Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 75

Search results for: Hela Fakhfakh Ben Jemia

75 Anti-Cancerous Activity of Sargassum siliquastrum in Cervical Cancer: Choreographing the Fly's Danse Macabre

Authors: Sana Abbasa, Shahzad Bhattiab, Nadir Khan

Abstract:

Sargassum siliquastrum is brown seaweed with traditional claims for some medicinal properties. This research was done to investigate the methanol extract of S. siliquastrum for antiproliferative activity against human cervical cancer cell line, HeLa and its mode of cell death. From methylene blue assay, S. siliquastrum exhibited antiproliferative activity on HeLa cells with IC50 of 3.87 µg/ml without affecting non-malignant cells. Phase contrast microscopy indicated the confluency reduction in HeLa cells and changes on the cell shape. Nuclear staining with Hoechst 33258 displayed the formation of apoptotic bodies and fragmented nuclei. S. siliquastrum also induced early apoptosis event in HeLa cells as confirmed by FITC-Annexin V/propidium iodide staining by flow cytometry analysis. Cell cycle analysis indicated growth arrest of HeLa cells at G1/S phase. Protein study by flow cytometry indicated the increment of p53, slight increase of Bax and unchanged level of Bcl-2. In conclusion, S. siliquastrum demonstrated an antiproliferative activity in HeLa cell by inducing G1/S cell cycle arrest via p53-mediated pathway.

Keywords: Cervical Cancer, P53, sargassum siliquastrum, antiproleferation

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74 Facies Sedimentology and Astronomic Calibration of the Reinech Member (Lutetian)

Authors: Jihede Haj Messaoud, Hamdi Omar, Hela Fakhfakh Ben Jemia, Chokri Yaich

Abstract:

The Upper Lutetian alternating marl–limestone succession of Reineche Member was deposited over a warm shallow carbonate platform that permits Nummulites proliferation. High-resolution studies of 30 meters thick Nummulites-bearing Reineche Member, cropping out in Central Tunisia (Jebel Siouf), have been undertaken, regarding pronounced cyclical sedimentary sequences, in order to investigate the periodicity of cycles and their related orbital-scale oceanic and climatic changes. The palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic data are preserved in several proxies obtainable through high-resolution sampling and laboratories measurement and analysis as magnetic susceptibility (MS) and carbonates contents in conjunction with a wireline logging tools. The time series analysis of proxies permits to establish cyclicity orders present in the studied intervals which could be linked to the orbital cycles. MS records provide high-resolution proxies for relative sea level change in Late Lutetian strata. The spectral analysis of MS fluctuations confirmed the orbital forcing by the presence of the complete suite of orbital frequencies in the precession of 23 ka, the obliquity of 41 ka, and notably the two modes of eccentricity of 100 and 405 ka. Regarding the two periodic sedimentary cycles detected by wavelet analysis of proxy fluctuations which coincide with the long-term 405 ka eccentricity cycle, the Reineche Member spanned 0,8 Myr. Wireline logging tools as gamma ray and sonic were used as a proxies to decipher cyclicity and trends in sedimentation and contribute to identifying and correlate units. There are used to constraint the highest frequency cyclicity modulated by a long term wavelength cycling apparently controlled by clay content. Interpreted as a result of variations in carbonate productivity, it has been suggested that the marl-limestone couplets, represent the sedimentary response to the orbital forcing. The calculation of cycle durations through Reineche Member, is used as a geochronometer and permit the astronomical calibration of the geologic time scale. Furthermore, MS coupled with carbonate contents, and fossil occurrences provide strong evidence for combined detrital inputs and marine surface carbonate productivity cycles. These two synchronous processes were driven by the precession index and ‘fingerprinted’ in the basic marl–limestone couplets, modulated by orbital eccentricity.

Keywords: Spectral Analysis, Cyclostratigraphy, magnetic susceptibility, orbital forcing, Lutetian

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73 Role of Endonuclease G in Exogenous DNA Stability in HeLa Cells

Authors: Vanja Misic, Mohamed El-Mogy, Yousef Haj-Ahmad

Abstract:

Endonuclease G (EndoG) is a well conserved mitochondrio-nuclear nuclease with dual lethal and vital roles in the cell. The aim of our study was to examine whether EndoG exerts its nuclease activity on exogenous DNA substrates such as plasmid DNA (pDNA), considering their importance in gene therapy applications. The effects of EndoG knockdown on pDNA stability and levels of encoded reporter gene expression were evaluated in the cervical carcinoma HeLa cells. Transfection of pDNA vectors encoding short-hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) reduced levels of EndoG mRNA and nuclease activity in HeLa cells. In physiological circumstances, EndoG knockdown did not have an effect on the stability of pDNA or the levels of encoded transgene expression as measured over a four day time-course. However, when endogenous expression of EndoG was induced by an extrinsic stimulus, targeting of EndoG by shRNA improved the perceived stability and transgene expression of pDNA vectors. Therefore, EndoG is not a mediator of exogenous DNA clearance, but in non-physiological circumstances it may non-specifically cleave intracellular DNA regardless of its origin. These findings make it unlikely that targeting of EndoG is a viable strategy for improving the duration and level of transgene expression from non-viral DNA vectors in gene therapy efforts.

Keywords: EndoG, silencing, exogenous DNA stability, HeLa cells

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72 Biomolecular Interaction of Ruthenium(II) Polypyridyl Complexes

Authors: H. Ahmad, S. N. Harun

Abstract:

A series of ruthenium(II) complexes, including two novel compounds [Ru(dppz)2(L)]2+ where dppz = dipyrido-[3,2-a:2’,3’-c]phenazine, and L = 2-phenylimidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline (PIP) or 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline (p-HPIP) have been synthesized and characterized. The previously reported complexes [Ru(bpy)2L]2+ and [Ru(phen)2L]2+ were also prepared. All complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, 1H-NMR spectroscopy, ESI-Mass spectroscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy. The photophysical properties were analyzed by UV-Visible spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. [Ru(dppz)2(PIP)]2+ and [Ru(dppz)2(p-HPIP)]2+ displayed ‘molecular light-switch’ effect as they have high emission in acetonitrile but no emission in water. The cytotoxicity of all complexes against cancer cell lines Hela and MCF-7 were investigated through standard MTT assay. [Ru(dppz)2(PIP)]2+ showed moderate toxicity on both MCF-7 and Hela with IC50 of 37.64 µM and 28.02 µM, respectively. Interestingly, [Ru(dppz)2(p-HPIP)]2+ exhibited remarkable cytotoxicity results with IC50 of 13.52 µM on Hela and 11.63 µM on MCF-7 cell lines which are comparable to the infamous anti-cancer drug, cisplatin. The cytotoxicity of this complex series increased as the ligands size extended in order of [Ru(bpy)2(L)]2+ < [Ru(phen)2(L)]2+ < [Ru(dppz)2(L)]2+.

Keywords: Cytotoxicity, anticancer, ruthenium, molecular light-switch

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71 Facile Synthesis of Novel Substituted Aryl-Thiazole (SAT) Analogs via One-Pot Multicomponent Reaction as Potent Cytotoxic Agents against Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Salma Mirza, Syeda Asma Naqvi, Khalid Mohammed Khan, M. Iqbal Choudhary

Abstract:

In this study twenty-five (25) newly synthesized compounds substituted aryl thiazoles (SAT) 1-25 were synthesized, and in vitro cytotoxicity of these compounds was evaluated against four cancer cell lines namely, MCF-7 (ER+ve breast), MDA-MB-231 (ER-ve breast), HCT116 (colorectal), and, HeLa (cervical) and compared with the standard anticancer drug doxorubicin with IC50 value of 1.56 ± 0.05 μM. Among them, compounds 1, 4-8 and 19 were found to be active against all four cell lines. Compound 20 was found to be selectively active against MCF7 cells with IC50 value of 40.21 ± 4.15 µM, whereas compound 19 was active against only MCF7 and HeLa cells with IC50 values of 46.72 ± 1.8 and 19.86 ± 0.11 μM, respectively. These results suggest that aryl thiazoles 1 and 4 deserve to be investigated further in vivo as anti-cancer agents.

Keywords: Anticancer Agents, breast cancer cell lines (MCF7, MDA-MB-231), colorectal cancer cell line (HCT-116), cervical cancer cell line (HeLa), Thiazole derivatives

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70 Ellagic Acid Enhanced Apoptotic Radiosensitivity via G1 Cell Cycle Arrest and γ-H2AX Foci Formation in HeLa Cells in vitro

Authors: A. Kumar, V. R. Ahire, B. N. Pandey, K. P. Mishra, G. R. Kulkarni

Abstract:

Radiation therapy is an effective vital strategy used globally in the treatment of cervical cancer. However, radiation efficacy principally depends on the radiosensitivity of the tumor, and not all patient exhibit significant response to irradiation. A radiosensitive tumor is easier to cure than a radioresistant tumor which later advances to local recurrence and metastasis. Herbal polyphenols are gaining attention for exhibiting radiosensitization through various signaling. Current work focuses to study the radiosensitization effect of ellagic acid (EA), on HeLa cells. EA intermediated radiosensitization of HeLa cells was due to the induction γ-H2AX foci formation, G1 phase cell cycle arrest, and loss of reproductive potential, growth inhibition, drop in the mitochondrial membrane potential and protein expression studies that eventually induced apoptosis. Irradiation of HeLa in presence of EA (10 μM) to doses of 2 and 4 Gy γ-radiation produced marked tumor cytotoxicity. EA also demonstrated radio-protective effect on normal cell, NIH3T3 and aided recovery from the radiation damage. Our results advocate EA to be an effective adjuvant for improving cancer radiotherapy as it displays striking tumor cytotoxicity and reduced normal cell damage instigated by irradiation.

Keywords: ellagic acid, apoptotic radiosensitivity, mitochondrial potential, cell-cycle arrest

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69 Orbital Tuning of Marl-Limestone Alternations (Upper Tithonian to Upper Berriasian) in North-South Axis (Tunisia): Geochronology and Sequence Implications

Authors: Chokri Yaich, Hamdi Omar Omar, Hela Fakhfakh

Abstract:

This work reflects the integration of different techniques, such as field sampling and observations, magnetic susceptibility measurement, cyclostratigaraphy and sequence stratigraphy. The combination of these results allows us to reconstruct the environmental evolution of the Sidi Khalif Formation in the North-South Axis (NOSA), aged of Upper Tithonian, Berriasian and Lower Valanginian. Six sedimentary facies were identified and are primarily influenced by open marine sedimentation receiving increasing terrigenous influx. Spectral analysis, based on MS variation (for the outcropped section) and wireline logging gamma ray (GR) variation (for the sub-area section) show a pervasive dominance of 405-kyr eccentricity cycles with the expression of 100-kyr eccentricity, obliquity and precession. This study provides (for the first time) a precise duration of 2.4 myr for the outcropped Sidi Khalif Formation with a sedimentation rate of 5.4 cm/kyr and the sub-area section to 3.24 myr with a sedimentation rate of 7.64 cm/kyr. We outlined 27 5th-order depositional sequences, 8 Milankovitch depositional sequences and 2 major 3rd-order cycles for the outcropping section, controlled by the long eccentricity (405 kyr) cycles and the precession index cycles. This study has demonstrated the potential of MS and GR to be used as proxies to develop an astronomically calibrated time-scale for the Mesozoic era.

Keywords: magnetic susceptibility, Berriasian, orbital tuning, Sidi Khalif Formation

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68 Characterization of Herberine Hydrochloride Nanoparticles

Authors: Jing Sun, Bao-Fang Wen, Meng-Na Dai, Gao-Pei Zhu, Chen-Xi Zhang, Xun-Bao Yin, Yu-Han Zhao, Hong-Wei Sun, Wei-Fen Zhang

Abstract:

A drug-loaded nanoparticles containing berberine hydrochloride (BH/FA-CTS-NPs) was prepared. The physicochemical characterizations of BH/FA-CTS-NPs and the inhibitory effect on the HeLa cells were investigated. Folic acid-conjugated chitosan (FA-CTS) was prepared by amino reaction of folic acid active ester and chitosan molecules; BH/FA-CTS-NPs were prepared using ionic cross-linking technique with BH as a model drug. The morphology and particle size were determined by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). The average diameters and polydispersity index (PDI) were evaluated by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). The interaction between various components and the nanocomplex were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The entrapment efficiency (EE), drug-loading (DL) and in vitro release were studied by UV spectrophotometer. The effect of cell anti-migratory and anti-invasive actions of BH/FA-CTS-NPs were investigated using MTT assays, wound healing assays, Annexin-V-FITC single staining assays, and flow cytometry, respectively. HeLa nude mice subcutaneously transplanted tumor model was established and treated with different drugs to observe the effect of BH/FA-CTS-NPs in vivo on HeLa bearing tumor. The BH/FA-CTS-NPs prepared in this experiment have a regular shape, uniform particle size, and no aggregation phenomenon. The results of DLS showed that mean particle size, PDI and Zeta potential of BH/FA-CTS NPs were (249.2 ± 3.6) nm, 0.129 ± 0.09, 33.6 ± 2.09, respectively, and the average diameter and PDI were stable in 90 days. The results of FT-IR demonstrated that the characteristic peaks of FA-CTS and BH/FA-CTS-NPs confirmed that FA-CTS cross-linked successfully and BH was encapsulated in NPs. The EE and DL amount were (79.3 ± 3.12) % and (7.24 ± 1.41) %, respectively. The results of in vitro release study indicated that the cumulative release of BH/FA-CTS NPs was (89.48±2.81) % in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4) within 48h; these results by MTT assays and wund healing assays indicated that BH/FA-CTS NPs not only inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells in a concentration and time-dependent manner but can induce apoptosis as well. The subcutaneous xenograft tumor formation rate of human cervical cancer cell line HeLa in nude mice was 98% after inoculation for 2 weeks. Compared with BH group and BH/CTS-NPs group, the xenograft tumor growth of BH/FA-CTS-NPs group was obviously slower; the result indicated that BH/FA-CTS-NPs could significantly inhibit the growth of HeLa xenograft tumor. BH/FA-CTS NPs with the sustained release effect could be prepared successfully by the ionic crosslinking method. Considering these properties, block proliferation and impairing the migration of the HeLa cell line, BH/FA-CTS NPs could be an important compound for consideration in the treatment of cervical cancer.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Cervical Cancer, chitosan, folic-acid, berberine hydrochloride

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67 Cytotoxic Effect of Crude Extract of Sea Pen Virgularia gustaviana on HeLa and MDA-MB-231 Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Pargol Ghavam Mostafavi, Sharareh Sharifi, Ali Mashinchian Moradi, Mohammad Hadi Givianrad, Hassan Niknejad

Abstract:

Marine organisms such as soft coral, sponge, ascidians, and tunicate containing rich source of natural compound have been studied in last decades because of their special chemical compounds with anticancer properties. The aim of this study was to investigate anti-cancer property of ethyl acetate extracted from marine sea pen Virgularia gustaviana found from Persian Gulf coastal (Bandar Abbas). The extraction processes were carried out with ethyl acetate for five days. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used for qualitative identification of crude extract. The viability of HeLa and MDA-Mb-231 cancer cells was investigated using MTT assay at the concentration of 25, 50, and a 100 µl/ml of ethyl acetate is extracted. The crude extract of Virgularia gustaviana demonstrated ten fractions with different Retention factor (Rf) by TLC and Retention time (Rt) evaluated by HPLC. The crude extract dose-dependently decreased cancer cell viability compared to control group. According to the results, the ethyl acetate extracted from Virgularia gustaviana inhibits the growth of cancer cells, an effect which needs to be further investigated in the future studies.

Keywords: anti-cancer, Hela cancer cell, MDA-Md-231 cancer cell, Virgularia gustavina

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66 Immunomodulatory Role of Heat Killed Mycobacterium indicus pranii against Cervical Cancer

Authors: Debprasad Chattopadhyay, Subrata Majumdar, Priyanka Bhowmik

Abstract:

Background: Cervical cancer is the third major cause of cancer in women and the second most frequent cause of cancer related deaths causing 300,000 deaths annually worldwide. Evasion of immune response by Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), the key contributing factor behind cancer and pre-cancerous lesions of the uterine cervix, makes immunotherapy a necessity to treat this disease. Objective: A Heat killed fraction of Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP), a non-pathogenic Mycobacterium has been shown to exhibit cytotoxic effects on different cancer cells, including human cervical carcinoma cell line HeLa. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The aim of this study is to decipher the mechanism of MIP induced HeLa cell death. Methods: The cytotoxicity of Mycobacterium indicus pranii against HeLa cells was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Apoptosis was detected by annexin V and Propidium iodide (PI) staining. The assessment of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and cell cycle analysis were measured by flow cytometry. The expression of apoptosis associated genes was analyzed by real time PCR. Result: MIP could inhibit the proliferation of HeLa cell in a time and dose dependent manner but caused minor damage to normal cells. The induction of apoptosis was confirmed by the cell surface presentation of phosphatidyl serine, DNA fragmentation, and mitochondrial damage. MIP caused very early (as early as 30 minutes) transcriptional activation of p53, followed by a higher activation (32 fold) at 24 hours suggesting prime importance of p53 in MIP-induced apoptosis in HeLa cell. The up regulation of p53 dependent pro-apoptotic genes Bax, Bak, PUMA, and Noxa followed a lag phase that was required for the transcriptional p53 program. MIP also caused the transcriptional up regulation of Toll like receptor 2 and 4 after 30 minutes of MIP treatment suggesting recognition of MIP by toll like receptors. Moreover, MIP caused the inhibition of expression of HPV anti apoptotic gene E6, which is known to interfere with p53/PUMA/Bax apoptotic cascade. This inhibition might have played a role in transcriptional up regulation of PUMA and subsequently apoptosis. ROS was generated transiently which was concomitant with the highest transcription activation of p53 suggesting a plausible feedback loop network of p53 and ROS in the apoptosis of HeLa cells. Scavenger of ROS, such as N-acetyl-L-cysteine, decreased apoptosis suggesting ROS is an important effector of MIP induced apoptosis. Conclusion: Taken together, MIP possesses full potential to be a novel therapeutic agent in the clinical treatment of cervical cancer.

Keywords: Cancer, Immunotherapy, Immunity, Mycobacterium

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65 An Activatable Theranostic for Targeted Cancer Therapy and Imaging

Authors: Hyunseung Lee, Eun-Joong Kim, Sankarprasad Bhuniya, Kwan Soo Hong, Jong Seung Kim, Sukhendu Maiti, Jonathan L. Sessler

Abstract:

A new theranostic strategy is described. It is based on the use of an “all in one” prodrug, namely the biotinylated piperazine-rhodol conjugate 4a. This conjugate, which incorporates the anticancer drug SN-38, undergoes self-immolative cleavage when exposed to biological thiols. This leads to the tumor-targeted release of the active SN-38 payload along with fluorophore 1a. This release is made selective as the result of the biotin functionality. Fluorophore 1a is 32-fold more fluorescent than prodrug 4a. It permits the delivery and release of the SN-38 payload to be monitored easily in vitro and in vivo, as inferred from cell studies and ex vivo analyses of mice xenografts derived HeLa cells, respectively. Prodrug 4a also displays anticancer activity in the HeLa cell murine xenograft tumor model. On the basis of these findings we suggest that the present strategy, which combines within a single agent the key functions of targeting, release, imaging, and treatment, may have a role to play in cancer diagnosis and therapy.

Keywords: Cancer Therapy, Fluorescence, Theranostic, prodrug

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64 Evaluation of Anticancer and Antioxidant Activity of Purified Lovastatin from Aspergillus terreus (KM017963)

Authors: Bhargavi Santebennur Dwarakanath, Praveen Vadakke Kamath, Savitha Janakiraman

Abstract:

Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality in women and is the second most common malignancy worldwide. Lovastatin, a non polar, anticholesterol drug which also exerts antitumour activity in vitro. In the present study, lovastatin from Aspergillus terreus (KM017963) was purified by adsoprtion chromatography and evaluated for its anticancer and anti-oxidant properties in human cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa). The growth inhibitory and proapoptotic effects of purified lovastatin on HeLa cell lines were investigated by determining its influence on cytotoxicity, Mitochondrial Membrane Potential (MMP), DNA fragmentation and antioxidant property (Hydroxy radical scavenging effect and the levels of total reduced glutathione). Flow cytometry analysis by propidium iodide staining confirmed the induction of apoptotic cell death and revealed cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase. Results of the study give leads for anticancer effects of lovastatin and its potential efficacy in the chemotherapy of cervical cancer.

Keywords: apoptosis, Cervical Cancer, Aspergillus terreus, lovastatin

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63 Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities of Ethanolic Extract from Monascus purpureus

Authors: F. Yazdian, M. Pourshirazi, M. Esmaelifar, A. Aliahmadi, A. S. Hatamian Zarami, S. J. Ashrafi

Abstract:

Medicinal fungi are the new potential source of drugs to improve the treatment of diseases with association to oxidative agents such as cancers. Monascus purpureus contains functional components potentially effective in improving human health. In the present work, ethanolic extract of Monascus purpureus (EEM) was evaluated for health improving potential mainly focusing on antioxidant and anticancer activities. Ferric ion reducing power (FRAP), scavenging of DPPH radicals and determining viability of breast carcinoma MCF-7 and cervical carcinoma HeLa cells with MTT assay were evaluated. Our data showed a significant antioxidant activity of EEM with 142.45 µg/ml inhibition concentration of 50% DPPH radicals and 2112.33 µg eq.Fe2+/mg extract of FRAP assay. These results might be caused by antioxidant components such as pigments and phenolic compounds. Further, the results demonstrated that EEM caused significant reduction in the viability of MCF-7 with IC50 of 7 µg/ml but not have good effect against viability of HeLa cells. Accordingly, Monascus purpureus is presented as a strong potential of breast cancer treatment. In further study, the mechanistic studies are needed to determine the mechanisms of anticancer activity of EEM.

Keywords: Cancer, Monascus purpureus, antioxidant, ethanolic extract

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62 The Cellular Internalization Mechanisms of Cationic Niosomes/DNA Complex in HeLa Cells

Authors: Orapan Paecharoenchai, Tanasait Ngawhirunpat, Theerasak Rojanarata, Auayporn Apirakaramwong, Praneet Opanasopit

Abstract:

Cationic niosomes formulated with Span20, cholesterol and novel synthesized spermine-cationic lipids (2-hydrocarbon tail and 4- hydrocarbon tail) in a molar ratio of 2.5:2.5:1 can mediate high gene transfection in vitro. However, the uptake mechanisms of these systems are not well clarified. In the present study, effect of endocytic inhibitors on the transfection efficiency of niosomes/DNA complexes was determined on a human cervical carcinoma cell line (HeLa cells) using the inhibitors of macropinocytosis (wortmannin), clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytosis (methyl-β-cyclodextrin), clathrin-mediated endocytosis (chlorpromazine), caveolae-mediated endocytosis (genistein and filipin), cytosolic transfer (ammonium chloride) and microtubules polymerization (nocodazole). The transfection of niosomes with 2-hydrocarbon tail lipid was blocked by nocodazole, genistein, ammonium chloride and filipin, respectively, whereas, the transfection of niosomes with 4-hydrocarbon tail lipid was blocked by nocodazole, genistein, ammonium chloride, methyl-β-cyclodextrin and filipin, respectively. It can be concluded that these niosomes/DNA complexes were internalized predominantly by endocytosis via clathrin and caveolae-independent pathway.

Keywords: cellular internalization, cationic niosomes, gene carriers, spermine-cationic lipids

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61 Cytotoxic Activity of Extracts from Hibiscus sabdariffa Leaves against Women’s Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Arunporn Itharat, Srisopa Ruangnoo, Patsorn Worawattananutai

Abstract:

Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) leaves are vegetables which are extensively used as blood tonic and laxatives in Thai traditional medicine. They are popularly used as healthy sour soup for prevention of chronic diseases such as cancer. Therefore, the cytotoxic activity of different extracts of fresh and dried Hibiscus sabdariffa leaves were investigated via the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay against three types of women’s cancer cell lines, namely the human cervical adenocarcinoma cell line (HeLa), the human ovarian adenocarcinoma cell line (SKOV-3), and the human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7). Extraction methods were squeezing, boiling with water and maceration with 95% or 50% ethanol. The 95% ethanolic extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa dry leaves (HSDE95) showed the highest cytotoxicity against all types of women’s cancer cell lines with the IC50 values in range 7.51±0.33 to 12.13±1.85 µg/ml. Its IC50 values against SKOV-3, HeLa and MCF-7 were 7.51±0.33, 9.44±1.41 and 12.13±1.85 µg/ml, respectively. In these results, this extract can be classified as “active” according to the NCI guideline which indicated that IC50 values of the active cytotoxic plant extracts have to be beneath 20 µg/ml. Thus, HSDE95 was concluded to be a potent cytotoxic drug for all women’s cancer cells. This extract should be further investigated to isolate active compounds against women’s cancer cells.

Keywords: cytotoxic activity, breast adenocarcinoma, cervical adenocarcinoma, Hibiscus sabdariffa, ovarian adenocarcinoma

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60 Towards a Resources Provisioning for Dynamic Workflows in the Cloud

Authors: Fairouz Fakhfakh, Hatem Hadj Kacem, Ahmed Hadj Kacem

Abstract:

Cloud computing offers a new model of service provisioning for workflow applications, thanks to its elasticity and its paying model. However, it presents various challenges that need to be addressed in order to be efficiently utilized. The resources provisioning problem for workflow applications has been widely studied. Nevertheless, the existing works did not consider the change in workflow instances while they are being executed. This functionality has become a major requirement to deal with unusual situations and evolution. This paper presents a first step towards the resources provisioning for a dynamic workflow. In fact, we propose a provisioning algorithm which minimizes the overall workflow execution cost, while meeting a deadline constraint. Then, we extend it to support the dynamic adding of tasks. Experimental results show that our proposed heuristic demonstrates a significant reduction in resources cost by using a consolidation process.

Keywords: Cloud Computing, resources provisioning, dynamic workflow, workflow applications

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59 Sequential Release of Dual Drugs Using Thermo-Sensitive Hydrogel for Tumor Vascular Inhibition and to Enhance the Efficacy of Chemotherapy

Authors: Haile F. Darge, Hsieh C. Tsai

Abstract:

The tumor microenvironment affects the therapeutic outcomes of cancer disease. In a malignant tumor, overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) provokes the production of pathologic vascular networks. This results in a hostile tumor environment that hinders anti-cancer drug activities and profoundly fuels tumor progression. In this study, we develop a strategy of sequential sustain release of the anti-angiogenic drug: Bevacizumab(BVZ), and anti-cancer drug: Doxorubicin(DOX) which had a synergistic effect on cancer treatment. Poly (D, L-Lactide)- Poly (ethylene glycol) –Poly (D, L-Lactide) (PDLLA-PEG-PDLLA) thermo-sensitive hydrogel was used as a vehicle for local delivery of drugs in a single platform. The in vitro release profiles of the drugs were investigated and confirmed a relatively rapid release of BVZ (73.56 ± 1.39%) followed by Dox (61.21 ± 0.62%) for a prolonged period. The cytotoxicity test revealed that the copolymer exhibited negligible cytotoxicity up to 2.5 mg ml-1 concentration on HaCaT and HeLa cells. The in vivo study on Hela xenograft nude mice verified that hydrogel co-loaded with BVZ and DOX displayed the highest tumor suppression efficacy for up to 36 days with pronounce anti-angiogenic effect of BVZ and with no noticeable damage on vital organs. Therefore, localized co-delivery of anti-angiogenic drug and anti-cancer drugs by the hydrogel system may be a promising approach for enhanced chemotherapeutic efficacy in cancer treatment.

Keywords: Chemotherapy, controlled release, anti-angiogenesis, Thermo-sensitive hydrogel

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58 Synthesis and Anticancer Evaluation of Substituted 2-(3,4-Dimethoxyphenyl) Benzazoles

Authors: Cigdem Karaaslan, Hakan Goker, Yalcin Duydu, Aylin Ustundag, Can Ozgur Yalcın

Abstract:

Benzazole nucleus is found in the structure of many compounds as anticancer agents. Bendamustine (Alkylating agent), Nocodazole (Mitotic inhibitor), Veliparib (PARP inhibitor), Glasdegib (SMO inhibitor) are clinically used as anticancer therapeutics which bearing benzimidazole moiety. Based on the principle of bioisosterism in the present work, 23 compounds belonging to 2-(3,4-dimethoxy-phenyl) benzazoles and imidazopyridine series were synthesized and evaluated for their anticancer activities. N-(5-Chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)-3,4-dimethoxybenzamide, was obtained by the amidation of 2-hydroxy-5-chloroaniline with 3,4-dimethoxybenzoic acid by using 1,1'-carbonyldiimidazole. Cyclization of benzamide derivative to benzoxazole, was achieved by p-toluenesulfonic acid. Other 1H-benz (or pyrido) azoles were prepared by the reaction between 2-aminothiophenol, o-phenylenediamine, o-pyridinediamine with sodium metabisulfite adduct of 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde. The NMR assignments of the dimethoxy groups were established by the Nuclear Overhauser Effect Spectroscopy. A compound named, 5(4),7(6)-Dichloro-2-(3,4-dimethoxy) phenyl-1H-benzimidazole, bearing two chlorine atoms at the 5(4) and 7(6) positions of the benzene moiety of benzimidazole was found the most potent analogue, against A549 cells with the GI50 value of 1.5 µg/mL. In addition, 2-(3,4-Dimethoxyphenyl)-5,6-dimethyl-1H-benzimi-dazole showed remarkable cell growth inhibition against MCF-7 and HeLa cells with the GI₅₀ values of 7 and 5.5 µg/mL, respectively. It could be concluded that introduction of di-chloro atoms at the phenyl ring of 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-1H-benzimidazoles increase significant cytotoxicity to selected human tumor cell lines in comparison to other all benzazoles synthesized in this study. Unsubstituted 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl) imidazopyridines also gave the good inhibitory profile against A549 and HeLa cells.

Keywords: imidazopyridine, benzazole

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57 Microfluidic Based High Throughput Screening System for Photodynamic Therapy against Cancer Cells

Authors: Rina Lee, Chung-Hun Oh, Eunjin Lee, Jeongyun Kim

Abstract:

The Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment that uses a photosensitizer as a drug to damage and kill cancer cells. After injecting the photosensitizer into the bloodstream, the drug is absorbed by cancer cells selectively. Then the area to be treated is exposed to specific wavelengths of light and the photosensitizer produces a form of oxygen that kills nearby cancer cells. PDT is has an advantage to destroy the tumor with minimized side-effects on normal cells. But, PDT is not a completed method for cancer therapy. Because the mechanism of PDT is quite clear yet and the parameters such as intensity of light and dose of photosensitizer are not optimized for different types of cancers. To optimize these parameters, we suggest a novel microfluidic system to automatically control intensity of light exposure with a personal computer (PC). A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic chip is composed with (1) a cell culture channels layer where cancer cells were trapped to be tested with various dosed photofrin (1μg/ml used for the test) as the photosensitizer and (2) a color dye layer as a neutral density (ND) filter to reduce intensity of light which exposes the cell culture channels filled with cancer cells. Eight different intensity of light (10%, 20%, …, 100%) are generated through various concentrations of blue dye filling the ND filter. As a light source, a light emitting diode (LED) with 635nm wavelength was placed above the developed PDMS microfluidic chip. The total time for light exposure was 30 minutes and HeLa and PC3 cell lines of cancer cells were tested. The cell viability of cells was evaluated with a Live/Dead assay kit (L-3224, Invitrogen, USA). The stronger intensity of light exposed, the lower viability of the cell was observed, and vice versa. Therefore, this system was demonstrated through investigating the PDT against cancer cell to optimize the parameters as critical light intensity and dose of photosensitizer. Our results suggest that the system can be used for optimizing the combinational parameters of light intensity and photosensitizer dose against diverse cancer cell types.

Keywords: photodynamic therapy, photofrin, high throughput screening, hela

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56 Development and Validation of a HPLC Method for Standardization of Methanolic Extract of Hypericum sinaicum Hochst

Authors: Taghreed A. Ibrahim, Atef A. El-Hela, Hala M. El-Hefnawy

Abstract:

The chromatographic profile of methanol extract of Hypericum sinaicum was determined using HPLC-DAD. Apigenin was used as an external standard in the development and validation of the HPLC method. The proposed method is simple, rapid and reliable and can be successfully applied for standardization of Hypericum sinaicum methanol extract.

Keywords: Quality Control, standardization, methanol extract, falvonoids

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55 Durability of Light-Weight Concrete

Authors: Rudolf Hela, Michala Hubertová

Abstract:

The paper focuses on research of durability and lifetime of dense light-weight concrete with artificial light-weight aggregate Liapor exposed to various types of aggressive environment. Experimental part describes testing of designed concrete of various strength classes and volume weights exposed to cyclical freezing, frost and chemical de-icers and various types of chemically aggressive environment.

Keywords: Durability, aggressive environment, physical-mechanical properties, light-weight concrete

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54 Chemical Study and Cytotoxic Activity of Extracts from Erythroxylum Genus against HeLa Cells

Authors: Richele P. Severino, Maria M. F. Alchaar, Lorena R. F. De Sousa, Patrik S. Vital, Ana G. Silva, Rosy I. M. A. Ribeiro

Abstract:

Recognized as a global biodiversity hotspot, the Cerrado (Brazil) presents an extreme abundance of endemic species and it is considered to be one of the biologically richest tropical savanna regions in the world. Erythroxylum genus is found in Cerrado and chemically is characterized by the presence of tropane alkaloids, among them cocaine, a natural alkaloid produced by Erythroxylum coca Lam., which was used as a local anesthetic in small surgeries. However, cocaine gained notoriety due to its psychoactive activity in the Central Nervous System (CNS), becoming one of the major problems of public health today. Some species of Erythroxylum are referred to in the literature as having pharmacological potential, which provide alkaloids, terpenoids, and flavonoids. E. vacciniifolium Mart., commonly known as 'catuaba', is used as a central nervous system stimulant and has aphrodisiac properties and E. pelleterianum A. St.-Hil. in the treatment of stomach pains. Already E. myrsinites Mart. and E. suberosum A. St.-Hil. are used in the tannery industry. Species of Erythroxylum are also used in folk medicine for various diseases, against diabetes, antiviral, fungicidal, cytotoxicity, among others. The Cerrado is recognized as the richer savannah in the world in biodiversity but little explored from the chemical view. In our on-going study of the chemistry of Erythroxylum genus, we have investigated four specimens collected in central Cerrado of Brazil: E. campestre (EC), E. deciduum (ED), E. suberosum (ES) and E. tortuosum (ET). The cytotoxic activity of extracts was evaluated using HeLa cells, in vitro assays. The chemical investigation was performed preparing the extracts using n-hexane (H), dichloromethane (D), ethyl acetate (E) and methanol (M). The cells were treated with increasing concentrations of extracts (50, 75 and 100 μg/mL) diluted in DMSO (1%) and DMEM (0.5% FBS and 1% P/S). The IC₅₀ values were determined measured spectrophotometrically at 570 nm, after incubation of HeLa cell line for 48 hours using the MTT (SIGMA M5655), and calculated by nonlinear regression analysis using GraphPad Prism software. All the assays were done in triplicate and repeated at least two times. The cytotoxic assays showed some promising results with IC₅₀ values less than 100 μg/mL (ETD = 38.5 μg/mL; ETM = 92.3 μg/mL; ESM = 67.8 μg/mL; ECD = 24.0 μg/mL; ECM = 32.9; EDA = 44.2 μg/mL). The chemical profile study of ethyl acetate (E) and methanolic (M) extracts of E. tortuosum leaves was performed by LC-MS, and the structures of the compounds were determined by analysis of ¹H, HSQC and HMBC spectra, and confirmed by comparison with the literature data. The investigation led to six substances: α-amyrin, β-amyrin, campesterol, stigmastan-3,5-diene, β-sitosterol and 7,4’-di-O-methylquercetin-3-O-β-rutinoside, with flavonoid the major compound of extracts. By alkaline extraction of the methanolic extract, it was possible to identify three alkaloids: tropacocaine, cocaine and 6-methoxy-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-3-ol. The results obtained are important for the chemical knowledge of the Cerrado biodiversity and brought a contribution to the chemistry of Erythroxylum genus.

Keywords: Secondary Metabolites, Cytotoxicity, Erythroxylum, chemical profile

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53 The Antitumor Activity of Eu (III) and Er (III) Complexes of 3 - (1H-Benzimidazol-2-Yl) - 6 - Methyl - 2 (1H) - Quinolinone

Authors: Xing Lu, Yi-ming Wu, Yan-hong Zhu, Zhen-feng Chen, Hong Liang, Yan Peng

Abstract:

[Eu(BMQ)2(NO3)3(CH3OH)(H2O)] (1),and [Er(BMQ)2(NO3)3(CH3OH)(H2O)] (2),were synthesized. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibit a certain extent cytotoxicity against Hep G2, Hela 229, MGC80-3 and BEL-7404 cell lines invitro, with IC50 values in the14.51±1.41μM to 52.49±4.01μM range. Compound 1 exhibited significantly enhanced cytotoxicity against MGC80-3 cell line, comparing with free 3-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-6-methyl-2(1H)- quinolinone. The binding abilities of 1 to DNA were stronger than that of 2. Intercalation is the most probable binding mode for both the complexes.

Keywords: Cytotoxicity, quinolinone, Eu(II) complex, Er(III) complex

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52 Oligoalkylamine Modified Poly(Amidoamine) Generation 4.5 Dendrimer for the Delivery of Small Interfering RNA

Authors: Wei-Hsin Hsu, Endris Yibru Hanurry, Hsieh-Chih Tsai

Abstract:

In recent years, the discovery of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) has got great attention for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. However, the therapeutic efficacy of siRNAs has been faced with many drawbacks because of short half-life in blood circulation, poor membrane penetration, weak endosomal escape and inadequate release into the cytosol. To overcome these drawbacks, we designed a non-viral vector by conjugating polyamidoamine generation 4.5 dendrimer (PDG4.5) with diethylenetriamine (DETA)- and tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) followed by binding with siRNA to form polyplexes through electrostatic interaction. The result of 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 13C NMR, correlation spectroscopy, heteronuclear single–quantum correlation spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the successful conjugation of DETA and TEPA with PDG4.5. Then, the size, surface charge, morphology, binding ability, stability, release assay, toxicity and cellular internalization were analyzed to explore the physicochemical and biological properties of PDG4.5-DETA and PDG4.5-TEPA polyplexes at specific N/P ratios. The polyplexes (N/P = 8) exhibited spherical nanosized (125 and 85 nm) particles with optimum surface charge (13 and 26 mV), showed strong siRNA binding ability, protected the siRNA against enzyme digestion and accepted biocompatibility to the HeLa cells. Qualitatively, the fluorescence microscopy image revealed the delocalization (Manders’ coefficient 0.63 and 0.53 for PDG4.5-DETA and PDG4.5-TEPA, respectively) of polyplexes and the translocation of the siRNA throughout the cytosol to show a decent cellular internalization and intracellular biodistribution of polyplexes in HeLa cells. Quantitatively, the flow cytometry result indicated that a significant (P < 0.05) amount of siRNA was internalized by cells treated with PDG4.5-DETA (68.5%) and PDG4.5-TEPA (73%) polyplexes. Generally, PDG4.5-DETA and PDG4.5-TEPA were ideal nanocarriers of siRNA in vitro and might be used as promising candidates for in vivo study and future pharmaceutical applications.

Keywords: siRNA, non-viral carrier, oligoalkylamine, poly(amidoamine) dendrimer, polyplexes

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51 Evaluation of Static Modulus of Elasticity Depending on Concrete Compressive Strength

Authors: Klara Krizova, Rudolf Hela

Abstract:

The paper is focused on monitoring of dependencies of different composition concretes on elastic modulus values. To obtain a summary of elastic modulus development independence of concrete composition design variability was the objective of the experiment. Essential part of this work was initiated as a reaction to building practice when questions of elastic moduli arose at the same time and which mostly did not obtain the required and expected values from concrete constructions. With growing interest in this theme the elastic modulus questions have been developing further.

Keywords: Concrete, compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, EuroCode 2

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50 An Endophyte of Amphipterygium adstringens as Producer of Cytotoxic Compounds

Authors: Karol Rodriguez-Peña, Martha L. Macias-Rubalcava, Leticia Rocha-Zavaleta, Sergio Sanchez

Abstract:

A bioassay-guided study for anti-cancer compounds from endophytes of the Mexican medicinal plant Amphipteryygium adstringens resulted in the isolation of a streptomycete capable of producing a group of compounds with high cytotoxic activity. Microorganisms from surface sterilized samples of various sections of the plant were isolated and all the actinomycetes found were evaluated for their potential to produce compounds with cytotoxic activity against cancer cell lines MCF7 (breast cancer) and HeLa (cervical cancer) as well as the non-tumoural cell line HaCaT (keratinocyte). The most active microorganism was picked for further evaluation. The identification of the microorganism was carried out by 16S rDNA gene sequencing, finding the closest proximity to Streptomyces scabrisporus, but with the additional characteristic that the strain isolated in this study was capable of producing colorful compounds never described for this species. Crude extracts of dichloromethane and ethyl acetate showed IC50 values of 0.29 and 0.96 μg/mL for MCF7, 0.51 and 1.98 μg/mL for HeLa and 0.96 and 2.7 μg/mL for HaCaT. Scaling the fermentation to 10 L in a bioreactor generated 1 g of total crude extract, which was fractionated by silica gel open column to yield 14 fractions. Nine of the fractions showed cytotoxic activity. Fraction 4 was chosen for subsequent purification because of its high activity against cancerous cell lines, lower activity against keratinocytes. HPLC-UV-MS/ESI was used for the evaluation of this fraction, finding at least 10 different compounds with high values of m/z (≈588). Purification of the compounds was carried out by preparative thin-layer chromatography. The prevalent compound was Steffimycin B, a molecule known for its antibiotic and cytotoxic activities and also for its low solubility in aqueous solutions. Along with steffimycin B, another five compounds belonging to the steffimycin family were isolated and at this moment their structures are being elucidated, some of which display better solubility in water: an attractive property for the pharmaceutical industry. As a conclusion to this study, the isolation of endophytes resulted in the discovery of a strain capable of producing compounds with high cytotoxic activity that need to be studied for their possible utilization.

Keywords: Cytotoxicity, amphipterygium adstringens, streptomyces scabrisporus, steffimycin

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49 In vivo Evidence of Protective Effect of Hyparrhenia Hirta against Nitrate-Induced Genotoxicity

Authors: N. Zeghal, H. Bouaziz-Ketata, G. Ben Salah, Z. Aidi, C. Kallel, H. Kammoun, F. Fakhfakh

Abstract:

The present study was performed to evaluate the potential protective effect of Hyparrhenia hirta methanolic extract in NaNO3-induced genotoxic and hematotoxic effects. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: a control group and two treated groups during 50 days with NaNO3 administered at a dose of 400 mg kg-1 bw either alone in drinking water or co-administered with Hyparrhenia hirta at a dose of 200 mg kg-1 bw. NaNO3 treatment showed a significant increase in the frequencies of total chromosomal aberrations, aberrant metaphases and micronucleus in bone-marrow cells. In parallel, the NaNO3-treated group showed a significant decrease in red blood cell count, hemoglobin and hematocrit and a significant increase in total white blood cell, in neutrophil and eosinophil counts. Platelet count, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration remained unchanged in treated groups compared to those of controls. Hyparrhenia hirta methanolic extract appeared to be effective against genotoxic and hematotoxic changes induced by nitrate, as evidenced by the improvement of the markers cited above.

Keywords: Genotoxicity, Hyparrhenia hirta, sodium nitrate, erythrocytes

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48 Selected Technological Factors Influencing the Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete

Authors: Klara Krizova, Rudolf Hela

Abstract:

The topic of the article focuses on the evaluation of selected technological factors and their influence on resulting elasticity modulus of concrete. A series of various factors enter into the manufacturing process which, more or less, influences the elasticity modulus. This paper presents the results of concrete in which the influence of water coefficient and the size of maximum fraction of the aggregate on the static elasticity modulus were monitored. Part of selected results of the long-term programme was discussed in which a wide scope of various variants of proposals for the composition of concretes was evaluated.

Keywords: modulus of elasticity, mix design, water-cement ratio, aggregate

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47 Use of Recycled Aggregates in Current Concretes

Authors: R. Hela, K. Krizova

Abstract:

The paper a summary of the results of concretes with partial substitution of natural aggregates with recycled concrete is solved. Design formulas of the concretes were characterised with 20, 40 and 60% substitution of natural 8-16 mm fraction aggregates with a selected recycled concrete of analogous coarse fractions. With the product samples an evaluation of coarse fraction aggregates influence on fresh concrete consistency and concrete strength in time was carried out. The results of concretes with aggregates substitution will be compared to reference formula containing only the fractions of natural aggregates.

Keywords: Fresh Concrete, Recycled Concrete, properties of concrete, natural aggregates

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46 Bioactivities and Phytochemical Studies of Acrocarpus fraxinifolius Bark Wight and Arn

Authors: A. A. Sleem, H. M. El-Rafie, A. H. Abou Zeid, R. S. Mohammed

Abstract:

Acrocarpus is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family Fabaceae which considered as a large and economically important family. This study aimed to investigate the phytoconstituents of the petroleum ether extract (PEE) of Acrocarpus fraxinofolius bark by Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of its fractions (fatty acid and unsaponifiable matter). Concerning this, identification of 52 compounds constituting 97.03 % of the total composition of the unsaponifiable matter fraction. Cycloeucalenol was found to be the major compound representing 32.52% followed by 4a, 14a-dimethyl-A8~24(28)-ergostadien (26.50%) and ß-sitosterol(13.74%), furthermore Gas liquid chromatography (GLC) analysis of the sterol fraction revealed the identification of cholesterol (7.22 %), campesterol (13.30 %), stigmasterol (10.00 %) and β - sitosterol (69.48 %). Meanwhile, the identification of 33 fatty acids representing 90.71% of the total fatty acid constituents. Methyl-9,12-octadecadienoate (40.39%) followed by methyl hexadecanoate (23.64%) were found to be the major compounds. On the other hand, column chromatography and Thin layer chromatography (TLC) fractionation of PEE separate the triterpenoid: 21β-hydroxylup-20(29)-en-3-one and β- amyrin which were structurally identified by spectroscopic analysis (NMR, MS and IR). PEE has been biologically evaluated for 1: management of diabetes in alloxan induced diabetic rats 2: cytotoxic activity against four human tumor cell lines (Cervix carcinoma cell line[HELA], Breast carcinoma cell line [MCF7], Liver carcinoma cell line[HEPG2] and Colon carcinoma cell line[HCT-116] 3: hepatoprotective activity against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats and the activity was studied by assaying the serum marker enzymes like AST, ALT, and ALP. Concerning this, the anti-diabetic activity exhibited by 100mg of PEE extract was 74.38% relative to metformin (100% potency). It also showed a significant anti-proliferative activity against MCF-7 (IC50= 2.35µg), Hela(IC50=3.85µg) and HEPG-2 (IC50= 9.54µg) compared with Doxorubicin as reference drug. The hepatoprotective activity was evidenced by significant decrease in liver function enzymes, i.e. AST, ALT and ALP by (29.18%, 28.26%, and 34.11%, respectively using silymarin as the reference drug, compared to their concentration levels in an untreated group with liver damage induced by CCl₄. This study was performed for the first time on the bark of this species.

Keywords: hepatoprotective, cytotoxic, antidiabetic, Acrocarpus fraxinofolius

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