Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4483

Search results for: Interface stress distributions

4483 Delamination of Scale in a Fe Carbon Steel Surface by Effect of Interface Roughness and Oxide Scale Thickness

Authors: J. M. Lee, W. R. Noh, C. Y. Kim, M. G. Lee


Delamination of oxide scale has been often discovered at the interface between Fe carbon steel and oxide scale. Among several mechanisms of this delamination behavior, the normal tensile stress to the substrate-scale interface has been described as one of the main factors. The stress distribution at the interface is also known to be affected by thermal expansion mismatch between substrate and oxide scale, creep behavior during cooling and the geometry of the interface. In this study, stress states near the interface in a Fe carbon steel with oxide scale have been investigated using FE simulations. The thermal and mechanical properties of oxide scales are indicated in literature and Fe carbon steel is measured using tensile testing machine. In particular, the normal and shear stress components developed at the interface during bending are investigated. Preliminary numerical sensitivity analyses are provided to explain the effects of the interface geometry and oxide thickness on the delamination behavior.

Keywords: oxide scale, delamination, Fe analysis, roughness, thickness, stress state

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4482 Modeling of Steady State Creep in Thick-Walled Cylinders under Internal Pressure

Authors: Tejeet Singh, Ishavneet Singh


The present study focused on carrying out the creep analysis in an isotropic thick-walled composite cylindrical pressure vessel composed of aluminum matrix reinforced with silicon-carbide in particulate form. The creep behavior of the composite material has been described by the threshold stress based creep law. The values of stress exponent appearing in the creep law were selected as 3, 5 and 8. The constitutive equations were developed using well known von-Mises yield criteria. Models were developed to find out the distributions of creep stress and strain rate in thick-walled composite cylindrical pressure vessels under internal pressure. In order to obtain the stress distributions in the cylinder, the equilibrium equation of the continuum mechanics and the constitutive equations are solved together. It was observed that the radial stress, tangential stress and axial stress increases along with the radial distance. The cross-over was also obtained almost at the middle region of cylindrical vessel for tangential and axial stress for different values of stress exponent. The strain rates were also decreasing in nature along the entire radius.

Keywords: steady state creep, composite, cylinder, pressure

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4481 Modelling of Creep in a Thick-Walled Cylindrical Vessel Subjected to Internal Pressure

Authors: Tejeet Singh, Ishvneet Singh, Vinay Gupta


The present study focussed on carrying out the creep analysis in an isotropic thick-walled composite cylindrical pressure vessel composed of aluminium matrix reinforced with silicon-carbide in particulate form. The creep behaviour of the composite material has been described by the threshold stress based creep law. The value of stress exponent appearing in the creep law was selected as 3, 5 and 8. The constitutive equations were developed using well known von-Mises yield criteria. Models were developed to find out the distributions of creep stresses and strain rate in thick-walled composite cylindrical pressure vessels under internal pressure. In order to obtain the stress distributions in the cylinder, the equilibrium equation of the continuum mechanics and the constitutive equations are solved together. It was observed that the radial stress, tangential stress and axial stress increases along with the radial distance. The cross-over was also obtained almost at the middle region of cylindrical vessel for tangential and axial stress for different values of stress exponent. The strain rates were also decreasing in nature along the entire radius.

Keywords: creep, composite, cylindrical vessel, internal pressure

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4480 Prediction of Fracture Aperture in Fragmented Rocks

Authors: Hossein Agheshlui, Stephan Matthai


In fractured rock masses open fractures tend to act as the main pathways of fluid flow. The permeability of a rock fracture depends on its aperture. The change of aperture with stress can cause a many-orders-of-magnitude change in the hydraulic conductivity at moderate compressive stress levels. In this study, the change of aperture in fragmented rocks is investigated using finite element analysis. A full 3D mechanical model of a simplified version of an outcrop analog is created and studied. A constant initial aperture value is applied to all fractures. Different far field stresses are applied and the change of aperture is monitored considering the block to block interaction. The fragmented rock layer is assumed to be sandwiched between softer layers. Frictional contact forces are defined at the layer boundaries as well as among contacting rock blocks. For a given in situ stress, the blocks slide and contact each other, resulting in new aperture distributions. A map of changed aperture is produced after applying the in situ stress and compared to the initial apertures. Subsequently, the permeability of the system before and after the stress application is compared.

Keywords: fractured rocks, mechanical model, aperture change due to stress, frictional interface

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
4479 Effect of an Interface Defect in a Patch/Layer Joint under Dynamic Time Harmonic Load

Authors: Elisaveta Kirilova, Wilfried Becker, Jordanka Ivanova, Tatyana Petrova


The study is a continuation of the research on the hygrothermal piezoelectric response of a smart patch/layer joint with undesirable interface defect (gap) at dynamic time harmonic mechanical and electrical load and environmental conditions. In order to find the axial displacements, shear stress and interface debond length in a closed analytical form for different positions of the interface gap, the 1D modified shear lag analysis is used. The debond length is represented as a function of many parameters (frequency, magnitude, electric displacement, moisture and temperature, joint geometry, position of the gap along the interface, etc.). Then the Genetic algorithm (GA) is implemented to find this position of the gap along the interface at which a vanishing/minimal debond length is ensured, e.g to find the most harmless position for the safe work of the structure. The illustrative example clearly shows that analytical shear-lag solutions and GA method can be combined successfully to give an effective prognosis of interface shear stress and interface delamination in patch/layer structure at combined loading with existing defects. To show the effect of the position of the interface gap, all obtained results are given in figures and discussed.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, minimal delamination, optimal gap position, shear lag solution

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4478 Micromechanics of Stress Transfer across the Interface Fiber-Matrix Bonding

Authors: Fatiha Teklal, Bachir Kacimi, Arezki Djebbar


The study and application of composite materials are a truly interdisciplinary endeavor that has been enriched by contributions from chemistry, physics, materials science, mechanics and manufacturing engineering. The understanding of the interface (or interphase) in composites is the central point of this interdisciplinary effort. From the early development of composite materials of various nature, the optimization of the interface has been of major importance. Even more important, the ideas linking the properties of composites to the interface structure are still emerging. In our study, we need a direct characterization of the interface; the micromechanical tests we are addressing seem to meet this objective and we chose to use two complementary tests simultaneously. The microindentation test that can be applied to real composites and the drop test, preferred to the pull-out because of the theoretical possibility of studying systems with high adhesion (which is a priori the case with our systems). These two tests are complementary because of the principle of the model specimen used for both the first "compression indentation" and the second whose fiber is subjected to tensile stress called the drop test. Comparing the results obtained by the two methods can therefore be rewarding.

Keywords: Fiber, Interface, Matrix, Micromechanics, Pull-out

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4477 Non-Linear Finite Element Analysis of Bonded Single Lap Joint in Composite Material

Authors: A. Benhamena, L. Aminallah, A. Aid, M. Benguediab, A. Amrouche


The goal of this work is to analyze the severity of interfacial stress distribution in the single lap adhesive joint under tensile loading. The three-dimensional and non-linear finite element method based on the computation of the peel and shear stresses was used to analyze the fracture behaviour of single lap adhesive joint. The effect of the loading magnitude and the overlap length on the distribution of peel and shear stresses was highlighted. A good correlation was found between the FEM simulations and the analytical results.

Keywords: aluminum 2024-T3 alloy, single-lap adhesive joints, Interface stress distributions, material nonlinear analysis, adhesive, bending moment, finite element method

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4476 Simulation of Binary Nitride Inclusions Effect on Tensile Properties of Steel

Authors: Ali Dalirbod, Peyman Ahmadian


Inclusions are unavoidable part of all steels. Non-metallic inclusions have significant effects on mechanical properties of steel. The effects of inclusion on stress concentration around the matrix/inclusion have been extensively studied. The results relating to single inclusion behavior, describe properly the behavior of stress but not the elongation drop. The raised stress in inclusion/matrix results in crack initiation. The influence of binary inclusions on stress concentration around matrix is a major aim of this work which is representative of the simple pattern distribution of non-metallic inclusions. Stress concentration around inclusions in this case depends on parameters like distance between two inclusions (d), angle between centrally linking line of two inclusions, load axis (φ), and rotational angle of inclusion (θ). FEM analysis was applied to investigate the highest and lowest ductility versus varying parameters above. The simulation results show that there is a critical distance between two cubic inclusions in which bigger than the threshold, the stress, and strain field in matrix/inclusions interface converts into individual fields around each inclusion.

Keywords: nitride inclusion, simulation, tensile properties, inclusion-matrix interface

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4475 Electroencephalogram Based Approach for Mental Stress Detection during Gameplay with Level Prediction

Authors: Priyadarsini Samal, Rajesh Singla


Many mobile games come with the benefits of entertainment by introducing stress to the human brain. In recognizing this mental stress, the brain-computer interface (BCI) plays an important role. It has various neuroimaging approaches which help in analyzing the brain signals. Electroencephalogram (EEG) is the most commonly used method among them as it is non-invasive, portable, and economical. Here, this paper investigates the pattern in brain signals when introduced with mental stress. Two healthy volunteers played a game whose aim was to search hidden words from the grid, and the levels were chosen randomly. The EEG signals during gameplay were recorded to investigate the impacts of stress with the changing levels from easy to medium to hard. A total of 16 features of EEG were analyzed for this experiment which includes power band features with relative powers, event-related desynchronization, along statistical features. Support vector machine was used as the classifier, which resulted in an accuracy of 93.9% for three-level stress analysis; for two levels, the accuracy of 92% and 98% are achieved. In addition to that, another game that was similar in nature was played by the volunteers. A suitable regression model was designed for prediction where the feature sets of the first and second game were used for testing and training purposes, respectively, and an accuracy of 73% was found.

Keywords: brain computer interface, electroencephalogram, regression model, stress, word search

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4474 3D Estimation of Synaptic Vesicle Distributions in Serial Section Transmission Electron Microscopy

Authors: Mahdieh Khanmohammadi, Sune Darkner, Nicoletta Nava, Jens Randel Nyengaard, Jon Sporring


We study the effect of stress on nervous system and we use two experimental groups of rats: sham rats and rats subjected to acute foot-shock stress. We investigate the synaptic vesicles density as a function of distance to the active zone in serial section transmission electron microscope images in 2 and 3 dimensions. By estimating the density in 2D and 3D we compare two groups of rats.

Keywords: stress, 3-dimensional synaptic vesicle density, image registration, bioinformatics

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4473 Stress Distribution in Axisymmetric Indentation of an Elastic Layer-Substrate Body

Authors: Kotaro Miura, Makoto Sakamoto, Yuji Tanabe


We focus on internal stress and displacement of an elastic axisymmetric contact problem for indentation of a layer-substrate body. An elastic layer is assumed to be perfectly bonded to an elastic semi-infinite substrate. The elastic layer is smoothly indented with a flat-ended cylindrical indenter. The analytical and exact solutions were obtained by solving an infinite system of simultaneous equations using the method to express a normal contact stress at the upper surface of the elastic layer as an appropriate series. This paper presented the numerical results of internal stress and displacement distributions for hard-coating system with constant values of Poisson’s ratio and the thickness of elastic layer.

Keywords: indentation, contact problem, stress distribution, coating materials, layer-substrate body

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4472 Design and Analysis of Adaptive Type-I Progressive Hybrid Censoring Plan under Step Stress Partially Accelerated Life Testing Using Competing Risk

Authors: Ariful Islam, Showkat Ahmad Lone


Statistical distributions have long been employed in the assessment of semiconductor devices and product reliability. The power function-distribution is one of the most important distributions in the modern reliability practice and can be frequently preferred over mathematically more complex distributions, such as the Weibull and the lognormal, because of its simplicity. Moreover, it may exhibit a better fit for failure data and provide more appropriate information about reliability and hazard rates in some circumstances. This study deals with estimating information about failure times of items under step-stress partially accelerated life tests for competing risk based on adoptive type-I progressive hybrid censoring criteria. The life data of the units under test is assumed to follow Mukherjee-Islam distribution. The point and interval maximum-likelihood estimations are obtained for distribution parameters and tampering coefficient. The performances of the resulting estimators of the developed model parameters are evaluated and investigated by using a simulation algorithm.

Keywords: adoptive progressive hybrid censoring, competing risk, mukherjee-islam distribution, partially accelerated life testing, simulation study

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4471 Multiaxial Stress Based High Cycle Fatigue Model for Adhesive Joint Interfaces

Authors: Martin Alexander Eder, Sergei Semenov


Many glass-epoxy composite structures, such as large utility wind turbine rotor blades (WTBs), comprise of adhesive joints with typically thick bond lines used to connect the different components during assembly. Performance optimization of rotor blades to increase power output by simultaneously maintaining high stiffness-to-low-mass ratios entails intricate geometries in conjunction with complex anisotropic material behavior. Consequently, adhesive joints in WTBs are subject to multiaxial stress states with significant stress gradients depending on the local joint geometry. Moreover, the dynamic aero-elastic interaction of the WTB with the airflow generates non-proportional, variable amplitude stress histories in the material. Empiricism shows that a prominent failure type in WTBs is high cycle fatigue failure of adhesive bond line interfaces, which in fact over time developed into a design driver as WTB sizes increase rapidly. Structural optimization employed at an early design stage, therefore, sets high demands on computationally efficient interface fatigue models capable of predicting the critical locations prone for interface failure. The numerical stress-based interface fatigue model presented in this work uses the Drucker-Prager criterion to compute three different damage indices corresponding to the two interface shear tractions and the outward normal traction. The two-parameter Drucker-Prager model was chosen because of its ability to consider shear strength enhancement under compression and shear strength reduction under tension. The governing interface damage index is taken as the maximum of the triple. The damage indices are computed through the well-known linear Palmgren-Miner rule after separate rain flow-counting of the equivalent shear stress history and the equivalent pure normal stress history. The equivalent stress signals are obtained by self-similar scaling of the Drucker-Prager surface whose shape is defined by the uniaxial tensile strength and the shear strength such that it intersects with the stress point at every time step. This approach implicitly assumes that the damage caused by the prevailing multiaxial stress state is the same as the damage caused by an amplified equivalent uniaxial stress state in the three interface directions. The model was implemented as Python plug-in for the commercially available finite element code Abaqus for its use with solid elements. The model was used to predict the interface damage of an adhesively bonded, tapered glass-epoxy composite cantilever I-beam tested by LM Wind Power under constant amplitude compression-compression tip load in the high cycle fatigue regime. Results show that the model was able to predict the location of debonding in the adhesive interface between the webfoot and the cap. Moreover, with a set of two different constant life diagrams namely in shear and tension, it was possible to predict both the fatigue lifetime and the failure mode of the sub-component with reasonable accuracy. It can be concluded that the fidelity, robustness and computational efficiency of the proposed model make it especially suitable for rapid fatigue damage screening of large 3D finite element models subject to complex dynamic load histories.

Keywords: adhesive, fatigue, interface, multiaxial stress

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4470 Photoelastic Analysis of the Proximal Femur in Deviations of the Mechanical Axis of the Lower Limb

Authors: S. F. Fakhouri, M.M. Shimano, D. Maranho, C. A. Araújo, M. V. Guimarães, A. C. Shimano, J. B. Volpon


Pathological deviations of the mechanical axis of the lower limbs deeply alter the stress distributions on the femur and tibia and the hip, knee, and ankle articulations. The purpose of this research was to assess the effects of pathological deviations in different levels of the lower limbs in the distribution of stress in the proximal femur region using photoelasticity of plane transmission. For most of the types of deviations studied, the results showed that the internal stress was generally higher in the calcar region than in the trochanteric region, followed by the third distal of the femur head. This study allowed for the development of better criteria for the correction of angular deviations and helped identify the deviations that are most harmful to the mechanical axis in terms of the effects on the bone and the articular effort of the lower limbs. These results will lead to future improvements in studies on prostheses.

Keywords: alignment, deviations, inferior limbs, mechanical axis, photoelasticity, stress

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4469 Micromechanical Analysis of Interface Properties Effects on Transverse Tensile Response of Fiber-Reinforced Composites

Authors: M. Naderi, N. Iyyer, K. Goel, N. Phan


A micromechanical analysis of the influence of fiber-matrix interface fracture properties on the transverse tensile response of fiber-reinforced composite is investigated. Augmented finite element method (AFEM) is used to provide high-fidelity damage initiation and propagation along the micromechanical analysis. Effects of fiber volume fraction and fiber shapes are also studies in representative volume elements (RVE) to capture the stochastic behavior of the composite under loading. In addition, defects and voids influence on the composite response are investigated in micromechanical analysis. The results reveal that the response of RVE with constant interface properties overestimates the composite transverse strength. It is also seen that the damage initiation and propagation locations are controlled by the distributions of fracture properties, fibers’ shapes, and defects.

Keywords: cohesive model, fracture, computational mechanics, micromechanics

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4468 The Crack Propagation on Glass in Laser Thermal Cleavage

Authors: Jehnming Lin


In the laser cleavage of glass, the laser is mostly adopted as a heat source to generate a thermal stress state on the substrates. The crack propagation of the soda-lime glass in the laser thermal cleavage with the straight-turning paths was investigated in this study experimentally and numerically. The crack propagation was visualized by a high speed camera with the off-line examination on the micro-crack propagation. The temperature and stress distributions induced by the laser heat source were calculated by ANSYS software based on the finite element method (FEM). With the cutting paths in various turning directions, the experimental and numerical results were in comparison and verified. The fracture modes due to the normal and shear stresses were verified at the turning point of the laser cleavage path. It shows a significant variation of the stress profiles along the straight-turning paths and causes a change on the fracture modes.

Keywords: laser cleavage, glass, fracture, stress analysis

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4467 Interactive Multiple Functions User Interface

Authors: Manjit Singh Sidhu, Waleed Maqableh, Jee Geak Ying


Tangible user interfaces (TUI) that employ markers in the augmented reality (AR) environment has hampered the interactivity between the user and the software application. This is because the user lacks focus on visualizing the contents due to the interaction mechanisms whereby multiple markers may need to be used to perform a particular function. In this research, we have designed a novel TUI user interface where multiple functions could be triggered similar to a natural keyboard thus allowing user to focus more on its digital contents such as 2D/3D, text input, animation and sound. Test results of the user interface with potential users and HCI experts revealed that the multiple functions user interface was new, preferred and appreciated more as opposed to marker based user interface.

Keywords: multimedia, augmented reality, engineering, user interface, visualization

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4466 A Molecular Dynamics Study on Intermittent Plasticity and Dislocation Avalanche Emissions in FCC and BCC Crystals

Authors: Javier Varillas, Jorge Alcalá


We investigate dislocation avalanche phenomena in face-centered cubic (FCC) and body-centered cubic (BCC) crystals using massive, large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The analysis is focused on the intermittent development of dense dislocation arrangements subjected to uniaxial tensile straining under displacement control. We employ a novel computational scheme that allows us to inject an entangled dislocation structure in periodic MD domains. We assess the emission of plastic bursts (or dislocation avalanches) in terms of the sharp stress drops detected in the stress-strain curve. The plastic activity corresponds to the sporadic operation of specific dislocation glide processes exhibiting quiescent periods between successive avalanche events. We find that the plastic intermittences in our simulations do not overlap in time under sufficiently low strain rates as dissipation operates faster than driving, where the dense dislocation networks evolve through the emission of dislocation avalanche events whose carried slip adheres to self-organized power-law distributions. These findings enable the extension of the slip distributions obtained from strict displacement-controlled micropillar compression experiments towards smaller values of slip size. Our results furnish further understanding upon the development of entangled dislocation networks in metal plasticity, including specific mechanisms of dislocation propagation and annihilation, along with the evolution of specific dislocation populations through dislocation density analyses.

Keywords: dislocations, intermittent plasticity, molecular dynamics, slip distributions

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4465 Evaluation of the Matching Optimization of Human-Machine Interface Matching in the Cab

Authors: Yanhua Ma, Lu Zhai, Xinchen Wang, Hongyu Liang


In this paper, by understanding the development status of the human-machine interface in today's automobile cab, a subjective and objective evaluation system for evaluating the optimization of human-machine interface matching in automobile cab was established. The man-machine interface of the car cab was divided into a software interface and a hard interface. Objective evaluation method of software human factor analysis is used to evaluate the hard interface matching; The analytic hierarchy process is used to establish the evaluation index system for the software interface matching optimization, and the multi-level fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method is used to evaluate hard interface machine. This article takes Dongfeng Sokon (DFSK) C37 model automobile as an example. The evaluation method given in the paper is used to carry out relevant analysis and evaluation, and corresponding optimization suggestions are given, which have certain reference value for designers.

Keywords: analytic hierarchy process, fuzzy comprehension evaluation method, human-machine interface, matching optimization, software human factor analysis

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4464 The Interaction between Hydrogen and Surface Stress in Stainless Steel

Authors: Osamu Takakuwa, Yuta Mano, Hitoshi Soyama


This paper reveals the interaction between hydrogen and surface stress in austenitic stainless steel by X-ray diffraction stress measurement and thermal desorption analysis before and after being charged with hydrogen. The surface residual stress was varied by surface finishing using several disc polishing agents. The obtained results show that the residual stress near surface had a significant effect on hydrogen absorption behavior, that is, tensile residual stress promoted the hydrogen absorption and compressive one did opposite. Also, hydrogen induced equi-biaxial stress and this stress has a linear correlation with hydrogen content.

Keywords: hydrogen embrittlement, residual stress, surface finishing, stainless steel

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4463 A Proposed Mechanism for Skewing Symmetric Distributions

Authors: M. T. Alodat


In this paper, we propose a mechanism for skewing any symmetric distribution. The new distribution is called the deflation-inflation distribution (DID). We discuss some statistical properties of the DID such moments, stochastic representation, log-concavity. Also we fit the distribution to real data and we compare it to normal distribution and Azzlaini's skew normal distribution. Numerical results show that the DID fits the the tree ring data better than the other two distributions.

Keywords: normal distribution, moments, Fisher information, symmetric distributions

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4462 Experimental Investigation of Interfacial Bond Strength of Concrete Layers

Authors: Rajkamal Kumar, Sudhir Mishra


The connections between various elements of concrete structures play a vital role in determining the durability of structures. These connections produce discontinuities and to ensure the monolithic behavior of structures, these connections should be carefully designed. The connections between concrete layers may occur in various situations such as structure repairing and rehabilitation or construction of huge structures with cast-in-situ or pre-cast elements, etc. Bond strength at the interface of these concrete layers should be able to prevent the progressive slip from taking place and it should also ensure satisfactory performance of the structure. Different approaches to enhance the bond strength at interface have been a major area of research. Nowadays, micro-concrete is getting popular as a repair material. Under this ambit, this paper aims to present the experimental results of connections between concrete layers of different age with artificial indentation at interface with two types of repair material: Concrete with same parent concrete composition and ready-mix mortar (micro-concrete), artificial indentations (grooves and holes) were made on the old layer of concrete to increase the bond strength. Curing plays an important role in determining the bond strength. Optimum duration for curing have also been discussed for each type of repair material. Different types of failure patterns have also been mentioned.

Keywords: adhesion, cohesion, compressive stress, micro-concrete, shear stress, slant shear test

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4461 Micromechanical Modeling of Fiber-Matrix Debonding in Unidirectional Composites

Authors: M. Palizvan, M. T. Abadi, M. H. Sadr


Due to variations in damage mechanisms in the microscale, the behavior of fiber-reinforced composites is nonlinear and difficult to model. To make use of computational advantages, homogenization method is applied to the micro-scale model in order to minimize the cost at the expense of detail of local microscale phenomena. In this paper, the effective stiffness is calculated using the homogenization of nonlinear behavior of a composite representative volume element (RVE) containing fiber-matrix debonding. The damage modes for the RVE are considered by using cohesive elements and contacts for the cohesive behavior of the interface between fiber and matrix. To predict more realistic responses of composite materials, different random distributions of fibers are proposed besides square and hexagonal arrays. It was shown that in some cases, there is quite different damage behavior in different fiber distributions. A comprehensive comparison has been made between different graphs.

Keywords: homogenization, cohesive zone model, fiber-matrix debonding, RVE

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4460 Depth-Averaged Velocity Distribution in Braided Channel Using Calibrating Coefficients

Authors: Spandan Sahu, Amiya Kumar Pati, Kishanjit Kumar Khatua


Rivers are the backbone of human civilization as well as one of the most important components of nature. In this paper, a method for predicting lateral depth-averaged velocity distribution in a two-flow braided compound channel is proposed. Experiments were conducted to study the boundary shear stress in the tip of the two flow path. The cross-section of the channel is divided into several panels to study the flow phenomenon on both the main channel and the flood plain. It can be inferred from the study that the flow coefficients get affected by boundary shear stress. In this study, the analytical solution of Shiono and knight (SKM) for lateral distributions of depth-averaged velocity and bed shear stress has been taken into account. The SKM is based on hydraulic parameters, which signify the bed friction factor (f), lateral eddy viscosity, and depth-averaged flow. While applying the SKM to different panels, the equations are solved considering the boundary conditions between panels. The boundary shear stress data, which are obtained from experimentation, are compared with CES software, which is based on quasi-one-dimensional Reynold's Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach.

Keywords: boundary shear stress, lateral depth-averaged velocity, two-flow braided compound channel, velocity distribution

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4459 The Effect of Adhesion on the Frictional Hysteresis Loops at a Rough Interface

Authors: M. Bazrafshan, M. B. de Rooij, D. J. Schipper


Frictional hysteresis is the phenomenon in which mechanical contacts are subject to small (compared to contact area) oscillating tangential displacements. In the presence of adhesion at the interface, the contact repulsive force increases leading to a higher static friction force and pre-sliding displacement. This paper proposes a boundary element model (BEM) for the adhesive frictional hysteresis contact at the interface of two contacting bodies of arbitrary geometries. In this model, adhesion is represented by means of a Dugdale approximation of the total work of adhesion at local areas with a very small gap between the two bodies. The frictional contact is divided into sticking and slipping regions in order to take into account the transition from stick to slip (pre-sliding regime). In the pre-sliding regime, the stick and slip regions are defined based on the local values of shear stress and normal pressure. In the studied cases, a fixed normal force is applied to the interface and the friction force varies in such a way to start gross sliding in one direction reciprocally. For the first case, the problem is solved at the smooth interface between a ball and a flat for different values of work of adhesion. It is shown that as the work of adhesion increases, both static friction and pre-sliding distance increase due to the increase in the contact repulsive force. For the second case, the rough interface between a glass ball against a silicon wafer and a DLC (Diamond-Like Carbon) coating is considered. The work of adhesion is assumed to be identical for both interfaces. As adhesion depends on the interface roughness, the corresponding contact repulsive force is different for these interfaces. For the smoother interface, a larger contact repulsive force and consequently, a larger static friction force and pre-sliding distance are observed.

Keywords: boundary element model, frictional hysteresis, adhesion, roughness, pre-sliding

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4458 Mindful Habits to Remain Unruffled by Stress in the Workplace

Authors: Sandeep Nath


There are good stresses and bad stresses. To tell the difference, recognize early signs of stress, and label stress conditions correctly, we need to understand stress triggers and the mechanism of stress as it arises. By understanding this through mindfulness of body, mind, and spirit, we can be prepared to prevent harmful stress from escalating and ruining health; physical, mental, and emotional. We can also prepare others/peers to be stress-free. The understanding of this is available in a form closest to our natural being, in ancient oriental wisdom, and is brought together as actionable habits in the movement called RENEWALism. The constructs of RENEWALism Habits are detailed in this paper, and case studies presented of how mindfulness has equipped individuals with both capability and capacity to handle their situations and environments despite the odds.

Keywords: habits, mindfulness, renewalism, stress

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4457 Copula Markov Switching Multifractal Models for Forecasting Value-at-Risk

Authors: Giriraj Achari, Malay Bhattacharyya


In this paper, the effectiveness of Copula Markov Switching Multifractal (MSM) models at forecasting Value-at-Risk of a two-stock portfolio is studied. The innovations are allowed to be drawn from distributions that can capture skewness and leptokurtosis, which are well documented empirical characteristics observed in financial returns. The candidate distributions considered for this purpose are Johnson-SU, Pearson Type-IV and α-Stable distributions. The two univariate marginal distributions are combined using the Student-t copula. The estimation of all parameters is performed by Maximum Likelihood Estimation. Finally, the models are compared in terms of accurate Value-at-Risk (VaR) forecasts using tests of unconditional coverage and independence. It is found that Copula-MSM-models with leptokurtic innovation distributions perform slightly better than Copula-MSM model with Normal innovations. Copula-MSM models, in general, produce better VaR forecasts as compared to traditional methods like Historical Simulation method, Variance-Covariance approach and Copula-Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (Copula-GARCH) models.

Keywords: Copula, Markov Switching, multifractal, value-at-risk

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4456 X̄ and S Control Charts based on Weighted Standard Deviation Method

Authors: Derya Karagöz


A Shewhart chart based on normality assumption is not appropriate for skewed distributions since its Type-I error rate is inflated. This study presents X̄ and S control charts for monitoring the process variability for skewed distributions. We propose Weighted Standard Deviation (WSD) X̄ and S control charts. Standard deviation estimator is applied to monitor the process variability for estimating the process standard deviation, in the case of the W SD X̄ and S control charts as this estimator is simple and easy to compute. Unlike the Shewhart control chart, the proposed charts provide asymmetric limits in accordance with the direction and degree of skewness to construct the upper and lower limits. The performances of the proposed charts are compared with other heuristic charts for skewed distributions by using Simulation study. The Simulation studies show that the proposed control charts have good properties for skewed distributions and large sample sizes.

Keywords: weighted standard deviation, MAD, skewed distributions, S control charts

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4455 Magnetoelastically Induced Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy and Perpendicular Exchange Bias of CoO/CoPt Multilayer Films

Authors: Guo Lei, Wang Yue, Nakamura Yoshio, Shi Ji


Recently, perpendicular exchange bias (PEB) is introduced as an active topic attracting continuous efforts. Since its discovery, extrinsic control of PEB has been proposed, due to its scientific significance in spintronic devices and potential application in high density magnetic random access memory with perpendicular magnetic tunneling junction (p-MTJ). To our knowledge, the researches aiming to controlling PEB so far are focused mainly on enhancing the interfacial exchange coupling by adjusting the FM/AFM interface roughness, or optimizing the crystalline structures of FM or AFM layer by employing different seed layers. In present work, the effects of magnetoelastically induced PMA on PEB have been explored in [CoO5nm/CoPt5nm]5 multilayer films. We find the PMA strength of FM layer also plays an important role on PEB at the FM/AFM interface and it is effective to control PEB of [CoO5nm/CoPt5nm]5 multilayer films by changing the magnetoelastically induced PMA of CoPt layer. [CoO5nm/CoPt5nm]5 multilayer films were deposited by magnetron sputtering on fused quartz substrate at room temperature, then annealed at 100°C, 250°C, 300°C and 375°C for 3h, respectively. XRD results reveal that all the samples are well crystallized with preferred fcc CoPt (111) orientation. The continuous multilayer structure with sharp component transition at the CoO5nm/CoPt5nm interface are identified clearly by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray reflectivity (XRR) and atomic force microscope (AFM). CoPt layer in-plane tensile stress is calculated by sin2φ method, and we find it increases gradually upon annealing from 0.99 GPa (as-deposited) up to 3.02 GPa (300oC-annealed). As to the magnetic property, significant enhancement of PMA is achieved in [CoO5nm/CoPt5nm]5 multilayer films after annealing due to the increase of CoPt layer in-plane tensile stress. With the enhancement of magnetoelastically induced PMA, great improvement of PEB is also achieved in [CoO5nm/CoPt5nm]5 multilayer films, which increases from 130 Oe (as-deposited) up to 1060 Oe (300oC-annealed), showing the same change tendency as PMA and the strong correlation with CoPt layer in-plane tensile stress. We consider it is the increase of CoPt layer in-plane tensile stress that leads to the enhancement of PMA, and thus the enhancement of magnetoelastically induced PMA results in the improvement of PEB in [CoO5nm/CoPt5nm]5 multilayer films.

Keywords: perpendicular exchange bias, magnetoelastically induced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, CoO5nm/CoPt5nm]5 multilayer film with in-plane stress, perpendicular magnetic tunneling junction

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4454 Electronic States at SnO/SnO2 Heterointerfaces

Authors: A. Albar, U. Schwingenschlogel


Device applications of transparent conducting oxides require a thorough understanding of the physical and chemical properties of the involved interfaces. We use ab-initio calculations within density functional theory to investigate the electronic states at the SnO/SnO2 hetero-interface. Tin dioxide and monoxide are transparent materials with high n-type and p-type mobilities, respectively. This work aims at exploring the modifications of the electronic states, in particular the charge transfer, in the vicinity of the hetero-interface. The (110) interface is modeled by a super-cell approach in order to minimize the mismatch between the lattice parameters of the two compounds. We discuss the electronic density of states as a function of the distance to the interface.

Keywords: density of states, ab-initio calculations, interface states, charge transfer

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