Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5711

Search results for: centroid ranking technique

5711 Solutions of Fuzzy Transportation Problem Using Best Candidates Method and Different Ranking Techniques

Authors: M. S. Annie Christi


Transportation Problem (TP) is based on supply and demand of commodities transported from one source to the different destinations. Usual methods for finding solution of TPs are North-West Corner Rule, Least Cost Method Vogel’s Approximation Method etc. The transportation costs tend to vary at each time. We can use fuzzy numbers which would give solution according to this situation. In this study the Best Candidate Method (BCM) is applied. For ranking Centroid Ranking Technique (CRT) and Robust Ranking Technique have been adopted to transform the fuzzy TP and the above methods are applied to EDWARDS Vacuum Company, Crawley, in West Sussex in the United Kingdom. A Comparative study is also given. We see that the transportation cost can be minimized by the application of CRT under BCM.

Keywords: best candidate method, centroid ranking technique, fuzzy transportation problem, robust ranking technique, transportation problem

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
5710 Interactive, Topic-Oriented Search Support by a Centroid-Based Text Categorisation

Authors: Mario Kubek, Herwig Unger


Centroid terms are single words that semantically and topically characterise text documents and so may serve as their very compact representation in automatic text processing. In the present paper, centroids are used to measure the relevance of text documents with respect to a given search query. Thus, a new graphbased paradigm for searching texts in large corpora is proposed and evaluated against keyword-based methods. The first, promising experimental results demonstrate the usefulness of the centroid-based search procedure. It is shown that especially the routing of search queries in interactive and decentralised search systems can be greatly improved by applying this approach. A detailed discussion on further fields of its application completes this contribution.

Keywords: search algorithm, centroid, query, keyword, co-occurrence, categorisation

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
5709 Density-based Denoising of Point Cloud

Authors: Faisal Zaman, Ya Ping Wong, Boon Yian Ng


Point cloud source data for surface reconstruction is usually contaminated with noise and outliers. To overcome this, we present a novel approach using modified kernel density estimation (KDE) technique with bilateral filtering to remove noisy points and outliers. First we present a method for estimating optimal bandwidth of multivariate KDE using particle swarm optimization technique which ensures the robust performance of density estimation. Then we use mean-shift algorithm to find the local maxima of the density estimation which gives the centroid of the clusters. Then we compute the distance of a certain point from the centroid. Points belong to outliers then removed by automatic thresholding scheme which yields an accurate and economical point surface. The experimental results show that our approach comparably robust and efficient.

Keywords: point preprocessing, outlier removal, surface reconstruction, kernel density estimation

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
5708 A Combined Feature Extraction and Thresholding Technique for Silence Removal in Percussive Sounds

Authors: B. Kishore Kumar, Pogula Rakesh, T. Kishore Kumar


The music analysis is a part of the audio content analysis used to analyze the music by using the different features of audio signal. In music analysis, the first step is to divide the music signal to different sections based on the feature profiles of the music signal. In this paper, we present a music segmentation technique that will effectively segmentize the signal and thresholding technique to remove silence from the percussive sounds produced by percussive instruments, which uses two features of music, namely signal energy and spectral centroid. The proposed method impose thresholds on both the features which will vary depends on the music signal. Depends on the threshold, silence part is removed and the segmentation is done. The effectiveness of the proposed method is analyzed using MATLAB.

Keywords: percussive sounds, spectral centroid, spectral energy, silence removal, feature extraction

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5707 Airborne SAR Data Analysis for Impact of Doppler Centroid on Image Quality and Registration Accuracy

Authors: Chhabi Nigam, S. Ramakrishnan


This paper brings out the analysis of the airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data to study the impact of Doppler centroid on Image quality and geocoding accuracy from the perspective of Stripmap mode of data acquisition. Although in Stripmap mode of data acquisition radar beam points at 90 degrees broad side (side looking), shift in the Doppler centroid is invariable due to platform motion. In-accurate estimation of Doppler centroid leads to poor image quality and image miss-registration. The effect of Doppler centroid is analyzed in this paper using multiple sets of data collected from airborne platform. Occurrences of ghost (ambiguous) targets and their power levels have been analyzed that impacts appropriate choice of PRF. Effect of aircraft attitudes (roll, pitch and yaw) on the Doppler centroid is also analyzed with the collected data sets. Various stages of the RDA (Range Doppler Algorithm) algorithm used for image formation in Stripmap mode, range compression, Doppler centroid estimation, azimuth compression, range cell migration correction are analyzed to find the performance limits and the dependence of the imaging geometry on the final image. The ability of Doppler centroid estimation to enhance the imaging accuracy for registration are also illustrated in this paper. The paper also tries to bring out the processing of low squint SAR data, the challenges and the performance limits imposed by the imaging geometry and the platform dynamics on the final image quality metrics. Finally, the effect on various terrain types, including land, water and bright scatters is also presented.

Keywords: ambiguous target, Doppler Centroid, image registration, Airborne SAR

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
5706 Ranking All of the Efficient DMUs in DEA

Authors: Elahe Sarfi, Esmat Noroozi, Farhad Hosseinzadeh Lotfi


One of the important issues in Data Envelopment Analysis is the ranking of Decision Making Units. In this paper, a method for ranking DMUs is presented through which the weights related to efficient units should be chosen in a way that the other units preserve a certain percentage of their efficiency with the mentioned weights. To this end, a model is presented for ranking DMUs on the base of their superefficiency by considering the mentioned restrictions related to weights. This percentage can be determined by decision Maker. If the specific percentage is unsuitable, we can find a suitable and feasible one for ranking DMUs accordingly. Furthermore, the presented model is capable of ranking all of the efficient units including nonextreme efficient ones. Finally, the presented models are utilized for two sets of data and related results are reported.

Keywords: data envelopment analysis, efficiency, ranking, weight

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
5705 Comparative Study of Universities’ Web Structure Mining

Authors: Z. Abdullah, A. R. Hamdan


This paper is meant to analyze the ranking of University of Malaysia Terengganu, UMT’s website in the World Wide Web. There are only few researches have been done on comparing the ranking of universities’ websites so this research will be able to determine whether the existing UMT’s website is serving its purpose which is to introduce UMT to the world. The ranking is based on hub and authority values which are accordance to the structure of the website. These values are computed using two web-searching algorithms, HITS and SALSA. Three other universities’ websites are used as the benchmarks which are UM, Harvard and Stanford. The result is clearly showing that more work has to be done on the existing UMT’s website where important pages according to the benchmarks, do not exist in UMT’s pages. The ranking of UMT’s website will act as a guideline for the web-developer to develop a more efficient website.

Keywords: algorithm, ranking, website, web structure mining

Procedia PDF Downloads 434
5704 An Efficiency Measurement of E-Government Performance for United Nation Ranking Index

Authors: Yassine Jadi, Lin Jie


In order to serve the society in an electronic manner, many developing countries have launched tremendous e-government projects. The strategies of development and implementation e-government system have reached different levels, and to ensure consistency of development, the governments need to evaluate e-government performance. The United nation has design e-government development ranking index (EGDI) that rely on three indexes, Online service index (OSI), Telecommunication Infrastructure index (TII), and human capital index( HCI) which are not reflecting the interaction between a government and their citizens. Based on data envelopment analyses (DEA) technique, we are using E-participating index (EPI) as an output of government effort to evaluate the performance of e-government system. Therefore, the ranking index can be achieved in efficiency manner.

Keywords: e-government, DEA, efficiency measurement, EGDI

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
5703 A New Method Separating Relevant Features from Irrelevant Ones Using Fuzzy and OWA Operator Techniques

Authors: Imed Feki, Faouzi Msahli


Selection of relevant parameters from a high dimensional process operation setting space is a problem frequently encountered in industrial process modelling. This paper presents a method for selecting the most relevant fabric physical parameters for each sensory quality feature. The proposed relevancy criterion has been developed using two approaches. The first utilizes a fuzzy sensitivity criterion by exploiting from experimental data the relationship between physical parameters and all the sensory quality features for each evaluator. Next an OWA aggregation procedure is applied to aggregate the ranking lists provided by different evaluators. In the second approach, another panel of experts provides their ranking lists of physical features according to their professional knowledge. Also by applying OWA and a fuzzy aggregation model, the data sensitivity-based ranking list and the knowledge-based ranking list are combined using our proposed percolation technique, to determine the final ranking list. The key issue of the proposed percolation technique is to filter automatically and objectively the relevant features by creating a gap between scores of relevant and irrelevant parameters. It permits to automatically generate threshold that can effectively reduce human subjectivity and arbitrariness when manually choosing thresholds. For a specific sensory descriptor, the threshold is defined systematically by iteratively aggregating (n times) the ranking lists generated by OWA and fuzzy models, according to a specific algorithm. Having applied the percolation technique on a real example, of a well known finished textile product especially the stonewashed denims, usually considered as the most important quality criteria in jeans’ evaluation, we separate the relevant physical features from irrelevant ones for each sensory descriptor. The originality and performance of the proposed relevant feature selection method can be shown by the variability in the number of physical features in the set of selected relevant parameters. Instead of selecting identical numbers of features with a predefined threshold, the proposed method can be adapted to the specific natures of the complex relations between sensory descriptors and physical features, in order to propose lists of relevant features of different sizes for different descriptors. In order to obtain more reliable results for selection of relevant physical features, the percolation technique has been applied for combining the fuzzy global relevancy and OWA global relevancy criteria in order to clearly distinguish scores of the relevant physical features from those of irrelevant ones.

Keywords: data sensitivity, feature selection, fuzzy logic, OWA operators, percolation technique

Procedia PDF Downloads 531
5702 Simple Multiple-Attribute Rating Technique for Optimal Decision-Making Model on Selecting Best Spiker of World Grand Prix

Authors: Chen Chih-Cheng, Chen I-Cheng, Lee Yung-Tan, Kuo Yen-Whea, Yu Chin-Hung


The purpose of this study is to construct a model for best spike player selection in a top volleyball tournament of the world. Data consisted of the records of 2013 World Grand Prix declared by International Volleyball Federation (FIVB). Simple Multiple-Attribute Rating Technique (SMART) was used for optimal decision-making model on the best spike player selection. The research results showed that the best spike player ranking by SMART is different than the ranking by FIVB. The results demonstrated the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed model.

Keywords: simple multiple-attribute rating technique, World Grand Prix, best spike player, International Volleyball Federation

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
5701 Enhanced Weighted Centroid Localization Algorithm for Indoor Environments

Authors: I. Nižetić Kosović, T. Jagušt


Lately, with the increasing number of location-based applications, demand for highly accurate and reliable indoor localization became urgent. This is a challenging problem, due to the measurement variance which is the consequence of various factors like obstacles, equipment properties and environmental changes in complex nature of indoor environments. In this paper we propose low-cost custom-setup infrastructure solution and localization algorithm based on the Weighted Centroid Localization (WCL) method. Localization accuracy is increased by several enhancements: calibration of RSSI values gained from wireless nodes, repetitive measurements of RSSI to exclude deviating values from the position estimation, and by considering orientation of the device according to the wireless nodes. We conducted several experiments to evaluate the proposed algorithm. High accuracy of ~1m was achieved.

Keywords: indoor environment, received signal strength indicator, weighted centroid localization, wireless localization

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
5700 Ranking of Inventory Policies Using Distance Based Approach Method

Authors: Gupta Amit, Kumar Ramesh, P. C. Tewari


Globalization is putting enormous pressure on the business organizations specially manufacturing one to rethink the supply chain in innovative manners. Inventory consumes major portion of total sale revenue. Effective and efficient inventory management plays a vital role for the successful functioning of any organization. Selection of inventory policy is one of the important purchasing activities. This paper focuses on selection and ranking of alternative inventory policies. A deterministic quantitative model-based on Distance Based Approach (DBA) method has been developed for evaluation and ranking of inventory policies. We have employed this concept first time for this type of the selection problem. Four inventory policies Economic Order Quantity (EOQ), Just in Time (JIT), Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI) and monthly policy are considered. Improper selection could affect a company’s competitiveness in terms of the productivity of its facilities and quality of its products. The ranking of inventory policies is a multi-criteria problem. There is a need to first identify the selection criteria and then processes the information with reference to relative importance of attributes for comparison. Criteria values for each inventory policy can be obtained either analytically or by using a simulation technique or they are linguistic subjective judgments defined by fuzzy sets, like, for example, the values of criteria. A methodology is developed and applied to rank the inventory policies.

Keywords: inventory policy, ranking, DBA, selection criteria

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
5699 Ranking of Performance Measures of GSCM towards Sustainability: Using Analytic Hierarchy Process

Authors: Dixit Garg, S. Luthra, A. Haleem


During recent years, the natural environment has become a challenging topic that business organizations must consider due to the economic and ecological impacts and increasing awareness of environment protection among society. Organizations are trying to achieve the goals of improvement in environment, low cost, high quality, flexibility and more customer satisfaction. Performance measurement frameworks are very useful to monitor the performance of any organization. The basic goal of this paper is to identify performance measures and ranking of these performance measures of GSCM performance measurement towards sustainability framework. Five perspectives (Environment, Economic, Social, Operational and Cost performances) and nineteen performance measures of GSCM performance towards sustainability have been have been identified from extensive literature review. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique has been utilized for ranking of these performance perspectives and measures. All pair comparisons in AHP have been made on the basis on the experts’ opinions (selected from academia and industry). Ranking of these performance perspectives and measures will help to understand the importance of environmental, economic, social, operational performances, and cost performances in the supply chain.

Keywords: analytical hierarchy process, green supply chain management, performance measures, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 413
5698 An Exploratory Study of Reliability of Ranking vs. Rating in Peer Assessment

Authors: Yang Song, Yifan Guo, Edward F. Gehringer


Fifty years of research has found great potential for peer assessment as a pedagogical approach. With peer assessment, not only do students receive more copious assessments; they also learn to become assessors. In recent decades, more educational peer assessments have been facilitated by online systems. Those online systems are designed differently to suit different class settings and student groups, but they basically fall into two categories: rating-based and ranking-based. The rating-based systems ask assessors to rate the artifacts one by one following some review rubrics. The ranking-based systems allow assessors to review a set of artifacts and give a rank for each of them. Though there are different systems and a large number of users of each category, there is no comprehensive comparison on which design leads to higher reliability. In this paper, we designed algorithms to evaluate assessors' reliabilities based on their rating/ranking against the global ranks of the artifacts they have reviewed. These algorithms are suitable for data from both rating-based and ranking-based peer assessment systems. The experiments were done based on more than 15,000 peer assessments from multiple peer assessment systems. We found that the assessors in ranking-based peer assessments are at least 10% more reliable than the assessors in rating-based peer assessments. Further analysis also demonstrated that the assessors in ranking-based assessments tend to assess the more differentiable artifacts correctly, but there is no such pattern for rating-based assessors.

Keywords: peer assessment, peer rating, peer ranking, reliability

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
5697 Algorithm for Information Retrieval Optimization

Authors: Kehinde K. Agbele, Kehinde Daniel Aruleba, Eniafe F. Ayetiran


When using Information Retrieval Systems (IRS), users often present search queries made of ad-hoc keywords. It is then up to the IRS to obtain a precise representation of the user’s information need and the context of the information. This paper investigates optimization of IRS to individual information needs in order of relevance. The study addressed development of algorithms that optimize the ranking of documents retrieved from IRS. This study discusses and describes a Document Ranking Optimization (DROPT) algorithm for information retrieval (IR) in an Internet-based or designated databases environment. Conversely, as the volume of information available online and in designated databases is growing continuously, ranking algorithms can play a major role in the context of search results. In this paper, a DROPT technique for documents retrieved from a corpus is developed with respect to document index keywords and the query vectors. This is based on calculating the weight (

Keywords: information retrieval, document relevance, performance measures, personalization

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
5696 Capacitance Models of AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors

Authors: A. Douara, N. Kermas, B. Djellouli


In this study, we report calculations of gate capacitance of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs with nextnano device simulation software. We have used a physical gate capacitance model for III-V FETs that incorporates quantum capacitance and centroid capacitance in the channel. These simulations explore various device structures with different values of barrier thickness and channel thickness. A detailed understanding of the impact of gate capacitance in HEMTs will allow us to determine their role in future 10 nm physical gate length node.

Keywords: gate capacitance, AlGaN/GaN, HEMTs, quantum capacitance, centroid capacitance

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
5695 Ranking of Provinces in Iran for Capital Formation in Spatial Planning with Numerical Taxonomy Technique (An Improvement) Case Study: Agriculture Sector

Authors: Farhad Nouparast


For more production we need more capital formation. Capital formation in each country should be based on comparative advantages in different economic sectors due to the different production possibility curves. In regional planning, recognizing the relative advantages and consequently investing in more production requires identifying areas with the necessary capabilities and location of each region compared to other regions. In this article, ranking of Iran's provinces is done according to the specific and given variables as the best investment position in agricultural activity. So we can provide the necessary background for investment analysis in different regions of the country to formulate national and regional planning and execute investment projects. It is used factor analysis technique and numerical taxonomy analysis to do this in thisarticle. At first, the provinces are homogenized and graded according to the variables using cross-sectional data obtained from the agricultural census and population and housing census of Iran as data matrix. The results show that which provinces have the most potential for capital formation in agronomy sub-sector. Taxonomy classifies organisms based on similar genetic traits in biology and botany. Numerical taxonomy using quantitative methods controls large amounts of information and get the number of samples and categories and take them based on inherent characteristics and differences indirectly accommodates. Numerical taxonomy is related to multivariate statistics.

Keywords: Capital Formation, Factor Analysis, Multivariate statistics, Numerical Taxonomy Analysis, Production, Ranking, Spatial Planning

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5694 Evaluation of QSRR Models by Sum of Ranking Differences Approach: A Case Study of Prediction of Chromatographic Behavior of Pesticides

Authors: Lidija R. Jevrić, Sanja O. Podunavac-Kuzmanović, Strahinja Z. Kovačević


The present study deals with the selection of the most suitable quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) models which should be used in prediction of the retention behavior of basic, neutral, acidic and phenolic pesticides which belong to different classes: fungicides, herbicides, metabolites, insecticides and plant growth regulators. Sum of ranking differences (SRD) approach can give a different point of view on selection of the most consistent QSRR model. SRD approach can be applied not only for ranking of the QSRR models, but also for detection of similarity or dissimilarity among them. Applying the SRD analysis, the most similar models can be found easily. In this study, selection of the best model was carried out on the basis of the reference ranking (“golden standard”) which was defined as the row average values of logarithm of retention time (logtr) defined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Also, SRD analysis based on experimental logtr values as reference ranking revealed similar grouping of the established QSRR models already obtained by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA).

Keywords: chemometrics, chromatography, pesticides, sum of ranking differences

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5693 Optimization Query Image Using Search Relevance Re-Ranking Process

Authors: T. G. Asmitha Chandini


Web-based image search re-ranking, as an successful method to get better the results. In a query keyword, the first stair is store the images is first retrieve based on the text-based information. The user to select a query keywordimage, by using this query keyword other images are re-ranked based on their visual properties with images.Now a day to day, people projected to match images in a semantic space which is used attributes or reference classes closely related to the basis of semantic image. though, understanding a worldwide visual semantic space to demonstrate highly different images from the web is difficult and inefficient. The re-ranking images, which automatically offline part learns dissimilar semantic spaces for different query keywords. The features of images are projected into their related semantic spaces to get particular images. At the online stage, images are re-ranked by compare their semantic signatures obtained the semantic précised by the query keyword image. The query-specific semantic signatures extensively improve both the proper and efficiency of image re-ranking.

Keywords: Query, keyword, image, re-ranking, semantic, signature

Procedia PDF Downloads 450
5692 Ranking Theory-The Paradigm Shift in Statistical Approach to the Issue of Ranking in a Sports League

Authors: E. Gouya Bozorg


The issue of ranking of sports teams, in particular soccer teams is of primary importance in the professional sports. However, it is still based on classical statistics and models outside of area of mathematics. Rigorous mathematics and then statistics despite the expectation held of them have not been able to effectively engage in the issue of ranking. It is something that requires serious pathology. The purpose of this study is to change the approach to get closer to mathematics proper for using in the ranking. We recommend using theoretical mathematics as a good option because it can hermeneutically obtain the theoretical concepts and criteria needful for the ranking from everyday language of a League. We have proposed a framework that puts the issue of ranking into a new space that we have applied in soccer as a case study. This is an experimental and theoretical study on the issue of ranking in a professional soccer league based on theoretical mathematics, followed by theoretical statistics. First, we showed the theoretical definition of constant number Є = 1.33 or ‘golden number’ of a soccer league. Then, we have defined the ‘efficiency of a team’ by this number and formula of μ = (Pts / (k.Є)) – 1, in which Pts is a point obtained by a team in k number of games played. Moreover, K.Є index has been used to show the theoretical median line in the league table and to compare top teams and bottom teams. Theoretical coefficient of σ= 1 / (1+ (Ptx / Ptxn)) has also been defined that in every match between the teams x, xn, with respect to the ability of a team and the points of both of them Ptx, Ptxn, and it gives a performance point resulting in a special ranking for the League. And it has been useful particularly in evaluating the performance of weaker teams. The current theory has been examined for the statistical data of 4 major European Leagues during the period of 1998-2014. Results of this study showed that the issue of ranking is dependent on appropriate theoretical indicators of a League. These indicators allowed us to find different forms of ranking of teams in a league including the ‘special table’ of a league. Furthermore, on this basis the issue of a record of team has been revised and amended. In addition, the theory of ranking can be used to compare and classify the different leagues and tournaments. Experimental results obtained from archival statistics of major professional leagues in the world in the past two decades have confirmed the theory. This topic introduces a new theory for ranking of a soccer league. Moreover, this theory can be used to compare different leagues and tournaments.

Keywords: efficiency of a team, ranking, special table, theoretical mathematic

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
5691 Quantitative Ranking Evaluation of Wine Quality

Authors: A. Brunel, A. Kernevez, F. Leclere, J. Trenteseaux


Today, wine quality is only evaluated by wine experts with their own different personal tastes, even if they may agree on some common features. So producers do not have any unbiased way to independently assess the quality of their products. A tool is here proposed to evaluate wine quality by an objective ranking based upon the variables entering wine elaboration, and analysed through principal component analysis (PCA) method. Actual climatic data are compared by measuring the relative distance between each considered wine, out of which the general ranking is performed.

Keywords: wine, grape, weather conditions, rating, climate, principal component analysis, metric analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
5690 Empirical Study on Factors Influencing SEO

Authors: Pakinee Aimmanee, Phoom Chokratsamesiri


Search engine has become an essential tool nowadays for people to search for their needed information on the internet. In this work, we evaluate the performance of the search engine from three factors: the keyword frequency, the number of inbound links, and the difficulty of the keyword. The evaluations are based on the ranking position and the number of days that Google has seen or detect the webpage. We find that the keyword frequency and the difficulty of the keyword do not affect the Google ranking where the number of inbound links gives remarkable improvement of the ranking position. The optimal number of inbound links found in the experiment is 10.

Keywords: SEO, information retrieval, web search, knowledge technologies

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
5689 Teaching Based Ranking of Departments Using PageRank

Authors: Rudina Osmanaj, Dafina Xhako, Klaudio Peqini


In this work, we present some results of the teaching-based ranking of the departments in the Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Tirana, using the PageRank and the PowerMethod algorithm. We have considered the teaching connections of eight departments between them in ten bachelor programs offered by the Faculty of Natural Sciences, UT in Albania and used the PageRank algorithm as an application of the power method for finding the most teaching-based ranked department. The idea is that each department's lecturers give lessons in different bachelor programs offered by other departments, covering their study and research areas. As the PageRank algorithm measures the importance of each node (department) within the graph, based on the number of incoming relationships (teaching connections) and the importance of the corresponding source nodes, we make a simple teaching-based ranking of the Natural Sciences departments, in UT, Albania.

Keywords: Albania, departments, natural sciences, PageRank, power method, ranking, teaching

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5688 Influential Health Care System Rankings Can Conceal Maximal Inequities: A Simulation Study

Authors: Samuel Reisman


Background: Comparative rankings are increasingly used to evaluate health care systems. These rankings combine discrete attribute rankings into a composite overall ranking. Health care equity is a component of overall rankings, but excelling in other categories can counterbalance low inequity grades. Highly ranked inequitable health care would commend systems that disregard human rights. We simulated the ranking of a maximally inequitable health care system using a published, influential ranking methodology. Methods: We used The Commonwealth Fund’s ranking of eleven health care systems to simulate the rank of a maximally inequitable system. Eighty performance indicators were simulated, assuming maximal ineptitude in equity benchmarks. Maximal rankings in all non-equity subcategories were assumed. Subsequent stepwise simulations lowered all non-equity rank positions by one. Results: The maximally non-equitable health care system ranked first overall. Three subsequent stepwise simulations, lowering non-equity rankings by one, each resulted in an overall ranking within the top three. Discussion: Our results demonstrate that grossly inequitable health care systems can rank highly in comparative health care system rankings. These findings challenge the validity of ranking methodologies that subsume equity under broader benchmarks. We advocate limiting maximum overall rankings of health care systems to their individual equity rankings. Such limits are logical given the insignificance of health care system improvements to those lacking adequate health care.

Keywords: global health, health equity, healthcare systems, international health

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
5687 Automatic Segmentation of the Clean Speech Signal

Authors: M. A. Ben Messaoud, A. Bouzid, N. Ellouze


Speech Segmentation is the measure of the change point detection for partitioning an input speech signal into regions each of which accords to only one speaker. In this paper, we apply two features based on multi-scale product (MP) of the clean speech, namely the spectral centroid of MP, and the zero crossings rate of MP. We focus on multi-scale product analysis as an important tool for segmentation extraction. The multi-scale product is based on making the product of the speech wavelet transform coefficients at three successive dyadic scales. We have evaluated our method on the Keele database. Experimental results show the effectiveness of our method presenting a good performance. It shows that the two simple features can find word boundaries, and extracted the segments of the clean speech.

Keywords: multiscale product, spectral centroid, speech segmentation, zero crossings rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 415
5686 Development of Multi-Leaf Collimator-Based Isocenter Verification Tool Using Electrical Portal Imaging Device for Stereotactic Radiosurgery

Authors: Panatda Intanin, Sangutid Thongsawad, Chirapha Tannanonta, Todsaporn Fuangrod


Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a highly precision delivery technique that requires comprehensive quality assurance (QA) tests prior to treatment delivery. An isocenter of delivery beam plays a critical role that affect the treatment accuracy. The uncertainty of isocenter is traditionally accessed using circular cone equipment, Winston-Lutz (WL) phantom and film. This technique is considered time consuming and highly dependent on the observer. In this work, the development of multileaf collimator (MLC)-based isocenter verification tool using electronic portal imaging device (EPID) was proposed and evaluated. A mechanical isocenter alignment with ball bearing diameter 5 mm and circular cone diameter 10 mm fixed to gantry head defines the radiation field was set as the conventional WL test method. The conventional setup was to compare to the proposed setup; using MLC (10 x 10 mm) to define the radiation filed instead of cone. This represents more realistic delivery field than using circular cone equipment. The acquisition from electronic portal imaging device (EPID) and radiographic film were performed in both experiments. The gantry angles were set as following: 0°, 90°, 180° and 270°. A software tool was in-house developed using MATLAB/SIMULINK programming to determine the centroid of radiation field and shadow of WL phantom automatically. This presents higher accuracy than manual measurement. The deviation between centroid of both cone-based and MLC-based WL tests were quantified. To compare between film and EPID image, the deviation for all gantry angle was 0.26±0.19mm and 0.43±0.30 for cone-based and MLC-based WL tests. For the absolute deviation calculation on EPID images between cone and MLC-based WL test was 0.59±0.28 mm and the absolute deviation on film images was 0.14±0.13 mm. Therefore, the MLC-based isocenter verification using EPID present high sensitivity tool for SRS QA.

Keywords: isocenter verification, quality assurance, EPID, SRS

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5685 Women Participation in Agriculture and Rural Development Activities in Kwacciyar-Lalle and Mogonho Communities of Sokoto State, Nigeria

Authors: B. Z. Abubakar, J. P. Voh, B. F. Umar, S. Khalid, A. A. Barau, J. Aigbe


The study was conducted to identify and assess the various community development programmes designed and executed by Sokoto Agricultural and Community Development Project (SACDP) with the assistance of International Funds for Agricultural Development (IFAD) among women beneficiaries in Kwacciyar-lalle and Mogonho communities of Sokoto state. A simple random sampling technique was employed to select 20 project beneficiaries in each of the selected communities, making a total of 40 beneficiaries. Structured questionnaire, descriptive statistics such as frequencies and percentages and also participatory methodologies such as focus group discussion and pair wise ranking were used to analyze the data. Results showed that majority of the beneficiaries (75%) were married and undertook animal rearing as their major occupation. Results further showed that (85%) of the beneficiaries were involved in decision making, which enhanced their participation. Pair-wise ranking showed dug well as the most preferred activity, followed by construction of Islamic school in Kwacciyar-lalle while well construction followed by provision of improved animal species were most preferred in Mogonho. Recommendations made in the light of achieving people’s participation include provision of more infrastructural facilities and working materials.

Keywords: community development, focus group, pair-wise ranking, infrastructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
5684 Using Genetic Algorithms and Rough Set Based Fuzzy K-Modes to Improve Centroid Model Clustering Performance on Categorical Data

Authors: Rishabh Srivastav, Divyam Sharma


We propose an algorithm to cluster categorical data named as ‘Genetic algorithm initialized rough set based fuzzy K-Modes for categorical data’. We propose an amalgamation of the simple K-modes algorithm, the Rough and Fuzzy set based K-modes and the Genetic Algorithm to form a new algorithm,which we hypothesise, will provide better Centroid Model clustering results, than existing standard algorithms. In the proposed algorithm, the initialization and updation of modes is done by the use of genetic algorithms while the membership values are calculated using the rough set and fuzzy logic.

Keywords: categorical data, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithm, K modes clustering, rough sets

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5683 Digital Image Correlation Based Mechanical Response Characterization of Thin-Walled Composite Cylindrical Shells

Authors: Sthanu Mahadev, Wen Chan, Melanie Lim


Anisotropy dominated continuous-fiber composite materials have garnered attention in numerous mechanical and aerospace structural applications. Tailored mechanical properties in advanced composites can exhibit superiority in terms of stiffness-to-weight ratio, strength-to-weight ratio, low-density characteristics, coupled with significant improvements in fatigue resistance as opposed to metal structure counterparts. Extensive research has demonstrated their core potential as more than just mere lightweight substitutes to conventional materials. Prior work done by Mahadev and Chan focused on formulating a modified composite shell theory based prognosis methodology for investigating the structural response of thin-walled circular cylindrical shell type composite configurations under in-plane mechanical loads respectively. The prime motivation to develop this theory stemmed from its capability to generate simple yet accurate closed-form analytical results that can efficiently characterize circular composite shell construction. It showcased the development of a novel mathematical framework to analytically identify the location of the centroid for thin-walled, open cross-section, curved composite shells that were characterized by circumferential arc angle, thickness-to-mean radius ratio, and total laminate thickness. Ply stress variations for curved cylindrical shells were analytically examined under the application of centric tensile and bending loading. This work presents a cost-effective, small-platform experimental methodology by taking advantage of the full-field measurement capability of digital image correlation (DIC) for an accurate assessment of key mechanical parameters such as in-plane mechanical stresses and strains, centroid location etc. Mechanical property measurement of advanced composite materials can become challenging due to their anisotropy and complex failure mechanisms. Full-field displacement measurements are well suited for characterizing the mechanical properties of composite materials because of the complexity of their deformation. This work encompasses the fabrication of a set of curved cylindrical shell coupons, the design and development of a novel test-fixture design and an innovative experimental methodology that demonstrates the capability to very accurately predict the location of centroid in such curved composite cylindrical strips via employing a DIC based strain measurement technique. Error percentage difference between experimental centroid measurements and previously estimated analytical centroid results are observed to be in good agreement. The developed analytical modified-shell theory provides the capability to understand the fundamental behavior of thin-walled cylindrical shells and offers the potential to generate novel avenues to understand the physics of such structures at a laminate level.

Keywords: anisotropy, composites, curved cylindrical shells, digital image correlation

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5682 Resume Ranking Using Custom Word2vec and Rule-Based Natural Language Processing Techniques

Authors: Subodh Chandra Shakya, Rajendra Sapkota, Aakash Tamang, Shushant Pudasaini, Sujan Adhikari, Sajjan Adhikari


Lots of efforts have been made in order to measure the semantic similarity between the text corpora in the documents. Techniques have been evolved to measure the similarity of two documents. One such state-of-art technique in the field of Natural Language Processing (NLP) is word to vector models, which converts the words into their word-embedding and measures the similarity between the vectors. We found this to be quite useful for the task of resume ranking. So, this research paper is the implementation of the word2vec model along with other Natural Language Processing techniques in order to rank the resumes for the particular job description so as to automate the process of hiring. The research paper proposes the system and the findings that were made during the process of building the system.

Keywords: chunking, document similarity, information extraction, natural language processing, word2vec, word embedding

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