Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Search results for: D. J. Edwards

21 Chaotic Dynamics of Cost Overruns in Oil and Gas Megaprojects: A Review

Authors: O. J. Olaniran, P. E. D. Love, D. J. Edwards, O. Olatunji, J. Matthews


Cost overruns are a persistent problem in oil and gas megaprojects. Whilst the extant literature is filled with studies on incidents and causes of cost overruns, underlying theories to explain their emergence in oil and gas megaprojects are few. Yet, a way to contain the syndrome of cost overruns is to understand the bases of ‘how and why’ they occur. Such knowledge will also help to develop pragmatic techniques for better overall management of oil and gas megaprojects. The aim of this paper is to explain the development of cost overruns in hydrocarbon megaprojects through the perspective of chaos theory. The underlying principles of chaos theory and its implications for cost overruns are examined and practical recommendations proposed. In addition, directions for future research in this fertile area provided.

Keywords: Chaos Theory, Oil and Gas, cost overruns, megaprojects

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20 Solutions of Fuzzy Transportation Problem Using Best Candidates Method and Different Ranking Techniques

Authors: M. S. Annie Christi


Transportation Problem (TP) is based on supply and demand of commodities transported from one source to the different destinations. Usual methods for finding solution of TPs are North-West Corner Rule, Least Cost Method Vogel’s Approximation Method etc. The transportation costs tend to vary at each time. We can use fuzzy numbers which would give solution according to this situation. In this study the Best Candidate Method (BCM) is applied. For ranking Centroid Ranking Technique (CRT) and Robust Ranking Technique have been adopted to transform the fuzzy TP and the above methods are applied to EDWARDS Vacuum Company, Crawley, in West Sussex in the United Kingdom. A Comparative study is also given. We see that the transportation cost can be minimized by the application of CRT under BCM.

Keywords: transportation problem, best candidate method, centroid ranking technique, fuzzy transportation problem, robust ranking technique

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19 Effect of Sintering Temperature on Transport Properties of Garnet-Type Solid-State Electrolytes for Energy Storage Systems

Authors: U. Farooq, A. Samson, V. Thangadurai, R. Edwards


In recent years, an impressive research has been conducted to introduce the solid-state electrolytes for the future energy storage devices like Li-ion batteries more specifically. In this work we tried to prepare a ceramic electrolyte (Li6.5 La2.5 Ba0.5 Nb Zr O12(LLBNZO)) and sintered the pallets of as-prepared material at elevated temperature like 1050, 1100, 1150 and 1200 °C. The objective to carry out this research was to observe the effect of temperature on porosity, density and transport properties of materials. Preliminary results suggest that the material sintered at higher temperature could show enhanced performance in terms of fast ionic transport. This enhancement in performance can be attributed to low porosity of materials which is result of high temperature sintering.

Keywords: Electrolyte, Li-ion battery, solid state battery, garnet structures

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18 Extremely Large Sinus Pericranii with Involvement of the Torcular and Associated with Crouzon’s Syndrome

Authors: Felipe H. Sanders, Bryan A. Edwards, Matthew Fusco, Rod J. Oskouian, R. Shane Tubbs


Introduction: Sinus pericranii is a rare vascular malformation that connects the intracranial dural sinuses to the extracranial venous drainage system and is caused by either trauma or congenital defects. Although the majority of these vascular structures are due to trauma, some are congenital. Case report: Herein, we report a 5-month-old patient with a very large and fluctuating subcutaneous mass over the occiput and the diagnosis of Crouzon’s syndrome. The child presented with a large midline mass that on imaging, connected to the underlying torcular and was diagnosed as a sinus pericranii. At long-term follow up and without operative intervention, the sinus pericranii resolved. This uncommon relationship is reviewed. Conclusion: Premature closure of posterior fossa sutures as part of Crouzon syndrome can present with large sinus pericranii. Such subcutaneous swellings might resolve spontaneously.

Keywords: Pediatric, Congenital, craniosynostosis, vascular malformation

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17 Vibratinal Spectroscopic Identification of Beta-Carotene in Usnic Acid and PAHs as a Potential Martian Analogue

Authors: A. I. Alajtal, H. G. M. Edwards, M. A. Elbagermi


Raman spectroscopy is currently a part of the instrumentation suite of the ESA ExoMars mission for the remote detection of life signatures in the Martian surface and subsurface. Terrestrial analogues of Martian sites have been identified and the biogeological modifications incurred as a result of extremophilic activity have been studied. Analytical instrumentation protocols for the unequivocal detection of biomarkers in suitable geological matrices are critical for future unmanned explorations, including the forthcoming ESA ExoMars mission to search for life on Mars scheduled for 2018 and Raman spectroscopy is currently a part of the Pasteur instrumentation suite of this mission. Here, Raman spectroscopy using 785nm excitation was evaluated for determining various concentrations of beta-carotene in admixture with polyaromatic hydrocarbons and usnic acid have been investigated by Raman microspectrometry to determine the lowest levels detectable in simulation of their potential identification remotely in geobiological conditions in Martian scenarios. Information from this study will be important for the development of a miniaturized Raman instrument for targetting Martian sites where the biosignatures of relict or extant life could remain in the geological record.

Keywords: Raman spectroscopy, mars-analog, beta-carotene, PAHs

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16 19th Century Exam, 21st Century Policing: An Examination of the New York State Civil Service and Police Officer Recruitment Efforts

Authors: A. Edwards


The civil service was created to reform the hiring process for public officials, changing the patronage system to a merit-based system. Though exam reforms continued throughout the 20th century, there have been few during the 21st century, particularly in New York state. In the case of police departments, the civil service exam has acted as a hindrance to its ‘21st Century Policing’ goals and new exam reform efforts have left out officers voices and concerns. Through in-depth interviews of current and retired police officers and local and state civil service administrators in Albany County in New York, this study seeks to understand police influence and insight regarding the civil service exam, placing some of the voice and input for civil service reform on police departments, instead of local and state bureaucrats. The study also looks at the relationship between civil service administrators and police departments. Using practice theory, the study seeks to understand the ways in which the civil service exam was defined in the 20th century and how it is out of step with current thinking while examining possible changes to the civil service exam that would lead to a more equitable hiring process and successful police departments.

Keywords: Policing, civil service, hiring, merit

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15 Neuropsychological Testing in a Multi-Lingual Society: Normative Data for South African Adults in More Than Eight Languages

Authors: Sharon Truter, Ann B. Shuttleworth-Edwards


South Africa is a developing country with significant diversity in languages spoken and quality of education available, creating challenges for fair and accurate neuropsychological assessments when most available neuropsychological tests are obtained from English-speaking developed countries. The aim of this research was to compare normative data on a spectrum of commonly used neuropsychological tests for English- and Afrikaans-speaking South Africans with relatively high quality of education and South Africans with relatively low quality of education who speak Afrikaans, Sesotho, Setswana, Sepedi, Tsonga, Venda, Xhosa or Zulu. The participants were all healthy adults aged 18-60 years, with 8-12 years of education. All the participants were tested in their first language on the following tests: two non-verbal tests (Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure Test and Bell Cancellation Test), four verbal fluency tests (category, phonemic, verb and 'any words'), one verbal learning test (Rey Auditory Verbal Leaning Test) and three tests that have a verbal component (Trail Making Test A & B; Symbol Digit Modalities Test and Digit Span). Descriptive comparisons of mean scores and standard deviations across the language groups and between the groups with relatively high versus low quality of education highlight the importance of using normative data that takes into account language and quality of education.

Keywords: Language, Cross-cultural, Quality of Education, multi-lingual, neuropsychological testing

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14 Social Discourses on Lone Motherhood in South Korea: Social Prejudice and Process of Resistance, Adaptation and Negotiation

Authors: Thi Thu Van Nguyen


In South Korea, Confucianism has not only played a crucial position in Korean traditional culture but also deeply rooted in people’s mind. Confucianism bears a special emphasis on the traditional family pattern characterized by paternalism. Therefore, non-paternity families are barely recognized and unwed mothers are faced with numerous prejudices in their life. Prejudice to unwed mothers in Korea is believed to stem from social discourses against lone motherhood which is the way how people look and talk about unwed mothers and from the early time these social discourses have big impacts on their daily lives. However, after the 1990s, along with the rapid transformation of family pattern and support from social welfare organizations, unwed mothers have gradually got to escape from the social prejudice then established themselves as a new family form. This study is aimed at researching social discourses on lone motherhood in Korea and the process of resistance, adaptation and negotiation of unwed mothers in three different stages: the antenatal, postnatal stages and social inclusion. The anthropological method is employed. Twenty single young mothers of the Korean Unwed Mothers Families' Association were engaged in the author’s detailed interviews. The study’s frame analysis is based on the theoretical framework on social discourses on lone motherhood by Simon Duncan and Rosalind Edwards (1999). This study is an effort to comprehend and investigate the difficulties experienced by unwed mothers living in negative social discourses and the way they overcome the difficulties.

Keywords: Gender, Confucianism, unwed mothers, social discourses, social prejudice

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13 Assessing the Actions of the Farm Mangers to Execute Field Operations at Opportune Times

Authors: G. Edwards, N. Dybro, L. J. Munkholm, C. G. Sørensen


Planning agricultural operations requires an understanding of when fields are ready for operations. However determining a field’s readiness is a difficult process that can involve large amounts of data and an experienced farm manager. A consequence of this is that operations are often executed when fields are unready, or partially unready, which can compromise results incurring environmental impacts, decreased yield and increased operational costs. In order to assess timeliness of operations’ execution, a new scheme is introduced to quantify the aptitude of farm managers to plan operations. Two criteria are presented by which the execution of operations can be evaluated as to their exploitation of a field’s readiness window. A dataset containing the execution dates of spring and autumn operations on 93 fields in Iowa, USA, over two years, was considered as an example and used to demonstrate how operations’ executions can be evaluated. The execution dates were compared with simulated data to gain a measure of how disparate the actual execution was from the ideal execution. The presented tool is able to evaluate the spring operations better than the autumn operations as required data was lacking to correctly parameterise the crop model. Further work is needed on the underlying models of the decision support tool in order for its situational knowledge to emulate reality more consistently. However the assessment methods and evaluation criteria presented offer a standard by which operations' execution proficiency can be quantified and could be used to identify farm managers who require decisional support when planning operations, or as a means of incentivising and promoting the use of sustainable farming practices.

Keywords: Operation Management, Sustainable Farming, workability, field readiness

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12 Reduced Glycaemic Impact by Kiwifruit-Based Carbohydrate Exchanges Depends on Both Available Carbohydrate and Non-Digestible Fruit Residue

Authors: S. Mishra, J. Monro, H. Edwards, J. Podd


When a fruit such as kiwifruit is consumed its tissues are released from the physical /anatomical constraints existing in the fruit. During digestion they may expand several-fold to achieve a hydrated solids volume far greater than the original fruit, and occupy the available space in the gut, where they surround and interact with other food components. Within the cell wall dispersion, in vitro digestion of co-consumed carbohydrate, diffusion of digestion products, and mixing responsible for mass transfer of nutrients to the gut wall for absorption, were all retarded. All of the foregoing processes may be involved in the glycaemic response to carbohydrate foods consumed with kiwifruit, such as breakfast cereal. To examine their combined role in reducing the glycaemic response to wheat cereal consumed with kiwifruit we formulated diets containing equal amounts of breakfast cereal, with the addition of either kiwifruit, or sugars of the same composition and quantity as in kiwifruit. Therefore, the only difference between the diets was the presence of non-digestible fruit residues. The diet containing the entire disperse kiwifruit significantly reduced the glycaemic response amplitude and the area under the 0-120 min incremental blood glucose response curve (IAUC), compared with the equicarbohydrate diet containing the added kiwifruit sugars. It also slightly but significantly increased the 120-180 min IAUC by preventing a postprandial overcompensation, indicating improved homeostatic blood glucose control. In a subsequent study in which we used kiwifruit in a carbohydrate exchange format, in which the kiwifruit carbohydrate partially replaced breakfast cereal in equal carbohydrate meals, the blood glucose was further reduced without a loss of satiety, and with a reduction in insulin demand. The results show that kiwifruit may be a valuable component in low glycaemic impact diets.

Keywords: Carbohydrate, Digestion, glycaemic response, kiwifruit

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11 Empirical Study of Correlation between the Cost Performance Index Stability and the Project Cost Forecast Accuracy in Construction Projects

Authors: Amin AminiKhafri, James M. Dawson-Edwards, Ryan M. Simpson, Simaan M. AbouRizk


Earned value management (EVM) has been introduced as an integrated method to combine schedule, budget, and work breakdown structure (WBS). EVM provides various indices to demonstrate project performance including the cost performance index (CPI). CPI is also used to forecast final project cost at completion based on the cost performance during the project execution. Knowing the final project cost during execution can initiate corrective actions, which can enhance project outputs. CPI, however, is not constant during the project, and calculating the final project cost using a variable index is an inaccurate and challenging task for practitioners. Since CPI is based on the cumulative progress values and because of the learning curve effect, CPI variation dampens and stabilizes as project progress. Although various definitions for the CPI stability have been proposed in literature, many scholars have agreed upon the definition that considers a project as stable if the CPI at 20% completion varies less than 0.1 from the final CPI. While 20% completion point is recognized as the stability point for military development projects, construction projects stability have not been studied. In the current study, an empirical study was first conducted using construction project data to determine the stability point for construction projects. Early findings have demonstrated that a majority of construction projects stabilize towards completion (i.e., after 70% completion point). To investigate the effect of CPI stability on cost forecast accuracy, the correlation between CPI stability and project cost at completion forecast accuracy was also investigated. It was determined that as projects progress closer towards completion, variation of the CPI decreases and final project cost forecast accuracy increases. Most projects were found to have 90% accuracy in the final cost forecast at 70% completion point, which is inlined with findings from the CPI stability findings. It can be concluded that early stabilization of the project CPI results in more accurate cost at completion forecasts.

Keywords: Earned Value Management, empirical study, cost performance index, final project cost

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10 Mobile Communication Technologies, Romantic Attachment and Relationship Quality: An Exploration of Partner Attunement

Authors: Jodie Bradnam, Mark Edwards, Bruce Watt


Mobile technologies have emerged as tools to create and sustain social and romantic relationships. The integration of technologies in close relationships has been of particular research interest with findings supporting the positive role of mobile phones in nurturing feelings of closeness and connection. More recently, the use of text messaging to manage conflict has become a focus of research attention. Four hundred and eleven adults in committed romantic relationships completed a series of questionnaires measuring attachment orientation, relationship quality, texting frequencies, attitudes, and response expectations. Attachment orientation, relationship length, texting for connection and disconnection were significant predictors of relationship quality, specifically relationship intimacy. Text frequency varied as a function of attachment orientation, with high attachment anxiety associated with high texting frequencies and with low relationship quality. Sending text messages of love and support was related to higher intimacy and relationship satisfaction scores, while sending critical or impersonal texts was associated with significantly lower intimacy and relationship satisfaction scores. The use of texting to manage relational conflict was a stronger negative predictor of relationship satisfaction than was the use of texting to express love and affection. Consistent with research on face-to-face communication in couples, the expression of negative sentiments via text were related to lower relationship quality, and these negative sentiments had a stronger and more enduring impact on relationship quality than did the expression of positive sentiments. Attachment orientation, relationship length and relationship status emerged as variables of interest in understanding the use of mobile technologies in romantic relationships.

Keywords: Mobile Communication, attachment, relationship quality, intimacy, texting, destructive conflict, relationship satisfaction

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9 Characterising Performative Technological Innovation: Developing a Strategic Framework That Incorporates the Social Mechanisms That Promote Change within a Technological Environment

Authors: Joan Edwards, J. Lawlor


Technological innovation is frequently defined in terms of bringing a new invention to market through a relatively straightforward process of diffusion. In reality, this process is complex and non-linear in nature, and includes social and cognitive factors that influence the development of an emerging technology and its related market or environment. As recent studies contend technological trajectory is part of technological paradigms, which arise from the expectations and desires of industry agents and results in co-evolution, it may be realised that social factors play a major role in the development of a technology. It is conjectured that collective social behaviour is fuelled by individual motivations and expectations, which inform the possibilities and uses for a new technology. The individual outlook highlights the issues present at the micro-level of developing a technology. Accordingly, this may be zoomed out to realise how these embedded social structures, influence activities and expectations at a macro level and can ultimately strategically shape the development and use of a technology. These social factors rely on communication to foster the innovation process. As innovation may be defined as the implementation of inventions, technological change results from the complex interactions and feedback occurring within an extended environment. The framework presented in this paper, recognises that social mechanisms provide the basis for an iterative dialogue between an innovator, a new technology, and an environment - within which social and cognitive ‘identity-shaping’ elements of the innovation process occur. Identity-shaping characteristics indicate that an emerging technology has a performative nature that transforms, alters, and ultimately configures the environment to which it joins. This identity–shaping quality is termed as ‘performative’. This paper examines how technologies evolve within a socio-technological sphere and how 'performativity' facilitates the process. A framework is proposed that incorporates the performative elements which are identified as feedback, iteration, routine, expectations, and motivations. Additionally, the concept of affordances is employed to determine how the role of the innovator and technology change over time - constituting a more conducive environment for successful innovation.

Keywords: Affordances, framework, performativity, strategic innovation

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8 Screening of Wheat Wild Relatives as a Gene Pool for Improved Photosynthesis in Wheat Breeding

Authors: Amanda J. Burridge, Keith J. Edwards, Paul A. Wilkinson, Tom Batstone, Erik H. Murchie, Lorna McAusland, Ana Elizabete Carmo-Silva, Ivan Jauregui, Tracy Lawson, Silvere R. M. Vialet-Chabrand


The rate of genetic progress in wheat production must be improved to meet global food security targets. However, past selection for domestication traits has reduced the genetic variation in modern wheat cultivars, a fact that could severely limit the future rate of genetic gain. The genetic variation in agronomically important traits for the wild relatives and progenitors of wheat is far greater than that of the current domesticated cultivars, but transferring these traits into modern cultivars is not straightforward. Between the elite cultivars of wheat, photosynthetic capacity is a key trait for which there is limited variation. Early screening of wheat wild relative and progenitors has shown differences in photosynthetic capacity and efficiency not only between wild relative species but marked differences between the accessions of each species. By identifying wild relative accessions with improved photosynthetic traits and characterising the genetic variation responsible, it is possible to incorporate these traits into advanced breeding programmes by wide crossing and introgression programmes. To identify the potential variety of photosynthetic capacity and efficiency available in the secondary and tertiary genepool, a wide scale survey was carried out for over 600 accessions from 80 species including those from the genus Aegilops, Triticum, Thinopyrum, Elymus, and Secale. Genotype data were generated for each accession using a ‘Wheat Wild Relative’ Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) genotyping array composed of 35,000 SNP markers polymorphic between wild relatives and elite hexaploid wheat. This genotype data was combined with phenotypic measurements such as gas exchange (CO₂, H₂O), chlorophyll fluorescence, growth, morphology, and RuBisCO activity to identify potential breeding material with enhanced photosynthetic capacity and efficiency. The data and associated analysis tools presented here will prove useful to anyone interested in increasing the genetic diversity in hexaploid wheat or the application of complex genotyping data to plant breeding.

Keywords: Genomics, Wheat, Photosynthesis, wild relatives, pre-breeding

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7 A Qualitative Study to Explore the Social Perception and Stigma around Disability, and Its Impact on the Caring Experiences of Mothers of Children with Physical Disability in Bangladesh

Authors: Farjina Malek, Julie King, Niki Edwards


Across the globe more than a billion people live with a disability and a further billion people, mostly carers, are indirectly impacted. While prevalence data is problematic, it is estimated that more than 15% of the population in Bangladesh live with a disability. Disability service infrastructure in Bangladesh is under-developed; and consequently, the onus of care falls on family, especially on mothers. Within the caring role, mothers encounter many challenging experiences which are not only due to the lack of support delivered through the Bangladeshi health care system but also related to the existence of stigma and perception around disability in the Bangladeshi society. Within this perception, the causes of disability are mostly associated with 'God’s will'; 'possession of ghosts on the disabled person'; and 'karma or the result of past sins of the family members especially the mothers'. These beliefs are likely to have a significant impact on the well-being of mothers and their caring experience of children with disability. This is an ongoing qualitative study which is conducting in-depth interviews with 30 mothers from five districts (Dhaka, Mymensingh, Manikganj, Tangail, and Gazipur) of Bangladesh with the aim to explore the impact of social perception and stigma around physical disability on the caring role of the mothers of children with physical disability. The major findings of this study show that the social perception around disability and the social expectation from a mother regarding her caring role have a huge impact on the well-being of mothers. Mothers are mostly expected to take their child on their lap to prove that they are ‘good mother’. These practices of lifting their children with physical disability and keeping them on the lap for a long time often cause chronic back pain of the mothers. Existing social beliefs consider disability as a ‘curse’ and punishment for the ‘sins’ of the family members, most often by the mother. Mothers are blamed if they give birth to ‘abnormal’ children. This social construction creates stigma, and thus, the caring responsibility of mothers become more challenging. It also encourages the family and mothers to hide their children from the society and to avoid seeking accessible disability services. The mothers also compromise their careers and social interaction as they have to stay with their children at home, and that has a significant impact on personal wellbeing, income, and empowerment of the mothers. The research is informed by intersectional theory and employed an interpretive phenomenological methodology to explore mothers’ experience of caring their children with physical disability, and the contribution and impact of key relationships within the family and the intersection with community and services.

Keywords: Children, mother, physical disability, social stigma, family carer, key relationship

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6 Developmental Relationships between Alcohol Problems and Internalising Symptoms in a Longitudinal Sample of College Students

Authors: Lina E. Homman, Alexis C. Edwards, Seung Bin Cho, Danielle M. Dick, Kenneth S. Kendler


Research supports an association between alcohol problems and internalising symptoms, but the understanding of how the two phenotypes relate to each other is poor. It has been hypothesized that the relationship between the phenotypes is causal; however investigations in regards to direction are inconsistent. Clarity of the relationship between the two phenotypes may be provided by investigating the phenotypes developmental inter-relationships longitudinally. The objective of the study was to investigate a) changes in alcohol problems and internalising symptoms in college students across time and b) the direction of effect of growth between alcohol problems and internalising symptoms from late adolescent to emerging adulthood c) possible gender differences. The present study adds to the knowledge of comorbidity of alcohol problems and internalising symptoms by examining a longitudinal sample of college students and by examining the simultaneous development of the symptoms. A sample of college students is of particular interest as symptoms of both phenotypes often have their onset around this age. A longitudinal sample of college students from a large, urban, public university in the United States was used. Data was collected over a time period of 2 years at 3 time points. Latent growth models were applied to examine growth trajectories. Parallel process growth models were used to assess whether initial level and rate of change of one symptom affected the initial level and rate of change of the second symptom. Possible effects of gender and ethnicity were investigated. Alcohol problems significantly increased over time, whereas internalizing symptoms remained relatively stable. The two phenotypes were significantly correlated in each wave, correlations were stronger among males. Initial level of alcohol problems was significantly positively correlated with initial level of internalising symptoms. Rate of change of alcohol problems positively predicted rate of change of internalising symptoms for females but not for males. Rate of change of internalising symptoms did not predict rate of change of alcohol problems for either gender. Participants of Black and Asian ethnicities indicated significantly lower levels of alcohol problems and a lower increase of internalising symptoms across time, compared to White participants. Participants of Black ethnicity also reported significantly lower levels of internalising symptoms compared to White participants. The present findings provide additional support for a positive relationship between alcohol problems and internalising symptoms in youth. Our findings indicated that both internalising symptoms and alcohol problems increased throughout the sample and that the phenotypes were correlated. The findings mainly implied a bi-directional relationship between the phenotypes in terms of significant associations between initial levels as well as rate of change. No direction of causality was indicated in males but significant results were found in females where alcohol problems acted as the main driver for the comorbidity of alcohol problems and internalising symptoms; alcohol may have more detrimental effects in females than in males. Importantly, our study examined a population-based longitudinal sample of college students, revealing that the observed relationships are not limited to individuals with clinically diagnosed mental health or substance use problems.

Keywords: Alcohol, Comorbidity, internalising symptoms, longitudinal modelling

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5 Learning from the Positive to Encourage Compliance with Workplace Health and Safety

Authors: Amy Williamson, Kerry Armstrong, Jason Edwards, Patricia Obst


Australian national policy endorses a responsive approach to work health and safety (WHS) regulation, combining positive motivators (education and guidance), with compliance monitoring and enforcement to encourage and secure compliance with legislation. Despite theoretical support for responsive regulation, there is limited evidence regarding how to achieve best results in practice. Using positive psychology as a novel paradigm, this study aims to investigate how non-punitive regulatory interactions can be improved to further encourage regulatory compliance in the construction industry. As part of a larger project, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 35 inspectorate staff and 11 managers in the Australian (Queensland) construction industry. Using an inductive, grounded approach, an in-depth qualitative investigation was conducted to identify the positive psychological principles which underpin effective use of the non-punitive aspects of responsive regulation. Results highlighted the importance of effective engagement between inspectors and industry managers. This involved the need to interact cooperatively and encourage compliance with WHS legislation. Several strategies were identified that assisted regulatory interactions and the ability of inspectors to engage. The importance of communication and interpersonal skills was reported to be critical to any interaction, regardless of the nature of the visit and regulatory tools used. In particular, the use of clear and open communication fostered trust and rapport which facilitated more positive interactions. The importance of respect and empathy was also highlighted. The need for provision of guidance and direction on how to achieve compliance was also reported. This related to ensuring companies understand their WHS obligations, providing specific advice regarding how to rectify a breach and meet compliance requirements, and ensuring sufficient follow up to confirm that compliance is successfully achieved. In the absence of imminent risk, allowing companies the opportunity to comply before further action is taken was also highlighted. Increased proactive engagement with industry to educate and promote the vision of safety at work was also reported. Finally, provision of praise and positive feedback was reported to assist interactions and encourage the continuation of good practices. Evidence from positive psychology and organisational psychology was obtained to support the use of each strategy in practice. In particular, the area of positive leadership provided a useful framework to consider the factors and conditions that drive positive interactions within the context of work health and safety and the specific relationship between inspectors and industry managers. This study provides fresh insight into key psychological principles which support non-punitive regulatory interactions in the area of workplace health and safety. The findings of this research contribute to a better understanding of how inspectors can enhance the efficacy of their regulatory interactions to improve compliance with legislation. Encouraging and assisting compliance through effective non-punitive activity offers a sustainable pathway for promoting safety and preventing fatalities and injuries in the construction industry.

Keywords: Engagement, non-punitive approaches to compliance, positive interactions in the workplace, work health and safety compliance

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4 The Recorded Interaction Task: A Validation Study of a New Observational Tool to Assess Mother-Infant Bonding

Authors: Hannah Edwards, Femke T. A. Buisman-Pijlman, Adrian Esterman, Craig Phillips, Sandra Orgeig, Andrea Gordon


Mother-infant bonding is a term which refers to the early emotional connectedness between a mother and her infant. Strong mother-infant bonding promotes higher quality mother and infant interactions including prolonged breastfeeding, secure attachment and increased sensitive parenting and maternal responsiveness. Strengthening of all such interactions leads to improved social behavior, and emotional and cognitive development throughout childhood, adolescence and adulthood. The positive outcomes observed following strong mother-infant bonding emphasize the need to screen new mothers for disrupted mother-infant bonding, and in turn the need for a robust, valid tool to assess mother-infant bonding. A recent scoping review conducted by the research team identified four tools to assess mother-infant bonding, all of which employed self-rating scales. Thus, whilst these tools demonstrated both adequate validity and reliability, they rely on self-reported information from the mother. As such this may reflect a mother’s perception of bonding with their infant, rather than their actual behavior. Therefore, a new tool to assess mother-infant bonding has been developed. The Recorded Interaction Task (RIT) addresses shortcomings of previous tools by employing observational methods to assess bonding. The RIT focusses on the common interaction between mother and infant of changing a nappy, at the target age of 2-6 months, which is visually recorded and then later assessed. Thirteen maternal and seven infant behaviors are scored on the RIT Observation Scoring Sheet, and a final combined score of mother-infant bonding is determined. The aim of the current study was to assess the content validity and inter-rater reliability of the RIT. A panel of six experts with specialized expertise in bonding and infant behavior were consulted. Experts were provided with the RIT Observation Scoring Sheet, a visual recording of a nappy change interaction, and a feedback form. Experts scored the mother and infant interaction on the RIT Observation Scoring Sheet and completed the feedback form which collected their opinions on the validity of each item on the RIT Observation Scoring Sheet and the RIT as a whole. Twelve of the 20 items on the RIT Observation Scoring Sheet were scored ‘Valid’ by all (n=6) or most (n=5) experts. Two items received a ‘Not valid’ score from one expert. The remainder of the items received a mixture of ‘Valid’ and ‘Potentially Valid’ scores. Few changes were made to the RIT Observation Scoring Sheet following expert feedback, including rewording of items for clarity and the exclusion of an item focusing on behavior deemed not relevant for the target infant age. The overall ICC for single rater absolute agreement was 0.48 (95% CI 0.28 – 0.71). Experts (n=6) ratings were less consistent for infant behavior (ICC 0.27 (-0.01 – 0.82)) compared to mother behavior (ICC 0.55 (0.28 – 0.80)). Whilst previous tools employ self-report methods to assess mother-infant bonding, the RIT utilizes observational methods. The current study highlights adequate content validity and moderate inter-rater reliability of the RIT, supporting its use in future research. A convergent validity study comparing the RIT against an existing tool is currently being undertaken to confirm these results.

Keywords: content validity, inter-rater reliability, mother-infant bonding, observational tool, recorded interaction task

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3 Gas Systems of the Amadeus Basin, Australia

Authors: Chris J. Boreham, Dianne S. Edwards, Amber Jarrett, Justin Davies, Robert Poreda, Alex Sessions, John Eiler


The origins of natural gases in the Amadeus Basin have been assessed using molecular and stable isotope (C, H, N, He) systematics. A dominant end-member thermogenic, oil-associated gas is considered for the Ordovician Pacoota−Stairway sandstones of the Mereenie gas and oil field. In addition, an abiogenic end-member is identified in the latest Proterozoic lower Arumbera Sandstone of the Dingo gasfield, being most likely associated with radiolysis of methane with polymerisation to wet gases. The latter source assignment is based on a similar geochemical fingerprint derived from the laboratory gamma irradiation experiments on methane. A mixed gas source is considered for the Palm Valley gasfield in the Ordovician Pacoota Sandstone. Gas wetness (%∑C₂−C₅/∑C₁−C₅) decreases in the order Mereenie (19.1%) > Palm Valley (9.4%) > Dingo (4.1%). Non-produced gases at Magee-1 (23.5%; Late Proterozoic Heavitree Quartzite) and Mount Kitty-1 (18.9%; Paleo-Mesoproterozoic fractured granitoid basement) are very wet. Methane thermometry based on clumped isotopes of methane (¹³CDH₃) is consistent with the abiogenic origin for the Dingo gas field with methane formation temperature of 254ᵒC. However, the low methane formation temperature of 57°C for the Mereenie gas suggests either a mixed thermogenic-biogenic methane source or there is no thermodynamic equilibrium between the methane isotopomers. The shallow reservoir depth and present-day formation temperature below 80ᵒC would support microbial methanogenesis, but there is no accompanying alteration of the C- and H-isotopes of the wet gases and CO₂ that is typically associated with biodegradation. The Amadeus Basin gases show low to extremely high inorganic gas contents. Carbon dioxide is low in abundance (< 1% CO₂) and becomes increasing depleted in ¹³C from the Palm Valley (av. δ¹³C 0‰) to the Mereenie (av. δ¹³C -6.6‰) and Dingo (av. δ¹³C -14.3‰) gas fields. Although the wide range in carbon isotopes for CO₂ is consistent with multiple origins from inorganic to organic inputs, the most likely process is fluid-rock alteration with enrichment in ¹²C in the residual gaseous CO₂ accompanying progressive carbonate precipitation within the reservoir. Nitrogen ranges from low−moderate (1.7−9.9% N₂) abundance (Palm Valley av. 1.8%; Mereenie av. 9.1%; Dingo av. 9.4%) to extremely high abundance in Magee-1 (43.6%) and Mount Kitty-1 (61.0%). The nitrogen isotopes for the production gases have δ¹⁵N = -3.0‰ for Mereenie, -3.0‰ for Palm Valley and -7.1‰ for Dingo, suggest all being mixed inorganic and thermogenic nitrogen sources. Helium (He) abundance varies over a wide range from a low of 0.17% to one of the world’s highest at 9% (Mereenie av. 0.23%; Palm Valley av. 0.48%, Dingo av. 0.18%, Magee-1 6.2%; Mount Kitty-1 9.0%). Complementary helium isotopes (R/Ra = ³He/⁴Hesample / ³He/⁴Heair) range from 0.013 to 0.031 R/Ra, indicating a dominant crustal origin for helium with a sustained input of radiogenic 4He from the decomposition of U- and Th-bearing minerals, effectively diluting any original mantle helium input. The high helium content in the non-produced gases compared to the shallower producing wells most likely reflects their stratigraphic position relative to the Tonian Bitter Springs Group with the former below and the latter above an effective carbonate-salt seal.

Keywords: amadeus gas, thermogenic, abiogenic, He isotopes

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2 Sea Level Rise and Sediment Supply Explain Large-Scale Patterns of Saltmarsh Expansion and Erosion

Authors: Cai J. T. Ladd, Mollie F. Duggan-Edwards, Tjeerd J. Bouma, Jordi F. Pages, Martin W. Skov


Salt marshes are valued for their role in coastal flood protection, carbon storage, and for supporting biodiverse ecosystems. As a biogeomorphic landscape, marshes evolve through the complex interactions between sea level rise, sediment supply and wave/current forcing, as well as and socio-economic factors. Climate change and direct human modification could lead to a global decline marsh extent if left unchecked. Whilst the processes of saltmarsh erosion and expansion are well understood, empirical evidence on the key drivers of long-term lateral marsh dynamics is lacking. In a GIS, saltmarsh areal extent in 25 estuaries across Great Britain was calculated from historical maps and aerial photographs, at intervals of approximately 30 years between 1846 and 2016. Data on the key perceived drivers of lateral marsh change (namely sea level rise rates, suspended sediment concentration, bedload sediment flux rates, and frequency of both river flood and storm events) were collated from national monitoring centres. Continuous datasets did not extend beyond 1970, therefore predictor variables that best explained rate change of marsh extent between 1970 and 2016 was calculated using a Partial Least Squares Regression model. Information about the spread of Spartina anglica (an invasive marsh plant responsible for marsh expansion around the globe) and coastal engineering works that may have impacted on marsh extent, were also recorded from historical documents and their impacts assessed on long-term, large-scale marsh extent change. Results showed that salt marshes in the northern regions of Great Britain expanded an average of 2.0 ha/yr, whilst marshes in the south eroded an average of -5.3 ha/yr. Spartina invasion and coastal engineering works could not explain these trends since a trend of either expansion or erosion preceded these events. Results from the Partial Least Squares Regression model indicated that the rate of relative sea level rise (RSLR) and availability of suspended sediment concentration (SSC) best explained the patterns of marsh change. RSLR increased from 1.6 to 2.8 mm/yr, as SSC decreased from 404.2 to 78.56 mg/l along the north-to-south gradient of Great Britain, resulting in the shift from marsh expansion to erosion. Regional differences in RSLR and SSC are due to isostatic rebound since deglaciation, and tidal amplitudes respectively. Marshes exposed to low RSLR and high SSC likely leads to sediment accumulation at the coast suitable for colonisation by marsh plants and thus lateral expansion. In contrast, high RSLR with are likely not offset deposition under low SSC, thus average water depth at the marsh edge increases, allowing larger wind-waves to trigger marsh erosion. Current global declines in sediment flux to the coast are likely to diminish the resilience of salt marshes to RSLR. Monitoring and managing suspended sediment supply is not common-place, but may be critical to mitigating coastal impacts from climate change.

Keywords: Sea Level Rise, lateral saltmarsh dynamics, sediment supply, wave forcing

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1 Developing Primal Teachers beyond the Classroom: The Quadrant Intelligence (Q-I) Model

Authors: Alexander K. Edwards


Introduction: The moral dimension of teacher education globally has assumed a new paradigm of thinking based on the public gain (return-on-investments), value-creation (quality), professionalism (practice), and business strategies (innovations). Abundant literature reveals an interesting revolutionary trend in complimenting the raising of teachers and academic performances. Because of the global competition in the knowledge-creation and service areas, the C21st teacher at all levels is expected to be resourceful, strategic thinker, socially intelligent, relationship aptitude, and entrepreneur astute. This study is a significant contribution to practice and innovations to raise exemplary or primal teachers. In this study, the qualities needed were considered as ‘Quadrant Intelligence (Q-i)’ model for a primal teacher leadership beyond the classroom. The researcher started by examining the issue of the majority of teachers in Ghana Education Services (GES) in need of this Q-i to be effective and efficient. The conceptual framing became determinants of such Q-i. This is significant for global employability and versatility in teacher education to create premium and primal teacher leadership, which are again gaining high attention in scholarship due to failing schools. The moral aspect of teachers failing learners is a highly important discussion. In GES, some schools score zero percent at the basic education certificate examination (BECE). The question is what will make any professional teacher highly productive, marketable, and an entrepreneur? What will give teachers the moral consciousness of doing the best to succeed? Method: This study set out to develop a model for primal teachers in GES as an innovative way to highlight a premium development for the C21st business-education acumen through desk reviews. The study is conceptually framed by examining certain skill sets such as strategic thinking, social intelligence, relational and emotional intelligence and entrepreneurship to answer three main burning questions and other hypotheses. Then the study applied the causal comparative methodology with a purposive sampling technique (N=500) from CoE, GES, NTVI, and other teachers associations. Participants responded to a 30-items, researcher-developed questionnaire. Data is analyzed on the quadrant constructs and reported as ex post facto analyses of multi-variances and regressions. Multiple associations were established for statistical significance (p=0.05). Causes and effects are postulated for scientific discussions. Findings: It was found out that these quadrants are very significant in teacher development. There were significant variations in the demographic groups. However, most teachers lack considerable skills in entrepreneurship, leadership in teaching and learning, and business thinking strategies. These have significant effect on practices and outcomes. Conclusion and Recommendations: It is quite conclusive therefore that in GES teachers may need further instructions in innovations and creativity to transform knowledge-creation into business venture. In service training (INSET) has to be comprehensive. Teacher education curricula at Colleges may have to be re-visited. Teachers have the potential to raise their social capital, to be entrepreneur, and to exhibit professionalism beyond their community services. Their primal leadership focus will benefit many clienteles including students and social circles. Recommendations examined the policy implications for curriculum design, practice, innovations and educational leadership.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Leadership, Social Intelligence, strategic thinking, Emotional Intelligence, quadrant intelligence (q-i), primal teacher leadership

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