Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3159

Search results for: English for occupational purposes

3159 Guide to the Development of the Intensive English Program for Graduate Students

Authors: Piyawan Sunasuan, Thiranan Pansuppawat, Mananya Manaratchasak, Maream Nillapun

Abstract:

This research aims to guide the development of the intensive English program for graduate students. The objectives are 1) to study the English skills in which needed for the graduate students and 2) to study the potential of the current course with the expected proficiency level. The samples are 46 graduate students enrolled in the ENG 102 and ENG 103 courses of the school year of 2019/2020 in semester one from the Silpakorn University, Sanamchandra Palace Campus, and two teachers. The researchers use 1) student survey, 2) teacher interview, and 3) focus group discussion among selected students. The data is analyzed by calculating the mean (x̅), the standard deviation, and document analysis. The findings show that nine skills are in the need of the course development; 1) academic writing 2) occupational purpose writing 3) communicative reading 4) occupational purpose reading 5) academic speaking 6) occupational purpose speaking 7) occupational purpose listening 8) academic listening and 9) communicative listening. The current course does not meet the expectation on a high level but has potential.

Keywords: English for academic purposes, English for communication, English for occupational purposes, intensive English

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3158 When English Learners Speak “Non-Standard” English

Authors: Gloria Chen

Abstract:

In the past, when we complimented someone who had a good command of English, we would say ‘She/He speaks/writes standard English,’ or ‘His/Her English is standard.’ However, with English has becoming a ‘global language,’ many scholars and English users even create a plural form for English as ‘world Englishes,’ which indicates that national/racial varieties of English not only exist, but also are accepted to a certain degree. Now, a question will be raised when it comes to English teaching and learning: ‘What variety/varieties of English should be taught?’ This presentation will first explore Braj Kachru’s well-known categorization of the inner circle, the outer circle, and the expanding circle of English users, as well as inner circle varieties such as ‘Ebonics’ and ‘cockney’. The presentation then will discuss the purposes and contexts of English learning, and apply different approaches to different purposes and contexts. Three major purposes of English teaching/learning will be emphasized and considered: (1) communicative competence, (2) academic competence, and (3) intercultural competence. This presentation will complete with the strategies of ‘code switch’ and ‘register switch’ in teaching English to non-standard English speakers in both speaking and writing.

Keywords: world Englishes, standard and non-standard English, inner, outer, expanded circle communicative, academic, intercultural competence

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3157 Genre Analysis and Interview: Body Paragraphs of Student English Academic Essays

Authors: Chek Kim Loi

Abstract:

This study reports on a study examining the body paragraphs of English academic essays written by some ESL (English as a Second Language) undergraduate students. These students took English for Academic Purposes course for one semester at a public university in Malaysia. In addition to analyzing the communicative purposes employed in the sample, for triangulation of data, student participants were interviewed on their academic writing experience in their English for Academic Purposes (EAP) classroom. The present study has pedagogical implications in an EAP classroom.

Keywords: academic writing, body paragraphs, communicative purposes, pedagogical implications

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3156 English for Specific Purposes: Its Definition, Characteristics, and the Role of Needs Analysis

Authors: Karima Tayaa, Amina Bouaziz

Abstract:

The rapid expansion in the scientific fields and the growth of communication technology increased the use of English as international language in the world. Hence, over the past few decades, many researchers have been emphasizing on how the teaching and learning of English as a foreign or as an additional language can best help students to perform successfully. English for specific purpose is today quite literally regarded as the most global language discipline which existed practically in every country in the world. ESP (English for Specific Purposes) involves teaching and learning the specific skills and language needed by particular learners for a particular purpose. The P in ESP is always a professional purpose which is a set of skills that learners currently need in their work or will need in their professional careers. It has had an early origin since 1960’s and has grown to become one of the most prominent of English language teaching today. Moreover, ESP learners are usually adults who have some quittances with English and learn the language so as to communicate and perform particular profession. Related activities are based on specific purposes and needs. They are integrated into subject matter area important to the learners. Unlike general English which focuses on teaching general language courses and all four language skills are equally stressed, ESP and practically needs analysis determine which language skills are the most needed by the learners and syllabus designed accordingly. This paper looked into the origin, characteristics, development of ESP, the difference between ESP and general English. Finally, the paper critically reviews the role of needs analysis in the ESP.

Keywords: English language teaching, English for general purposes, English for specific purposes, needs analysis

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3155 Correction of Frequent English Writing Errors by Using Coded Indirect Corrective Feedback and Error Treatment: The Case of Reading and Writing English for Academic Purposes II

Authors: Chaiwat Tantarangsee

Abstract:

The purposes of this study are 1) to study the frequent English writing errors of students registering the course: Reading and Writing English for Academic Purposes II, and 2) to find out the results of writing error correction by using coded indirect corrective feedback and writing error treatments. Samples include 28 2nd year English Major students, Faculty of Education, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Tool for experimental study includes the lesson plan of the course; Reading and Writing English for Academic Purposes II, and tool for data collection includes 4 writing tests of short texts. The research findings disclose that frequent English writing errors found in this course comprise 7 types of grammatical errors, namely Fragment sentence, Subject-verb agreement, Wrong form of verb tense, Singular or plural noun endings, Run-ons sentence, Wrong form of verb pattern and Lack of parallel structure. Moreover, it is found that the results of writing error correction by using coded indirect corrective feedback and error treatment reveal the overall reduction of the frequent English writing errors and the increase of students’ achievement in the writing of short texts with the significance at .05.

Keywords: coded indirect corrective feedback, error correction, error treatment, English writing

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3154 Correction of Frequent English Writing Errors by Using Coded Indirect Corrective Feedback and Error Treatment

Authors: Chaiwat Tantarangsee

Abstract:

The purposes of this study are: 1) to study the frequent English writing errors of students registering the course: Reading and Writing English for Academic Purposes II, and 2) to find out the results of writing error correction by using coded indirect corrective feedback and writing error treatments. Samples include 28 2nd year English Major students, Faculty of Education, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Tool for experimental study includes the lesson plan of the course; Reading and Writing English for Academic Purposes II, and tool for data collection includes 4 writing tests of short texts. The research findings disclose that frequent English writing errors found in this course comprise 7 types of grammatical errors, namely Fragment sentence, Subject-verb agreement, Wrong form of verb tense, Singular or plural noun endings, Run-ons sentence, Wrong form of verb pattern and Lack of parallel structure. Moreover, it is found that the results of writing error correction by using coded indirect corrective feedback and error treatment reveal the overall reduction of the frequent English writing errors and the increase of students’ achievement in the writing of short texts with the significance at .05.

Keywords: coded indirect corrective feedback, error correction, error treatment, frequent English writing errors

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3153 Improving Students' Critical Thinking in Understanding Reading Material Through Bloom's Taxonomy Questioning Strategy in English for Specific Purposes (ESP) Class

Authors: M. Mayuasti, Hevriani Sevrika, Armilia Riza

Abstract:

This research deals in improving college students’ critical thinking at English for Specific Purposes Subject. The strategy that is applied is Bloom’s Critical Thinking Questioning Strategy. The positive side of this strategy is that the given questions are developed based on Bloom’s taxonomy level. It is an action research because the researcher uses own class in doing this research. The processes of this research have been done from April to Mei 2014. There are two cycles and each cycle consists of two meetings. After doing the research, it is gotten that Bloom’s Critical Thinking Questioning Strategy improves college students’ critical thinking. It helps the students to build and elaborate their ideas. Hence, it increases students’ reading comprehension

Keywords: critical thinking, blooms’ critical thinking questioning strategy, specific purposes class, English

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3152 Unmet English Needs of the Non-Engineering Staff: The Case of Algerian Hydrocarbon Industry

Authors: N. Khiati

Abstract:

The present paper attempts to report on some findings that emerged out of a larger scale doctorate research into English language needs of a renowned Algerian company of Hydrocarbon industry. From a multifaceted English for specific purposes (ESP) research perspective, the paper considers the English needs of the finance/legal department staff in the midst of the conflicting needs perspectives involving both objective needs indicators (i.e., the pressure of globalised business) and the general negative attitudes among the administrative -mainly jurists- staff towards English (favouring a non-adaptation strategy). The researcher’s unearthing of the latter’s needs is an endeavour to concretise the concepts of unmet, or unconscious needs, among others. This is why, these initially uncovered hidden needs will be detailed questioning educational background, namely previous language of instruction; training experiences and expectations; as well as the actual communicative practices derived from the retrospective interviews and preliminary quantitative data of the questionnaire. Based on these rough clues suggesting real needs, the researcher will tentatively propose some implications for both pre-service and in-service training organisers as well as for educational policy makers in favour of an English course in legal English for the jurists mainly from pre-graduate phases to in-service training.

Keywords: English for specific purposes (ESP), legal and finance staff, needs analysis, unmet/unconscious needs, training implications

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3151 The Way of the English Use of Businessmen for the ASEAN Economic Community in Chonburi Province

Authors: Kittivate Boonyopakorn

Abstract:

The purposes of this study were to investigate the method of the English use of the businessmen and to study their behavior of the utilization for the ASEAN economic community. The participants were divided into the three types of the merchants including the construction contractors, the construction material traders, and SME entrepreneurs. Survey questionnaires and interviews were used in this study. The findings showed that in the type of traders, 23 of the participants are construction contractors, 121 are construction material traders, and 206 are SME entrepreneurs. The study of English in language institute is highly 51.4%. The use of Google in translating English into Thai is 41.7%. Learning English themselves is 41.1% respectively. The businessmen study English for readiness for their trade.

Keywords: way of rnglish use, businessmen, ASEAN economic community, Chonburi province

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3150 On the Translation of Thai Culture-Specific Terms of Address into English

Authors: Supannee Pinmanee

Abstract:

This article focuses on the strategies in the translation of terms of address for both referential and vocative functions from Thai to English from a cultural perspective. The discussion concerns the culture-specific ways in which Thai people use address terms that depend largely on social and conventional contexts, including pragmatic factors, for example, relationships between people, levels of formality, and attitudes. Examples used to illustrate the problems and proposed solutions were drawn from the media, the internet, the novels and the language used by Thai native speakers in expressing Thai address terms. The terms used in this area show very well not only the differences in language but also the different cultures and world views of the speakers of Thai and those of English. Thai has developed its own set of address terms, particularly kinship terms for non-relatives and the Thai royal terms. Some of Newmark’s procedures (1995) are used in the article to illustrate the task of translating Thai terms into English, a language that embodies a very different culture with its own set of address terms. However, no one strategy can be applied to serve all purposes and to translate all the intended senses. One particular term can be translated by several strategies, and which strategy to choose depends largely on one’s purposes and what requirement one needs to fulfill.

Keywords: translation, terms of address, Thai-English translation, Thai culture-specific terms of address, translation strategies

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3149 Attitudes of University Students toward English Language Education Policy in Iraqi Kurdistan

Authors: Momen Yaseen M. Amin

Abstract:

Despite widespread coverage of language policy in the literature, there has been scant research probing into English language education policy at tertiary levels in general and in the case of higher education context of Iraqi Kurdistan in particular. The present qualitative study investigated the results of a questionnaire on attitudes toward English language education policy in terms of attitudes toward the English language in general, the current English education policy, and the purposes for learning English among Kurdish EFL university students. Moreover, this study aimed to investigate this topic in light of the participants’ gender and major. To this end, an adapted version of Yang’s (2012) questionnaire was administered to university EFL students majoring in soft and hard sciences (N=300, male 34%, female 67%, four and two disciplines, respectively) at two-state and private universities in Iraqi Kurdistan. The findings revealed positive attitudes toward English as an international language in both soft and hard sciences. While strongly subscribing to the idea that all Iraqi Kurdish students should learn the English language and the courses to be offered in English as well as Kurdish, the majority of the participants expressed their readiness and enthusiasm to excel in English and considered such competency a significant academic accomplishment. However, a good number felt dissatisfied with the status quo of English education at their institutions. This paper provides some implications and recommendations for English education policies makers, administrators, and English language instructors at tertiary levels.

Keywords: attitudes, language policy, English language education, Iraqi Kurdistan

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3148 Development of Distance Training Packages on the Teaching Principles of Foundation English for Secondary School English Teachers in Bangkok and Its Vicinity

Authors: Sita Yiemkuntitavorn

Abstract:

The purposes of this research were to: (1) Develop a distance training package on the teaching principles foundation english language in order to gain the teaching ability for secondary school english teachers in Bangkok and its vicinity (2) study the satisfaction of English teachers towards the quality of a distance training package. The samples for the efficiency testing consisted of 30 english teachers in Bangkok and its vicinity, obtained by purposive sampling. Research tools comprised (1) a distance learning package on the foundation of English writing for teachers. (2) The questionnaires asking the teachers on the quality of the distance training package, and (3) two parallel forms of an achievement test for pre-testing and post-testing. Statistics used were the E1/E2 index, mean and standard deviation. Research findings showed that, (1) the distance training package were efficient at 80.2/80.6 according to the set efficiency criterion of 80/80; (2) and the satisfaction of the teachers on the distance training package of the teaching principles of foundation english for secondary school english teachers in Bangkok and its vicinity was at “Satisfied” level.

Keywords: a distance training package, teaching principles of foundation english, secondary school, Bangkok and its vicinity

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3147 Investigating the Body Paragraphs of English as a Second Language Students' English Academic Essays: Genre Analysis and Needs Analysis

Authors: Chek K. Loi

Abstract:

The present study has two objectives. Firstly, it investigates the rhetorical strategies employed in the body paragraphs of ESL (English as a Second Language) undergraduate students’ English academic essays. Peacock’s (2002) model of the discussion section was used as the starting points in this study to investigate the rhetorical moves employed in the data. Secondly, it investigates the writing problems as perceived by these ESL students through an interview. Interview responses serve as accompanying data to the move analysis. Apart from this, students’ English academic writing problems are diagnosed. The findings have pedagogical implications in an EAP (English for Academic Purposes) classroom.

Keywords: academic essays, move analysis, pedagogical implication, rhetorical strategies

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3146 Creativity in the Use of Sinhala and English in Advertisements in Sri Lanka: A Morphological Analysis

Authors: Chamindi Dilkushi Senaratne

Abstract:

Sri Lanka has lived with the English language for more than 200 years. Although officially considered a link language, the phenomenal usage of English by the Sinhala-English bilingual has given rise to a mixed code with identifiable structural characteristics. The extensive use of the mixed language by the average Sri Lankan bilingual has resulted in it being used as a medium of communication by creative writers of bilingual advertisements in Sri Lanka. This study analyses the way in which English is used in bilingual advertisements in both print and electronic media in Sri Lanka. The theoretical framework for the study is based on Kachru’s analysis of the use of English by the bilingual, Muysken’s typology on code mixing theories in colonial settings and Myers-Scotton’s theory on the Matrix Language Framework Model. The study will look at a selection of Sinhala-English advertisements published in newspapers from 2015 to 2016. Only advertisements using both Sinhala and English are used for the analysis. To substantiate data collected from the newspapers, the study will select bilingual advertisements from television advertisements. The objective of the study is to analyze the mixed patterns used for creative purposes by advertisers. The results of the study will reveal the creativity used by the Sinhala –English bilingual and the morphological processes used by the creators of Sinhala-English bilingual advertisements to attract the masses.

Keywords: bilingual, code mixing, morphological processes, mixed code

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3145 Teaching English for Specific Purposes to Business Students through Social Media

Authors: Candela Contero Urgal

Abstract:

Using realia to teach English for Specific Purposes (ESP) is a must, as it is thought to be designed to meet the students’ real needs in their professional life. Teachers are then expected to offer authentic materials and set students in authentic contexts where their learning outcomes can be highly meaningful. One way of engaging students is using social networks as a way to bridge the gap between their everyday life and their ESP learning outcomes. It is in ESP, particularly in Business English teaching, that our study focuses, as the ongoing process of digitalization is leading firms to use social media to communicate with potential clients. The present paper is aimed at carrying out a case study in which different digital tools are employed as a way to offer a collection of formats businesses are currently using so as to internationalize and advertise their products and services. A secondary objective of our study will then be to progress on the development of multidisciplinary competencies students are to acquire during their degree. A two-phased study will be presented. The first phase will cover the analysis of course tasks accomplished by undergraduate students at the University of Cadiz (Spain) in their third year of the Degree in Business Management and Administration by comparing the results obtained during the years 2019 to 2021. The second part of our study will present a survey conducted to these students in 2021 and 2022 so as to verify their interest in learning new ways to digitalize as well as internationalize their future businesses. Findings will confirm students’ interest in working with updated realia in their Business English lessons, as a consequence of their strong belief in the necessity to have authentic contexts and didactic resources. Despite the limitations social media can have as a means to teach business English, students will still find it highly beneficial since it will foster their familiarisation with the digital tools they will need to use when they get to the labour market.

Keywords: English for specific purposes, business English, internationalization of higher education, foreign language teaching

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3144 Examining Occupational Health and Safety Supervision in Turkey by Comparison to EU Countries

Authors: Nuray Gökçek Karaca

Abstract:

This study aims to examine the application of occupational health and safety supervision in Turkey and EU countries in terms of legal regulations. The results of research reveal that occupational health and safety supervision in EU countries, whatever the understanding of welfare state, is effectively carried out and almost all legal regulations on this subject are consistent with the EU directives. On the other hand, there are serious problems in applications, not legal regulations, of occupational health and safety supervision in Turkey by the side of EU countries. Indeed, Turkey has modern regulations on occupational health and safety supervision whereas there are several problems such as ignoring prevention policy on occupational health and safety supervision, understanding of monotype inspector, problems resulting from this understanding and dispersed structure of occupational health and safety organizations in workplaces. As a result, Turkey needs to carry out effective supervision mechanisms.

Keywords: legal rules, occupational health and safety, inspection, supervision, legislation

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3143 Use of Extended Conversation to Boost Vocabulary Knowledge and Soft Skills in English for Employment Classes

Authors: James G. Matthew, Seonmin Huh, Frank X. Bennett

Abstract:

English for Specific Purposes, ESP, aims to equip learners with necessary English language skills. Many ESP programs address language skills for job performance, including reading job related documents and oral proficiency. Within ESP is English for occupational purposes, EOP, which centers around developing communicative competence for the globalized workplace. Many ESP and EOP courses lack the content needed to assist students to progress at work, resulting in the need to create lexical compilation for different professions. It is important to teach communicative competence and soft skills for real job-related problem situations and address the complexities of the real world to help students to be successful in their professions. ESP and EOP research is therefore trying to balance both profession-specific educational contents as well as international multi-disciplinary language skills for the globalized workforce. The current study will build upon the existing discussion by developing pedagogy to assist students in their career through developing a strong practical command of relevant English vocabulary. Our research question focuses on the pedagogy two professors incorporated in their English for employment courses. The current study is a qualitative case study on the modes of teaching delivery for EOP in South Korea. Two foreign professors teaching at two different universities in South Korea volunteered for the study to explore their teaching practices. Both professors’ curriculums included the components of employment-related concept vocabulary, business presentations, CV/resume and cover letter preparation, and job interview preparation. All the pre-made recorded video lectures, live online class sessions with students, teachers’ lesson plans, teachers’ class materials, students’ assignments, and midterm and finals video conferences were collected for data analysis. The study then focused on unpacking representative patterns in their teaching methods. The professors used their strengths as native speakers to extend the class discussion from narrow and restricted conversations to giving students broader opportunities to practice authentic English conversation. The methods of teaching utilized three main steps to extend the conversation. Firstly, students were taught concept vocabulary. Secondly, the vocabulary was then combined in speaking activities where students had to solve scenarios, and the students were required to expand on the given forms of words and language expressions. Lastly, the students had conversations in English, using the language learnt. The conversations observed in both classes were those of authentic, expanded English communication and this way of expanding concept vocabulary lessons into extended conversation is one representative pedagogical approach that both professors took. Extended English conversation, therefore, is crucial for EOP education.

Keywords: concept vocabulary, english as a foreign language, english for employment, extended conversation

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3142 English Language Teaching and Learning Analysis in Iran

Authors: F. Zarrabi, J. R. Brown

Abstract:

Although English is not a second language in Iran, it has become an inseparable part of many Iranian people’s lives and is becoming more and more widespread. This high demand has caused a significant increase in the number of private English language institutes in Iran. Although English is a compulsory course in schools and universities, the majority of Iranian people are unable to communicate easily in English. This paper reviews the current state of teaching and learning English as an international language in Iran. Attitudes and motivations about learning English are reviewed. Five different aspects of using English within the country are analysed, including: English in public domain, English in Media, English in organizations/businesses, English in education, and English in private language institutes. Despite the time and money spent on English language courses in private language institutes, the majority of learners seem to forget what has been learned within months of completing their course. That is, when they are students with the support of the teacher and formal classes, they appear to make progress and use English more or less fluently. When this support is removed, their language skills either stagnant or regress. The findings of this study suggest that a dependant approach to learning is potentially one of the main reasons for English language learning problems and this is encouraged by English course books and approaches to teaching.

Keywords: English in Iran, English language learning, English language teaching, evaluation

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3141 Evaluating Textbooks for Brazilian Air Traffic Controllers’ English Language Training: A Checklist Proposal

Authors: Elida M. R. Bonifacio

Abstract:

English language proficiency has become an essential issue in aviation communication after aviation incidents, and accidents happened. Lack of proficiency or inappropriate use of the English language has been found as one of the factors that cause most of those incidents or accidents. Therefore, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) established the requirements for minimum English language proficiency of aviation personnel, especially pilots and air traffic controllers in the 192 member states. In Brazil, the discussions about this topic became patent after an accident that occurred in 2006, which was a mid-air collision and costed the life of 154 passengers and crew members. Thus, the number of schools and private practitioners willing to teach English for aviation purposes started to increase. Although the number of teaching materials internationally used for general purposes is relatively large, it would be inappropriate to adopt the same materials in classes that focus on communication in aviation contexts. On the contrary, the options of aviation English materials are scarce; moreover, they are internationally used and may not fulfill the linguistic needs of all their users around the world. In order to diminish the problems that Brazilian practitioners may encounter in the adoption of materials that demand a great level of adaptation to meet their students’ needs, a checklist was thought to evaluate textbooks. The aim of this paper is to propose a checklist that evaluates textbooks used in English language training of Brazilian air traffic controllers. The criteria used to compound the checklist are based on materials development literature, as well as on linguistic requirements established by ICAO on its publications, on English for Specific Purposes (ESP) principles, and on Brazilian aviation English language proficiency test format. The checklist has as main indicators the language learning tenets under which the book was written, graphical features, lexical, grammatical and functional competencies required for minimum proficiency, similarities to official testing format, and support materials, totaling 117 items marked as YES, NO or PARTIALLY. In order to verify if the use of the checklist is effective, an aviation English textbook was evaluated. From this evaluation, it is possible to measure quantitatively how much the material meets the students’ needs and to offer a tool to help professionals engaged in aviation English teaching around the world to choose the most appropriate textbook according to their audience. From the results, practitioners are able to verify which items the material does not fulfill and to make proper adaptations since the perfect material will be difficult to find.

Keywords: aviation English, ICAO, materials development, English language proficiency

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3140 Examining the Links between Established Principles, Iranian Teachers' Perceptions of Reading Comprehension, and Their Actual Practice in English for Specific Purposes Courses

Authors: Zahra Alimorad

Abstract:

There is a strong belief that language teachers' actual practices in the classroom context are largely determined by the underlying perceptions they hold about the nature of language and language learning. That being so, it can be envisaged that teaching procedures of ESP (English for Specific Purposes) teachers teaching reading comprehension will mainly be driven by their perceptions about the nature of reading. To examine this issue, four Iranian university professors holding Ph.D. in either TEFL (Teaching English as a Foreign Language) or English Literature who were teaching English to Engineering and Sciences students were recruited to participate in this study. To collect the necessary data, classroom observations and follow-up semi-structured interviews were used. Furthermore, the materials utilized by the teachers such as textbooks, syllabuses, and tests were also examined. Although it can be argued that their perceptions were partially compatible with the established principles, results of the study pointed to a lack of congruence between these teachers' perceptions and their practices, on the one hand, and between the established principles and the practices, on the other. While the literature mostly supports a metacognitive-strategy approach to reading comprehension, the teachers were mainly adopting a skills-based approach to the teaching of reading. That is, they primarily focused on translation as the core activity in the classroom followed by reading aloud, defining words, and explaining grammatical structures. This divergence was partly attributed to the contextual constraints and partly to students' lack of motivation by the teachers.

Keywords: English teachers, perceptions, practice, principles, reading comprehension

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3139 Importance of Occupational Safety and Health in Dam Construction Site

Authors: Naci Büyükkaraciğan, Yildirim Akyol

Abstract:

Large plants that covering the back and accumulate water of a river valley for energy production, drinking, irrigation water supply, economic benefits that serve many purposes, such as regulation of flood protection, are called dams. Place, in which unites in order to achieve an optimum balance between manpower for Lowest cost and economic as belonging to that structure to create machines, materials and construction of the project, is called as the site. Dam construction sites are combined sites in together in many businesses. Therefore, there can be found in the many workers and machines are many accidents in this type of construction sites. The necessity of systematic and scientific studies due to various reasons arises in order to be protected from conditions that could damage the health, During the execution of the work on construction sites. Occupational health and safety of the study, called the case, also in the European Union has begun to be addressed by weight since the 1980s. In particular, issued in 1989 89/391/EEC on occupational health and safety directive, occupational health and adopted the Directive within the framework of the security field, and then exposed to a large number of individual directive within this framework on the basis of the directive. Turkey's Law No. 6331 entered into force in June 2012 on the subject. In this study, measures related to the construction site of the dam should be taken with occupational safety and health have been examined and tried to put forward recommendations on the subject.

Keywords: civil engineering, dam, occupational safety and health, site organizations

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3138 Relationships between Motivation Factors and English Language Proficiency of the Faculty of Management Sciences Students

Authors: Kawinphat Lertpongmanee

Abstract:

The purposes of this study were (1) investigate the English language learning motivation and the attainment of their English proficiency, (2) to find out how motivation and motivational variables of the high and low proficiency subjects are related to their English proficiency. The respondents were 80 fourth-year from Faculty of Management Sciences students in Rajabhat Suansunadha University. The instruments used for data collection were questionnaires. The statistically analyzed by using the SPSS program for frequency, percentage, arithmetic mean, standard deviation (SD), t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Pearson correlation coefficient. The findings of this study are summarized as there was a significant difference in overall motivation between high and low proficiency groups of subjects at .05 (p < .05), but not in overall motivational variables. Additionally, the high proficiency group had a significantly higher level of intrinsic motivation than did the low proficiency group at .05 (p < .05).

Keywords: English language proficiency, faculty of management sciences, motivation factors, proficiency subjects

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3137 Employers' Occupational Health and Safety Training Obligations in Framework Directive and Training Procedure and Rules in Turkey

Authors: Nuray Gökçek Karaca, Berrin Gökçek

Abstract:

Employers occupational safety and health training obligations are regulated in 89/391/EEC Framework Directive and also in 6331 numbered Occupational Health and Safety Law in Turkey. The main objective of this research is to determine and evaluate the employers’ occupational health and safety training obligations in Framework Directive in comparison with the 6331 numbered Occupational Health and Safety Law and to examine training principles in Turkey. For this purpose, employers’ occupational health and safety training obligations examined in Framework Directive and Occupational Health and Safety Law. This study carried out through comparative scanning model and literature model. The research data were collected through European Agency and ministry legislations. As a result, employers’ occupational health and safety training obligations in the 6331 numbered Occupational Health and Safety Law are compatible with the 89/391/EEC numbered Framework Directive and training principles are determined by in different ways like the trained workers, training issues, training period, training time, and trainers. In this study, employers’ training obligations are evaluated in detail.

Keywords: directive, occupational health and safety, training, work accidences

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3136 IEP Curriculum to Include For-Credit University English Classes

Authors: Cheyne Kirkpatrick

Abstract:

In an attempt to make the university intensive English program more worthwhile for students, many English language programs are redesigning curriculum to offer for-credit English for Academic Purposes classes, sometimes marketed as “bridge” courses. These programs are designed to be accredited to national language standards, provide communicative language learning, and give students the opportunity to simultaneously earn university language credit while becoming proficient in academic English. This presentation will discuss the curriculum design of one such program in the United States at a large private university that created its own for-credit “bridge” program. The planning, development, piloting, teaching, and challenges of designing this type of curriculum will be presented along with the aspects of accreditation, communicative language learning, and integration within various university programs. Attendees will learn about how such programs are created and what types of objectives and outcomes are included in American EAP classes.

Keywords: IEP, AEP, Curriculum, CEFR, University Credit, Bridge

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3135 Ceramic Employees’ Occupational Health and Safety Training Expectations in Turkey

Authors: Erol Karaca

Abstract:

This study aims to analyze ceramic employees’ occupational health and safety training expectations. To that general objective, the study tries to examine whether occupational health and safety training expectations of ceramic employees meaningfully differentiate depending on demographic features and professional, social and economic conditions. For this purpose, the research data was collected through “Questionnaire of Occupational Health and Safety Training Expectation” (QSOHSTE) consisting of 25 open and close-ended questions developed by the researcher on the base of the literature review. QSOHSTE was applied to 125 ceramic employees working in Kutahya, Turkey. Data obtained from questionnaires were analyzed via SPSS 21. The findings, obtained from the study, revealed that employees’ agreement level to occupational health and safety training expectation statements is generally high-level. These findings also reveals that employees have various expectations about occupational health and safety training. These expectations are increasing sensitivity towards occupational health and safety training about the prevention of occupational accidents and diseases, contributing occupational health and safety training in establishing healthy and safe working environment, requiring occupational health and safety training before starting work, in case of changing working equipment and new technological applications, necessity of measurement and evaluation after occupational health and safety training. Besides these findings, employees’ agreement level to occupational health and safety training expectation statements also varies in terms of educational level, professional seniority, income level and perception of economic condition.

Keywords: occupational health and safety, occupational training, occupational expectation, professional seniority

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3134 An Exploratory of the Use of English in Contemporary Society

Authors: Saksit Saengboon

Abstract:

The study of English in Thailand receives comparatively little attention in the world of Englishes scholarship despite a complex and dynamic linguistic landscape. Like many countries in the region, English is used in predictable contexts, such as schools and at work. However, English is being increasingly used as a contact language among Thais and non-Thais, requiring much needed empirical attention. This study aims to address this neglected issue by examining how Thais perceive and use English in contemporary Thai society. This study explored the ways in which English has been used in public signage, mass media, especially about Thai food, and perceptions of Thais (N = 80) regarding English. Findings indicate that English in Thailand is used in a complicated manner portraying both standard and non-standard English. Thais still hold a static or traditional view of English, making it impractical, if not impossible, to have Thai English as an established variety.

Keywords: Thai english, thainess in english, public signage, mass media, thai food, thai linguistic landscape

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3133 An Exploratory Study of Vocational High School Students’ Needs in Learning English

Authors: Yi-Hsuan Gloria Lo

Abstract:

The educational objective of vocational high schools (VHSs) is to equip VHS students with practical skills and knowledge that can be applied in the job-related market. However, with the increasing number of technological universities over the past two decades, the majority of VHS students have chosen to receive higher education rather than enter the job market. VHS English education has been confronting a dilemma: Should an English for specific purposes (ESP) approach, which aligns with the educational goal of VHS education, be taken or should an English for general purposes (EGP) approach, which prepares VHS students for advanced studies in universities, be followed? While ESP theorists proposed that that ESP can be taught to secondary learners, little was known about VHS students’ perspective on this ESP-versus-EGP dilemma. Scant research has investigated different facets of students’ needs (necessities, wants, and lacks) for both ESP and EGP in terms of the four language skills and the factors that contribute to any differences. To address the gap in the literature, 100 VHS students responded to statements related to their necessities, wants, and lacks in learning ESP and EGP on a 6-point Likert scale. Six VHS students were interviewed to tap into the reasons for different facets of the needs for learning EGP and ESP. The statistical analysis indicates that at this stage of learning English, VHS subjects believed that EGP was more necessary than ESP; EGP was more desirable than ESP. However, they reported that they were more lacking in ESP than in EGP learning. Regarding EGP, the results show that the VHS subjects rated speaking as their most necessary skill, speaking as the most desirable skill, and writing as the most lacking skill. A significant difference was found between perceived learning necessities and lacks and between perceived wants and lacks. No statistical difference was found between necessities and wants. In the aspect of ESP, the results indicate that the VHS subjects marked reading as their most necessary skill, speaking as the most desirable skill, and writing as the most lacking skill. A significant difference exists between their perceived necessities and lacks and between their wants and lacks. However, there is no statistically significant difference between their perceived lacks and wants. Despite the lack of a significant difference between learning necessities and wants, the qualitative interview data reveal that the reasons for their perceived necessities and wants were different. The findings of the study confirm previous research that demonstrates that ‘needs’ is a multiple and conflicting construct. What VHS students felt most lacking was not necessarily what they believed they should learn or would like to learn. Although no statistical difference was found, different reasons were attributed to their perceived necessities and wants. Both theoretical and practical implications have been drawn and discussed for ESP research in general and teaching ESP in VHSs in particular.

Keywords: vocational high schools (VHSs), English for General Purposes (EGP), English for Specific Purposes (ESP), needs analysis

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3132 Teaching Legal English in Russia: Traditions and Problems

Authors: Irina A. Martynenko, Viktoriia V. Pikalova

Abstract:

At the moment, there are more than a thousand law schools in Russia. The program of preparation in each of them without exception includes English language course. It is believed that lawyers in Russia are best trained at the MGIMO University, the All-Russian State University of Justice, Kutafin Moscow State Law University, Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia, Lomonosov Moscow State University, St. Petersburg State University, Diplomatic Academy of Russian Foreign Ministry and some others. Currently, the overwhelming majority of universities operate using the two-level system of education: bachelor's plus master's degree. Foreign languages are taught at both levels. The main example of consideration used throughout this paper is Kutafin Moscow State Law University being one of the best law schools in the country. The article examines traditions of teaching legal English in Russia and highlights problem arising in this process. The authors suggest ways of solving them in the scope of modern views and practice of teaching English for specific purposes.

Keywords: Kutafin Moscow State Law University, legal English, Russia, teaching

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3131 Teaching English to Engineers: Between English Language Teaching and Psychology

Authors: Irina-Ana Drobot

Abstract:

Teaching English to Engineers is part of English for Specific Purposes, a domain which is under the attention of English students especially under the current conditions of finding jobs and establishing partnerships outside Romania. The paper will analyse the existing textbooks together with the teaching strategies they adopt. Teaching English to Engineering students can intersect with domains such as psychology and cultural studies in order to teach them efficiently. Textbooks for students of ESP, ranging from those at the Faculty of Economics to those at the Faculty of Engineers, have shifted away from using specialized vocabulary, drills for grammar and reading comprehension questions and toward communicative methods and the practical use of language. At present, in Romania, grammar is neglected in favour of communicative methods. The current interest in translation studies may indicate a return to this type of method, since only translation specialists can distinguish among specialized terms and determine which are most suitable in a translation. Engineers are currently encouraged to learn English in order to do their own translations in their own field. This paper will analyse the issue of the extent to which it is useful to teach Engineering students to do translations in their field using cognitive psychology applied to language teaching, including issues such as motivation and social psychology. Teaching general English to engineering students can result in lack of interest, but they can be motivated by practical aspects which will help them in their field. This is why this paper needs to take into account an interdisciplinary approach to teaching English to Engineers.

Keywords: cognition, ESP, motivation, psychology

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3130 Improving Students' Critical Thinking in Understanding Reading Material Through Bloom's Critical Thinking Questioning Strategy in English for Specific Purposes (ESP) Class

Authors: Hevriani Sevrika Mayuasti

Abstract:

This research deals in improving college students’ critical thinking at English for Specific Purposes Subject. The strategy that is applied is Bloom’s Critical Thinking Questioning Strategy. The positive side of this strategy is that the given questions are developed based on Bloom’s taxonomy level. It is an action research because the researcher uses own class in doing this research. The processes of this research have been done from April to Mei 2014. There are two cycles and each cycle consists of two meetings. After doing the research, it is gotten that Bloom’s Critical Thinking Questioning Strategy improves college students’ critical thinking. It helps the students to build and elaborate their ideas. Hence, it increases students’ reading comprehension.

Keywords: critical thinking, blooms’ critical thinking, questioning, strategy

Procedia PDF Downloads 403