Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14564

Search results for: magnetic levitation system

14564 Effect of the Levitation Screen Sizes on Magnetic Parameters of Tracking System

Authors: Y. R. Adullayev, О. О. Karimzada

Abstract:

Analytical expressions for inductances, current, ampere-turns, excitation winding, maximum width, coordinates of the levitation screen (LS) are derived for the calculation of electromagnetic devices based on tracking systems with levitation elements (TS with LS). Taking into account the expression of the complex magnetic resistance of the screen, the dependence of the screen width on the heating temperature of the physical and technical characteristics of the screen material and the relationship of the geometric dimensions of the magnetic circuit is established. Analytic expressions for a number of functional dependencies characterizing complex parameter relationships in explicit form are obtained and analyzed.

Keywords: tracking systems, levitation screens, electromagnetic levitation, excitation windings, magnetic cores, defining converter, receiving converter, electromagnetic force, electrical and magnetic resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
14563 Control of Single Axis Magnetic Levitation System Using Fuzzy Logic Control

Authors: A. M. Benomair, M. O. Tokhi

Abstract:

This paper presents the investigation on a system model for the stabilization of a Magnetic Levitation System (Maglev’s). The magnetic levitation system is a challenging nonlinear mechatronic system in which an electromagnetic force is required to suspend an object (metal sphere) in air space. The electromagnetic force is very sensitive to the noise which can create acceleration forces on the metal sphere, causing the sphere to move into the unbalanced region. Maglev’s give the contribution in industry and this system has reduce the power consumption, has increase the power efficiency and reduce the cost maintenance. The common applications for Maglev’s Power Generation (e.g. wind turbine), Maglev’s trains and Medical Device (e.g. Magnetically suspended Artificial Heart Pump). This paper presents the comparison between dynamic response and robust characteristic for both conventional PD and Fuzzy PD controller. The main contribution of this paper is the proof of fuzzy PD type stabilization and robustness. By use of a method to tune the scaling factors of the linear PD type fuzzy controller from an equivalent tuned conventional PD.

Keywords: magnetic levitation system, PD controller, Fuzzy Logic Control, Fuzzy PD

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
14562 3D Finite Element Analysis of Yoke Hybrid Electromagnet

Authors: Hasan Fatih Ertuğrul, Beytullah Okur, Huseyin Üvet, Kadir Erkan

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to analyze a 4-pole hybrid magnetic levitation system by using 3D finite element and analytical methods. The magnetostatic analysis of the system is carried out by using ANSYS MAXWELL-3D package. An analytical model is derived by magnetic equivalent circuit (MEC) method. The purpose of magnetostatic analysis is to determine the characteristics of attractive force and rotational torques by the change of air gap clearances, inclination angles and current excitations. The comparison between 3D finite element analysis and analytical results are presented at the rest of the paper.

Keywords: yoke hybrid electromagnet, 3D finite element analysis, magnetic levitation system, magnetostatic analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 540
14561 Reduced Vibration in a Levitating Motor

Authors: S. Kazadi, A. An, B. Shen

Abstract:

We investigate the fitness of a male and female permanent magnetic levitation support for use as an axle on a rotor for a levitating motor. The support enables passive thrust and axial support for the axle as a result of the unique arrangement of permanent magnets. As the axial and thrust bearing aspects are derived from magnetic repulsion, it is not immediately clear that the repulsion is stiff enough to enable even low power motors. This paper describes the design and performance of two low power motors based on the magnetic levitation support. We find that our low power motors, with rotational speeds of 618 and 833 rpms, exhibit performance free from excess vibrations that might hinder performance. This means that the actuation of the motors is adequately stabilized by the axle and results in motors capable of being utilized despite the levitation support.

Keywords: levitating motor, magnetic levitation support, fitness, axle

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
14560 An Optimal Hybrid EMS System for a Hyperloop Prototype Vehicle

Authors: J. F. Gonzalez-Rojo, Federico Lluesma-Rodriguez, Temoatzin Gonzalez

Abstract:

Hyperloop, a new mode of transport, is gaining significance. It consists of the use of a ground-based transport system which includes a levitation system, that avoids rolling friction forces, and which has been covered with a tube, controlling the inner atmosphere lowering the aerodynamic drag forces. Thus, hyperloop is proposed as a solution to the current limitation on ground transportation. Rolling and aerodynamic problems, that limit large speeds for traditional high-speed rail or even maglev systems, are overcome using a hyperloop solution. Zeleros is one of the companies developing technology for hyperloop application worldwide. It is working on a concept that reduces the infrastructure cost and minimizes the power consumption as well as the losses associated with magnetic drag forces. For this purpose, Zeleros proposes a Hybrid ElectroMagnetic Suspension (EMS) for its prototype. In the present manuscript an active and optimal electromagnetic suspension levitation method based on nearly zero power consumption individual modules is presented. This system consists of several hybrid permanent magnet-coil levitation units that can be arranged along the vehicle. The proposed unit manages to redirect the magnetic field along a defined direction forming a magnetic circuit and minimizing the loses due to field dispersion. This is achieved using an electrical steel core. Each module can stabilize the gap distance using the coil current and either linear or non-linear control methods. The ratio between weight and levitation force for each unit is 1/10. In addition, the quotient between the lifted weight and power consumption at the target gap distance is 1/3 [kg/W]. One degree of freedom (DoF) (along the gap direction) is controlled by a single unit. However, when several units are present, a 5 DoF control (2 translational and 3 rotational) can be achieved, leading to the full attitude control of the vehicle. The proposed system has been successfully tested reaching TRL-4 in a laboratory test bench and is currently in TRL-5 state development if the module association in order to control 5 DoF is considered.

Keywords: active optimal control, electromagnetic levitation, HEMS, high-speed transport, hyperloop

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
14559 Comparing Two Non-Contact Squeeze Film Levitation Designs

Authors: Ahmed Almurshedi, Mark Atherton, Mares Cristinel, Tadeusz Stolarski, Masaaki Miyatake

Abstract:

Transportation and handling of delicate and lightweight objects is a significant issue in some industries. Two levitation prototype designs, a horn transducer design and surface-mounted piezoelectric actuator vibrating plate design, are compared. Both designs are based on the method of squeeze-film levitation (SFL) and the aim of this study is to evaluate the characteristics and performance of each. To this end, physical experiments are conducted and are demonstrated that the horn-type transducer prototype design produces better levitation performance but it design complexity and operating characteristics make it less suitable than the vibrating plate design for practical applications.

Keywords: floating, levitation, piezoelectric, squeeze-film, transducer

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
14558 Road Vehicle Recognition Using Magnetic Sensing Feature Extraction and Classification

Authors: Xiao Chen, Xiaoying Kong, Min Xu

Abstract:

This paper presents a road vehicle detection approach for the intelligent transportation system. This approach mainly uses low-cost magnetic sensor and associated data collection system to collect magnetic signals. This system can measure the magnetic field changing, and it also can detect and count vehicles. We extend Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients to analyze vehicle magnetic signals. Vehicle type features are extracted using representation of cepstrum, frame energy, and gap cepstrum of magnetic signals. We design a 2-dimensional map algorithm using Vector Quantization to classify vehicle magnetic features to four typical types of vehicles in Australian suburbs: sedan, VAN, truck, and bus. Experiments results show that our approach achieves a high level of accuracy for vehicle detection and classification.

Keywords: vehicle classification, signal processing, road traffic model, magnetic sensing

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
14557 Magnetic Braking System of an Elevator in the Event of Sudden Breakage of the Hoisting Cable

Authors: Amita Singha

Abstract:

The project describes the scope of magnetic braking. The potential applications of the braking system can be a de-accelerating system to increase the safety of an elevator or any guided rail transportation system.

Keywords: boost and buck converter, electromagnet, elevator, ferromagnetic material, sensor, solenoid, timer

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
14556 Design and Manufacture of a Hybrid Gearbox Reducer System

Authors: Ahmed Mozamel, Kemal Yildizli

Abstract:

Due to mechanical energy losses and a competitive of minimizing these losses and increases the machine efficiency, the need for contactless gearing system has raised. In this work, one stage of mechanical planetary gear transmission system integrated with one stage of magnetic planetary gear system is designed as a two-stage hybrid gearbox system. The permanent magnets internal energy in the form of the magnetic field is used to create meshing between contactless magnetic rotors in order to provide self-system protection against overloading and decrease the mechanical loss of the transmission system by eliminating the friction losses. Classical methods, such as analytical, tabular method and the theory of elasticity are used to calculate the planetary gear design parameters. The finite element method (ANSYS Maxwell) is used to predict the behaviors of a magnetic gearing system. The concentric magnetic gearing system has been modeled and analyzed by using 2D finite element method (ANSYS Maxwell). In addition to that, design and manufacturing processes of prototype components (a planetary gear, concentric magnetic gear, shafts and the bearings selection) of a gearbox system are investigated. The output force, the output moment, the output power and efficiency of the hybrid gearbox system are experimentally evaluated. The viability of applying a magnetic force to transmit mechanical power through a non-contact gearing system is presented. The experimental test results show that the system is capable to operate continuously within the range of speed from 400 rpm to 3000 rpm with the reduction ratio of 2:1 and maximum efficiency of 91%.

Keywords: hybrid gearbox, mechanical gearboxes, magnetic gears, magnetic torque

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
14555 Integration of Magnetoresistance Sensor in Microfluidic Chip for Magnetic Particles Detection

Authors: Chao-Ming Su, Pei-Sheng Wu, Yu-Chi Kuo, Yin-Chou Huang, Tan-Yueh Chen, Jefunnie Matahum, Tzong-Rong Ger

Abstract:

Application of magnetic particles (MPs) has been applied in biomedical field for many years. There are lots of advantages through this mediator including high biocompatibility and multi-diversified bio-applications. However, current techniques for evaluating the quantity of the magnetic-labeled sample assays are rare. In this paper, a Wheatstone bridge giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensor integrated with a homemade detecting system was fabricated and used to quantify the concentration of MPs. The homemade detecting system has shown high detecting sensitivity of 10 μg/μl of MPs with optimized parameter vertical magnetic field 100 G, horizontal magnetic field 2 G and flow rate 0.4 ml/min.

Keywords: magnetic particles, magnetoresistive sensors, microfluidics, biosensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
14554 Conceptional Design of a Hyperloop Capsule with Linear Induction Propulsion System

Authors: Ahmed E. Hodaib, Samar F. Abdel Fattah

Abstract:

High-speed transportation is a growing concern. To develop high-speed rails and to increase high-speed efficiencies, the idea of Hyperloop was introduced. The challenge is to overcome the difficulties of managing friction and air-resistance which become substantial when vehicles approach high speeds. In this paper, we are presenting the methodologies of the capsule design which got a design concept innovation award at SpaceX competition in January, 2016. MATLAB scripts are written for the levitation and propulsion calculations and iterations. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used to simulate the air flow around the capsule considering the effect of the axial-flow air compressor and the levitation cushion on the air flow. The design procedures of a single-sided linear induction motor are analyzed in detail and its geometric and magnetic parameters are determined. A structural design is introduced and Finite Element Method (FEM) is used to analyze the stresses in different parts. The configuration and the arrangement of the components are illustrated. Moreover, comments on manufacturing are made.

Keywords: high-speed transportation, hyperloop, railways transportation, single-sided linear induction Motor (SLIM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
14553 Hybrid Reusable Launch Vehicle for Space Application A Naval Approach

Authors: Rajasekar Elangopandian, Anand Shanmugam

Abstract:

In order to reduce the cost of launching satellite and payloads to the orbit this project envisages some immense combined technology. This new technology in space odyssey contains literally four concepts. The first mode in this innovation is flight mission characteristics which, says how the mission will induct. The conventional technique of magnetic levitation will help us to produce the initial thrust. The name states reusable launch vehicle shows its viability of reuseness. The flight consists miniature rocket which produces the required thrust and the two JATO (jet assisted takeoff) boosters which gives the initial boost for the vehicle. The vehicle ostensibly looks like an airplane design and will be located on the super conducting rail track. When the high power electric current given to the rail track, the vehicle starts floating as per the principle of magnetic levitation. If the flight reaches the particular takeoff distance the two boosters gets starts and will give the 48KN thrust each. Obviously it`ll follow the vertical path up to the atmosphere end/start to space. As soon as it gets its speed the two boosters will cutoff. Once it reaches the space the inbuilt spacecraft keep the satellite in the desired orbit. When the work finishes, the apogee motors gives the initial kick to the vehicle to come in to the earth’s atmosphere with 22N thrust and automatically comes to the ground by following the free fall, the help of gravitational force. After the flying region it makes the spiral flight mode then gets landing where the super conducting levitated rail track located. It will catch up the vehicle and keep it by changing the poles of magnets and varying the current. Initial cost for making this vehicle might be high but for the frequent usage this will reduce the launch cost exactly half than the now-a-days technology. The incorporation of such a mechanism gives `hybrid` and the reusability gives `reusable launch vehicle` and ultimately Hybrid reusable launch vehicle.

Keywords: the two JATO (jet assisted takeoff) boosters, magnetic levitation, 48KN thrust each, 22N thrust and automatically comes to the ground

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
14552 Intensification of Heat Transfer in Magnetically Assisted Reactor

Authors: Dawid Sołoducha, Tomasz Borowski, Marian Kordas, Rafał Rakoczy

Abstract:

The magnetic field in the past few years became an important part of many studies. Magnetic field (MF) may be used to affect the process in many ways; for example, it can be used as a factor to stabilize the system. We can use MF to steer the operation, to activate or inhibit the process, or even to affect the vital activity of microorganisms. Using various types of magnetic field generators is always connected with the delivery of some heat to the system. Heat transfer is a very important phenomenon; it can influence the process positively and negatively, so it’s necessary to measure heat stream transferred from the place of generation and prevent negative influence on the operation. The aim of the presented work was to apply various types of magnetic fields and to measure heat transfer phenomena. The results were obtained by continuous measurement at several measuring points with temperature probes. Results were compilated in the form of temperature profiles. The study investigated the undetermined heat transfer in a custom system equipped with a magnetic field generator. Experimental investigations are provided for the explanation of the influence of the various type of magnetic fields on the heat transfer process. The tested processes are described by means of the criteria which defined heat transfer intensification under the action of magnetic field.

Keywords: heat transfer, magnetic field, undetermined heat transfer, temperature profile

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
14551 Magnetic Nanoparticles for Cancer Therapy

Authors: Sachinkumar Patil, Sonali Patil, Shitalkumar Patil

Abstract:

Nanoparticles played important role in the biomedicine. New advanced methods having great potential apllication in the diagnosis and therapy of cancer. Now a day’s magnetic nanoparticles used in cancer therapy. Cancer is the major disease causes death. Magnetic nanoparticles show response to the magnetic field on the basis of this property they are used in cancer therapy. Cancer treated with hyperthermia by using magnetic nanoparticles it is unconventional but more safe and effective method. Magnetic nanoparticles prepared by using different innovative techniques that makes particles in uniform size and desired effect. Magnetic nanoparticles already used as contrast media in magnetic resonance imaging. A magnetic nanoparticle has been great potential application in cancer diagnosis and treatment as well as in gene therapy. In this review we will discuss the progress in cancer therapy based on magnetic nanoparticles, mainly including magnetic hyperthermia, synthesis and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles, mechanism of magnetic nanoparticles and application of magnetic nanoparticles.

Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, synthesis, characterization, cancer therapy, hyperthermia, application

Procedia PDF Downloads 431
14550 Magneto-Convective Instability in a Horizontal Power-Law Nanofluid Saturated Porous Layer

Authors: Norazuwin Najihah Mat Tahir, Fuziyah Ishak, Seripah Awang Kechil

Abstract:

The onset of the convective instability in the horizontal through flow of a power-law nanofluid saturated by porous layer heated from below under the influences of magnetic field are investigated in this study. The linear stability theory is used for the transformation of the partial differential equations to system of ordinary differential equations through infinitesimal perturbations, scaling, linearization and method of normal modes with two-dimensional periodic waves. The system is solved analytically for the closed form solution of the Rayleigh number by using the Galerkin-type weighted residuals method to investigate the onset of both traveling wave and oscillatory convection. The effects of the power-law index, Lewis number and Peclet number on the stability of the system were investigated. The Lewis number stabilizes while the power-law index and Peclet number destabilize the nanofluid system. The system in the presence of magnetic field is more stable than the system in the absence of magnetic field.

Keywords: convection, instability, magnetic field, nanofluid, power-law

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
14549 Comparison between Simulation and Experimentally Observed Interactions between Two Different Sized Magnetic Beads in a Fluidic System

Authors: Olayinka Oduwole, Steve Sheard

Abstract:

The magnetic separation of biological cells using super-magnetic beads has been used widely for various bioassays. These bioassays can further be integrated with other laboratory components to form a biosensor which can be used for cell sorting, mixing, purification, transport, manipulation etc. These bio-sensing applications have also been facilitated by the wide availability of magnetic beads which range in size and magnetic properties produced by different manufacturers. In order to improve the efficiency and separation capabilities of these biosensors, it is important to determine the magnetic force induced velocities and interaction of beads within the magnetic field; this will help biosensor users choose the desired magnetic bead for their specific application. This study presents for the first time the interaction between a pair of different sized super-paramagnetic beads suspended in a static fluid moving within a uniform magnetic field using a modified finite-time-finite-difference scheme. A captured video was used to record the trajectory pattern and a good agreement was obtained between the simulated trajectories and the video data. The model is, therefore, a good approximation for predicting the velocities as well as the interaction between various magnetic particles which differ in size and magnetic properties for bio-sensing applications requiring a low concentration of magnetic beads.

Keywords: biosensor, magnetic field, magnetic separation, super-paramagnetic bead

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
14548 Electronic and Magnetic Properties of the Dy₀.₀₆₂₅Y₀.₉₃₇₅ FeO₃ and Dy₀.₁₂₅ Y₀.₈₇₅ FeO₃ Perovskites

Authors: Sari Aouatef, Larabi Amina

Abstract:

First-principles calculations within density functional theory based are used to investigate the influence of doped rare earth elements on some properties of perovskite systems Dy₀.₀₆₂₅Y₀.₉₃₇₅FeO₃ and Dy₀.₁₂₅ Y₀.₈₇₅ FeO₃. The electronic and magnetic properties are studied by means of the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method with Vasp code. The calculated densities of states presented in this work identify the semiconducting behavior for Dy₀.₁₂₅ Y₀.₈₇₅ FeO₃, and the semi-metallic behavior for Dy₀.₀₆₂₅Y₀.₉₃₇₅ FeO₃. Besides, to investigate magnetic properties of several compounds, four magnetic configurations are considered (ferromagnetic (FM), antiferromagnetic type A (A-AFM), antiferromagnetic type C (C-AFM) and antiferromagnetic type G (G-AFM). By doping the Dy element, the system shows different changes in the magnetic order and electronic structure. It is found that Dy₀.₀₆₂₅Y₀.₉₃₇₅ FeO₃ exhibits the strongest magnetic change corresponding to the transition to the ferromagnetic order with the largest magnetic moment of 4.997.

Keywords: DFT, Perovskites, multiferroic, magnetic properties

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14547 Magnetic Properties of Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles in Superparamagnetic State

Authors: Navneet Kaur, S. D. Tiwari

Abstract:

Superparamagnetism is an interesting phenomenon and observed in small particles of magnetic materials. It arises due to a reduction in particle size. In the superparamagnetic state, as the thermal energy overcomes magnetic anisotropy energy, the magnetic moment vector of particles flip their magnetization direction between states of minimum energy. Superparamagnetic nanoparticles have been attracting the researchers due to many applications such as information storage, magnetic resonance imaging, biomedical applications, and sensors. For information storage, thermal fluctuations lead to loss of data. So that nanoparticles should have high blocking temperature. And to achieve this, nanoparticles should have a higher magnetic moment and magnetic anisotropy constant. In this work, the magnetic anisotropy constant of the antiferromagnetic nanoparticles system is determined. Magnetic studies on nanoparticles of NiO (nickel oxide) are reported well. This antiferromagnetic nanoparticle system has high blocking temperature and magnetic anisotropy constant of order 105 J/m3. The magnetic study of NiO nanoparticles in the superparamagnetic region is presented. NiO particles of two different sizes, i.e., 6 and 8 nm, are synthesized using the chemical route. These particles are characterized by an x-ray diffractometer, transmission electron microscope, and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry. The magnetization vs. applied magnetic field and temperature data for both samples confirm their superparamagnetic nature. The blocking temperature for 6 and 8 nm particles is found to be 200 and 172 K, respectively. Magnetization vs. applied magnetic field data of NiO is fitted to an appropriate magnetic expression using a non-linear least square fit method. The role of particle size distribution and magnetic anisotropy is taken in to account in magnetization expression. The source code is written in Python programming language. This fitting provides us the magnetic anisotropy constant for NiO and other magnetic fit parameters. The particle size distribution estimated matches well with the transmission electron micrograph. The value of magnetic anisotropy constants for 6 and 8 nm particles is found to be 1.42 X 105 and 1.20 X 105 J/m3, respectively. The obtained magnetic fit parameters are verified using the Neel model. It is concluded that the effect of magnetic anisotropy should not be ignored while studying the magnetization process of nanoparticles.

Keywords: anisotropy, superparamagnetic, nanoparticle, magnetization

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14546 Optimization of Surface Coating on Magnetic Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications

Authors: Xiao-Li Liu, Ling-Yun Zhao, Xing-Jie Liang, Hai-Ming Fan

Abstract:

Owing to their unique properties, magnetic nanoparticles have been used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents for biomedical applications. Highly monodispersed magnetic nanoparticles with controlled particle size and surface coating have been successfully synthesized as a model system to investigate the effect of surface coating on the T2 relaxivity and specific absorption rate (SAR) under an alternating magnetic field, respectively. Amongst, by using mPEG-g-PEI to solubilize oleic-acid capped 6 nm magnetic nanoparticles, the T2 relaxivity could be significantly increased by up to 4-fold as compared to PEG coated nanoparticles. Moreover, it largely enhances the cell uptake with a T2 relaxivity of 92.6 mM-1s-1 for in vitro cell MRI. As for hyperthermia agent, SAR value increase with the decreased thickness of PEG surface coating. By elaborate optimization of surface coating and particle size, a significant increase of SAR (up to 74%) could be achieved with a minimal variation on the saturation magnetization (<5%). The 19 nm magnetic nanoparticles with 2000 Da PEG exhibited the highest SAR of 930 W•g-1 among the samples, which can be maintained in various simulated physiological conditions. This systematic work provides a general strategy for the optimization of surface coating of magnetic core for high performance MRI contrast agent and hyperthermia agent.

Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, magnetic hyperthermia, magnetic resonance imaging, surface modification

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
14545 Highly Linear and Low Noise AMR Sensor Using Closed Loop and Signal-Chopped Architecture

Authors: N. Hadjigeorgiou, A. C. Tsalikidou, E. Hristoforou, P. P. Sotiriadis

Abstract:

During the last few decades, the continuously increasing demand for accurate and reliable magnetic measurements has paved the way for the development of different types of magnetic sensing systems as well as different measurement techniques. Sensor sensitivity and linearity, signal-to-noise ratio, measurement range, cross-talk between sensors in multi-sensor applications are only some of the aspects that have been examined in the past. In this paper, a fully analog closed loop system in order to optimize the performance of AMR sensors has been developed. The operation of the proposed system has been tested using a Helmholtz coil calibration setup in order to control both the amplitude and direction of magnetic field in the vicinity of the AMR sensor. Experimental testing indicated that improved linearity of sensor response, as well as low noise levels can be achieved, when the system is employed.

Keywords: AMR sensor, closed loop, memory effects, chopper, linearity improvement, sensitivity improvement, magnetic noise, electronic noise

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
14544 The Influence of Reaction Parameters on Magnetic Properties of Synthesized Strontium Ferrite

Authors: M. Bahgat, F. M. Awan, H. A. Hanafy

Abstract:

The conventional ceramic route was utilized to prepare a hard magnetic powder (M-type strontium ferrite, SrFe12O19). The stoichiometric mixture of iron oxide and strontium carbonate were calcined at 1000°C and then fired at various temperatures. The influence of various reaction parameters such as mixing ratio, calcination temperature, firing temperature and firing time on the magnetic behaviors of the synthesized magnetic powder were investigated.The magnetic properties including Coercivity (Hc), Magnetic saturation (Ms), and Magnetic remnance (Mr) were measured by vibrating sample magnetometer. Morphologically the produced magnetic powder has a dense hexagonal grain shape structure.

Keywords: hard magnetic materials, ceramic route, strontium ferrite, magnetic properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 598
14543 Synthesis and Magnetic Properties of Six-Lines Ferrihydrite Nanoparticles

Authors: Chandni Rani, S. D. Tiwari

Abstract:

Ferrihydrite is one of the distinct minerals in the family of oxides, hydroxides and oxyhydroxides of iron. It is a nanocrystalline material. It occurs naturally in different sediments, soil systems and also found in the core of ferritin, an iron storage protien. This material can also be synthesized by suitable chemical methods in laboratories. This is known as less crystalline Iron (III) Oxyhydroxide. Due to its poor crystallinity, there are very broad peaks in x-ray diffraction. Depending on the number of peaks in x-ray diffraction pattern, it is classified as two lines and six lines ferrihydrite. The average crystallite size for these two forms is found to be about 2nm to 5nm. The exact crystal structure of this system is still under debate. Out of these two forms, the six lines ferrihydrite is more ordered in comparison to two lines ferrihydrite. The magnetic behavior of two lines ferrihydrite nanoparticles is somewhat well studied. But the magnetic behavior of six lines ferrihydrite nanoparticles could not attract the attention of researchers much. This motivated us to work on the magnetic properties of six lines ferrihydrite nanoparticles. In this work, we present synthesis, structural characterization and magnetic behavior of 5 nm six lines ferrihydrite nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope are used for structural characterization of this system. Magnetization measurements are performed to fit the data at different temperatures. Then the effect of magnetic moment distribution is also found. All these observations are discussed in detail.

Keywords: nanoparticles, magnetism, superparamagnetism, magnetic anisotropy

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14542 Transfer of Electrical Energy by Magnetic Induction

Authors: Carlos Oliveira Santiago Filho, Ciro Egoavil, Eduardo Oliveira, Jéferson Galdino, Moises Galileu, Tiago Oliveira Correa

Abstract:

Transfer of Electrical Energy through resonant inductive magnetic coupling is demonstrated experimentally in a system containing coil primary for transmission and secondary reception. The topology used in the prototype of the Class-E amplifier, has been identified as optimal for power transfer applications. Characteristic of the inductor and the load are defined by the requirements of the resonant inductive system. The frequency limitation the of circuit restricts unloaded “Q-Factor”, quality factor of the coils and thus the link efficiency. With a suitable circuit, copper coil unloaded Q-Factors of over 1,000 can be achieved in the low Mhz region, enabling a cost-effective high Q coil assembly. The circuit is capable system capable of transmitting energy with direct current to load efficiency above 60% at 2 Mhz.

Keywords: magnetic induction, transfer of electrical energy, magnetic coupling, Q-Factor

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14541 Advantages of Fuzzy Control Application in Fast and Sensitive Technological Processes

Authors: Radim Farana, Bogdan Walek, Michal Janosek, Jaroslav Zacek

Abstract:

This paper presents the advantages of fuzzy control use in technological processes control. The paper presents a real application of the Linguistic Fuzzy-Logic Control, developed at the University of Ostrava for the control of physical models in the Intelligent Systems Laboratory. The paper presents an example of a sensitive non-linear model, such as a magnetic levitation model and obtained results which show how modern information technologies can help to solve actual technical problems. A special method based on the LFLC controller with partial components is presented in this paper followed by the method of automatic context change, which is very helpful to achieve more accurate control results. The main advantage of the used system is its robustness in changing conditions demonstrated by comparing with conventional PID controller. This technology and real models are also used as a background for problem-oriented teaching, realized at the department for master students and their collaborative as well as individual final projects.

Keywords: control, fuzzy logic, sensitive system, technological proves

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
14540 Pressure-Detecting Method for Estimating Levitation Gap Height of Swirl Gripper

Authors: Kaige Shi, Chao Jiang, Xin Li

Abstract:

The swirl gripper is an electrically activated noncontact handling device that uses swirling airflow to generate a lifting force. This force can be used to pick up a workpiece placed underneath the swirl gripper without any contact. It is applicable, for example, in the semiconductor wafer production line, where contact must be avoided during the handling and moving of a workpiece to minimize damage. When a workpiece levitates underneath a swirl gripper, the gap height between them is crucial for safe handling. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a method to estimate the levitation gap height by detecting pressure at two points. The method is based on theoretical model of the swirl gripper, and has been experimentally verified. Furthermore, the force between the gripper and the workpiece can also be estimated using the detected pressure. As a result, the nonlinear relationship between the force and gap height can be linearized by adjusting the rotating speed of the fan in the swirl gripper according to the estimated force and gap height. The linearized relationship is expected to enhance handling stability of the workpiece.

Keywords: swirl gripper, noncontact handling, levitation, gap height estimation

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14539 Analytical Model for Vacuum Cathode Arcs in an Oblique Magnetic Field

Authors: P. W. Chen, C. T. Chang, Y. Peng, J. Y. Wu, D. J. Jan, Md. Manirul Ali

Abstract:

In the last decade, the nature of cathode spot splitting and the current per spot depended on an oblique magnetic field was investigated. This model for cathode current splitting is developed that we have investigated with relationship the magnetic pressures produced by kinetic pressure, self-magnetic pressure, and changed with an external magnetic field. We propose a theoretical model that has been established to an external magnetic field with components normal and tangential to the cathode surface influenced on magnetic pressure strength. We mainly focus on developed to understand the current per spot influenced with the tangential magnetic field strength and normal magnetic field strength.

Keywords: cathode spot, vacuum arc discharge, oblique magnetic field, tangential magnetic field

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14538 Stabilizing Effect of Magnetic Field in a Thermally Modulated Porous Layer

Authors: M. Meenasaranya, S. Saravanan

Abstract:

Nonlinear stability analysis is carried out to determine the effect of surface temperature modulation in an infinite horizontal porous layer heated from below. The layer is saturated by an electrically conducting, viscous, incompressible and Newtonian fluid. The Brinkman model is used for momentum equation, and the Boussinesq approximation is invoked. The system is assumed to be bounded by rigid boundaries. The energy theory is implemented to find the global exponential stability region of the considered system. The results are analysed for arbitrary values of modulation frequency and amplitude. The existence of subcritical instability region is confirmed by comparing the obtained result with the known linear result. The vertical magnetic field is found to stabilize the system.

Keywords: Brinkman model, energy method, magnetic field, surface temperature modulation

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14537 A Simplified Model of the Control System with PFM

Authors: Bekmurza H. Aitchanov, Sholpan K. Aitchanova, Olimzhon A. Baimuratov, Aitkul N. Aldibekova

Abstract:

This work considers the automated control system (ACS) of milk quality during its magnetic field processing. For achieving high level of quality control methods were applied transformation of complex nonlinear systems in a linearized system with a less complex structure. Presented ACS is adjustable by seven parameters: mass fraction of fat, mass fraction of dry skim milk residues (DSMR), density, mass fraction of added water, temperature, mass fraction of protein, acidity.

Keywords: fluids magnetization, nuclear magnetic resonance, automated control system, dynamic pulse-frequency modulator, PFM, nonlinear systems, structural model

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14536 Two-Dimensional CFD Simulation of the Behaviors of Ferromagnetic Nanoparticles in Channel

Authors: Farhad Aalizadeh, Ali Moosavi

Abstract:

This paper presents a two-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFDs) simulation for the steady, particle tracking. The purpose of this paper is applied magnetic field effect on Magnetic Nanoparticles velocities distribution. It is shown that the permeability of the particles determines the effect of the magnetic field on the deposition of the particles and the deposition of the particles is inversely proportional to the Reynolds number. Using MHD and its property it is possible to control the flow velocity, remove the fouling on the walls and return the system to its original form. we consider a channel 2D geometry and solve for the resulting spatial distribution of particles. According to obtained results when only magnetic fields are applied perpendicular to the flow, local particles velocity is decreased due to the direct effect of the magnetic field return the system to its original fom. In the method first, in order to avoid mixing with blood, the ferromagnetic particles are covered with a gel-like chemical composition and are injected into the blood vessels. Then, a magnetic field source with a specified distance from the vessel is used and the particles are guided to the affected area. This paper presents a two-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFDs) simulation for the steady, laminar flow of an incompressible magnetorheological (MR) fluid between two fixed parallel plates in the presence of a uniform magnetic field. The purpose of this study is to develop a numerical tool that is able to simulate MR fluids flow in valve mode and determineB0, applied magnetic field effect on flow velocities and pressure distributions.

Keywords: MHD, channel clots, magnetic nanoparticles, simulations

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14535 The Study of Magnetic and Transport Properties in Normal State Eu1.85+yCe0.15-yCu1-yFeyO4+α-δ

Authors: Risdiana, D. Suhendar, S. Pratiwi, W. A. Somantri, T. Saragi

Abstract:

Superconductor is a promising material for future applications especially for energy saving because of their advantages properties such as zero electrical resistivity when they are cooled down to sufficiently low temperatures. However, the mechanism describing the role of physical properties in superconductor is far from being understood clearly, so that the application of this material for wider benefit in various industries is very limited. Most of superconductors are cuprate compounds, which has CuO2 as a conducting plane in their crystal structures. The study of physical properties through the partially substitution of impurity for Cu in superconducting cuprates has been one of great interests in relation to the mechanism of superconductivity. Different behaviors between the substitution of nonmagnetic impurity and magnetic impurity for Cu are observed. For examples, the superconductivity and Cu-spin fluctuations in the electron-doped system are suppressed through the substitution of magnetic Ni for Cu more markedly than through the substitution of nonmagnetic Zn for Cu, which is contrary to the result in the hole-doped system. Here, we reported the effect of partially substitution of magnetic impurity Fe for Cu to the magnetic and transport properties in electron-doped superconducting cuprates of Eu1.85+yCe0.15-yCu1-yFeyO4+α-δ (ECCFO) with y = 0.01, 0.02, and 0.05, in order to investigate the mechanism of magnetic and transport properties of ECCFO in normal-state. Magnetic properties are investigated by DC magnetic-susceptibility measurements that carried out at low temperatures down to 2 K using a standard SQUID magnetometer in a magnetic field of 5 Oe on field cooling. Transport properties addressed to electron mobility, are extracted from radius of electron localization calculated from temperature dependence of resistivity. For y = 0, temperature dependence of dc magnetic-susceptibility indicated the change of magnetic behavior from paramagnetic to diamagnetic below 15 K. Above 15 K, all samples show paramagnetic behavior with the values of magnetic moment in every volume unit increased with increasing y. Electron mobility decreased with increasing y. Some reasons for these results will be discussed.

Keywords: DC magnetic-susceptibility, electron mobility, Eu1.85+yCe0.15-yCu1-yFeyO4+α-δ, normal state

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