the same framework throughout the world. This study is the initial study conducted in the Maldives in this study area and can be used as a baseline for future researches. But there are few types of research conducted on the same subject throughout the world. Some of them concluded with positive findings while others with negative findings. Also, they have used 4 to 7 HRM practices as their study framework.

Keywords: human resource management practices, employee retention, motivation, job satisfaction

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1 Integration of a Protective Film to Enhance the Longevity and Performance of Miniaturized Ion Sensors

Authors: Antonio Ruiz Gonzalez, Kwang-Leong Choy

Abstract:

The measurement of electrolytes has a high value in the clinical routine. Ions are present in all body fluids with variable concentrations and are involved in multiple pathologies such as heart failures and chronic kidney disease. In the case of dissolved potassium, although a high concentration in the blood (hyperkalemia) is relatively uncommon in the general population, it is one of the most frequent acute electrolyte abnormalities. In recent years, the integration of thin films technologies in this field has allowed the development of highly sensitive biosensors with ultra-low limits of detection for the assessment of metals in liquid samples. However, despite the current efforts in the miniaturization of sensitive devices and their integration into portable systems, only a limited number of successful examples used commercially can be found. This fact can be attributed to a high cost involved in their production and the sustained degradation of the electrodes over time, which causes a signal drift in the measurements. Thus, there is an unmet necessity for the development of low-cost and robust sensors for the real-time monitoring of analyte concentrations in patients to allow the early detection and diagnosis of diseases. This paper reports a thin film ion-selective sensor for the evaluation of potassium ions in aqueous samples. As an alternative for this fabrication method, aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD), was applied due to cost-effectivity and fine control over the film deposition. Such a technique does not require vacuum and is suitable for the coating of large surface areas and structures with complex geometries. This approach allowed the fabrication of highly homogeneous surfaces with well-defined microstructures onto 50 nm thin gold layers. The degradative processes of the ubiquitously employed poly (vinyl chloride) membranes in contact with an electrolyte solution were studied, including the polymer leaching process, mechanical desorption of nanoparticles and chemical degradation over time. Rational design of a protective coating based on an organosilicon material in combination with cellulose to improve the long-term stability of the sensors was then carried out, showing an improvement in the performance after 5 weeks. The antifouling properties of such coating were assessed using a cutting-edge quartz microbalance sensor, allowing the quantification of the adsorbed proteins in the nanogram range. A correlation between the microstructural properties of the films with the surface energy and biomolecules adhesion was then found and used to optimize the protective film.

Keywords: hyperkalemia, drift, AACVD, organosilicon

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