Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1374

Search results for: Internet purchases

1374 Internet Purchases in European Union Countries: Multiple Linear Regression Approach

Authors: Ksenija Dumičić, Anita Čeh Časni, Irena Palić

Abstract:

This paper examines economic and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) development influence on recently increasing Internet purchases by individuals for European Union member states. After a growing trend for Internet purchases in EU27 was noticed, all possible regression analysis was applied using nine independent variables in 2011. Finally, two linear regression models were studied in detail. Conducted simple linear regression analysis confirmed the research hypothesis that the Internet purchases in analysed EU countries is positively correlated with statistically significant variable Gross Domestic Product per capita (GDPpc). Also, analysed multiple linear regression model with four regressors, showing ICT development level, indicates that ICT development is crucial for explaining the Internet purchases by individuals, confirming the research hypothesis.

Keywords: European union, Internet purchases, multiple linear regression model, outlier

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
1373 The Effect of Satisfaction with the Internet on Online Shopping Attitude With TAM Approach Controlled By Gender

Authors: Velly Anatasia

Abstract:

In the last few decades extensive research has been conducted into information technology (IT) adoption, testing a series of factors considered to be essential for improved diffusion. Some studies analyze IT characteristics such as usefulness, ease of use and/or security, others focus on the emotions and experiences of users and a third group attempts to determine the importance of socioeconomic user characteristics such as gender, educational level and income. The situation is similar regarding e-commerce, where the majority of studies have taken for granted the importance of including these variables when studying e-commerce adoption, as these were believed to explain or forecast who buys or who will buy on the internet. Nowadays, the internet has become a marketplace suitable for all ages and incomes and both genders and thus the prejudices linked to the advisability of selling certain products should be revised. The objective of this study is to test whether the socioeconomic characteristics of experienced e-shoppers such as gender rally moderate the effect of their perceptions of online shopping behavior. Current development of the online environment and the experience acquired by individuals from previous e-purchases can attenuate or even nullify the effect of these characteristics. The individuals analyzed are experienced e-shoppers i.e. individuals who often make purchases on the internet. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was broadened to include previous use of the internet and perceived self-efficacy. The perceptions and behavior of e-shoppers are based on their own experiences. The information obtained will be tested using questionnaires which were distributed and self-administered to respondent accustomed using internet. The causal model is estimated using structural equation modeling techniques (SEM), followed by tests of the moderating effect of socioeconomic variables on perceptions and online shopping behavior. The expected findings of this study indicated that gender moderate neither the influence of previous use of the internet nor the perceptions of e-commerce. In short, they do not condition the behavior of the experienced e-shopper.

Keywords: Internet shopping, age groups, gender, income, electronic commerce

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1372 Indentifying Critical Factors Influencing Timeshare Purchases in India

Authors: Shivam Kushwaha, Veena Bansal

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Timeshare refers to real estate that is owned simultaneously by many, for a specified time in a year, for a specified numbers of years and is maintained and managed by an agency. Timeshare falls under the umbrella of tourism and is often used for vacation. Timeshare industry has attracted significantly less number of customers in India as compared to the US and Europe. In more than 40 years of existence of timeshare industry, it has not been able to grow its roots among Indian customers. The purpose of the study: To explore perception of Indian customers towards the adoption of timeshare segment of the hospitality industry and identify the factors. Source of data: Survey has been done on existing owners of holidays memberships, resorts or those who at least tourism experience in their past purchases. Methodology: Logistic Regression is used to predict binary responses of the customers based on identified critical factors which might influence timeshare purchases. Result: The study identified four factors: discretionary income, exchange options, ownership pride, risk, and measured their influence on intention to purchases in India. It is recognized that is all four variables are statistically significant while explaining in purchase intentions of customers in India.

Keywords: timeshare, holiday, tourism, customer perception, intent to use, Indian tourism

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1371 Role of QR Codes in Environmental Consciousness of Apparel Consumption

Authors: Eleanor L. Kutschera

Abstract:

This study explores the possible impact that QR codes play in helping individuals make more sustainable choices regarding apparel consumption. Data was collected via an online survey to ascertain individuals’ knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors with regard to QR codes and how this impacts their decisions to purchase apparel. Results from 250 participants provide both qualitative and quantitative data that provide valuable information regarding consumers’ use of QR codes and more sustainable purchases. Specifically, results indicate that QR codes are currently under-utilized in the apparel industry but have the potential to generate more environmentally conscious purchases. Also, results posit that while the cost of the item is the most influential factor in purchasing sustainable garments, other factors such as how, where, and what it is made of are in the middle, along with the company’s story/inspiration for creation have an impact. Moreover, participants posit the use of QR codes could make them more informed and empowered consumers, and they would be more likely to make purchases that are better for the environment. Participants’ qualitative responses provide useful incentives that could increase their future sustainable purchases. Finally, this study touches on the study’s limitations, implications, and future direction of research.

Keywords: digital ID, QR codes, environmental consciousness, sustainability, fashion industry, apparel consumption

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1370 Forecast of the Small Wind Turbines Sales with Replacement Purchases and with or without Account of Price Changes

Authors: V. Churkin, M. Lopatin

Abstract:

The purpose of the paper is to estimate the US small wind turbines market potential and forecast the small wind turbines sales in the US. The forecasting method is based on the application of the Bass model and the generalized Bass model of innovations diffusion under replacement purchases. In the work an exponential distribution is used for modeling of replacement purchases. Only one parameter of such distribution is determined by average lifetime of small wind turbines. The identification of the model parameters is based on nonlinear regression analysis on the basis of the annual sales statistics which has been published by the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) since 2001 up to 2012. The estimation of the US average market potential of small wind turbines (for adoption purchases) without account of price changes is 57080 (confidence interval from 49294 to 64866 at P = 0.95) under average lifetime of wind turbines 15 years, and 62402 (confidence interval from 54154 to 70648 at P = 0.95) under average lifetime of wind turbines 20 years. In the first case the explained variance is 90,7%, while in the second - 91,8%. The effect of the wind turbines price changes on their sales was estimated using generalized Bass model. This required a price forecast. To do this, the polynomial regression function, which is based on the Berkeley Lab statistics, was used. The estimation of the US average market potential of small wind turbines (for adoption purchases) in that case is 42542 (confidence interval from 32863 to 52221 at P = 0.95) under average lifetime of wind turbines 15 years, and 47426 (confidence interval from 36092 to 58760 at P = 0.95) under average lifetime of wind turbines 20 years. In the first case the explained variance is 95,3%, while in the second –95,3%.

Keywords: bass model, generalized bass model, replacement purchases, sales forecasting of innovations, statistics of sales of small wind turbines in the United States

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1369 Language Effects on the Prestige and Product Image of Advertised Smartphone in Consumer Purchases in Indonesia

Authors: Vidyarini Dwita, Rebecca Fanany

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This study will discuss the growth of the market for smartphone technology in Indonesia. This country, with the world’s fourth largest population, has a reputation as the social media capital of the world, and this reputation is largely justified. The penetration of social media is high in Indonesia which has one of the largest global markets. Most Indonesian users of Facebook, Twitter and other social media platforms access the sites from their mobile phones. Indonesia is expected to continue to be a major market for digital mobile devices, such as smartphone and tablets that can access the internet. The aim of this study to describe the way responses of Indonesian consumers to smartphone advertising using English and Indonesian will impact on their perceptions of the prestige and product image of the advertised items and thus influence consumer intention to purchase the item. Advertising for smartphones and similar products is intense and dynamic and often draws on the social attitudes of Indonesians with respect to linguistic and cultural content and especially appeals to their desire to be part of global mainstream culture. The study uses a qualitative method based on in-depth interviews with 30 participants. Content analysis is employed to analyse the responses of Indonesian consumers to smartphone advertising that uses English and Indonesian text. Its findings indicate that consumers’ impressions of English and Indonesian slogans influence their attitudes toward smartphones, suggesting that linguistic context plays a role in influencing consumer purchases.

Keywords: consumer purchases, marketing communication, product image, smartphone advertising, sociolinguistic

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1368 Bank Customers' Satisfaction, Customers' Loyalty and Additional Purchases of Banking Products and Services: A Case Study from the Czech Republic

Authors: Jaroslav Belás, Anna Chochoľáková, Lenka Gabčová

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The aim of this article was to examine and quantify the dependence of additional purchases of banking products from customer loyalty and dependence of bank clients’ loyalty on the customers’ satisfaction. In this context, in our research from 2014, the respondents were divided into satisfied (loyal) and dissatisfied (disloyal) banking clients and their attitudes in the area of loyalty and additional purchases of banking products were compared. The differences in attitudes were examined by means of Pearson statistics. It was found out that satisfied customers compared with those dissatisfied clients significantly more advise their bank to their friends, also they often consider that they would use their bank in the future, they are more resistant to the offers from the other banks as well. Loyal customers are more interested in the services of their own banks when considering investments in the financial market, keep their savings in their own bank, take out a mortgage loan from their own bank and use other banking products and services offered by their own bank as well. According to the results of our research, with the different intensities the loyalty of customers is transforming into a potential purchase of additional banking products. The greatest potential interest of the bank customers was in keeping their own savings in the bank and mortgage loans. The intensity of interest in the purchase of financial investments and other products was relatively low.

Keywords: commercial bank, bank customers’ satisfaction, loyalty of bank clients, additional purchases of banking products and services

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1367 Behavioral Pattern of 2G Mobile Internet Subscribers: A Study on an Operator of Bangladesh

Authors: Azfar Adib

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Like many other countries of the world, mobile internet has been playing a key role in the growth of internet subscriber base in Bangladesh. This study has attempted to identify particular behavioral or usage patterns of 2G mobile internet subscribers who were using the service of the topmost internet service provider (as well as the top mobile operator) of Bangladesh prior to the launching of 3G services (when 2G was fully dominant). It contains some comprehensive analysis carried on different info regarding 2G mobile internet subscribers, obtained from the operator’s own network insights.This is accompanied by the results of a survey conducted among 40 high-frequency users of this service.

Keywords: mobile internet, Symbian, Android, iPhone

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
1366 Comparative Advantage of Mobile Agent Application in Procuring Software Products on the Internet

Authors: Michael K. Adu, Boniface K. Alese, Olumide S. Ogunnusi

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This paper brings to fore the inherent advantages in application of mobile agents to procure software products rather than downloading software content on the Internet. It proposes a system whereby the products come on compact disk with mobile agent as deliverable. The client/user purchases a software product, but must connect to the remote server of the software developer before installation. The user provides an activation code that activates mobile agent which is part of the software product on compact disk. The validity of the activation code is checked on connection at the developer’s end to ascertain authenticity and prevent piracy. The system is implemented by downloading two different software products as compare with installing same products on compact disk with mobile agent’s application. Downloading software contents from developer’s database as in the traditional method requires a continuously open connection between the client and the developer’s end, a fixed network is not economically or technically feasible. Mobile agent after being dispatched into the network becomes independent of the creating process and can operate asynchronously and autonomously. It can reconnect later after completing its task and return for result delivery. Response Time and Network Load are very minimal with application of Mobile agent.

Keywords: software products, software developer, internet, activation code, mobile agent

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
1365 The Use of TV and the Internet in the Social Context

Authors: Khulood Miliany

Abstract:

This study examines the media habits of young people in Saudi Arabia, in particular their use of the Internet and television in the domestic sphere, and how use of the Internet impacts upon other activities. In order to address the research questions, focus group interviews were conducted with Saudi university students. The study found that television has become a central part of social life within the household where television represents a main source for family time, particularly in Ramadan while the Internet is a solitary activity where it is used in more private spaces. Furthermore, Saudi females were also more likely to have their Internet access monitored and circumscribed by family members, with parents controlling the location and the amount of time spent using the Internet.

Keywords: domestication of technology, internet, social context, television, young people

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1364 Internet Addiction among Students: An Empirical Study in Pondicherry University

Authors: Mashood C., Abdul Vahid K., Ashique C. K.

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The technology is growing beyond human expectation. Internet is one of very sophisticated product of the information technology. It has various advantages like connecting the world, simplifying the difficult tasks done in past etc. Simultaneously it has demerits also; that is lack of authenticity and internet addiction. To find out the problems of internet addiction, a study conducted among the Postgraduate students of Pondicherry University and collected 454 samples. The study strictly focused to identify the internet addiction among students, influence and interdependence of personality on internet addiction among first years and second years. To evaluate this, we used two major analysis, these are Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to predict the internet addiction with the observed data and Logistic Regression to identify the difference between first years and second years in the case of internet addiction. Before applying to the core analysis, the data applied to some preliminary tests to check the model fit. The empirical findings shows that , the students of Pondicherry University are very much addicted to the internet, But there is no such huge difference between first years and second years in case of internet addiction.

Keywords: internet addiction, students, Pondicherry University, empirical study

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1363 A Survey on Internet of Things and Fog Computing as a Platform for Internet of Things

Authors: Samira Kalantary, Sara Taghipour, Mansoure Ghias Abadi

Abstract:

The Internet of Things (IOT) is a technological revolution that represents the future of computing and communications. IOT is the convergence of Internet with RFID, NFC, Sensor, and smart objects. Fog Computing is the natural platform for IOT. At present, the IOT as a new network communication technology has rapidly shifted from concept to application under fog computing virtual storage computing platform. In this paper, we describe everything about IOT and difference between cloud computing and fog computing.

Keywords: cloud computing, fog computing, Internet of Things (IoT), IOT application

Procedia PDF Downloads 369
1362 Internet as a Marketing Tool for Tourism Promotion

Authors: Emeka Okonkwo

Abstract:

The Information Technology (IT) has prevailed over all functions of strategic and operational management. The Internet (a product of information technology) has increasingly become a popular medium for marketing. This paper examines the potentials of Internet for tourism marketing. To achieve this, the paper x-rays the characteristics of tourism marketing and examines the application of the Internet in tourism marketing. It is argued that the use of Internet for tourism marketing will not only reach a broad audience and reduce the cost of transaction (by conventional methods used by travel agents in times past), but, will also alleviate the problems of identification, authentication and confirmation of travels/package tours by tourists as well as promotion of tourism industry.

Keywords: internet, marketing, tourism, tourism management

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1361 The Relationship between Coping Styles and Internet Addiction among High School Students

Authors: Adil Kaval, Digdem Muge Siyez

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With the negative effects of internet use in a person's life, the use of the Internet has become an issue. This subject was mostly considered as internet addiction, and it was investigated. In literature, it is noteworthy that some theoretical models have been proposed to explain the reasons for internet addiction. In addition to these theoretical models, it may be thought that the coping style for stressing events can be a predictor of internet addiction. It was aimed to test with logistic regression the effect of high school students' coping styles on internet addiction levels. Sample of the study consisted of 770 Turkish adolescents (471 girls, 299 boys) selected from high schools in the 2017-2018 academic year in İzmir province. Internet Addiction Test, Coping Scale for Child and Adolescents and a demographic information form were used in this study. The results of the logistic regression analysis indicated that the model of coping styles predicted internet addiction provides a statistically significant prediction of internet addiction. Gender does not predict whether or not to be addicted to the internet. The active coping style is not effective on internet addiction levels, while the avoiding and negative coping style are effective on internet addiction levels. With this model, % 79.1 of internet addiction in high school is estimated. The Negelkerke pseudo R2 indicated that the model accounted for %35 of the total variance. The results of this study on Turkish adolescents are similar to the results of other studies in the literature. It can be argued that avoiding and negative coping styles are important risk factors in the development of internet addiction.

Keywords: adolescents, coping, internet addiction, regression analysis

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1360 Internet Versus Muslim Communities Challenges, Problems and Solutions

Authors: Bashir Muhammad

Abstract:

The present research contains the definition of the internet, the inter-relationship between and globalization as well as the divergent views of scholars on internet net-work. Additionally, both the positive and the negative impacts of the internet on Muslim communities were elucidated. As an example, it is part of the positive effect that the internet constitutes a vital source of vast information and data acquisition in various academic sciences in general and Islamic Studies in particular. The most recent and current facts and scientific discoveries by specialists of various ramifications could be fund as fast as possible. Many other exciting points were also cited. And on the negative side of the internet, among many other points, it releases uncontrolled promiscuous pictures and sometimes misguiding information about Islam, which could gradually and easily destroy the sound moral up bring of our young Muslim generation and pollute their positive thinking and reasoning. Another problem is that, Muslims in most cases pertaining to internet services are passive consumers, having no power to control it and manipulate it for their welfare and well being. Due to that, they have to pay the price for that, directly or indirectly.

Keywords: internet, muslim, challenges, communities

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1359 Integration of Internet-Accessible Resources in the Field of Mobile Robots

Authors: B. Madhevan, R. Sakkaravarthi, R. Diya

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The number and variety of mobile robot applications are increasing day by day, both in an industry and in our daily lives. First developed as a tool, nowadays mobile robots can be integrated as an entity in Internet-accessible resources. The present work is organized around four potential resources such as cloud computing, Internet of things, Big data analysis and Co-simulation. Further, the focus relies on integrating, analyzing and discussing the need for integrating Internet-accessible resources and the challenges deriving from such integration, and how these issues have been tackled. Hence, the research work investigates the concepts of the Internet-accessible resources from the aspect of the autonomous mobile robots with an overview of the performances of the currently available database systems. IaR is a world-wide network of interconnected objects, can be considered an evolutionary process in mobile robots. IaR constitutes an integral part of future Internet with data analysis, consisting of both physical and virtual things.

Keywords: internet-accessible resources, cloud computing, big data analysis, internet of things, mobile robot

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1358 Birds of a Feather Flock Together: Exploring Effects of Internet Celebrity Endorsement in Advertising

Authors: Shiu-Wan Hung, Che-Wei Chang, Han-Yu Lin

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Internet celebrities possess high visibility and a great number of fans on the Internet and are the targets that various companies are keen to collaborate with. This study investigated the para-social interaction and its antecedents among internet celebrities and their fans. The effects of Internet celebrity advertising from the perspectives of source credibility and endorser suitability were studied. This study gathered 283 valid questionnaires from people who regularly follow internet celebrities for analysis. The experimental results suggest that expertise has the most significant and direct influence on advertising. Additionally, Internet celebrities with high attractiveness can better influence the thinking of their fans and enhance homophily. However, when considering the construction of source credibility, the direct influence of attractiveness is the least significant, suggesting that the attractiveness of internet celebrities can only promote advertising via the mediating effect of homophily.

Keywords: celebrity, para-social interaction, homophily, source credibility

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1357 Searching for Health-Related Information on the Internet: A Case Study on Young Adults

Authors: Dana Weimann Saks

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This study aimed to examine the use of the internet as a source of health-related information (HRI), as well as the change in attitudes following the online search for HRI. The current study sample included 88 participants, randomly divided into two experimental groups. One was given the name of an unfamiliar disease and told to search for information about it using various search engines, and the second was given a text about the disease from a credible scientific source. The study findings show a large percentage of participants used the internet as a source of HRI. Likewise, no differences were found in the extent to which the internet was used as a source of HRI when demographics were compared. Those who searched for the HRI on the internet had more negative opinions and believed symptoms of the disease were worse than the average opinion among those who obtained the information about the disease from a credible scientific source. The Internet clearly influences the participants’ beliefs, regardless of demographic differences.

Keywords: health-related information, internet, young adults, HRI

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1356 Comparison of Self-Efficacy and Life Satisfaction in Normal Users and Users with Internet Addiction

Authors: Mansour Abdi, Hadi Molaei Yasavoli

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The purpose of this research is to comparison of self- efficacy and life satisfaction in normal users and users with internet addiction. The present study was descriptive and causal-comparative. Therefore, 304 students were selected random sampling method from students of Semnan University and completed questionnaires of internet addiction (young), Self-Efficacy Questionnaire and Life Satisfaction (SWIS). For data analysis was used the Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA). The results showed that internet addiction users have lower levels of self-efficacy and life satisfaction in comparison with normal users and the difference in p=0/0005 significantly. The findings showed that 78 percent of the variance in the dependent variables of self-efficacy and life satisfaction by grouping variables (internet addiction users and normal) is determined. Finally, considering that the rate of self-efficacy and life satisfaction is effective in the incidence of Internet addiction, it is proposed required measures are taken to enhance self-efficacy and life satisfaction in Internet users.

Keywords: self-efficacy, life satisfaction, users, internet addiction, normal users

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1355 A Study on the Effect of the Mindfulness and Cultivation of Wisdom as an Intervention Strategy for College Student Internet Addiction

Authors: P. C. Li, R. H. Feng, S. J. Chen, Y. J. Yu, Y. L. Chen, X. Y. Fan

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The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of mindfulness and wisdom comprehensive strategy intervention on addiction to the Internet of college students by engaging fourteen intensive full-day mindfulness-based wisdom retreat curriculum. Wisdom, one of the practice method from the threefold training. Internet addiction, a kind of impulse control disorder, which attract the attentions of society due to its high prevalence and harmfulness in the last decade. Therefore, the study of internet addiction intervention is urgent. Participants with internet addiction were Chinese college students and screened by internet addiction disorder diagnose questionnaire (IAD-DQ). A quasi-experimental pretest and posttest design was used as research design. The finding shows that the mindfulness-based wisdom intervention strategy appeared to be effective in reducing the Internet addiction. Moreover, semi-structure interview method was conducted and outcomes included five themes: the reduction of internet use, the increment of awareness on emotion, self-control, present concentration and better positive lifestyle, indicating that mindfulness could be an effective intervention for this group with internet addiction.

Keywords: mindfulness, internet addiction, wisdom comprehensive intervention, cognitive-behavior therapy

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1354 A Review of the Parameters Used in Gateway Selection Schemes for Internet Connected MANETs

Authors: Zainab S. Mahmood, Aisha H. Hashim, Wan Haslina Hassan, Farhat Anwar

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The wide use of the internet-based applications bring many challenges to the researchers to guarantee the continuity of the connections needed by the mobile hosts and provide reliable Internet access for them. One of proposed solutions by Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is to connect the local, multi-hop, and infrastructure-less Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) with Internet structure. This connection is done through multi-interface devices known as Internet Gateways. Many issues are related to this connection like gateway discovery, hand off, address auto-configuration and selecting the optimum gateway when multiple gateways exist. Many studies were done proposing gateway selection schemes with a single selection criterion or weighted multiple criteria. In this research, a review of some of these schemes is done showing the differences, the features, the challenges and the drawbacks of each of them.

Keywords: Internet Gateway, MANET, mobility, selection criteria

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1353 Factor Driving Consumer Intention in Online Shopping

Authors: Wanida Suwunniponth

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The objectives of this research paper was to study the influencing factors that contributed the willingness of consumers to purchase products online included quality of website, perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, trust on online purchases, attitude towards online shopping and intentions to online purchases. The research was conducted in both quantitative and qualitative methods, by utilizing both questionnaire and in-depth interview. A questionnaire was used to collect data from 350 consumers who had online shopping experiences in Bangkok, Thailand. Statistics utilized in this research included descriptive statistics and path analysis. The findings revealed that the factors concerning with quality of website, perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness played an influence on trust in online shopping. Trust also played an influence on attitude towards online purchase, whereas trust and attitude towards online purchase manipulated the intention of online purchase.

Keywords: e-commerce, intention, online shopping, TAM, technological acceptance model

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1352 Characterization of Internet Exchange Points by Using Quantitative Data

Authors: Yamba Dabone, Tounwendyam Frédéric Ouedraogo, Pengwendé Justin Kouraogo, Oumarou Sie

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Reliable data transport over the Internet is one of the goals of researchers in the field of computer science. Data such as videos and audio files are becoming increasingly large. As a result, transporting them over the Internet is becoming difficult. Therefore, it has been important to establish a method to locally interconnect autonomous systems (AS) with each other to facilitate traffic exchange. It is in this context that Internet Exchange Points (IXPs) are set up to facilitate local and even regional traffic. They are now the lifeblood of the Internet. Therefore, it is important to think about the factors that can characterize IXPs. However, other more quantifiable characteristics can help determine the quality of an IXP. In addition, these characteristics may allow ISPs to have a clearer view of the exchange node and may also convince other networks to connect to an IXP. To that end, we define five new IXP characteristics: the attraction rate (τₐₜₜᵣ); and the peering rate (τₚₑₑᵣ); the target rate of an IXP (Objₐₜₜ); the number of IXP links (Nₗᵢₙₖ); the resistance rate τₑ𝒻𝒻 and the attraction failure rate (τ𝒻).

Keywords: characteristic, autonomous system, internet service provider, internet exchange point, rate

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1351 Restricted Boltzmann Machines and Deep Belief Nets for Market Basket Analysis: Statistical Performance and Managerial Implications

Authors: H. Hruschka

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This paper presents the first comparison of the performance of the restricted Boltzmann machine and the deep belief net on binary market basket data relative to binary factor analysis and the two best-known topic models, namely Dirichlet allocation and the correlated topic model. This comparison shows that the restricted Boltzmann machine and the deep belief net are superior to both binary factor analysis and topic models. Managerial implications that differ between the investigated models are treated as well. The restricted Boltzmann machine is defined as joint Boltzmann distribution of hidden variables and observed variables (purchases). It comprises one layer of observed variables and one layer of hidden variables. Note that variables of the same layer are not connected. The comparison also includes deep belief nets with three layers. The first layer is a restricted Boltzmann machine based on category purchases. Hidden variables of the first layer are used as input variables by the second-layer restricted Boltzmann machine which then generates second-layer hidden variables. Finally, in the third layer hidden variables are related to purchases. A public data set is analyzed which contains one month of real-world point-of-sale transactions in a typical local grocery outlet. It consists of 9,835 market baskets referring to 169 product categories. This data set is randomly split into two halves. One half is used for estimation, the other serves as holdout data. Each model is evaluated by the log likelihood for the holdout data. Performance of the topic models is disappointing as the holdout log likelihood of the correlated topic model – which is better than Dirichlet allocation - is lower by more than 25,000 compared to the best binary factor analysis model. On the other hand, binary factor analysis on its own is clearly surpassed by both the restricted Boltzmann machine and the deep belief net whose holdout log likelihoods are higher by more than 23,000. Overall, the deep belief net performs best. We also interpret hidden variables discovered by binary factor analysis, the restricted Boltzmann machine and the deep belief net. Hidden variables characterized by the product categories to which they are related differ strongly between these three models. To derive managerial implications we assess the effect of promoting each category on total basket size, i.e., the number of purchased product categories, due to each category's interdependence with all the other categories. The investigated models lead to very different implications as they disagree about which categories are associated with higher basket size increases due to a promotion. Of course, recommendations based on better performing models should be preferred. The impressive performance advantages of the restricted Boltzmann machine and the deep belief net suggest continuing research by appropriate extensions. To include predictors, especially marketing variables such as price, seems to be an obvious next step. It might also be feasible to take a more detailed perspective by considering purchases of brands instead of purchases of product categories.

Keywords: binary factor analysis, deep belief net, market basket analysis, restricted Boltzmann machine, topic models

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1350 On-Line Impulse Buying and Cognitive Dissonance: The Moderating Role of the Positive Affective State

Authors: G. Mattia, A. Di Leo, L. Principato

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The purchase impulsiveness is preceded by a lack of self-control: consequently, it is legitimate to believe that a consumer with a low level of self-control can result in a higher probability of cognitive dissonance. Moreover, the process of purchase is influenced by the pre-existing affective state in a considerable way. With reference to on-line purchases, digital behavior cannot be merely ascribed to the rational sphere, given the speed and ease of transactions and the hedonistic dimension of purchases. To our knowledge, this research is among the first cases of verification of the effect of moderation exerted by the positive affective state in the on-line impulse purchase of products with a high expressive value such as a smartphone on the occurrence of cognitive dissonance. To this aim, a moderation analysis was conducted on a sample of 212 impulsive millennials buyers. Three scales were adopted to measure the constructs of interest: IBTS for impulsivity, PANAS for the affective state, Sweeney for cognitive dissonance. The analysis revealed that positive affective state does not affect the onset of cognitive dissonance.

Keywords: cognitive dissonance, impulsive buying, online shopping, online consumer behavior

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1349 Heterogeneous Reactions to Digital Opportunities: A Field Study

Authors: Bangaly Kaba

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In the global information society, the importance of the Internet cannot be overemphasized. Africa needs access to the powerful information and communication tools of the Internet in order to obtain the resources and efficiency essential for sustainable development. Unfortunately, in 2013, the data from Internetworldstats showed only 15% of African populations have access to Internet. This relative low Internet penetration rate signals a problem that may threaten the economic development, governmental efficiency, and ultimately the global competitiveness of African countries. Many initiatives were undertaken to bring the benefits of the global information revolution to the people of Africa, through connection to the Internet and other Global Information Infrastructure technologies. The purpose is to understand differences between socio-economically advantaged and disadvantaged internet users. From that, we will determine what prevents disadvantaged groups from benefiting from Internet usage. Data were collected through a survey from Internet users in Ivory Coast. The results reveal that Personal network exposure, Self-efficacy and Availability are the key drivers of continued use intention for the socio-economically disadvantaged group. The theoretical and practical implications are also described.

Keywords: digital inequality, internet, integrative model, socio-economically advantaged and disadvantaged, use continuance, Africa

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1348 The Antecedents of Internet Addiction toward Smartphone Usage

Authors: Pui-Lai To, Chechen Liao, Hen-Yi Huang

Abstract:

Twenty years after Internet development, scholars have started to identify the negative impacts brought by the Internet. Overuse of Internet could develop Internet dependency and in turn cause addiction behavior. Therefore understanding the phenomenon of Internet addiction is important. With the joint efforts of experts and scholars, Internet addiction has been officially listed as a symptom that affects public health, and the diagnosis, causes and treatment of the symptom have also been explored. On the other hand, in the area of smartphone Internet usage, most studies are still focusing on the motivation factors of smartphone usage. Not much research has been done on smartphone Internet addiction. In view of the increasing adoption of smartphones, this paper is intended to find out whether smartphone Internet addiction exists in modern society or not. This study adopted the research methodology of online survey targeting users with smartphone Internet experience. A total of 434 effective samples were recovered. In terms of data analysis, Partial Least Square (PLS) in Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) is used for sample analysis and research model testing. Software chosen for statistical analysis is SPSS 20.0 for windows and SmartPLS 2.0. The research result successfully proved that smartphone users who access Internet service via smartphone could also develop smartphone Internet addiction. Factors including flow experience, depression, virtual social support, smartphone Internet affinity and maladaptive cognition all have significant and positive influence on smartphone Internet addiction. In the scenario of smartphone Internet use, descriptive norm has a positive and significant influence on perceived playfulness, while perceived playfulness also has a significant and positive influence on flow experience. Depression, on the other hand, is negatively influenced by actual social support and positive influenced by the virtual social support.

Keywords: internet addiction, smartphone usage, social support, perceived playfulness

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1347 Profile of Internet and Smartphone Overuse Based on Internet Usage Needs

Authors: Yeoju Chung

Abstract:

Adolescents internet and smartphone addiction are increasing in Korea. But differences between internet addiction and smartphone addiction have been researched in these days. The main objective of this article is to explore the presence of clusters within a sample of adolescents based on dimensions associated with addiction and internet usage needs. The sample consists of 617 adolescents in the 14-19 year age group who were recruited in Korea A cluster analysis identified four groups of participants: internet overuse(IO), smartphone overuse(SO), both overuse(B) and normal(N) use group. MANOVA analysis based on internet usage showed that there are differences among four groups in internet usage needs. IO has higher cyber self-seeking needs and emotion and thought expression needs than SO. SO has higher real relationship and life needs with cyberworld than IO, B, and N. B has the highest cyber self-seeking needs and emotion and thought expression needs, however, game fun seeking needs is the highest in IO. These results support that IO seeks game fun needs, SO seeks real relationship and life needs, and B seeks cyber self and expression in cyberworld.

Keywords: addiction, internet, needs, smartphone

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
1346 Guidelines for Proper Internal Control of Internet Payment: A Case Study of Internet Payment Gateway, Thailand

Authors: Pichamon Chansuchai

Abstract:

The objective of this research were to investigate electronic payment system on the internet and offer the guidelines for proper internal control of the payment system based on international standard security control (ISO/IEC 17799:2005),in a case study of payment of the internet, Thailand. The guidelines covered five important areas: (1) business requirement for access control, (2) information systems acquisition, development and maintenance, (3) information security incident management, (4) business continuity management, and (5) compliance with legal requirement. The findings from this qualitative study revealed the guidelines for proper internet control that were more reliable and allow the same line of business to implement the same system of control.

Keywords: audit, best practice, internet, payment

Procedia PDF Downloads 420
1345 Curbing Cybercrime by Application of Internet Users’ Identification System (IUIS) in Nigeria

Authors: K. Alese Boniface, K. Adu Michael

Abstract:

Cybercrime is now becoming a big challenge in Nigeria apart from the traditional crime. Inability to identify perpetrators is one of the reasons for the growing menace. This paper proposes a design for monitoring internet users’ activities in order to curbing cybercrime. It requires redefining the operations of Internet Service Providers (ISPs) which will now mandate users to be authenticated before accessing the internet. In implementing this work which can be adapted to a larger scale, a virtual router application is developed and configured to mimic a real router device. A sign-up portal is developed to allow users to register with the ISP. The portal asks for identification information which will include bio-data and government issued identification data like National Identity Card number, et cetera. A unique username and password are chosen by the user to enable access to the internet which will be used to reference him to an Internet Protocol Address (IP Address) of any system he uses on the internet and thereby associating him to any criminal act related to that IP address at that particular time. Questions such as “What happen when another user knows the password and uses it to commit crime?” and other pertinent issues are addressed.

Keywords: cybercrime, sign-up portal, internet service provider (ISP), internet protocol address (IP address)

Procedia PDF Downloads 195