Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

Search results for: Karima Tayaa

31 English for Specific Purposes: Its Definition, Characteristics, and the Role of Needs Analysis

Authors: Karima Tayaa, Amina Bouaziz

Abstract:

The rapid expansion in the scientific fields and the growth of communication technology increased the use of English as international language in the world. Hence, over the past few decades, many researchers have been emphasizing on how the teaching and learning of English as a foreign or as an additional language can best help students to perform successfully. English for specific purpose is today quite literally regarded as the most global language discipline which existed practically in every country in the world. ESP (English for Specific Purposes) involves teaching and learning the specific skills and language needed by particular learners for a particular purpose. The P in ESP is always a professional purpose which is a set of skills that learners currently need in their work or will need in their professional careers. It has had an early origin since 1960’s and has grown to become one of the most prominent of English language teaching today. Moreover, ESP learners are usually adults who have some quittances with English and learn the language so as to communicate and perform particular profession. Related activities are based on specific purposes and needs. They are integrated into subject matter area important to the learners. Unlike general English which focuses on teaching general language courses and all four language skills are equally stressed, ESP and practically needs analysis determine which language skills are the most needed by the learners and syllabus designed accordingly. This paper looked into the origin, characteristics, development of ESP, the difference between ESP and general English. Finally, the paper critically reviews the role of needs analysis in the ESP.

Keywords: English language teaching, English for general purposes, English for specific purposes, needs analysis

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30 The Integration of ICT in EFL Classroom and Its Impact on Teacher Development

Authors: Tayaa Karima, Bouaziz Amina

Abstract:

Today's world is knowledge-based; everything we do is somehow connected with technology which it has a remarkable influence on socio-cultural and economic developments, including educational settings. This type of technology is supported in many teaching/learning setting where the medium of instruction is through computer technology, and particularly involving digital technologies. There has been much debate over the use of computers and the internet in foreign language teaching for more than two decades. Various studies highlights that the integration of Information Communications Technology (ICT) in foreign language teaching will have positive effects on both the teachers and students to help them be aware of the modernized world and meet the current demands of the globalised world. Information and communication technology has been gradually integrated in foreign learning environment as a platform for providing learners with learning opportunities. Thus, the impact of ICT on language teaching and learning has been acknowledged globally, this is because of the fundamental role that it plays in the enhancement of teaching and learning quality, modify the pedagogical practice, and motivate learners. Due to ICT related developments, many Maghreb countries regard ICT as a tool for changes and innovations in education. Therefore, the ministry of education attempted to set up computer laboratories and provide internet connection in the schools. Investment in ICT for educational innovations and improvement purposes has been continuing the need of teacher who will employ it in the classroom as vital role of the curriculum. ICT does not have an educational value in itself, but it becomes precious when teachers use it in learning and teaching process. This paper examines the impacts of ICT on teacher development rather than on teaching quality and highlights some challenges facing using ICT in the language learning/teaching.

Keywords: information communications technology (ICT), integration, foreign language teaching, teacher development, learning opportunity

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29 Asymptotic Spectral Theory for Nonlinear Random Fields

Authors: Karima Kimouche

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In this paper, we consider the asymptotic problems in spectral analysis of stationary causal random fields. We impose conditions only involving (conditional) moments, which are easily verifiable for a variety of nonlinear random fields. Limiting distributions of periodograms and smoothed periodogram spectral density estimates are obtained and applications to the spectral domain bootstrap are given.

Keywords: spatial nonlinear processes, spectral estimators, GMC condition, bootstrap method

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28 Salmonella Spp. and Essential Oil of Laurus nobilis

Authors: Karima Oldyerou, B. Meddah, A. Tirtouil

Abstract:

The food borne infections have a significant impact on public health. Salmonella is the first bacterial cause, especially because of its general availability in the intestinal tract of poultry, pigs and cattle. This bacteria and essential oil of Laurus nobilis subject in this article. In vitro evaluation of the antibacterial activity shows a sensitivity of Salmonella spp. with a MIC of 2.5 mg.ml -1 in vivo after infection of wistar rats and administered orally this essential oil, microbiological results fecal material shows the antibacterial effect of this oil on Salmonella spp.

Keywords: Laurus nobilis, essential oil, salmonella, antibacterial activity, fecal matte

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27 Mobile Payment over NFC: The M-Check System Case

Authors: Karima Maazouz, Habib Benlahmer, Naceur Achtaich

Abstract:

The realization of mobile payments will make possible new and unforeseen ways of convenience and m-commerce. Mobile payment today benefit from technology and trends. NFC technology is creating a new era of contactless mobile payment. the “M-check” is a mobile payment system provides a new way facilitating transaction with high valued payment and enable new m-commerce. The objective of the paper is to propose a new solution for m-payment. The proposed combination of m-check system and NFC offers acceptable security for payment mobile, client’s satisfaction, and simplifies the process payment between clients and merchants.

Keywords: M-payment, NFC, M-check, M-commerce, security

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26 Effects of Organic Amendments on Primary Nutrients (N, P and K) in a Sandy Soil

Authors: Nejib Turki, Karima Kouki Khalfallah

Abstract:

The effect of six treatments of organic amendments were evaluated on a sandy soil in the region of Soukra in Tunisia. T1: cattle manure 55 t.ha-1, T2: commercial compost from Germany to 1 t.ha-1, T3: a mixture of 27.5 t.ha-1 of T1 with 0.5 t. ha-1 of T2, T4: commercial compost from France 2 t.ha-1, T5: a Tunisian commercial compost to 10 t.ha-1 and T0: control without treatment. The nitrogen in the soil increase to 0.029 g.kg-1 of soil treatment for the T1 and 0.021 g. kg-1 of soil treatment for the T3. The highest content of P2O5 has been registered by the T3 treatment that 0.44 g kg-1 soil with respect to the control (T0), which shows a content of 0.36 g.kg-1 soil. The soil was initially characterized by a potassium content of 0.8 g kg-1 soil, K2O exchangeable rate varied between 0.63 g.Kg-1 and 0.71 g.kg-1 soil respectively T2 and T1.

Keywords: compost, organic amendement, Ntot, P2O5, K2O

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25 Prediction of Turbulent Separated Flow in a Wind Tunel

Authors: Karima Boukhadia

Abstract:

In the present study, the subsonic flow in an asymmetrical diffuser was simulated numerically using code CFX 11.0 and its generator of grid ICEM CFD. Two models of turbulence were tested: K- ε and K- ω SST. The results obtained showed that the K- ε model singularly over-estimates the speed value close to the wall and that the K- ω SST model is qualitatively in good agreement with the experimental results of Buice and Eaton 1997. They also showed that the separation and reattachment of the fluid on the tilted wall strongly depends on its angle of inclination and that the length of the zone of separation increases with the angle of inclination of the lower wall of the diffuser.

Keywords: asymmetric diffuser, separation, reattachment, tilt angle, separation zone

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24 Microorganism and Laurus nobilis from Mascara - Algeria

Authors: Karima Oldyerou, B. Meddah, A. Tirtouil

Abstract:

Laurusnobilis is an aromatic plant, common in Algeria and widely used by local people as a source of spice and for medicinal purposes. The essential oil of this plant is the subject of this work in a physicochemical and microbiological study. The extraction of the essential oil was carried by steam distillation and the highest yield (1.5%) was determined in May. The organoleptic and physico-chemical characters are consistent with those obtained in the literature with some differences that can be attributed to certain factors. Evaluation of antibacterial activity showed a sensitivity of Salmonella spp. with an MIC of 2,5 mg.ml-1, and other bacteria of the intestinal flora of Wistar rats: E. coli and Lactobacillus sp. have a high potential for resistance with MICs respectively equal to 10 and 20 mg.ml-1.

Keywords: laurus nobilis, essential oil, physicochemical character, MIC, intestinal flora, antibacterial activity

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23 Recovery of Cd (II) and Pb (II) under the Effect of Temperature with the Synthetic Zeolite NaA

Authors: Karima Menad, Ahmed Feddag

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In this study, large crystals of the zeolite NaA were synthesized by hydrothermal way. By following this zeolite was used to recover two heavy metals that are allowing the most dangerous toxic, lead and cadmium. The synthesized zeolite was analyzed by XRD and SEM aims to verify its purity and its good morphology; after it was undergoing ion exchange operations by aqueous solution with lead and cadmium in two salts Pb(CH3COOH)2 and CdCl2 at different concentrations. The exchange was carried out under the effect of two temperatures (25 °C and 60 °C). The contents of Pb++, Cd++ and Na+ were analyzed by atomic absorption and the results are given in the form of exchange rates. At the end the samples are analyzed by XRD exchanged to confirm their conservation of their zeolite framework. It is found that the exchange rate increases with the increase of initial concentration and the best results are found for the temperature of 60 °C.

Keywords: exchange rate, ion exchange, LTA zeolite, zeolite NaA

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22 Carbon Nanocomposites : Structure, Characterization and Environmental Application

Authors: Bensacia Nabila, Hadj-Ziane Amel, Sefah Karima

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Carbon nanocomposites have received more attention in the last years in view of their special properties such as low density, high specific surface area, and thermal and mechanical stability. Taking into account the importance of these materials, many studies aimed at improving the synthesis process have been conducted. However, the presence of impurities could affect significantly the properties of these materials, and the characterization of these compounds is an important challenge to assure the quality of the new carbon nanocomposites. The present study aims to develop a new recyclable decontaminating material for dyes removal. This new material consists of an active element based on carbon nanotubes wrapped in a microcapsule of iron oxide. The adsorbent is characterized by Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and the surface area was measured by the BET method.

Keywords: carbon nanocomposite, chitozen, elimination, dyes

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21 The Writing Eight Exercise and Its Impact on Kindergartners

Authors: Karima Merchant

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The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the Writing Eight Exercise, an exercise from the Brain Integration Therapy, with Kindergartners who are struggling with writing tasks in school. With the help of this exercise, children were able to cross the midline, an invisible line running from our brain to our feet, which separates the body’s right from left. Crossing the midline integrates the brain hemispheres, thus encouraging bilateral movement. The study was spread over 15 weeks where the children were required to do the Writing Eight Exercise 4 times a week. The data collection methods included observations, student work samples and feedback from teachers and parents. Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that the Writing Eight Exercise had a positive impact on students’ approach towards writing tasks, letter formation, and fine motor skills.

Keywords: crossing the midline, fine motor skills, letter formation, writing

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20 A Biomimetic Uncemented Hip Resurfacing Versus Various Biomaterials Hip Resurfacing Implants

Authors: Karima Chergui, Hichem Amrani, Hammoudi Mazouz, Fatiha Mezaache

Abstract:

Cemented femoral resurfacings have experienced a revival for younger and more active patients. Future developments have shown that the uncemented version eliminates failures related to cementing implants. A three-dimensional finite element method (FEM) simulation was carried out in order to exploit a new resurfacing prothesis design named MARMEL, proposed by a recent study with Co–Cr–Mo material, for comparing a hip uncemented resurfacing with a novel carbon fiber/polyamide 12 (CF/PA12) composite to other hip resurfacing implants with various bio materials. From FE analysis, the von Mises stress range for the Composite hip resurfacing was much lower than that in the other hip resurfacing implants used in this comparison. These outcomes showed that the biomimetic hip resurfacing had the potential to reduce stress shielding and prevent from bone fracture compared to conventional hip resurfacing implants.

Keywords: biomechanics, carbon–fibre polyamide 12, finite element analysis, hip resurfacing

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19 Isolation and Identification of the Dominant Flora of the Intestinal Microbiota of Rattus norvegicus an Algerian Firm West

Authors: Karima Ould Yerou, B. Meddah, A. Tir Touil

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The intestinal flora also called the intestinal microbiota, consists of different bacteria and other microorganisms which occur naturally in the gastrointestinal tract organs components. These intestinal bacteria are present in their millions and help the functioning of the body in particular allowing aid to degradation of certain molecules into absorbable substrates. They also protect against invasion of the gut by other pathogenic bacteria, that is to say which may be responsible for disease. Factors like stress, antibiotics and diet can affect the balance of intestinal flora and in case of imbalance, digestive disorders type bloating, diarrhea or vomiting may occur. Rattus norvegicus of bad weight of 100 kg, an Algerian firm West are scarified and isolation of their ileum and colon respectively two Bactrian strains Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus are then purified and identified.

Keywords: intestinal flora, Rattus norvegicus, Escherichia coli, lactobacillus, West Algerian farm

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18 Diversity of Halophilic Archaea from Ezzemoul sabkha in Algeria

Authors: Karima Kharroub, Mohamed Amine Gomri, Mercedes Monteoliva-Sanchez

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Sabkhas and chotts are examples of hypersaline environments inhabited by halophilic microorganisms. In the present study, a culture-dependent methodology was used to determine the archaeal diversity present within Ezzemoul sabkha located in the north-eastern of Algeria. It was assessed using different media with different substrates in attempt to initiate the growth of wide spectrum of halophiles. Several strains were isolated and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic characterization. The isolates tested placed within the family Halobacteriaceae, a group of extremely halophilic, aerobic archaea that have a salinity tolerance of 3 to 4M and associated with six genera Halorubrum, Halobacterium, Haloterrigena, Haloferax, Halomicrobium and Haloarcula. Halorubrum species were found to be the dominant archaea community as indicated by the presence of different strains recovered from this sabkha. In the other hand, two new species within Halobacteriaceae family; Halorubrum ezzemolulense sp. nov. and Halomicrobium katesii sp. nov. were described.

Keywords: sabkha, archaea, halophilic, hypersaline environments

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17 Optimization of Extraction Conditions for Phenolic Compounds from Deverra scoparia Coss. and Dur

Authors: Roukia Hammoudi, Dehak Karima, Chabrouk Farid, Mahfoud Hadj Mahammed, Mohamed Didi Ouldelhadj

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The objective of this study was to optimise the extraction conditions for phenolic compounds from Deverra scoparia Coss and Dur. Apiaceae plant by ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE). The effects of solvent type (Acetone, Ethanol and methanol), solvent concentration (%), extraction time (mins) and extraction temperature (°C) on total phenolic content (TPC) were determined. the optimum extraction conditions were found to be acetone concentration of 80%, extraction time of 25 min and extraction temperature of 25°C. Under the optimized conditions, the value for TPC was 9.68 ± 1.05 mg GAE/g of extract. The study of the antioxidant power of these oils was performed by the method of DPPH. The results showed that antioxidant activity of the Deverra scoparia essential oil was more effective as compared to ascorbic acid and trolox.

Keywords: Deverra scoparia, phenolic compounds, ultrasound assisted extraction, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity

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16 Optimization of Extraction Conditions for Phenolic Compounds from Deverra Scoparia Coss and Dur

Authors: Roukia Hammoudi, Chabrouk Farid, Dehak Karima, Mahfoud Hadj Mahammed, Mohamed Didi Ouldelhadj

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to optimise the extraction conditions for phenolic compounds from Deverra scoparia Coss and Dur. Apiaceae plant by ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE). The effects of solvent type (acetone, ethanol and methanol), solvent concentration (%), extraction time (mins) and extraction temperature (°C) on total phenolic content (TPC) were determined. The optimum extraction conditions were found to be acetone concentration of 80%, extraction time of 25 min and extraction temperature of 25°C. Under the optimized conditions, the value for TPC was 9.68 ± 1.05 mg GAE/g of extract. The study of the antioxidant power of these oils was performed by the method of DPPH. The results showed that antioxidant activity of the Deverra scoparia essential oil was more effective as compared to ascorbic acid and trolox.

Keywords: Deverra scoparia, phenolic compounds, ultrasound assisted extraction, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity

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15 Nonlinear Analysis of a Building Surmounted by a RC Water Tank under Hydrodynamic Load

Authors: Hocine Hammoum, Karima Bouzelha, Lounis Ziani, Lounis Hamitouche

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In this paper, we study a complex structure which is an apartment building surmounted by a reinforced concrete water tank. The tank located on the top floor of the building is a container with capacity of 1000 m3. The building is complex in its design, its calculation and by its behavior under earthquake effect. This structure located in Algiers and aged of 53 years has been subjected to several earthquakes, but the earthquake of May 21st, 2003 with a magnitude of 6.7 on the Richter scale that struck Boumerdes region at 40 Kms East of Algiers was fatal for it. It was downgraded after an investigation study because the central core sustained serious damage. In this paper, to estimate the degree of its damages, the seismic performance of the structure will be evaluated taking into account the hydrodynamic effect, using a static equivalent nonlinear analysis called pushover.

Keywords: performance analysis, building, reinforced concrete tank, seismic analysis, nonlinear analysis, hydrodynamic, pushover

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14 Business-Intelligence Mining of Large Decentralized Multimedia Datasets with a Distributed Multi-Agent System

Authors: Karima Qayumi, Alex Norta

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The rapid generation of high volume and a broad variety of data from the application of new technologies pose challenges for the generation of business-intelligence. Most organizations and business owners need to extract data from multiple sources and apply analytical methods for the purposes of developing their business. Therefore, the recently decentralized data management environment is relying on a distributed computing paradigm. While data are stored in highly distributed systems, the implementation of distributed data-mining techniques is a challenge. The aim of this technique is to gather knowledge from every domain and all the datasets stemming from distributed resources. As agent technologies offer significant contributions for managing the complexity of distributed systems, we consider this for next-generation data-mining processes. To demonstrate agent-based business intelligence operations, we use agent-oriented modeling techniques to develop a new artifact for mining massive datasets.

Keywords: agent-oriented modeling (AOM), business intelligence model (BIM), distributed data mining (DDM), multi-agent system (MAS)

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13 Mecano-Reliability Approach Applied to a Water Storage Tank Placed on Ground

Authors: Amar Aliche, Hocine Hammoum, Karima Bouzelha, Arezki Ben Abderrahmane

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Traditionally, the dimensioning of storage tanks is conducted with a deterministic approach based on partial coefficients of safety. These coefficients are applied to take into account the uncertainties related to hazards on properties of materials used and applied loads. However, the use of these safety factors in the design process does not assure an optimal and reliable solution and can sometimes lead to a lack of robustness of the structure. The reliability theory based on a probabilistic formulation of constructions safety can respond in an adapted manner. It allows constructing a modelling in which uncertain data are represented by random variables, and therefore allows a better appreciation of safety margins with confidence indicators. The work presented in this paper consists of a mecano-reliability analysis of a concrete storage tank placed on ground. The classical method of Monte Carlo simulation is used to evaluate the failure probability of concrete tank by considering the seismic acceleration as random variable.

Keywords: reliability approach, storage tanks, monte carlo simulation, seismic acceleration

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12 Biomonitoring of Marine Environment by Using a Bioindicator Donax trunculus (Mollusca, Bivalvia) from the Gulf of Annaba (Algeria): Biomarkers Responses

Authors: Karima Sifi, Noureddine Soltani

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Annaba gulf is the most important touristic and economic area located on the east coast of Algeria. However, these fishery resources are threatened by the pollution due to the progress of economic activity. As part of a biomonitoring program on the quality of waters of the Gulf of Annaba, the specific activity of two biomarkers, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glutathion S-transferase (GST) has been measured in edible bivalve Donax trunculus. The samples have been collected during the year 2013 in two sites: El Battah, distant from polluted sources, and Sidi Salem, located near the harbor and different industrial waste. The results showed a significant inhibition of AChE activity and a significant increase in the activity of the GST in samples collected from Sidi Salem as compared to El Battah. The inhibition of the AChE and the increase of the GST in Sidi Salem are in relation with the level of exposition of this site to the pollution.

Keywords: Donax trunculus, annaba gulf, acetylcholinesterase, glutathion s-transferase, biomonitoring, pollution

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11 New Practical and Non-Malleable Elgamal Encryption for E-Voting Protoco

Authors: Karima Djebaili, Lamine Melkemi

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Elgamal encryption is a fundamental public-key encryption in cryptography, which is based on the difficulty of discrete logarithm problem and the Diffie-Hellman problem. Supposing the Diffie–Hellman problem is computationally infeasible then Elgamal is secure under a chosen plaintext attack, where security indicates it is difficult for the attacker, given the ciphertext, to restore the whole of the plaintext. However, although it is secure against chosen plaintext attack, Elgamal is absolutely malleable i.e. is not secure against an adaptive chosen ciphertext attack, where the attacker can recover the plaintext. We present a extension on Elgamal encryption which result in non-malleability against adaptive chosen plaintext attack using concatenation and a cryptographic hash function, our evidence utilizes the device of plaintext aware. The algorithm proposed can be used in cryptography voting protocol given its level security. Our protocol protects the confidentiality of voters because each voter encrypts their choice before casting their vote, offers public verifiability using a signing algorithm, the final result is correctly computed using homomorphic property, and works even in the presence of an adversary due to the propriety of non-malleability. Moreover, the protocol prevents some parties colluding to fix the vote results.

Keywords: Elgamal encryption, non-malleability, plaintext aware, e-voting

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10 Sustainable Tourism at the Bedside of Local Development of a Rural Coastline Village: Taleza, Collo, Algeria

Authors: Sihem Ferah, Karima Messaoudi

Abstract:

Tourism is far from of being apprehended as a closed space limited to a defined area. The different experiences in the world have shown that tourism should be set up in the city, where locals can meet tourists, to know their history, tradition, culture, and relationship with the territory. In Algeria, the strategy employed in the context of promoting tourism is to integrate sustainable tourism based on a set of instruments such as the tourism expansion areas named ZET. Unfortunately, these areas have promoted the economic and environmental dimension, neglecting the social dimension which is the responsible of the community well–being. The case of Taleza village in Collo (characterized by its various potential) demonstrates clearly this paradox between the planned tourism in the ZET in Taleza as an economic product and the Tourism lived inside this local environment. When people by their genius and innovative action have succeeded to create an alternative tourism (social tourism) developed through guesthouses, sales of local products which have participated in promoting local Tourism Taleza. The aim of this research is to find a strong position between the planned space ZET and the village of Taleža where sustainable tourism can be installed that encourages the social membership, preservation of the natural heritage of Taleza and generates economic benefits that will ensure a local development of the village and will succeed in maintain sustainable tourism on its territory.

Keywords: sustainable tourism, local development, rural areas, tourism expansion zone

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9 Elaboration and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles for Therapeutic and Environmental Applications

Authors: Manel Bouloudenine, Karima Djeddou, Hadjer Ben Manser, Hana Soualah Alila, Mohmed Bououdina

Abstract:

This survey research involves the elaboration and characterization of silver nanoparticles for therapeutic and environmental applications. The silver nanoparticles "Ag NPs" were synthesized by reducing AgNO3 with microwaves. The characterization of nanoparticles was done by using Transmission Electron Microscopy " TEM ", Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy "EDS", Selected Area Electron Diffraction "SEAD", UV-Visible Spectroscopy and Dynamic Light Scattering "DLS". Transmission Electron Microscopy and Electron Diffraction have confirmed the nanoscale, the shape, and the crystalline quality of as synthesized silver nanoparticles. Elementary analysis has proved the purity of Ag NPs and the presence of the Surface Plasmon Resonance phenomenon "SPR". A strong absorption shift was observed in the visible range of the UV-visible spectrum of as synthesized Ag NPs, which indicates the presence of metallic silver. When the strong absorption in the ultraviolet range of the spectrum has revealed the presence of ionic Ag NPs ionic Ag aggregates species. The autocorrelation function measured by the Dynamic Light Scattering has shown a strong monodispersed character of Ag NPs, which is indicated by the presence of a single size population, with a minima and a maxima laying between 40 and 111 nm. Related to other research, our results confirm the performance properties of as synthesized Ag NPs, which allows them to be performing in many technological applications, including therapeutic and environmental ones.

Keywords: silvers nanoparticles, microwaves, EDS, TEM

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8 Prediction of Flow Around a NACA 0015 Profile

Authors: Boukhadia Karima

Abstract:

The fluid mechanics is the study of fluid motion laws and their interaction with solid bodies, this project leads to illustrate this interaction with depth studies and approved by experiments on the wind tunnel TE44, ensuring the efficiency, accuracy and reliability of these tests on a NACA0015 profile. A symmetric NACA0015 was placed in a subsonic wind tunnel, and measurements were made of the pressure on the upper and lower surface of the wing and of the velocity across the vortex trailing downstream from the tip of the wing. The aim of this work is to investigate experimentally the scattered pressure profile in a free airflow and the aerodynamic forces acting on this profile. The addition of around-lateral edge to the wing tip was found to eliminate the secondary vortex near the wing tip, but had little effect on the downstream characteristics of the trailing vortex. The increase in wing lift near the tip because of the presence of the trailing vortex was evident in the surface pressure, but was not captured by circulation-box measurements. The circumferential velocity within the vortex was found to reach free-stream values and produce core rotational speeds. Near the wing, the trailing vortex is asymmetric and contains definite zones where the stream wise velocity both exceeds and falls behind the free-stream value. When referenced to the free stream velocity, the maximum vertical velocity of the vortex is directly dependent on α and is independent of Re. A numerical study was conducted through a CFD code called FLUENT 6.0, and the results are compared with experimental.

Keywords: CFD code, NACA Profile, detachment, angle of incidence, wind tunnel

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7 Ethnopharmacological Survey of Medicinal Plants Used in Southwest Algeria to Treat Gastro-Intestinal Ailments

Authors: Karima Sekkoum Abdelkrim Cheriti, Leila Feguigui

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Algeria has a large plant biodiversity accounting more than 4125 species (123 Families) and is endowed with resources of medicinal plants growing on various bioclimatic zones from subhumide to semi-arid and Saharan. On the other hand, the ethnopharmacology investigation remains the principal way to improve, evaluate, and finding bioactive substances derived from medicinal plants. In continuation of our works in Saharan ethpharmacopeae and phytochemistry of Saharan medicinal plants, we focus our attention on the importance of local ethnopharmacology especially to treat gastro-intestinal disorders in the south west of Algeria (El Baydh, Naama and Bechar region) as platform for bioactive substances discovery and further development. Our present investigation deals with an ethnopharmacological study on medicinal plants used for the treatment of gastro-intestinal disorders in the south west of Algeria. The study presents the uses of plants in local traditional herbal medicines, determines the homogeneity of informant traditional knowledge and the preferred medicinal plants used to treat gastro-intestinal disorders. The results indicated that Asteraceae and Lamiaceae are the most locally used families and medicines were prepared in the form of powder or infusion and used orally. Aerial parts were the most frequently used plant part. Thus, the results can be used as platform for bioactive substances discovery and further development especially for the preferred plant species used in the treatment of gastro-intestinal disorders.

Keywords: ethnopharmacology, gastro-intestinal, phytochemical, South Algeria, Sahara, endemic species

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6 Serum MicroRNA and Inflammatory Mediators: Diagnostic Biomarkers for Endometritis in Arabian Mares

Authors: Sally Ibrahim, Mohamed Hedia, Mohamed Taqi, Mohamed Derbala, Karima Mahmoud, Youssef Ahmed, Sayed Ismail, Mohamed El-Belely

Abstract:

The identification and quantification of serum microRNA (miRNA) from mares with endometritis might serve as useful and implementable clinical biomarkers for the early diagnosis of endometiritis. Aims of the current study were (I) to study the expression pattern of eca-miR-155, eca-miR-223, eca-miR-17, eca-miR-200a, and eca-miR-205, and (II) to determine the levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), prostaglandins (PGF₂α and PGE₂), in the serum of Arabian mares with healthy and abnormal uterine status (endometritis). This study was conducted on 80 Arabian mares (4-14 years old). Mares were divided into 48 sub-fertile mares suspected of endometritis and 32 fertile at stud farms. The criteria for mares to be enrolled in the endometritis group were that they had been bred three or more times unsuccessfully in the breeding season or had a history of more than one year of reproductive failure. In addition, two or more of the following criteria on a checklist were present: abnormal clinical findings, transrectal ultrasonographic uterine examination showed abnormal fluid in the uterus (echogenic or ≥2 cm in diameter), positive endometrial cytology; and bacterial and/or fungal growth. Serum samples were collected for measuring IL-6, PGF₂α, and PGE₂ concentrations, as well as serum miRNA isolation and quantitative real-time PCR. Serum concentrations of IL-6, PGE₂, and PGF₂α were higher (P ≤ 0.001) in mares with endometritis compared to the control healthy ones. The expression profile of eca-miR-155, eca-miR-223, eca-miR-17, eca-miR-200a, and eca-miR-205 increased (P≤0.001) in mares with endometritis compared to the control ones. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that revealed that serum miRNA and serum inflammatory mediators (IL-6, PGE₂, and PGF₂α) could be used as non-invasive gold standard biomarkers, and therefore might be served as an important additional diagnostic tool for endometritis in Arabian mares. Moreover, estimation of the serum concentrations of serum miRNA, IL-6, PGE₂, and PGF₂α is a promising recommended tool during the breeding soundness examination in mares.

Keywords: Arabian Mares, endometritis, inflammatory mediators, serum miRNA

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5 Influence of Strengthening of Hip Abductors and External Rotators in Treatment of Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

Authors: Karima Abdel Aty Hassan Mohamed, Manal Mohamed Ismail, Mona Hassan Gamal Eldein, Ahmed Hassan Hussein, Abdel Aziz Mohamed Elsingerg

Abstract:

Background: Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is a common musculoskeletal pain condition, especially in females. Decreased hip muscle strength has been implicated as a contributing factor, yet the relationships between pain, hip muscle strength and function are not known. Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of strengthening hip abductors and lateral rotators on pain intensity, function and hip abductor and hip lateral rotator eccentric and concentric torques in patients with PFPS. Methods: Thirty patients had participated in this study; they were assigned into two experimental groups. With age ranged for eighty to thirty five years. Group A consisted of 15 patients (11females and 4 males) with mean age 20.8 (±2.73) years, received closed kinetic chain exercises program, stretching exercises for tight lower extremity soft tissues, and hip strengthening exercises .Group B consisted of 15 patients (12 females and 3 males) with mean age 21.2(±3.27) years, received closed kinetic chain exercises program and stretching exercises for tight lower extremity soft tissues. Treatment was given 2-3times/week, for 6 weeks. Patients were evaluated pre and post treatment for their pain severity, function of knee joint, hip abductors and external rotators concentric/eccentric peak torque. Result: the results revealed that there were significant differences in pain and function between both groups, while there was improvement for all values for both group. Conclusion: Six weeks rehabilitation program focusing on knee strengthening exercises either supplemented by hip strengthening exercises or not effective in improving function, reducing pain and improving hip muscles torque in patients with PFPS. However, adding hip abduction and lateral rotation strengthening exercises seem to reduce pain and improve function more efficiently.

Keywords: patellofemoral pain syndrome, hip muscles, rehabilitation, isokinetic

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4 The Historical Background of Physical Changing Towards Ancient Mosques in Aceh, Indonesia

Authors: Karima Adilla

Abstract:

Aceh province, into which Islam convinced to have entered Indonesia in the 12th Century before spreading throughout the archipelago and the rest of Southeast Asia, has several early Islamic mosques that still exist until today. However, due to some circumstances, the restoration and rehabilitation towards those mosques have been made in some periods, while the background was diverse. Concerning this, the research will examine the physical changing aspects of 3 prominent historical mosques in Aceh Besar and Banda Aceh; those are, Indrapuri Mosque, Baiturrahman Grand Mosque, and Baiturrahim Mosque built coincided with the beginning of Islam’s development in Aceh and regarded as eventful mosques. The existence of Indrapuri Mosque built on the remains of the Lamuri Kingdom’s temple is a historical trace that there was Hindu-Buddhist civilization in Aceh before Islam entered and became the majority religion about 98% from Aceh total population. Also, there was the Dutch who colonialized Aceh behind the existence of two famous mosques in Aceh, namely Baiturrahman Grand Mosque and Baiturrahim Mosque, as the colonizer also assisted to rebuild those 2 sacred Mosques to quell the anger of the Acehnese people because their mosque was burnt by the Dutch. Interestingly, despite underwent a long history successively since the rise of Islam after the Hindu-Buddhist kingdom had collapsed, colonialization, conflict, in Aceh, and even experienced the earthquake and tsunami disaster in 2004, those mosques still exist. Therefore, those mosques have been considered as historical silent witnesses. However, it was not merely those reasons that led the mosques underwent several physical changes, otherwise economic, political, social, cultural and religious factors were also highly influential. Instead of directly illustrating the physical changing of those three mosques, this research intends to identify under what condition the physical appearance continuously changing during the sultanate era, the colonial period until post-independent in terms of the architectural style, detail elements, design philosophy, and how the remnants buildings act as medium to bridge the history. A framework will use qualitative research methods by collecting actual data of the mosque's physical change figures through field studies, investigations, library studies and interviews. This research aims to define every trace of historical issues embedded in the physical changing of those mosques as they are intertwined in collecting historical proof. Thus, the result will reveal the characteristic interrelation between history, the mosque architectural style in a certain period, the physical changes background and its impact. Eventually, this research will also explicate a clear inference of each mosque’s role in representing history in Aceh Besar and Banda Aceh specifically, as well as Aceh generally through architectural design concepts.

Keywords: Aceh ancient mosques, Aceh history, Islamic architecture, physical changing

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3 Control of Asthma in Children with Asthma during the Containment Period following the Covid-19 Pandemic

Authors: Meryam Labyad, Karima Fakiri, Widad Lahmini, Ghizlane Draiss, Mohamed Bouskraoui, Nadia Ouzennou

Abstract:

Background: Asthma is the most common chronic disease in children, affecting nearly 235 million people worldwide (OMS). In Morocco, asthma is much more common in children than in adults; the prevalence rate in children between 13 and 14 years of age is 20%.1 This pathology is marked by high morbidity, a significant impact on the quality of life and development of children 2 This requires a rigorous management strategy in order to achieve clinical control and reduce any risk to the patient 3 A search for aggravating factors is mandatory if a child has difficulty maintaining good asthma control. The objective of the present study is to describe asthma control during this confinement period in children aged 4 to 11 years followed by a pneumo-paediatric consultation. For children whose asthma is not controlled, a search for associations with promoting factors and adherence to treatment is also among the objectives of the study. Knowing the level of asthma control and influencing factors is a therapeutic priority in order to reduce hospitalizations and emergency care use. Objective: To assess asthma control and determine the factors influencing asthma levels in children with asthma during confinement following the COVID 19 pandemic. Method: Prospective cross-sectional study by questionnaire and structured interview among 66 asthmatic children followed in pediatric pneumology consultation at the CHU MED VI of Marrakech from 13/06/2020 to 13/07/2020, asthma control was assessed by the Childhood Asthma Control Test (C-ACT). Results: 66 children and their parents were included (mean age is 7.5 years), asthma was associated with allergic rhinitis (13.5% of cases), conjunctivitis (9% of cases), eczema (12% of cases), occurrence of infection (10.5% of cases). The period of confinement was marked by a decrease in the number of asthma attacks translated by a decrease in the number of emergency room visits (7.5%) of these asthmatic children, control was well controlled in 71% of the children, this control was significantly associated with good adherence to treatment (p<0.001), no infection (p<0.001) and no conjunctivitis (p=002) or rhinitis (p<0.001). This improvement in asthma control during confinement can be explained by the measures taken in the Kingdom to prevent the spread of COVID 19 (school closures, reduction in industrial activity, fewer means of transport, etc.), leading to a decrease in children's exposure to triggers, which justifies the decrease in the number of children having had an infection, allergic rhinitis or conjunctivitis during this period. In addition, the close monitoring of parents resulted in better therapeutic adherence (42.4% were fully observant). Confinement was positively perceived by 68% of the parents; this perception is significantly associated with the level of asthma control (p<0.001). Conclusion: Maintaining good control can be achieved through improved therapeutic adherence and avoidance of triggers, both of which were achieved during the containment period following the VIDOC pandemic 19.

Keywords: Asthma, control , COVID-19 , children

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2 Global Production of Systematic Reviews on Population Health Issues in the Middle East and North Africa: Preliminary Results of a Systematic Overview and Bibliometric Analysis, 2008-2016

Authors: Karima Chaabna, Sohaila Cheema, Amit Abraham, Hekmat Alrouh, Ravinder Mamtani, Javaid I. Sheikh

Abstract:

We aimed to assess the production of systematic reviews (SRs) that synthesize observational studies discussing population health issues in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Two independent reviewers systematically searched MEDLINE through PubMed. Between 2008-2016, 5,747 articles (reviews, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses) were identified. Following a multi-stage screening process, 387 SRs (with or without meta-analysis) on population health issues in the MENA were included in our overview. Citation numbers for each SR were retrieved from Google Scholar. Impact factor of the journal during the publication year for the included SRs was retrieved from the Institute of Scientific Information’s Journal Citation Report. We conducted linear regression analysis to assess time trends of number of publications according to SRs’ characteristics. We characterized a linear statistically significant increase in the annual numbers of SRs that summarize observational studies on the MENA population health (p-value<0.0001, R2=0.95), from 15 in 2008 to 81 in 2016. Our analysis reveals also linear statistically significant increases in numbers of SRs published by authors affiliated to institutions located inside MENA and/or neighboring countries (N=113, p-value < 0.0001, R²=0.90), by authors located outside MENA (N=155, p-value=0.0007, R²=0.82), and by collaborating authors affiliated to institutions located outside MENA and inside the region and/or in MENA’s neighboring countries (total number of SRs (N)= 119, p-value=0.0004, R²=0.85). Furthermore, these SRs were published in journals with an IF ranging from 0 to 47.8 (median=2.1). Linear statistically significant increases in numbers of published SRs were demonstrated in journals’ impact factor (IF) categories (IF=[0-2[: R²=0.79, p-value=0.0012; IF=[2-4[:R²=0.86, p-value=0.0003; and IF=[4-6[:R²=0.53, p-value=0.026). Additionally, annual numbers of citations to the SRs varied between 0 and 471 (median=7). While each year, a couple of SRs were getting more than 50 annual citations, there were linear statistically significant increases in numbers of published SRs with an annual number of citations at [0-10[(R²=0.89, p-value=0.00014) and at [10-50[ (R²=0.76, p-value=0.0021). Between 2008-2016, increasingly SRs that summarize observational studies on population health issues in the MENA were published. Authors of these SRs were located inside and/or outside the MENA region and an increasing number of collaborations were seen. Increasing numbers of SRs were predominantly observed in journals with an IF between zero and six. Interestingly, SRs covering MENA region countries were being increasingly cited, indicating an escalation of interest in this region’s population health issues.

Keywords: bibliometric, citation, impact factor, Middle East and North Africa, population health, systematic review

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