Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 28

Search results for: Freddie Avant

28 A Crossover between Avant-Garde Fashion and Contemporary Art: A Case Study of Alexander McQueen

Authors: Chi-Ying Yu


Fashion design is, in fact, an aesthetic inquiry of fabric, style and human body. In recent years, close cooperation between the artistic circles and the fashion world has even brought fashion into the arena of contemporary art. This study offers a case study on the avant-garde fashion designer Alexander McQueen, investigating how he and his brand translate fashion into contemporary art at various levels. Firstly, in terms of his designs themselves, McQueen demonstrates through fashions his declarations on political and gender issues, demonstrating his unique barbarian aesthetics and creating an enchanting sublimity. Secondly, McQueen extends his fashion aesthetics into a cross-disciplinary performing method, and raises catwalk shows to the level of complete artistic experience. Finally, and also most importantly, the brand has been producing fashion movies for its seasonal design series. By means of an abstract, non-narrative visual language, these films essentially transform people’s experience of clothing – from the senses to the pure visual. This is not simply a cross-media artistic practice, but much more fundamentally a discourse on contemporary perceptual experience. From the case of Alexander McQueen, it can be argued that avant-garde fashion has broken through the boundary between design and art, issuing its own art manifesto through the field of art or non-art.

Keywords: Alexander McQueen, avant-garde fashion, contemporary art, fashion film

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27 Critique of the City-Machine: Dismantling the Scientific Socialist Utopia of Soviet Territorialization

Authors: Rachel P. Vasconcellos


The Russian constructivism is usually enshrined in history as another ''modernist ism'', that is, as an artistic phenomenon related to the early twentieth century‘s zeitgeist. What we aim in this essay is to analyze the constructivist movement not over the Art History field neither through the aesthetic debate, but through a geographical critical theory, taking the main idea of construction in the concrete sense of production of space. Seen from the perspective of the critique of space, the constructivist production is presented as a plan of totality, designed as socialist society‘s spatiality, contemplating and articulating all its scalar levels: the objects of everyday life, the building, the city and the territory. The constructivist avant-garde manifests a geographical ideology, launching the foundation‘s basis of modern planning ideology. Taken in its political sense, the artistic avant-garde of the Russian Revolution intended to anticipate the forms of a social future already put in progress: their plastic research pointed to new formal expressions to revolutionary contents. With the foundation of new institutions under a new State, it was given to the specialized labor of artists, architects, and planners the task of designing the socialist society, based on the thesis of scientific socialism. Their projects were developed under the politico-economics imperatives to the Soviet modernization – that is: the structural needs of industrialization and inclusion of all people in the productive work universe. This context shapes the creative atmosphere of the constructivist avant-garde, which uses the methods of engineering to the transform everyday life. Architecture, urban planning, and state planning integrated must then operate as spatial arrangement morphologically able to produce socialist life. But due to the intrinsic contradictions of the process, the rational and geometric aesthetic of the City-Machine appears, finally, as an image of a scientific socialist utopia.

Keywords: city-machine, critique of space, production of space, soviet territorialization

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26 Services, Stigma and Discrimination: Perceptions of African Descendant Men Living with HIV/AIDS in Brazil and in the US

Authors: Aparecida De Fatima Dutra, Freddie Avant, Wilma Cordova


People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) have benefited from advances in treatment. Medical costs are a challenge for some, but the real challenge is the stigma and discrimination PLWHA continue to face, even though the disease has festered for the last four decades. Few studies regarding stigma and discrimination give voice to those affected by these practices. This study provides a voice to PLWHA in Brazil and in the US as to how they perceive stigma and discrimination, as well as services they access. The methodology of this study was designed based on phenomenological research, which is a research that aims to identify what individuals facing the same situation have to share about their experiences. Qualitative research using in- depth interviews was used in order to gather participants’ perceptions about services they access, and stigma and discrimination they experience as PLWHA (hypothesis). The target population was a minority group of 13 Afro-descendant men, mean age of 48.3, residents in East Texas, United States and Salvador, Brazil. Our findings indicate that in both countries, overall, participants have reasonable access to medication and qualified services, except for some specialties, such as dentistry. With regard to stigma and discrimination the majority of participants have not disclosed their diagnosis. They state they prefer not to disclose for fear of being ostracized and rejected. Participants who did reveal their status indicate that stigma and discrimination is a daily occurrence. These experiences tend to occur within their own families, neighborhoods, and in public health agencies where HIV/AIDS is not the focus. Participants who did offer suggestions for social change indicated they would have to reveal their status even if it means being stigmatized and discriminated against. Other factors contributing to this discrimination include skin color and poverty. This study concludes that even after decades since the spread of this epidemic, nothing has changed regarding stigma and discrimination towards PLWHA. Lack of awareness, empathy and education continue to be a major challenge, not only at a local level but across the globe. In conclusion, as documented in previous studies while stigma and discrimination towards this population prevail, negative attitudes will continue to jeopardize all individuals from receiving equal access to prevention, treatment and care. It is crucial to face stigma and discrimination not only as individual experiences, but as social practices that violate and restrict human rights and that as a result, reinforce inequality and social exclusion. Policies should be at the forefront to eliminate the stigma and discrimination PLWHA experience. Health professionals and societies must take a stand in order to promote mindfulness about the negative effect of oppression towards individuals living with HIV/AIDS and the potential global impact of these practices.

Keywords: discrimination, HIV/AIDS, human rights, stigma

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25 Land Art in Public Spaces Design: Remediation, Prevention of Environmental Risks and Recycling as a Consequence of the Avant-Garde Activity of Landscape Architecture

Authors: Karolina Porada


Over the last 40 years, there has been a trend in landscape architecture which supporters do not perceive the role of pro-ecological or postmodern solutions in the design of public green spaces as an essential goal, shifting their attention to the 'sculptural' shaping of areas with the use of slopes, hills, embankments, and other forms of terrain. This group of designers can be considered avant-garde, which in its activities refers to land art. Initial research shows that such applications are particularly frequent in places of former post-industrial sites and landfills, utilizing materials such as debris and post-mining waste in their construction. Due to the high degradation of the environment surrounding modern man, the brownfields are a challenge and a field of interest for the representatives of landscape architecture avant-garde, who through their projects try to recover lost lands by means of transformations supported by engineering and ecological knowledge to create places where nature can develop again. The analysis of a dozen or so facilities made it possible to come up with an important conclusion: apart from the cultural aspects (including artistic activities), the green areas formally referring to the land are important in the process of remediation of post-industrial sites and waste recycling (e. g. from construction sites). In these processes, there is also a potential for applying the concept of Natural Based Solutions, i.e. solutions allowing for the natural development of the site in such a way as to use it to cope with environmental problems, such as e.g.  air pollution, soil phytoremediation and climate change. The paper presents examples of modern parks, whose compositions are based on shaping the surface of the terrain in a way referring to the land art, at the same time providing an example of brownfields reuse and application of waste recycling.  For the purposes of object analysis, research methods such as historical-interpretation studies, case studies, qualitative research or the method of logical argumentation were used. The obtained results provide information about the role that landscape architecture can have in the process of remediation of degraded areas, at the same time guaranteeing the benefits, such as the shaping of landscapes attractive in terms of visual appearance, low costs of implementation, and improvement of the natural environment quality.

Keywords: brownfields, contemporary parks, landscape architecture, remediation

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24 Concept Analysis of Professionalism in Teachers and Faculty Members

Authors: Taiebe Shokri, Shahram Yazdani, Leila Afshar, Soleiman Ahmadi


Introduction: The importance of professionalism in higher education not only determines the appropriate and inappropriate behaviors and guides faculty members in the implementation of professional responsibilities, but also guarantees faculty members' adherence to professional principles and values, ensures the quality of teaching and facilitator will be the teaching-learning process in universities and will increase the commitment to meet the needs of students as well as the development of an ethical culture based on ethics. Therefore, considering the important role of medical education teachers to prepare teachers and students in the future, the need to determine the concept of professional teacher and teacher, and the characteristics of teacher professionalism, we have explained the concept of professionalism in teachers in this study. Methods: The concept analysis method used in this study was Walker and Avant method which has eight steps. Walker and Avant state the purpose of concept analysis as follows: The process of distinguishing between the defining features of a concept and its unrelated features. The process of concept analysis includes selecting a concept, determining the purpose of the analysis, identifying the uses of the concept, determining the defining features of the concept, identifying a model, identifying boundary and adversarial items, identifying the precedents and consequences of the concept, and defining empirical references. is. Results: Professionalism in its general sense, requires deep knowledge, insight, creating a healthy and safe environment, honesty and trust, impartiality, commitment to the profession and continuous improvement, punctuality, criticism, professional competence, responsibility, and Individual accountability, especially in social interactions, is an effort for continuous improvement, the acquisition of these characteristics is not easily possible and requires education, especially continuous learning. Professionalism is a set of values, behaviors, and relationships that underpin public trust in teachers.

Keywords: concept analysis, medical education, professionalism, faculty members

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23 Examining the Effects of Production Method on Aluminium A356 Alloy and A356-10%SiCp Composite for Hydro Turbine Bucket Application

Authors: Williams S. Ebhota, Freddie L. Inambao


This study investigates the use of centrifugal casting method to fabricate functionally graded aluminium A356 Alloy and A356-10%SiCp composite for hydro turbine bucket application. The study includes the design and fabrication of a permanent mould. The mould was put into use and the buckets of A356 Alloy and A356-10%SiCp composite were cast, cut and machined into specimens. Some specimens were given T6 heat treatment and the specimens were prepared for different examinations accordingly. The SiCp particles were found to be more at inner periphery of the bucket. The maximum hardness of As-Cast A356 and A356-10%SiCp composite was recorded at the inner periphery to be 60 BRN and 95BRN, respectively. And these values were appreciated to 98BRN and 122BRN for A356 alloy and A356-10%SiCp composite, respectively. It was observed that the ultimate tensile stress and yield tensile stress prediction curves show the same trend.

Keywords: A356 alloy, A356-10%SiCp composite, centrifugal casting, Pelton bucket, turbine blade

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22 The Effects of Watching Text-Relevant Video Segments with/without Subtitles on Vocabulary Development of Arabic as a Foreign Language Learners

Authors: Amirreza Karami, Hawraa Nafea Hameed Alzouwain, Freddie A. Bowles


This study investigates the effects of watching text-relevant video segments with/without subtitles on vocabulary development of Arabic as a Foreign Language (AFL) learners. The participants of the study were assigned to two groups: one control group and one experimental group. The control group received no video-based instruction while the experimental group watched a text-relevant video segment in three stages: pre, while, and post-instruction. The preliminary results of the pre-test and post-test show that watching text-relevant video segments through following a pre-while-post procedure can help the vocabulary development of AFL learners more than non-video-based instruction.

Keywords: text-relevant video segments, vocabulary development, Arabic as a Foreign Language, AFL, pre-while-post instruction

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21 A Review on Thermal Conductivity of Bio-Based Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: Gloria A. Adewumi, Andrew C. Eloka-Eboka, Freddie L. Inambao


Bio-based carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have received considerable research attention due to their comparative advantages of high level stability, simplistic use, low toxicity and overall environmental friendliness. New potentials for improvement in heat transfer applications are presented due to their high aspect ratio, high thermal conductivity and special surface area. Phonons have been identified as being responsible for thermal conductivities in carbon nanotubes. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of heat conduction in CNTs involves investigating the difference between the varieties of phonon modes and knowing the kinds of phonon modes that play the dominant role. In this review, a reference to a different number of studies is made and in addition, the role of phonon relaxation rate mainly controlled by boundary scattering and three-phonon Umklapp scattering process was investigated. Results show that the phonon modes are sensitive to a number of nanotube conditions such as: diameter, length, temperature, defects and axial strain. At a low temperature (<100K) the thermal conductivity increases with increasing temperature. A small nanotube size causes phonon quantization which is evident in the thermal conductivity at low temperatures.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, phonons, thermal conductivity, Umklapp process

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20 Cai Guo-Qiang: A Chinese Artist at the Cutting-Edge of Global Art

Authors: Marta Blavia


Magiciens de la terre, organized in 1989 by the Centre Pompidou, became 'the first worldwide exhibition of contemporary art' by presenting artists from Western and non-Western countries, including three Chinese artists. For the first time, West turned its eyes to other countries not as exotic sources of inspiration, but as places where contemporary art was also being created. One year later, Chine: demain pour hier was inaugurated as the first Chinese avant-garde group-exhibition in Occident. Among the artists included was Cai Guo-Qiang who, like many other Chinese artists, had left his home country in the eighties in pursuit of greater creative freedom. By exploring artistic non-Western perspectives, both landmark exhibitions questioned the predominance of the Eurocentric vision in the construction of history art. But more than anything else, these exhibitions laid the groundwork for the rise of the so-called phenomenon 'global contemporary art'. All the same time, 1989 also was a turning point in Chinese art history. Because of the Tiananmen student protests, The Chinese government undertook a series of measures to cut down any kind of avant-garde artistic activity after a decade of a relative openness. During the eighties, and especially after the Tiananmen crackdown, some important artists began to leave China to move overseas such as Xu Bing and Ai Weiwei (USA); Chen Zhen and Huang Yong Ping (France); or Cai Guo-Qiang (Japan). After emigrating abroad, Chinese overseas artists began to develop projects in accordance with their new environments and audiences as well as to appear in numerous international exhibitions. With their creations, that moved freely between a variety of Eastern and Western art sources, these artists were crucial agents in the emergence of global contemporary art. As other Chinese artists overseas, Cai Guo-Qiang’s career took off during the 1990s and early 2000s right at the same moment in which Western art world started to look beyond itself. Little by little, he developed a very personal artistic language that redefines Chinese ideas, symbols, and traditional materials in a new world order marked by globalization. Cai Guo-Qiang participated in many of the exhibitions that contributed to shape global contemporary art: Encountering the Others (1992); the 45th Venice Biennale (1993); Inside Out: New Chinese Art (1997), or the 48th Venice Biennale (1999), where he recreated the Chinese monumental social realist work Rent Collection Courtyard that earned him the Golden Lion Award. By examining the different stages of Cai Guo-Qiang’s artistic path as well as the transnational dimensions of his creations, this paper aims at offering a comprehensive survey on the construction of the discourse of global contemporary art.

Keywords: Cai Guo-Qiang, Chinese artists overseas, emergence global art, transnational art

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19 Removal of Aggregates of Monoclonal Antibodies by Ion Exchange Chrmoatography

Authors: Ishan Arora, Anurag Rathore


The primary objective of this work was to study the effect of resin chemistry, pH and molarity of binding and elution buffer on aggregate removal using Cation Exchange Chromatography and find the optimum conditions which can give efficient aggregate removal with minimum loss of yield. Four different resins were used for carrying out the experiments: Fractogel EMD SO3-(S), Fractogel EMD COO-(M), Capto SP ImpRes and S Ceramic HyperD. Runs were carried out on the AKTA Avant system. Design of Experiments (DOE) was used for analysis using the JMP software. The dependence of the yield obtained using different resins on the operating conditions was studied. Success has been achieved in obtaining yield greater than 90% using Capto SP ImpRes and Fractogel EMD COO-(M) resins. It has also been found that a change in the operating conditions generally has different effects on the yields obtained using different resins.

Keywords: aggregates, cation exchange chromatography, design of experiments, monoclonal antibodies

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18 Removal of Aggregates of Monoclonal Antibodies by Ion Exchange Chromatography

Authors: Ishan Arora, Anurag Rathore


The primary objective of this work was to study the effect of resin chemistry, pH and molarity of binding and elution buffer on aggregate removal using Cation Exchange Chromatography and find the optimum conditions which can give efficient aggregate removal with minimum loss of yield. Four different resins were used for carrying out the experiments: Fractogel EMD SO3-(S), Fractogel EMD COO-(M), Capto SP ImpRes and S Ceramic HyperD. Runs were carried out on the AKTA Avant system. Design of Experiments (DOE) was used for analysis using the JMP software. The dependence of the yield obtained using different resins on the operating conditions was studied. Success has been achieved by obtaining yield greater than 90% using Capto SP ImpRes and Fractogel EMD COO-(M) resins. It has also been found that a change in the operating conditions generally has different effects on the yields obtained using different resins.

Keywords: aggregates, cation exchange chromatography, design of experiments, monoclonal antibodies

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17 Overview on Effectiveness of Learning Contract in Architecture Design Studios

Authors: Badiossadat Hassanpour, Reza Sirjani, Nangkuala Utaberta


The avant-garde educational systems are striving to find a life long learning methods. Different fields and majors have test variety of proposed models, and found their difficulties and strengths. Architecture as a critical stage of education due to its characteristics which are learning by doing and critique based education and evaluation is out of this study procedure. Learning contracts is a new alternative form of evaluation of students’ achievements, while it acts as agreement about learning goals. Obtained results from studies in different fields which confirm its positive impact on students' learning in those fields and positively affected students' motivation and confidence in meeting their own learning needs, prompted us to implement this model in architecture design studio. In this implemented contract to the studio, students were asked to use the existing possibility of contract to have self assessment and examine their professional development to identify whether they are deficient or they would like to develop more expertise. The evidences of this research as well indicate that students feel positive about the learning contract and see it accommodating their individual learning needs.

Keywords: contract (LC), architecture design studio, education, student-centered learning

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16 A Review on Enhancing Heat Transfer Processes by Open-Cell Metal Foams and Industrial Applications

Authors: S. Cheragh Dar, M. Saljooghi, A. Babrgir


In the last couple of decades researchers' attitudes were focused on developing and enhancing heat transfer processes by using new components or cellular solids that divide into stochastic structures and periodic structures. Open-cell metal foams are part of stochastic structures families that they can be considered as an avant-garde technology and they have unique properties, this porous media can have tremendous achievements in thermal processes. This paper argues and surveys postulating possible in industrial thermal issues which include: compact electronic cooling, heat exchanger, aerospace, fines, turbo machinery, automobiles, crygen tanks, biomechanics, high temperature filters and etc. Recently, by surveying exponential rate of publications in thermal open-cell metal foams, all can be demonstrated in a holistic view which can lead researchers to a new level of understanding in different industrial thermal sections.

Keywords: heat transfer, industrial thermal, cellular solids, open cell metal foam

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15 Comparison of Fuel Properties from Species of Microalgae and Selected Second-Generation Oil Feedstocks

Authors: Andrew C. Eloka Eboka, Freddie L. Inambao


Comparative investigation and assessment of microalgal technology as a biodiesel production option was studied alongside other second generation feedstocks. This was carried out by comparing the fuel properties of species of Chlorella vulgaris, Duneliella spp, Synechococus spp and Senedesmus spp with the feedstock of Jatropha (ex-basirika variety), Hura crepitans, rubber and Natal mahogany seed oils. The micro-algae were cultivated in an open pond using a photobioreactor (New Brunsink set-up model BF-115 Bioflo/CelliGen made in the US) with operating parameters: 14L capacity, working volume of 7.5L media, including 10% inoculum, at optical density of 3.144 @540nm and light intensity of 200 lux, for 23 and 16 days respectively. Various produced/accumulated biomasses were harvested by draining, flocculation, centrifugation, drying and then subjected to lipid extraction processes. The oils extracted from the algae and feedstocks were characterised and used to produce biodiesel fuels, by the transesterification method, using modified optimization protocol. Fuel properties of the final biodiesel products were evaluated for chemo-physical and fuel properties. Results revealed Chlorella vulgaris as the best strain for biomass cultivation, having the highest lipid productivity (5.2mgL-1h-1), the highest rate of CO2 absorption (17.85mgL-1min-1) and the average carbon sequestration in the form of CO2 was 76.6%. The highest biomass productivity was 35.1mgL-1h-1 (Chlorella), while Senedesmus had the least output (3.75mgL-1h-1, 11.73mgL-1min-1). All species had good pH value adaptation, ranging from 6.5 to 8.5. The fuel properties of the micro-algal biodiesel in comparison with Jatropha, rubber, Hura and Natal mahogany were within ASTM specification and AGO used as the control. Fuel cultivation from microalgae is feasible and will revolutionise the biodiesel industry.

Keywords: biodiesel, fuel properties, microalgae, second generation, seed oils, feedstock, photo-bioreactor, open pond

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14 The Illustrated Affair of Art and Fashion

Authors: Prabhdip Brar


Art and Fashion are coupled by a common bridge which is ‘Creativity.’ For centuries, art has influenced fashion and has been inspirational for modern-day national as well as international designers. Italian artists during the renaissance period were highly influenced by art. 20th and 21st-century artists have often found themselves the muses of major fashion houses. Many times artists and designers like Andy Warhol, Damien Hirst and Dior, Prada, respectively, have collaborated and successfully created prints, textiles and silhouettes that have dazzled the art and fashion world. This paper nudges deeper and discourses the statement pieces of remarkable designers that have been influenced by art and adorned by international celebrities. Indian designer Manish Arora has been able to design a remarkable position for himself in the international fashion world. His clothes are avant-garde and favored the choice of celebrities like Lady Gaga and Katy Perry. The in-depth discussion of how Manish Arora’s collaboration with Berlin-based artist Amrie Hoffstater has led to a construction that is a real feast for the eyes. The latest collaboration despite being in the pandemic, is between Sabyasachi(India) and Bergdorfs Goodman(New York. It boasts of the traditional Colonial Indian sensibility juxtaposed with the eclectic western American mix for the new age wearer. A Qualitative and exploratory Research design is steered towards both art and fashion as they reflect the social, economic and political changes. Social issues are highlighted through these platforms. Secondary data has been used for this paper to explain how designers have bridged the way for how one could wear fashion as a piece of art in and of itself. Conclusively this paper's findings reach the perfect marriage between Art & Fashion. A live and active project in terms of Interdisciplinary Learning.

Keywords: art, artist, collaboration, designer, fashion, relationship

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13 Real Estate Trend Prediction with Artificial Intelligence Techniques

Authors: Sophia Liang Zhou


For investors, businesses, consumers, and governments, an accurate assessment of future housing prices is crucial to critical decisions in resource allocation, policy formation, and investment strategies. Previous studies are contradictory about macroeconomic determinants of housing price and largely focused on one or two areas using point prediction. This study aims to develop data-driven models to accurately predict future housing market trends in different markets. This work studied five different metropolitan areas representing different market trends and compared three-time lagging situations: no lag, 6-month lag, and 12-month lag. Linear regression (LR), random forest (RF), and artificial neural network (ANN) were employed to model the real estate price using datasets with S&P/Case-Shiller home price index and 12 demographic and macroeconomic features, such as gross domestic product (GDP), resident population, personal income, etc. in five metropolitan areas: Boston, Dallas, New York, Chicago, and San Francisco. The data from March 2005 to December 2018 were collected from the Federal Reserve Bank, FBI, and Freddie Mac. In the original data, some factors are monthly, some quarterly, and some yearly. Thus, two methods to compensate missing values, backfill or interpolation, were compared. The models were evaluated by accuracy, mean absolute error, and root mean square error. The LR and ANN models outperformed the RF model due to RF’s inherent limitations. Both ANN and LR methods generated predictive models with high accuracy ( > 95%). It was found that personal income, GDP, population, and measures of debt consistently appeared as the most important factors. It also showed that technique to compensate missing values in the dataset and implementation of time lag can have a significant influence on the model performance and require further investigation. The best performing models varied for each area, but the backfilled 12-month lag LR models and the interpolated no lag ANN models showed the best stable performance overall, with accuracies > 95% for each city. This study reveals the influence of input variables in different markets. It also provides evidence to support future studies to identify the optimal time lag and data imputing methods for establishing accurate predictive models.

Keywords: linear regression, random forest, artificial neural network, real estate price prediction

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12 Estimating Estimators: An Empirical Comparison of Non-Invasive Analysis Methods

Authors: Yan Torres, Fernanda Simoes, Francisco Petrucci-Fonseca, Freddie-Jeanne Richard


The non-invasive samples are an alternative of collecting genetic samples directly. Non-invasive samples are collected without the manipulation of the animal (e.g., scats, feathers and hairs). Nevertheless, the use of non-invasive samples has some limitations. The main issue is degraded DNA, leading to poorer extraction efficiency and genotyping. Those errors delayed for some years a widespread use of non-invasive genetic information. Possibilities to limit genotyping errors can be done using analysis methods that can assimilate the errors and singularities of non-invasive samples. Genotype matching and population estimation algorithms can be highlighted as important analysis tools that have been adapted to deal with those errors. Although, this recent development of analysis methods there is still a lack of empirical performance comparison of them. A comparison of methods with dataset different in size and structure can be useful for future studies since non-invasive samples are a powerful tool for getting information specially for endangered and rare populations. To compare the analysis methods, four different datasets used were obtained from the Dryad digital repository were used. Three different matching algorithms (Cervus, Colony and Error Tolerant Likelihood Matching - ETLM) are used for matching genotypes and two different ones for population estimation (Capwire and BayesN). The three matching algorithms showed different patterns of results. The ETLM produced less number of unique individuals and recaptures. A similarity in the matched genotypes between Colony and Cervus was observed. That is not a surprise since the similarity between those methods on the likelihood pairwise and clustering algorithms. The matching of ETLM showed almost no similarity with the genotypes that were matched with the other methods. The different cluster algorithm system and error model of ETLM seems to lead to a more criterious selection, although the processing time and interface friendly of ETLM were the worst between the compared methods. The population estimators performed differently regarding the datasets. There was a consensus between the different estimators only for the one dataset. The BayesN showed higher and lower estimations when compared with Capwire. The BayesN does not consider the total number of recaptures like Capwire only the recapture events. So, this makes the estimator sensitive to data heterogeneity. Heterogeneity in the sense means different capture rates between individuals. In those examples, the tolerance for homogeneity seems to be crucial for BayesN work properly. Both methods are user-friendly and have reasonable processing time. An amplified analysis with simulated genotype data can clarify the sensibility of the algorithms. The present comparison of the matching methods indicates that Colony seems to be more appropriated for general use considering a time/interface/robustness balance. The heterogeneity of the recaptures affected strongly the BayesN estimations, leading to over and underestimations population numbers. Capwire is then advisable to general use since it performs better in a wide range of situations.

Keywords: algorithms, genetics, matching, population

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11 An East-West Trans-Cultural Study: Zen Enlightenment in Asian and John Cage's Visual Arts

Authors: Yu-Shun Elisa Pong


American composer John Cage (1912-1992) is an influential figure in musical, visual and performing arts after World War II and has also been claimed as a forerunner of the western avant-garde in the artistic field. However, the crucial factors contributed to his highly acclaimed achievements include the Zen enlightenment, which he mainly got from Japanese Zen master D. T. Suzuki (1870-1966). As a kind of reflection and afterthought of the Zen inspiration, John Cage created various forms of arts in which visual arts have recently attracted more and more attention and discussion, especially from the perspectives of Zen. John Cage had started to create visual art works since he was 66 years old and the activity had lasted until his death. The quality and quantity of the works are worthy of in-depth study— the 667 pieces of print, 114 pieces of water color, and about 150 pieces of sketch. Cage’s stylistic changes during the 14 years of creation are quite obvious, and the Zen elements in the later works seem to be omnipresent. Based on comparative artistic study, a historical and conceptual view of Zen art that was formed initially in the traditional Chinese and Japanese visual arts will be discussed. Then, Chinese and Japanese representative Zen works will be mentioned, and the technique aspect, as well as stylistic analysis, will be revealed. Finally, a comprehensive comparison of the original Oriental Zen works with John Cage’s works and focus on the influence, and art transformation will be addressed. The master pieces from Zen tradition by Chinese artists like Liang Kai (d. 1210) and Ma Yuan (1160-1225) from Southern Sung Dynasty, the Japanese artists like Sesshū (1420-1506), Miyamoto Musashi (1584-1645) and some others would be discussed. In the current study, these art works from different periods of historical development in Zen will serve as the basis of analogy, interpretation, and criticism to Cage's visual art works. Through the perspectives of the Zen authenticity from Asia, we see how John Cage appropriated the eastern culture to his innovation, which changed the art world forever. And it is believed that through a transition from inter-, cross-, toward trans-cultural inspiration, John Cage set up a unique pathway of art innovations.

Keywords: John Cage, Chinese Zen art, Japanese Zen art, visual art

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10 The Breakthrough of Sexual Cinematic Freedom in Denmark in the 1960s and 1970s

Authors: Søren Birkvad


This paper traces the development of sexual cinematic freedom in the wake of an epoch-making event in Danish cultural history. As the first in the world, the Danes abolished all censorship for adults in 1969, making the tiny nation of Denmark the world’s largest exporter of pornography for several years. Drawing on the insights of social and cultural history and the focus point of the National Cinema direction of Cinema Studies, this study focuses on Danish film pornography in the 1960s and 1970s in its own right (e.g., its peculiar mix of sex, popular comedy and certain ‘feminist’ agendas). More importantly, however, it covers a broader pattern, namely the culturally deep-rooted tradition of freedom of speech and sexual liberalism in Denmark. Thus, the key concept of frisind (“free mind”) in Danish cultural history took on an increasingly partisan application in the 1960s and 1970s. It became a designation for all-is-permitted hippie excess but was also embraced by dissenting movements on the left, such as feminism, which questioned whether a free mind necessarily meant free love. In all of this, Danish cinema from the 1960s and 1970s offers a remarkable source of historical insight, simultaneously reminding us of a number of acute issues of contemporary society. These issues include gendered ideas of sexuality and freedom then and now and the equivalent clash of cultures between a liberal commercial industry and the accelerating political demands of the “sexual revolution.” Finally, these issues include certain tensions between, on the one hand, a purely materialistic idea of sexual freedom – incarnated by anything from pornography to many of the taboo-breaking youth films and avant-garde films in the wake of the 1968-rebellion – and, on the other hand, growing opposition to this anti-spiritual perception of human sexuality (represented by for instance the ‘closet conservatism’ of Danish art film star Lars von Trier of nowadays). All in all, this presentation offers a reflection on ideas of sexuality and gender rooted in a unique historical moment in cinematic history.

Keywords: Danish film history, cultural history, film pornography, history of sexuality, national cinema, sexual liberalism

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9 Anti-Gravity to Neo-Concretism: The Epodic Spaces of Non-Objective Art

Authors: Alexandra Kennedy


Making use of the notion of ‘epodic spaces’ this paper presents a reconsideration of non-objective art practices, proposing alternatives to established materialist, formalist, process-based conceptualist approaches to such work. In his Neo-Concrete Manifesto (1959) Ferreira Gullar (1930-2016) sought to create a distinction between various forms of non-objective art. He distinguished the ‘geometric’ arts of neoplasticism, constructivism, and suprematism – which he described as ‘dangerously acute rationalism’ – from other non-objective practices. These alternatives, he proposed, have an expressive potential lacking in the former and this formed the basis for their categorisation as neo-concrete. Gullar prioritized the phenomenological over the rational, with an emphasis on the role of the spectator (a key concept of minimalism). Gullar highlighted the central role of sensual experience, colour and the poetic in such work. In the early twentieth century, Russian Cosmism – an esoteric philosophical movement – was highly influential on Russian avant-garde artists and can account for suprematist artists’ interest in, and approach to, planar geometry and four-dimensional space as demonstrated in the abstract paintings of Kasimir Malevich (1879-1935). Nikolai Fyodorov (1823-1903) promoted the idea of anti-gravity and cosmic space as the field for artistic activity. The artist and writer Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin (1878-1939) wrote on the concept of Euclidean space, the overcoming of such rational conceptions of space and the breaking free from the gravitational field and the earth’s sphere. These imaginary spaces, which also invoke a bodily experience, present a poetic dimension to the work of the suprematists. It is a dimension that arguably aligns more with Gullar’s formulation of his neo-concrete rather than that of his alignment of Suprematism with rationalism. While found in experiments with planar geometry, the interest in forms suggestive of an experience of breaking free–both physically from the earth and conceptually from rational, mathematical space (in a pre-occupation with non-Euclidean space and anti-geometry) and in their engagement with the spatial properties of colour, Suprematism presents itself as imaginatively epodic. The paper discusses both historical and contemporary non-objective practices in this context, drawing attention to the manner in which the category of the non-objective is used to categorise art works which are, arguably, qualitatively different.

Keywords: anti-gravity, neo-concrete, non-Euclidian geometry, non-objective painting

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8 Bauhaus Exhibition 1922: New Weapon of Anti-Colonial Resistance in India

Authors: Suneet Jagdev


The development of the original Bauhaus occurred at a time in the beginning of the 20th century when the industrialization of Germany had reached a climax. The cities were a reflection of the new living conditions of an industrialized society. The Bauhaus can be interpreted as an ambitious attempt to find appropriate answers to the challenges by using architecture-urban development and design. The core elements of the conviction of the day were the belief in the necessary crossing of boundaries between the various disciplines and courage to experiment for a better solution. Even after 100 years, the situation in our cities is shaped by similar complexity. The urban consequences of developments are difficult to estimate and to predict. The paper critically reflected on the central aspects of the history of the Bauhaus and its role in bringing the modernism in India by comparative studies of the methodology adopted by the artists and designer in both the countries. The paper talked in detail about how the Bauhaus Exhibition in 1922 offered Indian artists a new weapon of anti-colonial resistance. The original Bauhaus fought its aesthetic and political battles in the context of economic instability and the rise of German fascism. The Indians had access to dominant global languages and in a particular English. The availability of print media and a vibrant indigenous intellectual culture provided Indian people a tool to accept technology while denying both its dominant role in culture and the inevitability of only one form of modernism. The indigenous was thus less an engagement with their culture as in the West than a tool of anti-colonial struggle. We have shown how the Indian people used Bauhaus as a critique of colonialism itself through an undermining of its typical modes of representation and as a means of incorporating the Indian desire for spirituality into art and as providing the cultural basis for a non-materialistic and anti-industrial form of what we might now term development. The paper reflected how through painting the Bauhaus entered the artistic consciousness of the sub-continent not only for its stylistic and technical innovations but as a tool for a critical and even utopian modernism that could challenge both the hegemony of academic and orientalist art and as the bearer of a transnational avant-garde as much political as it was artistic, and as such the basis of a non-Eurocentric but genuinely cosmopolitan alternative to the hierarchies of oppression and domination that had long bound India and were at that moment rising once again to a tragic crescendo in Europe. We have talked about how the Bauhaus of today can offer an innovative orientation towards discourse around architecture and design.

Keywords: anti-colonial struggle, art over architecture, Bauhaus exhibition of 1922, industrialization

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7 Archaic Ontologies Nowadays: Music of Rituals

Authors: Luminiţa Duţică, Gheorghe Duţică


Many of the interrogations or dilemmas of the contemporary world found the answer in what was generically called the appeal to matrix. This genuine spiritual exercise of re-connection of the present to origins, to the primary source, revealed the ontological condition of timelessness, ahistorical, immutable (epi)phenomena, of those pure essences concentrated in the archetypal-referential layer of the human existence. The musical creation was no exception to this trend, the impasse generated by the deterministic excesses of the whole serialism or, conversely, by some questionable results of the extreme indeterminism proper to the avant-garde movements, stimulating the orientation of many composers to rediscover a universal grammar, as an emanation of a new ‘collective’ order (reverse of the utopian individualism). In this context, the music of oral tradition and therefore the world of the ancient modes represented a true revelation for the composers of the twentieth century, who were suddenly in front of some unsuspected (re)sources, with a major impact on all levels of edification of the musical work: morphology, syntax, timbrality, semantics etc. For the contemporary Romanian creators, the music of rituals, existing in the local archaic culture, opened unsuspected perspectives for which it meant to be a synthetic, inclusive and recoverer vision, where the primary (archetypal) genuine elements merge with the latest achievements of language of the European composers. Thus, anchored in a strong and genuine modal source, the compositions analysed in this paper evoke, in a manner as modern as possible, the atmosphere of some ancestral rituals such as: the invocation of rain during the drought (Paparudele, Scaloianul), funeral ceremony (Bocetul), traditions specific to the winter holidays and new year (Colinda, Cântecul de stea, Sorcova, Folklore traditional dances) etc. The reactivity of those rituals in the sound context of the twentieth century meant potentiating or resizing the archaic spirit of the primordial symbolic entities, in terms of some complexity levels generated by the technique of harmonies of chordal layers, of complex aggregates (gravitational or non-gravitational, geometric), of the mixture polyphonies and with global effect (group, mass), by the technique of heterophony, of texture and cluster, leading to the implementation of some processes of collective improvisation and instrumental theatre.

Keywords: archetype, improvisation, polyphony, ritual, instrumental theatre

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6 Reflections of Narrative Architecture in Transformational Representations on the Architectural Design Studio

Authors: M. Mortas, H. Asar, P. Dursun Cebi


The visionary works of architectural representation in the 21st century's present situation, are practiced through the methodologies which try to expose the intellectual and theoretical essences of futurologist positions that are revealed with this era's interactions. Expansions of conceptual and contextual inputs related to one architectural design representation, depend on its deepness of critical attitudes, its interactions with the concepts such as experience, meaning, affection, psychology, perception and aura, as well as its communication with spatial, cultural and environmental factors. The purpose of this research study is to be able to offer methodological application areas for the design dimensions of experiential practices into architectural design studios, by focusing on the architectural representative narrations of 'transformation,' 'metamorphosis,' 'morphogenesis,' 'in-betweenness', 'superposition' and 'intertwine’ in which they affect and are affected by the today’s spatiotemporal hybridizations of architecture. The narrative representations and the visual theory paradigms of the designers are chosen under the main title of 'transformation' for the investigation of these visionary and critical representations' dismantlings and decodings. Case studies of this research area are chosen from Neil Spiller, Bryan Cantley, Perry Kulper and Dan Slavinsky’s transformative, morphogenetic representations. The theoretical dismantlings and decodings which are obtained from these artists’ contemporary architectural representations are tried to utilize and practice in the structural design studios as alternative methodologies when to approach architectural design processes, for enriching, differentiating, diversifying and 'transforming' the applications of so far used design process precedents. The research aims to indicate architectural students about how they can reproduce, rethink and reimagine their own representative lexicons and so languages of their architectural imaginations, regarding the newly perceived tectonics of prosthetic, biotechnology, synchronicity, nanotechnology or machinery into various experiential design workshops. The methodology of this work can be thought as revealing the technical and theoretical tools, lexicons and meanings of contemporary-visionary architectural representations of our decade, with the essential contents and components of hermeneutics, etymology, existentialism, post-humanism, phenomenology and avant-gardism disciplines to re-give meanings the architectural visual theorists’ transformative representations of our decade. The value of this study may be to emerge the superposed and overlapped atmospheres of futurologist architectural representations for the students who need to rethink on the transcultural, deterritorialized and post-humanist critical theories to create and use the representative visual lexicons of themselves for their architectural soft machines and beings by criticizing the now, to be imaginative for the future of architecture.

Keywords: architectural design studio, visionary lexicon, narrative architecture, transformative representation

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5 Exploring Ugliness as an Aesthetic Theme in Contemporary Chinese Literature through Analyzing Five Dragons, Protagonist in Rice by Xianfeng Writer Su Tong

Authors: Ku Yu Yiu


Writers have included the ugly in their works for centuries, but ugliness has often served merely as a contrast to bring out the beautiful, not having emerged as an independent aesthetic category until recent history. In the 1980s, China was going through a series of changes and transformations; the wounds and scars from the Cultural Revolution, a freer literary atmosphere then, and the introduction of Western thoughts into China gave rise to a trend of penning the ugly and the repulsive among writers. Such trend of utilizing 'Ugliness' as a theme of writing in Chinese literature is especially observed among Xianfeng writers (China’s pioneer writers or avant-garde writers). As a prominent Xianfeng writer, Su Tong (1963-) also incorporates ugliness into his novels: shoddy environment, degenerate and ruthless society, distorted and decadent humanity are part and parcel of his deliberate efforts of exploring and depicting the ugly aspects of the world. His full-length novel Rice, staging the appalling protagonist Five Dragons, is a prime example. In fact, all characters in Rice exhibit Ugliness but Five Dragons’s turning into a figure of ugly spite is the most thorough and complete, making Rice a masterpiece of Su Tong’s art in projecting the Ugliness embedded in society and human nature. Approaching Rice from the angle of the aesthetics of the Ugly and selecting Five Dragons as the subject of close reading and analysis, this paper offers insights into both Su Tong’s distinct style of foregrounding and unfolding Ugliness in his novel and the workings of such text when he deploys the Ugly as a center component of his writing. In addition to citing from the discussion of Rice by literary critics and the author himself, this paper also presents textual evidence and analyzes the imageries/motifs and calculated vocabulary/narration employed by Su Tong to illustrate how Five Dragons' extreme behaviors and psychological states are integral to the plot and ultimately to the manifestation of ugliness as the novel’s theme. This study reveals that although the psyche and doings of Five Dragons and other 'ugly' characters are, as the author once stated, imagined products of the writer Su Tong himself, Rice sheds light onto the ugly aspects of life in China in 1920s-30s. Three aspects of Ugliness are identified and discussed in the paper. Lastly, this paper also suggests some effects of Su Tong’s exploration of Ugliness in Rice, proposing that the portrayal of Ugliness per se is not the ends of Su Tong’s mastery of the aesthetics of the Ugly but rather a means to making his writing transcend from provoking spontaneous moral judgment in readers on the doings of Five Dragons to prompting readers to ponder on philosophical questions such as how humanity can still be possible when an individual confronts the dark sides of a self, a society, and his/her fate.

Keywords: aesthetics, Rice, Su Tong, Ugly

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4 Islam and Democracy: A Paradoxical Study of Syed Maududi and Javed Ghamidi

Authors: Waseem Makai


The term ‘political Islam’ now seem to have gained the centre stage in every discourse pertaining to Islamic legitimacy and compatibility in modern civilisations. A never ceasing tradition of the philosophy of caliphate that has kept overriding the options of any alternate political institution in the Muslim world still permeates a huge faction of believers. Fully accustomed with the proliferation of changes and developments in individual, social and natural dispositions of the world, Islamic theologians retaliated to this flux through both conventional and modernist approaches. The so-called conventional approach was quintessential of the interpretations put forth by Syed Maududi, with new comprehensive, academic and powerful vigour, as never seen before. He generated the avant-garde scholarship which would bear testimony to his statements, made to uphold the political institution of Islam as supreme and noble. However, it was not his trait to challenge the established views but to codify them in such a bracket which a man of the 20th century would find captivating to his heart and satisfactory to his rationale. The delicate microcosms like selection of a caliph, implementation of Islamic commandments (Sharia), interest free banking sectors, imposing tax (Jazyah) on non-believers, waging the holy crusade (Jihad) for the expansion of Islamic boundaries, stoning for committing adulteration and capital punishment for apostates were all there in his scholarship which he spent whole of his life defending in the best possible manner. What and where did he went wrong with all this, was supposedly to be notified later, by his once been disciple, Javed Ahmad Ghamidi. Ghamidi is being accused of struggling between Scylla and Charybdis as he tries to remain steadfast to his basic Islamic tenets while modernising their interpretations to bring them in harmony with the Western ideals of democracy and liberty. His blatant acknowledgement of putting democracy at a high pedestal, calling the implementation of Sharia a non-mandatory task and denial to bracket people in the categories of Zimmi and Kaafir fully vindicates his stance against conventional narratives like that of Syed Maududi. Ghamidi goes to the extent of attributing current forms of radicalism and extremism, as exemplified in the operations of organisations like ISIS in Iraq and Syria and Tehreek-e-Taliban in Pakistan, to such a version of political Islam as upheld not only by Syed Maududi but by other prominent theologians like Ibn-Timyah, Syed Qutub and Dr. Israr Ahmad also. Ghamidi is wretched, in a way that his allegedly insubstantial claims gained him enough hostilities to leave his homeland when two of his close allies were brutally murdered. Syed Maududi and Javed Ghamidi, both stand poles apart in their understanding of Islam and its political domain. Who has the appropriate methodology, scholarship and execution in his mode of comprehension, is an intriguing task, worth carrying out in detail.

Keywords: caliphate, democracy, ghamidi, maududi

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3 The Orchestral Composition The Dream of Jacob in the Context of Krzysztof Penderecki’s Musical Oeuvre: Comparing Textural Taxonomies Using the Acousmographe Software

Authors: Luís Raimundo


The renowned polish music composer Krzysztof Penderecki (1933-2020), author of a vast musical work, largely surpassing two hundred compositions, is undoubtedly one of the most prolific and radical artists in the recent music history. However, throughout his musical production, it becomes noticeable a gradual departure from the vigorous avant-garde attitude that characterizes his first creative period towards a later and more refined aesthetic perspective. The composition that definitively marks this stylistic change in Penderecki's music is "Als Jakob erwachte aus dem Schlaf, sah er, daß Gott dagewesen war. Er hat es aber nicht gemerkt" ("When Jacob awoke from his sleep, he saw that God had been there." But he didn't notice"), also known as The Dream of Jacob, or The Awakening of Jacob, written in 1974, to celebrate the Princedom's Silver Jubilee of Prince Rainier III, from Monaco, and dedicated to this Monarch. The title of this orchestral piece refers to the biblical versicle concerning the Dream of Jacob (Genesis 28:16). In spite of the vast number of bibliographical items on Penderecki - and specifically in the context of biblically inspired music, which constitutes a substantial lot of Penderecki's music - and despite the relevance of the aforementioned components in his musical oeuvre and the History of Music in general, this remains one of his less studied compositions, whether from the outlook of its religious theme, its internal structure or, even most, regarding the aesthetic locus in the general context of its artistic production. Although the majority of authors are unanimous in considering The Dream of Jacob as marking the beginning of Penderecki's neo-romantic phase, there is no critical study that approaches the internal elements of this composition within the scope of the aforementioned aesthetic and stylistic change. Thus, this paper intends to shed some light on the technical processes that Penderecki used in this work, stressing some of the musical aspects that unveil the aesthetic distance between this piece and some of the previous ones. This lecture will essentially consist of a brief comparative study between works from the so-called "sonoristic" phase of Penderecki, and The Dream of Jacob, supported by musical and visual examples and preceded by a succinct historical contextualization of this composition. This research is mostly focused on the textural features and sound masses that are a trademark of Penderecki's musical style. Most of this paper will be displayed through the Acousmographe software – developed by GRM (Groupe de Recherches Musicales) – which allows the visualization of graphics associated with sound elements in the music. Also, some comparison tables will be shown to further support the addressed issues. The main objective of this communication is to present a renewed vision of The Dream of Jacob, revealing in which aspects it relates to the works of Penderecki previously written, demonstrating how this musical composition has started a new aesthetic phase in his musical oeuvre.

Keywords: Krzysztof Penderecki, the dream of Jacob, texture, sonorism, cluster, acousmographe

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2 Modern Hybrid of Older Black Female Stereotypes in Hollywood Film

Authors: Frederick W. Gooding, Jr., Mark Beeman


Nearly a century ago, the groundbreaking 1915 film ‘The Birth of a Nation’ popularized the way Hollywood made movies with its avant-garde, feature-length style. The movie's subjugating and demeaning depictions of African American women (and men) reflected popular racist beliefs held during the time of slavery and the early Jim Crow era. Although much has changed concerning race relations in the past century, American sociologist Patricia Hill Collins theorizes that the disparaging images of African American women originating in the era of plantation slavery are adaptable and endure as controlling images today. In this context, a comparative analysis of the successful contemporary film, ‘Bringing Down the House’ starring Queen Latifah is relevant as this 2004 film was designed to purposely defy and ridicule classic stereotypes of African American women. However, the film is still tied to the controlling images from the past, although in a modern hybrid form. Scholars of race and film have noted that the pervasive filmic imagery of the African American woman as the loyal mammy stereotype faded from the screen in the post-civil rights era in favor of more sexualized characters (i.e., the Jezebel trope). Analyzing scenes and dialogue through the lens of sociological and critical race theory, the troubling persistence of African American controlling images in film stubbornly emerge in a movie like ‘Bringing Down the House.’ Thus, these controlling images, like racism itself, can adapt to new social and economic conditions. Although the classic controlling images appeared in the first feature length film focusing on race relations a century ago, ‘The Birth of a Nation,’ this black and white rendition of the mammy figure was later updated in 1939 with the classic hit, ‘Gone with the Wind’ in living color. These popular controlling images have loomed quite large in the minds of international audiences, as ‘Gone with the Wind’ is still shown in American theaters currently, and experts at the British Film Institute in 2004 rated ‘Gone with the Wind’ as the number one movie of all time in UK movie history based upon the total number of actual viewings. Critical analysis of character patterns demonstrate that images that appear superficially benign contribute to a broader and quite persistent pattern of marginalization within the aggregate. This approach allows experts and viewers alike to detect more subtle and sophisticated strands of racial discrimination that are ‘hidden in plain sight’ despite numerous changes in the Hollywood industry that appear to be more voluminous and diverse than three or four decades ago. In contrast to white characters, non-white or minority characters are likely to be subtly compromised or marginalized relative to white characters if and when seen within mainstream movies, rather than be subjected to obvious and offensive racist tropes. The hybrid form of both the older Jezebel and Mammy stereotypes exhibited by lead actress Queen Latifah in ‘Bringing Down the House’ represents a more suave and sophisticated merging of past imagery ideas deemed problematic in the past as well as the present.

Keywords: African Americans, Hollywood film, hybrid, stereotypes

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1 Overlaps & Intersections: An Alternative Look at Choreography

Authors: Ashlie Latiolais


Architecture, as a discipline, is on a trajectory of extension beyond the boundaries of buildings and, more increasingly, is coupled with research that connects to alternative and typically disjointed disciplines. A “both/and” approach and (expanded) definition of architecture, as depicted here, expands the margins that contain the profession. Figuratively, architecture is a series of edges, events, and occurrences that establishes a choreography or stage by which humanity exists. The way in which architecture controls and suggests the movement through these spaces, being within a landscape, city, or building, can be viewed as a datum by which the “dance” of everyday life occurs. This submission views the realm of architecture through the lens of movement and dance as a cross-fertilizer of collaboration, tectonic, and spatial geometry investigations. “Designing on digital programs puts architects at a distance from the spaces they imagine. While this has obvious advantages, it also means that they lose the lived, embodied experience of feeling what is needed in space—meaning that some design ideas that work in theory ultimately fail in practice.” By studying the body in motion through real-time performance, a more holistic understanding of architectural space surfaces and new prospects for theoretical teaching pedagogies emerge. The atypical intersection rethinks how architecture is considered, created, and tested, similar to how “dance artists often do this by thinking through the body, opening pathways and possibilities that might not otherwise be accessible” –this is the essence of this poster submission as explained through unFOLDED, a creative performance work. A new languageismaterialized through unFOLDED, a dynamic occupiable installation by which architecture is investigated through dance, movement, and body analysis. The entry unfolds a collaboration of an architect, dance choreographer, musicians, video artist, and lighting designers to re-create one of the first documented avant-garde performing arts collaborations (Matisse, Satie, Massine, Picasso) from the Ballet Russes in 1917, entitled Parade. Architecturally, this interdisciplinary project orients and suggests motion through structure, tectonic, lightness, darkness, and shadow as it questions the navigation of the dark space (stage) surrounding the installation. Artificial light via theatrical lighting and video graphics brought the blank canvas to life – where the sensitive mix of musicality coordinated with the structure’s movement sequencing was certainly a challenge. The upstage light from the video projections created both flickered contextual imagery and shadowed figures. When the dancers were either upstage or downstage of the structure, both silhouetted figures and revealed bodies are experienced as dancer-controlled installation manipulations occurred throughout the performance. The experimental performance, through structure, prompted moving (dancing) bodies in space, where the architecture served as a key component to the choreography itself. The tectonic of the delicate steel structure allowed for the dancers to interact with the installation, which created a variety of spatial conditions – the contained box of three-dimensional space, to a wall, and various abstracted geometries in between. The development of this research unveils the new role of an Architect as a Choreographer of the built environment.

Keywords: dance, architecture, choreography, installation, architect, choreographer, space

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