Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6375

Search results for: semantic differential scale

6375 Spatial Evaluations of Haskoy: The Emperial Village

Authors: Yasemin Filiz-Kuruel, Emine Koseoglu


This study aims to evaluate Haskoy district of Beyoglu town of Istanbul. Haskoy is located in Halic region, between Kasimpasa district and Kagithane district. After the conquest of Istanbul, Fatih Sultan Mehmet (the Conqueror) set up his tent here. Therefore, the area gets its name as Haskoy, 'imperial village' that means a village which is special for Sultan. Today, there are shipyard and ateliers in variable sizes in Haskoy. In this study, the legibility of Haskoy streets is investigated comparatively. As a research method, semantic differential scale is used. The photos of the streets, which contain specific criteria, are chosen. The questionnaire is directed to first and third grade architecture students. The spatial evaluation of Haskoy streets is done through the survey.

Keywords: Haskoy, legibility, semantic differential scale, urban streets

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6374 Towards a Large Scale Deep Semantically Analyzed Corpus for Arabic: Annotation and Evaluation

Authors: S. Alansary, M. Nagi


This paper presents an approach of conducting semantic annotation of Arabic corpus using the Universal Networking Language (UNL) framework. UNL is intended to be a promising strategy for providing a large collection of semantically annotated texts with formal, deep semantics rather than shallow. The result would constitute a semantic resource (semantic graphs) that is editable and that integrates various phenomena, including predicate-argument structure, scope, tense, thematic roles and rhetorical relations, into a single semantic formalism for knowledge representation. The paper will also present the Interactive Analysis​ tool for automatic semantic annotation (IAN). In addition, the cornerstone of the proposed methodology which are the disambiguation and transformation rules, will be presented. Semantic annotation using UNL has been applied to a corpus of 20,000 Arabic sentences representing the most frequent structures in the Arabic Wikipedia. The representation, at different linguistic levels was illustrated starting from the morphological level passing through the syntactic level till the semantic representation is reached. The output has been evaluated using the F-measure. It is 90% accurate. This demonstrates how powerful the formal environment is, as it enables intelligent text processing and search.

Keywords: semantic analysis, semantic annotation, Arabic, universal networking language

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6373 Lexico-Semantic and Contextual Analysis of the Concept of Joy in Modern English Fiction

Authors: Zarine Avetisyan


Concepts are part and parcel of everyday text and talk. Their ubiquity predetermines the topicality of the given research which aims at the semantic decomposition of concepts in general and the concept of joy in particular, as well as the study of lexico-semantic variants as means of realization of a certain concept in different “semantic settings”, namely in a certain context. To achieve the stated aim, the given research departs from the methods of componential and contextual analysis, studying lexico-semantic variants /LSVs/ of the concept of joy and the semantic signs embedded in those LSVs, such as the semantic sign of intensity, supporting emotions, etc. in the context of Modern English fiction.

Keywords: concept, context, lexico-semantic variant, semantic sign

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6372 A Network of Nouns and Their Features :A Neurocomputational Study

Authors: Skiker Kaoutar, Mounir Maouene


Neuroimaging studies indicate that a large fronto-parieto-temporal network support nouns and their features, with some areas store semantic knowledge (visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory,…), other areas store lexical representation and other areas are implicated in general semantic processing. However, it is not well understood how this fronto-parieto-temporal network can be modulated by different semantic tasks and different semantic relations between nouns. In this study, we combine a behavioral semantic network, functional MRI studies involving object’s related nouns and brain network studies to explain how different semantic tasks and different semantic relations between nouns can modulate the activity within the brain network of nouns and their features. We first describe how nouns and their features form a large scale brain network. For this end, we examine the connectivities between areas recruited during the processing of nouns to know which configurations of interaction areas are possible. We can thus identify if, for example, brain areas that store semantic knowledge communicate via functional/structural links with areas that store lexical representations. Second, we examine how this network is modulated by different semantic tasks involving nouns and finally, we examine how category specific activation may result from the semantic relations among nouns. The results indicate that brain network of nouns and their features is highly modulated and flexible by different semantic tasks and semantic relations. At the end, this study can be used as a guide to help neurosientifics to interpret the pattern of fMRI activations detected in the semantic processing of nouns. Specifically; this study can help to interpret the category specific activations observed extensively in a large number of neuroimaging studies and clinical studies.

Keywords: nouns, features, network, category specificity

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6371 Fuzzy Semantic Annotation of Web Resources

Authors: Sahar Maâlej Dammak, Anis Jedidi, Rafik Bouaziz


With the great mass of pages managed through the world, and especially with the advent of the Web, their manual annotation is impossible. We focus, in this paper, on the semiautomatic annotation of the web pages. We propose an approach and a framework for semantic annotation of web pages entitled “Querying Web”. Our solution is an enhancement of the first result of annotation done by the “Semantic Radar” Plug-in on the web resources, by annotations using an enriched domain ontology. The concepts of the result of Semantic Radar may be connected to several terms of the ontology, but connections may be uncertain. We represent annotations as possibility distributions. We use the hierarchy defined in the ontology to compute degrees of possibilities. We want to achieve an automation of the fuzzy semantic annotation of web resources.

Keywords: fuzzy semantic annotation, semantic web, domain ontologies, querying web

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
6370 Optimization Query Image Using Search Relevance Re-Ranking Process

Authors: T. G. Asmitha Chandini


Web-based image search re-ranking, as an successful method to get better the results. In a query keyword, the first stair is store the images is first retrieve based on the text-based information. The user to select a query keywordimage, by using this query keyword other images are re-ranked based on their visual properties with images.Now a day to day, people projected to match images in a semantic space which is used attributes or reference classes closely related to the basis of semantic image. though, understanding a worldwide visual semantic space to demonstrate highly different images from the web is difficult and inefficient. The re-ranking images, which automatically offline part learns dissimilar semantic spaces for different query keywords. The features of images are projected into their related semantic spaces to get particular images. At the online stage, images are re-ranked by compare their semantic signatures obtained the semantic précised by the query keyword image. The query-specific semantic signatures extensively improve both the proper and efficiency of image re-ranking.

Keywords: Query, keyword, image, re-ranking, semantic, signature

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6369 Noncommutative Differential Structure on Finite Groups

Authors: Ibtisam Masmali, Edwin Beggs


In this paper, we take example of differential calculi, on the finite group A4. Then, we apply methods of non-commutative of non-commutative differential geometry to this example, and see how similar the results are to those of classical differential geometry.

Keywords: differential calculi, finite group A4, Christoffel symbols, covariant derivative, torsion compatible

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6368 Challenges over Two Semantic Repositories - OWLIM and AllegroGraph

Authors: Paria Tajabor, Azin Azarbani


The purpose of this research study is exploring two kind of semantic repositories with regards to various factors to find the best approaches that an artificial manager can use to produce ontology in a system based on their interaction, association and research. To this end, as the best way to evaluate each system and comparing with others is analysis, several benchmarking over these two repositories were examined. These two semantic repositories: OWLIM and AllegroGraph will be the main core of this study. The general objective of this study is to be able to create an efficient and cost-effective manner reports which is required to support decision making in any large enterprise.

Keywords: OWLIM, allegrograph, RDF, reasoning, semantic repository, semantic-web, SPARQL, ontology, query

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
6367 A Semantic E-Learning and E-Assessment System of Learners

Authors: Wiem Ben Khalifa, Dalila Souilem, Mahmoud Neji


The evolutions of Social Web and Semantic Web lead us to ask ourselves about the way of supporting the personalization of learning by means of intelligent filtering of educational resources published in the digital networks. We recommend personalized courses of learning articulated around a first educational course defined upstream. Resuming the context and the stakes in the personalization, we also suggest anchoring the personalization of learning in a community of interest within a group of learners enrolled in the same training. This reflection is supported by the display of an active and semantic system of learning dedicated to the constitution of personalized to measure courses and in the due time.

Keywords: Semantic Web, semantic system, ontology, evaluation, e-learning

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6366 Multimodal Discourse, Logic of the Analysis of Transmedia Strategies

Authors: Bianca Suárez Puerta


Multimodal discourse refers to a method of study the media continuum between reality, screens as a device, audience, author, and media as a production from the audience. For this study we used semantic differential, a method proposed in the sixties by Osgood, Suci and Tannenbaum, starts from the assumption that under each particular way of perceiving the world, in each singular idea, there is a common cultural meaning that organizes experiences. In relation to these shared symbolic dimension, this method has had significant results, as it focuses on breaking down the meaning of certain significant acts into series of statements that place the subjects in front of some concepts. In Colombia, in 2016, a tool was designed to measure the meaning of a multimodal production, specially the acts of sense of transmedia productions that managed to receive funds from the Ministry of ICT of Colombia, and also, to analyze predictable patterns that can be found in calls and funds aimed at the production of culture in Colombia, in the context of the peace agreement, as a request for expressions from a hegemonic place, seeking to impose a worldview.

Keywords: semantic differential, semiotics, transmedia, critical analysis of discourse

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6365 Keypoint Detection Method Based on Multi-Scale Feature Fusion of Attention Mechanism

Authors: Xiaoxiao Li, Shuangcheng Jia, Qian Li


Keypoint detection has always been a challenge in the field of image recognition. This paper proposes a novelty keypoint detection method which is called Multi-Scale Feature Fusion Convolutional Network with Attention (MFFCNA). We verified that the multi-scale features with the attention mechanism module have better feature expression capability. The feature fusion between different scales makes the information that the network model can express more abundant, and the network is easier to converge. On our self-made street sign corner dataset, we validate the MFFCNA model with an accuracy of 97.8% and a recall of 81%, which are 5 and 8 percentage points higher than the HRNet network, respectively. On the COCO dataset, the AP is 71.9%, and the AR is 75.3%, which are 3 points and 2 points higher than HRNet, respectively. Extensive experiments show that our method has a remarkable improvement in the keypoint recognition tasks, and the recognition effect is better than the existing methods. Moreover, our method can be applied not only to keypoint detection but also to image classification and semantic segmentation with good generality.

Keywords: keypoint detection, feature fusion, attention, semantic segmentation

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6364 Annotation Ontology for Semantic Web Development

Authors: Hadeel Al Obaidy, Amani Al Heela


The main purpose of this paper is to examine the concept of semantic web and the role that ontology and semantic annotation plays in the development of semantic web services. The paper focuses on semantic web infrastructure illustrating how ontology and annotation work to provide the learning capabilities for building content semantically. To improve productivity and quality of software, the paper applies approaches, notations and techniques offered by software engineering. It proposes a conceptual model to develop semantic web services for the infrastructure of web information retrieval system of digital libraries. The developed system uses ontology and annotation to build a knowledge based system to define and link the meaning of a web content to retrieve information for users’ queries. The results are more relevant through keywords and ontology rule expansion that will be more accurate to satisfy the requested information. The level of results accuracy would be enhanced since the query semantically analyzed work with the conceptual architecture of the proposed system.

Keywords: semantic web services, software engineering, semantic library, knowledge representation, ontology

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6363 Secure Bio Semantic Computing Scheme

Authors: Hiroshi Yamaguchi, Phillip C. Y. Sheu, Ryo Fujita, Shigeo Tsujii


In this paper, the secure BioSemantic Scheme is presented to bridge biological/biomedical research problems and computational solutions via semantic computing. Due to the diversity of problems in various research fields, the semantic capability description language (SCDL) plays and important role as a common language and generic form for problem formalization. SCDL is expected the essential for future semantic and logical computing in Biosemantic field. We show several example to Biomedical problems in this paper. Moreover, in the coming age of cloud computing, the security problem is considered to be crucial issue and we presented a practical scheme to cope with this problem.

Keywords: biomedical applications, private information retrieval (PIR), semantic capability description language (SCDL), semantic computing

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6362 Investigating the Concept of Joy in Modern English Fiction

Authors: Zarine Avetisyan


The paradigm of Modern Linguistics incorporates disciplines which allow to analyze both language and discourse units and to demonstrate the multi-layeredness of lingo-cultural consciousness. By implementing lingo-cognitive approach to discourse and communication studies, the present paper tries to create the integral linguistic picture of the concept of joy and to analyze the lexico-semantic groups and relevant lexico-semantic variants of its realization in the context of Modern English fiction.

Keywords: concept of joy, lexico-semantic variant, semantic sign, cognition

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
6361 Graph Planning Based Composition for Adaptable Semantic Web Services

Authors: Rihab Ben Lamine, Raoudha Ben Jemaa, Ikram Amous Ben Amor


This paper proposes a graph planning technique for semantic adaptable Web Services composition. First, we use an ontology based context model for extending Web Services descriptions with information about the most suitable context for its use. Then, we transform the composition problem into a semantic context aware graph planning problem to build the optimal service composition based on user's context. The construction of the planning graph is based on semantic context aware Web Service discovery that allows for each step to add most suitable Web Services in terms of semantic compatibility between the services parameters and their context similarity with the user's context. In the backward search step, semantic and contextual similarity scores are used to find best composed Web Services list. Finally, in the ranking step, a score is calculated for each best solution and a set of ranked solutions is returned to the user.

Keywords: semantic web service, web service composition, adaptation, context, graph planning

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
6360 An Ontology for Semantic Enrichment of RFID Systems

Authors: Haitham S. Hamza, Mohamed Maher, Shourok Alaa, Aya Khattab, Hadeal Ismail, Kamilia Hosny


Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) has become a key technology in the margining concept of Internet of Things (IoT). Naturally, business applications would require the deployment of various RFID systems that are developed by different vendors and use various data formats. This heterogeneity poses a real challenge in developing large-scale IoT systems with RFID as integration is becoming very complex and challenging. Semantic integration is a key approach to deal with this challenge. To do so, ontology for RFID systems need to be developed in order to annotated semantically RFID systems, and hence, facilitate their integration. Accordingly, in this paper, we propose ontology for RFID systems. The proposed ontology can be used to semantically enrich RFID systems, and hence, improve their usage and reasoning. The usage of the proposed ontology is explained through a simple scenario in the health care domain.

Keywords: RFID, semantic technology, ontology, sparql query language, heterogeneity

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6359 Development of Extended Trapezoidal Method for Numerical Solution of Volterra Integro-Differential Equations

Authors: Fuziyah Ishak, Siti Norazura Ahmad


Volterra integro-differential equations appear in many models for real life phenomena. Since analytical solutions for this type of differential equations are hard and at times impossible to attain, engineers and scientists resort to numerical solutions that can be made as accurately as possible. Conventionally, numerical methods for ordinary differential equations are adapted to solve Volterra integro-differential equations. In this paper, numerical solution for solving Volterra integro-differential equation using extended trapezoidal method is described. Formulae for the integral and differential parts of the equation are presented. Numerical results show that the extended method is suitable for solving first order Volterra integro-differential equations.

Keywords: accuracy, extended trapezoidal method, numerical solution, Volterra integro-differential equations

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6358 Semantic Data Schema Recognition

Authors: Aïcha Ben Salem, Faouzi Boufares, Sebastiao Correia


The subject covered in this paper aims at assisting the user in its quality approach. The goal is to better extract, mix, interpret and reuse data. It deals with the semantic schema recognition of a data source. This enables the extraction of data semantics from all the available information, inculding the data and the metadata. Firstly, it consists of categorizing the data by assigning it to a category and possibly a sub-category, and secondly, of establishing relations between columns and possibly discovering the semantics of the manipulated data source. These links detected between columns offer a better understanding of the source and the alternatives for correcting data. This approach allows automatic detection of a large number of syntactic and semantic anomalies.

Keywords: schema recognition, semantic data profiling, meta-categorisation, semantic dependencies inter columns

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6357 Using Textual Pre-Processing and Text Mining to Create Semantic Links

Authors: Ricardo Avila, Gabriel Lopes, Vania Vidal, Jose Macedo


This article offers a approach to the automatic discovery of semantic concepts and links in the domain of Oil Exploration and Production (E&P). Machine learning methods combined with textual pre-processing techniques were used to detect local patterns in texts and, thus, generate new concepts and new semantic links. Even using more specific vocabularies within the oil domain, our approach has achieved satisfactory results, suggesting that the proposal can be applied in other domains and languages, requiring only minor adjustments.

Keywords: semantic links, data mining, linked data, SKOS

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6356 Semantic Features of Turkish and Spanish Phraseological Units with a Somatic Component ‘Hand’

Authors: Narmina Mammadova


In modern linguistics, the comparative study of languages is becoming increasingly popular, the typology and comparison of languages that have different structures is expanding and deepening. Of particular interest is the study of phraseological units, which makes it possible to identify the specific features of the compared languages in all their national identity. This paper gives a brief analysis of the comparative study of somatic phraseological units (SFU) of the Spanish and Turkish languages with the component "hand" in the semantic aspect; identification of equivalents, analogs and non-equivalent units, as well as a description of methods of translation of non-equivalent somatic phraseological units. Comparative study of the phraseology of unrelated languages is of particular relevance since it allows us to identify both general, universal features and differential and specific features characteristic of a particular language. Based on the results of the generalization of the study, it can be assumed that phraseological units containing a somatic component have a high interlingual phraseological activity, which contributes to an increase in the degree of interlingual equivalence.

Keywords: Linguoculturology, Turkish, Spanish, language picture of the world, phraseological units, semantic microfield

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6355 Differential Approach to Technology Aided English Language Teaching: A Case Study in a Multilingual Setting

Authors: Sweta Sinha


Rapid evolution of technology has changed language pedagogy as well as perspectives on language use, leading to strategic changes in discourse studies. We are now firmly embedded in a time when digital technologies have become an integral part of our daily lives. This has led to generalized approaches to English Language Teaching (ELT) which has raised two-pronged concerns in linguistically diverse settings: a) the diverse linguistic background of the learner might interfere/ intervene with the learning process and b) the differential level of already acquired knowledge of target language might make the classroom practices too easy or too difficult for the target group of learners. ELT needs a more systematic and differential pedagogical approach for greater efficiency and accuracy. The present research analyses the need of identifying learner groups based on different levels of target language proficiency based on a longitudinal study done on 150 undergraduate students. The learners were divided into five groups based on their performance on a twenty point scale in Listening Speaking Reading and Writing (LSRW). The groups were then subjected to varying durations of technology aided language learning sessions and their performance was recorded again on the same scale. Identifying groups and introducing differential teaching and learning strategies led to better results compared to generalized teaching strategies. Language teaching includes different aspects: the organizational, the technological, the sociological, the psychological, the pedagogical and the linguistic. And a facilitator must account for all these aspects in a carefully devised differential approach meeting the challenge of learner diversity. Apart from the justification of the formation of differential groups the paper attempts to devise framework to account for all these aspects in order to make ELT in multilingual setting much more effective.

Keywords: differential groups, English language teaching, language pedagogy, multilingualism, technology aided language learning

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6354 Stochastic Variation of the Hubble's Parameter Using Ornstein-Uhlenbeck Process

Authors: Mary Chriselda A


This paper deals with the fact that the Hubble's parameter is not constant and tends to vary stochastically with time. This premise has been proven by converting it to a stochastic differential equation using the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. The formulated stochastic differential equation is further solved analytically using the Euler and the Kolmogorov Forward equations, thereby obtaining the probability density function using the Fourier transformation, thereby proving that the Hubble's parameter varies stochastically. This is further corroborated by simulating the observations using Python and R-software for validation of the premise postulated. We can further draw conclusion that the randomness in forces affecting the white noise can eventually affect the Hubble’s Parameter leading to scale invariance and thereby causing stochastic fluctuations in the density and the rate of expansion of the Universe.

Keywords: Chapman Kolmogorov forward differential equations, fourier transformation, hubble's parameter, ornstein-uhlenbeck process , stochastic differential equations

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6353 The Importance of Teachers´ Self-Efficacy in the Field of Education of Socially Disadvantaged Students

Authors: Anna Petr Safrankova, Karla Hrbackova


The education of socially disadvantaged students is in the long term spotlight of many pedagogical researches in both Czech and foreign environment. These researches among others investigate this topic from the point of view of individual compensatory measure which tries to overcome or remove the social disadvantage. The focus of the study is to highlight the important role of teachers in the education of this specific group of students, among others in terms of their (teachers´) pre-graduate training. The aim of the study is to point out the importance of teachers´ self-efficacy. The study is based on the assumption that the teacher's self-efficacy may significantly affect the teacher's perception of a particular group of students and thereby affect the education of the students. The survey involved 245 teachers from the two regions in the Czech Republic. In the research were used TES questionnaire (with the dimensions personal teaching efficacy – PTE and general teaching efficacy – GTE) by Gibson and Dembo and the semantic differential (containing 12 scales with bipolar adjectives) which investigated the components of teachers' attitudes toward socially disadvantaged students. It was found that teachers’ self-efficacy significantly affects the teachers’ perception of the group of socially disadvantaged students. Based on this finding we believe that it is necessary to work with this concept (prepare teachers to educate this specific group of students) already during higher education and especially during the pre-graduate teachers training.

Keywords: teachers, socially disadvantaged students, semantic differential, teachers self-efficacy

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6352 Removal of Perchloroethylene, a Common Pollutant, in Groundwater Using Activated Carbon

Authors: Marianne Miguet, Gaël Plantard, Yves Jaeger, Vincent Goetz


The contamination of groundwater is a major concern. A common pollutant, the perchloroethylene, is the target contaminant. Water treatment process as Granular Activated Carbons are very efficient but requires pilot-scale testing to determine the full-scale GAC performance. First, the batch mode was used to get a reliable experimental method to estimate the adsorption capacity of a common volatile compound is settled. The Langmuir model is acceptable to fit the isotherms. Dynamic tests were performed with three columns and different operating conditions. A database of concentration profiles and breakthroughs were obtained. The resolution of the set of differential equations is acceptable to fit the dynamics tests and could be used for a full-scale adsorber.

Keywords: activated carbon, groundwater, perchloroethylene, full-scale

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6351 A Method of the Semantic on Image Auto-Annotation

Authors: Lin Huo, Xianwei Liu, Jingxiong Zhou


Recently, due to the existence of semantic gap between image visual features and human concepts, the semantic of image auto-annotation has become an important topic. Firstly, by extract low-level visual features of the image, and the corresponding Hash method, mapping the feature into the corresponding Hash coding, eventually, transformed that into a group of binary string and store it, image auto-annotation by search is a popular method, we can use it to design and implement a method of image semantic auto-annotation. Finally, Through the test based on the Corel image set, and the results show that, this method is effective.

Keywords: image auto-annotation, color correlograms, Hash code, image retrieval

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6350 Kansei Engineering Applied to the Design of Rural Primary Education Classrooms: Design-Based Learning Case

Authors: Jimena Alarcon, Andrea Llorens, Gabriel Hernandez, Maritza Palma, Lucia Navarrete


The research has funding from the Government of Chile and is focused on defining the design of rural primary classroom that stimulates creativity. The relevance of the study consists of its capacity to define adequate educational spaces for the implementation of the design-based learning (DBL) methodology. This methodology promotes creativity and teamwork, generating a meaningful learning experience for students, based on the appreciation of their environment and the generation of projects that contribute positively to their communities; also, is an inquiry-based form of learning that is based on the integration of design thinking and the design process into the classroom. The main goal of the study is to define the design characteristics of rural primary school classrooms, associated with the implementation of the DBL methodology. Along with the change in learning strategies, it is necessary to change the educational spaces in which they develop. The hypothesis indicates that a change in the space and equipment of the classrooms based on the emotions of the students will motivate better learning results based on the implementation of a new methodology. In this case, the pedagogical dynamics require an important interaction between the participants, as well as an environment favorable to creativity. Methodologies from Kansei engineering are used to know the emotional variables associated with their definition. The study is done to 50 students between 6 and 10 years old (average age of seven years), 48% of men and 52% women. Virtual three-dimensional scale models and semantic differential tables are used. To define the semantic differential, self-applied surveys were carried out. Each survey consists of eight separate questions in two groups: question A to find desirable emotions; question B related to emotions. Both questions have a maximum of three alternatives to answer. Data were tabulated with IBM SPSS Statistics version 19. Terms referred to emotions are grouped into twenty concepts with a higher presence in surveys. To select the values obtained as part of the implementation of Semantic Differential, a number expected of 'chi-square test (x2)' frequency calculated for classroom space is considered lower limit. All terms over the N expected a cut point, are included to prepare tables for surveys to find a relation between emotion and space. Statistic contrast (Chi-Square) represents significance level ≥ 0, indicator that frequencies appeared are not random. Then, the most representative terms depend on the variable under study: a) definition of textures and color of vertical surfaces is associated with emotions such as tranquility, attention, concentration, creativity; and, b) distribution of the equipment of the rooms, with emotions associated with happiness, distraction, creativity, freedom. The main findings are linked to the generation of classrooms according to diverse DBL team dynamics. Kansei engineering is the appropriate methodology to know the emotions that students want to feel in the classroom space.

Keywords: creativity, design-based learning, education spaces, emotions

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6349 Semantic Differential Technique as a Kansei Engineering Tool to Enquire Public Space Design Requirements: The Case of Parks in Tehran

Authors: Nasser Koleini Mamaghani, Sara Mostowfi


The complexity of public space design makes it difficult for designers to simultaneously consider all issues for thorough decision-making. Among public spaces, the public space around people’s house is the most prominent space that affects and impacts people’s daily life. Considering recreational public spaces in cities, their main purpose would be to design for experiences that enable a deep feeling of peace and a moment of being away from the hectic daily life. Respecting human emotions and restoring natural environments, although difficult and to some extent out of reach, are key issues for designing such spaces. In this paper we propose to analyse the structure of recreational public spaces and the related emotional impressions. Furthermore, we suggest investigating how these structures influence people’s choice for public spaces by using differential semantics. According to Kansei methodology, in order to evaluate a situation appropriately, the assessment variables must be adapted to the user’s mental scheme. This means that the first step would have to be the identification of a space’s conceptual scheme. In our case study, 32 Kansei words and 4 different locations, each with a different sensual experience, were selected. The 4 locations were all parks in the city of Tehran (Iran), each with a unique structure and artifacts such as a fountain, lighting, sculptures, and music. It should be noted that each of these parks has different combination and structure of environmental and artificial elements like: fountain, lightning, sculpture, music (sound) and so forth. The first one was park No.1, a park with natural environment, the selected space was a fountain with motion light and sculpture. The second park was park No.2, in which there are different styles of park construction: ways from different countries, the selected space was traditional Iranian architecture with a fountain and trees. The third one was park No.3, the park with modern environment and spaces, and included a fountain that moved according to music and lighting. The fourth park was park No.4, the park with combination of four elements: water, fire, earth, wind, the selected space was fountains squirting water from the ground up. 80 participant (55 males and 25 females) aged from 20-60 years participated in this experiment. Each person filled the questionnaire in the park he/she was in. Five-point semantic differential scale was considered to determine the relation between space details and adjectives (kansei words). Received data were analyzed by multivariate statistical technique (factor analysis using SPSS statics). Finally the results of this analysis are criteria as inspiration which can be used in future space designing for creating pleasant feeling in users.

Keywords: environmental design, differential semantics, Kansei engineering, subjective preferences, space

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6348 A Differential Detection Method for Chip-Scale Spin-Exchange Relaxation Free Atomic Magnetometer

Authors: Yi Zhang, Yuan Tian, Jiehua Chen, Sihong Gu


Chip-scale spin-exchange relaxation free (SERF) atomic magnetometer makes use of millimeter-scale vapor cells micro-fabricated by Micro-electromechanical Systems (MEMS) technique and SERF mechanism, resulting in the characteristics of high spatial resolution and high sensitivity. It is useful for biomagnetic imaging including magnetoencephalography and magnetocardiography. In a prevailing scheme, circularly polarized on-resonance laser beam is adapted for both pumping and probing the atomic polarization. And the magnetic-field-sensitive signal is extracted by transmission laser intensity enhancement as a result of atomic polarization increase on zero field level crossing resonance. The scheme is very suitable for integration, however, the laser amplitude modulation (AM) noise and laser frequency modulation to amplitude modulation (FM-AM) noise is superimposed on the photon shot noise reducing the signal to noise ratio (SNR). To suppress AM and FM-AM noise the paper puts forward a novel scheme which adopts circularly polarized on-resonance light pumping and linearly polarized frequency-detuning laser probing. The transmission beam is divided into transmission and reflection beams by a polarization analyzer, the angle between the analyzer's transmission polarization axis and frequency-detuning laser polarization direction is set to 45°. The magnetic-field-sensitive signal is extracted by polarization rotation enhancement of frequency-detuning laser which induces two beams intensity difference increase as the atomic polarization increases. Therefore, AM and FM-AM noise in two beams are common-mode and can be almost entirely canceled by differential detection. We have carried out an experiment to study our scheme. The experiment reveals that the noise in the differential signal is obviously smaller than that in each beam. The scheme is promising to be applied for developing more sensitive chip-scale magnetometer.

Keywords: atomic magnetometer, chip scale, differential detection, spin-exchange relaxation free

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6347 The Processing of Context-Dependent and Context-Independent Scalar Implicatures

Authors: Liu Jia’nan


The default accounts hold the view that there exists a kind of scalar implicature which can be processed without context and own a psychological privilege over other scalar implicatures which depend on context. In contrast, the Relevance Theorist regards context as a must because all the scalar implicatures have to meet the need of relevance in discourse. However, in Katsos, the experimental results showed: Although quantitatively the adults rejected under-informative utterance with lexical scales (context-independent) and the ad hoc scales (context-dependent) at almost the same rate, adults still regarded the violation of utterance with lexical scales much more severe than with ad hoc scales. Neither default account nor Relevance Theory can fully explain this result. Thus, there are two questionable points to this result: (1) Is it possible that the strange discrepancy is due to other factors instead of the generation of scalar implicature? (2) Are the ad hoc scales truly formed under the possible influence from mental context? Do the participants generate scalar implicatures with ad hoc scales instead of just comparing semantic difference among target objects in the under- informative utterance? In my Experiment 1, the question (1) will be answered by repetition of Experiment 1 by Katsos. Test materials will be showed by PowerPoint in the form of pictures, and each procedure will be done under the guidance of a tester in a quiet room. Our Experiment 2 is intended to answer question (2). The test material of picture will be transformed into the literal words in DMDX and the target sentence will be showed word-by-word to participants in the soundproof room in our lab. Reading time of target parts, i.e. words containing scalar implicatures, will be recorded. We presume that in the group with lexical scale, standardized pragmatically mental context would help generate scalar implicature once the scalar word occurs, which will make the participants hope the upcoming words to be informative. Thus if the new input after scalar word is under-informative, more time will be cost for the extra semantic processing. However, in the group with ad hoc scale, scalar implicature may hardly be generated without the support from fixed mental context of scale. Thus, whether the new input is informative or not does not matter at all, and the reading time of target parts will be the same in informative and under-informative utterances. People’s mind may be a dynamic system, in which lots of factors would co-occur. If Katsos’ experimental result is reliable, will it shed light on the interplay of default accounts and context factors in scalar implicature processing? We might be able to assume, based on our experiments, that one single dominant processing paradigm may not be plausible. Furthermore, in the processing of scalar implicature, the semantic interpretation and the pragmatic interpretation may be made in a dynamic interplay in the mind. As to the lexical scale, the pragmatic reading may prevail over the semantic reading because of its greater exposure in daily language use, which may also lead the possible default or standardized paradigm override the role of context. However, those objects in ad hoc scale are not usually treated as scalar membership in mental context, and thus lexical-semantic association of the objects may prevent their pragmatic reading from generating scalar implicature. Only when the sufficient contextual factors are highlighted, can the pragmatic reading get privilege and generate scalar implicature.

Keywords: scalar implicature, ad hoc scale, dynamic interplay, default account, Mandarin Chinese processing

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6346 Existence Result of Third Order Functional Random Integro-Differential Inclusion

Authors: D. S. Palimkar


The FRIGDI (functional random integrodifferential inclusion) seems to be new and includes several known random differential inclusions already studied in the literature as special cases have been discussed in the literature for various aspects of the solutions. In this paper, we prove the existence result for FIGDI under the non-convex case of multi-valued function involved in it.Using random fixed point theorem of B. C. Dhage and caratheodory condition. This result is new to the theory of differential inclusion.

Keywords: caratheodory condition, random differential inclusion, random solution, integro-differential inclusion

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